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New Methodologies for Fractured

Reservoir
Characterisation & Modelling

INTRODUCTION

Maps, Cores, Logs, Tests,


etc

GEOL. MODEL &


FORECAST TO

PPR-000-MAP-002-A

INTRODUCTION

TO WORK IN THE
TRANSVERSE WAY
IS THE BEST
METHOD

PPR-000-MAP-003-A

RESERVOIR CHARACTERISATION: data-base

EXPLORATION-APPRAISAL

PPR-000-MAP-004-A

RESERVOIR CHARACTERISATION: data-base

Dynamic Data

CROSSPLOT POR-Perm

1 9

9 7 /

0 5 / 3

0 - 1

4 5 9

A S

( P S

E U D

O - P

w i t

a t . B

a l .

E N D W B S

Ho mog eneo us

1 0

Petrophysics

D E R I V A T I V E

Geology

* *
w
S
p
T
P
+
S
S

S i m u
e l l .
k i n ( m
e r m e a
u r b u l
e r m - T
x
b o u
x
b o u
k i n ( m
m o o t h

l
s
e
b
e
h
n
n
e
i

a
t
c
i
n
i
d
d
c
n

t
o
h
l
c
c
a
a
h
g

i
r
)
i
e
k
r
r
)

Res ervo ir

o n
D a t a
* *
a g e
=
. 0 0 1
=
3 .
t y
=
2 7
=
n e s s
=
1 3 9
y
=
1 0
y
=
3 7
+ D Q
=
3 . 9 7
C o e f
=
0 . , 0

0 0
9 7
. 3
0 .
0 .
6 .
5 .

B B L S / P S I
M D
1 / M S C F / D
M D - F E E T
F E E T
( 1 . 0 0 )
F E E T
( 1 . 0 0 )

Petro-acoustic

1 0

Core analysis

( M P S I 2 / C P / M S C F / D )

INTEGRATED STUDY: Data integration for reservoir modelling

100

Permeability (mD)

POR-Perm

D P

P D = 1 / 2

1 0

SCAL

10

1 0-

1 0-

1 0-

1 00
D T

1 01

( H R )

VIRGO VIRGO#2

0,1

0,01
0

10

12

14

16

18

Porosity (% )

Well Data
Sedimentology

Seismic

RESERVOIR MODEL

PPR-000-MAP-005-A

Methodology Workflow

To analyse and to integrate fracture data from different


sources at different scales (well, intra-well, reservoir)
To generate 3D Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) according
to different conceptual models
To make a screening of the DFN models by matching the
available production and interference test data.
To compute equivalent parameters for charaterizing the
Fracture System

RESERVOIR MODELING

Whats a fracture ?
Rock Mechanics:
a break or rupture in a rock created by the action of the stress forces.

Petrophysics:
a discontinuity in a rock interrupting the capillary properties.

In general:
non-sedimentary mechanical discontinuity

RESERVOIR MODELING

Types of fractured reservoir


A
Matrix :
high
high K

Fracture system increase


the K of the matrix

Matrix :
high
low K

Fracture system
drain the matrix

C
Matrix :
<2%
K<1
mD

Fracture system is
the storage

RESERVOIR MODELING

Modeling targets
Reservoir Geologist
focus the attention to
the Petrophysical
Characterisation of
Reservoir

Phi
K
Sw
Reservoir Geological Model

Matrix System

The final targets are:


the O.H.I.P (Original
Hydrocarbon In Place)
estimate
the Reserves estimate

1ma
2ma
3ma

Fracture-network System

1f
2f
3f

RESERVOIR MODELING

Dual Continuum Model


Matrix and Fracture Systems
are a Continuum
Where is the boundary
between the two?

Matrix

Low Conductivity
Cap. pressure > 0

Dual
Continuum
Model

Fracture system

High Conductivity
Cap. pressure = 0

RESERVOIR MODELING

Fractured Reservoir Modeling


Warren-Root Dual Continuum
Conceptualization

Fractured
Reservoir

Discrete Fracture Network


Conceptualization

RESERVOIR MODELING

Dual media simulation method


FRACTURE

MATRIX

CENTROID

Matrix cells are linked to the relevant fracture system cells

RESERVOIR MODELING

Fracture systems at different scales


Megascopic Scale
Reservoir Segments
Major Flow Paths
Mesoscopic Scale
Productive Network
Microscopic Scale
Fluids Storage

RESERVOIR MODELING

Warning !
Observing fractures does not make a fractured
reservoir
Initially unfractured reservoirs become fractured
due to wrong diagnosis or fractures reactivated
Initially fractured reservoirs become unfractured due to
fractures closed and or uniform and intense fracturing

RESERVOIR MODELING

Fractured reservoir indications


High heterogeneity (differences between wells)
Complex well test responses (derivatives)
Localised flow (mudlosses, PLTs Production Logging
Tools)
Unexpected dry wells
Irregular production rate correlation between wells

RESERVOIR MODELING

Measuring the variations in pressure versus time and


interpreting them gives data on the reservoir and the well.

RESERVOIR MODELING

Dynamic modelling
10
TEST DERIVATIVE

DERIVATIVE END EFFECT

BI-LINEAR FLOW
Log-Log Match - Flow Period 21

Pressure Change and Derivative (bar)

Pressure Change and Derivative (bar)

TEST PRESSURE

1/4

0.1

KhF stabilisation

0.01

0.001
0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

Elapsed time (hrs)

0.1

1
WELLBORE
STORAGE

0.01
0.0001

0.001

0.01

DUAL POROSITY
TRANSIENT
FAULTS & MACROFRACTURE
INTERACTION

0.1

DUAL POROSITY PSS


TRANSITION
MATRIX (AND MICRO-FRACTURES) &
MACRO-FRACTURE INTERACTION
(l, w)

Elapsed Time (hrs)

10

100

1000

RESERVOIR MODELING

Data fracture analysis

Fracture Type
Orientation
Lenght
Type of Filling
Spacing (fracture intensity)
Interconnection Degree

RESERVOIR MODELING

Fractured Reservoir Characterization

Structure
Petrophysical properties of the matrix
Geometrical properties of the fractures
Average dimensions of the matrix block
Petrophysical properties of the fractures
Matrix-fracture exchange phenomena
Fracture Connectivity

RESERVOIR MODELING

Available Data

2D and 3D seismic
Outcrops mapping
NMR and X-ray techniques / Thin sections
Oriented core analysis
Microlosses
Well bore image logs (FMI-FMS,UBI)
Production data (Well test, Interference test etc..)

RESERVOIR MODELING

3D Model at Field Scale

The 3D model takes into account only the largest


structural features (from 2D 3D seismic).

Modeling is carried out by integrating the results form

different disciplines :

seismic interpretation

structural modeling

reservoir internal geometry modeling

When integrating the data, the overall model


consistency is tested.

RESERVOIR MODELING
Fractured Reservoir Characterization & Modeling
3D Model structural model

Structural model

3
Reservoir layering

Seismic interpretation
3D Model

Author: G.Rea W.Gatti

RESERVOIR MODELING

Fracture data analysis from outcrops

Fracture type
Orientation
Lenght

RESERVOIR MODELING

Fracture Analysis
Well scale

RESERVOIR MODELING

Fracture analysis from oriented core


N

Oriented core

Unrolled core image

Fracture picking

RESERVOIR MODELING

Fracture analysis at core scale


Input Data

It is possible to detect:
open fractures (fluorescent)
cemented fracture
stilolytes

It is possible to estimate:
fracture lenght
fracture orientation
fracture aperture

RESERVOIR MODELING
X-Ray and NMR techniques on core full size
core holder

X- Ray
distribution
plug
Core sample

sleeve

Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance

RESERVOIR MODELING

Imaging log tools


FMI
(Resistivity Image)

UBI
(Acoustic Image)

RESERVOIR MODELING

Fracture detection from imaging log

RESERVOIR MODELING

Monitoring of mud losses

RESERVOIR MODELING

Input data (well scale)


Borehole
0

Q LOSS (l/min)
75

150

225

3845

Profondit
Depth (m) (m)

3846

FMI

UBI

core
image

Tuning log image


interpretation on core data

3847

3848

Main
fracture

3849

3850

Mud losses monitoring

Data Integration for Fracture Network Modelling

Imaging Logs

Core Full Size

Outcrops

3D Core Imaging
Q
0

LOSS

75

(l/min)
150

225

Production Tests

3845

Seismic Coherency
Profondit (m)

3846

3847

3848

3849

3850

Mud Losses

Core Thin Sections

Fracture modeling workflow


Log interpretation
Breakout analysis
Core analysis
Sedimentological model
3D structural model
Outcrop study
Geomechanic data and
interpretation (Poly 3D)

Well test simulation


Interference between Gorgoglione and Perticara simulation
Whole field interference test simulation

Production data

Layering
Fracture network
Stress field

Conceptual models

Static model
(FRED)

Validation of static model


(MAFIC OIL)

Dynamic model
(ECLIPSE)

Thank you for your Attention