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Lecture 13: Endocrines

Survey and General Principles


Hormones are Blood Borne Messengers

Hormones are chemical agents:


o ______________________________
o ______________________________
o Carried to all parts of the body by the blood
o Only those organs having the specific receptors respond to the hormone
o Rapidly destroyed so that new messages can be sent
o ___________________________________________
o

______________ organs secrete chemical messengers (hormones) into the blood


_______________ glands secrete material into the digestive tract (enzymes, bile)
or skin surface (sweat)

Many Hormones Control the Activity of Other Endocrine Glands

Control of endocrine glands by the tropic hormones of the ________ __________


(ACTH, TSH, FSH. LH)
There are many other interactions between endocrine glands not shown on this
chart- for example, epinephrine increases the secretion of glucagon

Several Hormones are Involved in Control of Salt, Water and Osmotic Pressure

Blood pressure, activity of nerves and muscles and other functions depend upon
close regulation of body ______ & _________.
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) _______ ___________ by causing water pores to be
inserted in the collecting duct of the kidney
Aldosterone __________ ____ ____________ by the kidney (distal tubule)
Secretion of these hormones is controlled by ______________ _______:
o if the blood osmotic pressure is too high ADH secretion is increased
o if the blood volume falls aldosterone will increase
o a number of hormones are involved in the control of Ca

Many Hormones Regulate Reproductive Functions

Growth of the ovaries and testes and secretion of sex hormones is controlled by
FSH and LH
At birth oxytocin causes contraction of uterine muscles, aiding in delivery
Milk production involves many hormones, including prolactin
Milk ejection (letdown) when the baby suckles is also caused by oxytocin

Hormones Control Metabolism & Growth

Thyroid hormone : increases the _________ _____ (oxygen consumption) of


many tissues
Several hormones aid metabolism by raising blood glucose: glucagon,
epinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone
________, lowers blood glucose (promotes energy storage)
Erythropoietin supports metabolism by _________ ____ ____ _____
Growth hormone is the major hormone supporting _____ ________
Thyroid hormone also extremely important in growth

Hormones Help the Body Respond to Stress

The immediate response to stress is the ______ or ______ reaction, which has
both nervous and hormonal components
The hormonal component is the release of large amounts of __________ (and
some norepinephrine) by the adrenal medulla; this hormone stimulates the heart,
lungs and other organs involved in the emergency response
Long term stress will cause release of large amounts of ________ from the
adrenal cortex (essential for life); blood glucose is raised
Deleterious effects of prolonged stress are increased blood pressure and inhibition
of the immune system

Survey of the Major Endocrine Organs & Their Hormones & Functions
(Considerably Simplified)
Gland

Posterior
Pituitary

Thyroid
Parathyroid

Hormones

Target Organ

Functions

ACTH & TSH

Adrenal Cortex
Thyroid

Secretion & Growth of Glands

FSH & LH

Ovaries
Testes

Secretion of Hormones
Growth of Sex Glands
Reproductive Functions

Prolactin

Mammary Gland

Milk Production

Growth Hormone

Most Tissues

ADH

Kidney

Water Retention

Oxytocin

Mammary Gland
Uterus

Milk Ejection
Childbirth

Thyroxine, T3

Most Tissues

Calcitonin

Bone

Reduces Ca Removal from


Bone; Lowers Blood Ca

PTH
(Parathormone)

Bone
Kidney

Removes Ca from Bone


Raises Blood Ca

Kidney
Many Tissues
Many Tissues

Male Sex Characteristics

Many Organs
Pancreas
Skin, Liver
&Kidney
Kidney

Insulin

Muscle, Fat,
Liver

Glucagon

Liver

Activated Vit. D Intestines, Bones


(Calcitrol)
& Kidney
Erythropoietin

Raises Blood Ca

Bone Marrow

Cytokines are Hormone-Like Proteins that Act Locally

Cytokines:
o Small proteins
o Act on same cell that produces them (autocrine) or on nearby cells
(paracrine);
o rarely they enter the blood and are transported to distant parts of the body
o Mainly involved in defense of the body (many are produced by white
blood cells)
Examples:
o Nerve growth factor
o Tumor necrosis factor
o Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): involved in angiogenesis
(production of new capillaries
o Interleukins
o Prolactin & growth hormone: act as both hormones and cytokines