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CONTINUING EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION:
Continuing education is an all encompassing term with in a broad spectrum of
post secondary learning activities and programs, used to either obtain additional
certifications, or as critics required to maintain a license. Almost any body can take
continuing education credit for personal or professional enrichment; fitness trainers,
nurses and safety instructor are examples, of professionals who studying for professional
enrichment.
Day by day, new knowledge is emerging rapidly in the physical, biological,
behavioral and medical sciences, which constitute the foundation of nursing problems in
nursing mist be solved by rational effort based upon systematic enquiry. So continuing
education should be future oriented. Geared to feeing of new situations to the making of
new responses appropriate for these situations. Continuing nursing education programmes
should be developed by nurses and conducted within nursing or in general education
system in co-operation with the nurses.

DEFINITION:
Continuing education is all the learning activities that occurs after an individual
has completed his basic education Copper
Continuing education in nursing is defined as planned learning experiences
beyond a basic nursing educational program. The learning experiences are designed to
promote the development of knowledge skills, attitudes for the enhancement of nursing
practice thus improving health care to the public.
That education which builds an previous education- Shannon

FEATURES:

Unified approach

Relationship with other systems

Comprehensiveness

Accessibility for women health workers.

Integration with the management process.

Analysis of needs as a basis for learning continuity.

Internally coordinated.

Relevance in planning

Credibility and economic

Appropriateness in implementation

METHODS OF CONTINUING EDUCATION:


The method of deliver of continuing education include traditional types of class
room lectures and laboratories.
Continuing education makes heavy use of distance learning which not only
includes independent study which can include videotaped material broad casting program
delivery and online interactive courses.
In addition to independent study the use of conference type group study which can
include study networks as well as different types of seminar/ workshops can be used to
facilitate learning.

NEED:

To ensure safe and effective nursing care, nurses need to keep abreast with
interest, knowledge and technical advances.

To meet the needs of population and should cater to the needs of services.

Development of nurses will occur by updating their knowledge and prepare them
for specialization for career advancement.

Professional roles are entered as society changes and as new knowledge and
technologies emerge.

If the nursing professional is to respond effectively to the challenge of developing


wise leadership and competent practitioners, current social changes must be
recognized and future one foresees.

To acquire specialized skills of personnel and meet technological adjuncts.

Clinical specialists are needed for direct patient care and for teaching and consultative
e roles to help the students and staff nurses to reach higher levels of competency.

Nurses with research aptitudes and preparation are needed.

Nurses in administrations positions need to increase their understanding of the


administrative process and to design effective method of minimizing the
contribution of individuals helps to provide nursing services to patient.

Nursing functions requires a high degree of skill knowledge, competence and


educational preparation.

The demand for specialized nursing services is increasing more rapidly.

Planned programmes are need to increase their competences as practitioners.

Needs for additional preoperational preparation for the positions are already
holding as to prepare themselves for other positions.

If provides opportunities for educational growth compatible with the realities


of both with situation and the home responsibilities.

In the world, scientific, advancement, technology innovations, social changes


are occurring rapid and new pattern of health care changes in the role
expectations of all health care personnel are emerging to meet these needs and
demands qualify nurses are essential.

To maintain their roles as bedside nurses and assume more supervisor,


administrative and delegated medical functions to specialize and to generalize
their practice continuing nursing education is essential.

It is needed for the nurses who wish to help shapes their own destiny.

To provide and prepare faculty who see continuing nursing education as a


personal responsibility as well as professional and university responsibility.

To provide a variety of continuing nursing education opportunities of high


quality to nurse in both education and service changes.

FUNCTIONS:

To meet the health needs and public expectoration.

To develop the practicing abilities of the nurse.

Recruitment function.

Recognize gaps in their knowledge.

To list ability to do final academic study.

To improve the communication between the participants, faculty, community and


health sector.

To test the participants ability to do formal academic study.

To shape support universal educational polices and practices.

To ensure the quality of education.

To maintain academic standards.

To meet educational requirement.

PHILOSOPHY:
Individual nurses are responsible for their own learning and should participate in
the identification of their own learning needs to meet these identified needs.
Providers of continuing nursing education must have a commitment to involve
learners in the learning process from the initial stages of planning through the evaluation
of organized learning experiences.
Continuing nursing education should be provided in a well planned organized
educational environment.
Strong support and leadership is expected from all groups providing continuing
education.
Continuing nursing education should assist individual practitioners on the
continued acquisition of knowledge the extension of professional responsibilities laities,
the expansion of interpersonal skills and the improvement of problem soling approach to
professional practice.
Continuing nursing education should serve as a viable means of improving the
professional competence.
Continuing nursing education should include such important concerns as quality
of life and the understanding of the current health problems of modern society.
Continuing nursing education is concerned with the development of the nurses as
a person practitioner and a citizen.

ELEMENTS:
1. LEARNER:
As a person, as a nurse and as a citizen continuing education is seen as totality it
recognizes all three aspects of life long learning.
Diversity is a part of learning process and contributes to the development of the
individual so the teacher has to make the learner to involve in nursing and non nursing
courses.
The learner in his life plays many different role, so continuing education should be
focused on all the elements.
It also aims as self directed learning.

2. TEACHER/NURSE EDUCATOR:
He has to accept the concept of life long learning and he encourage nurse to
participate different types of educational activities.
Education must be aware of sources of information about related continuing
education activities.
Teachers task is to help the student how to learn, how to approach situation how
to interpret and takes action and evaluate the effectiveness of his action.
Teacher must help the learner to discover new approaches and potential
developments in the field.
Teacher should act as a role model teacher is a guide in the learning process
assist. Wherever appropriate, encourages the activities that promotes, individual thought

Creative teaching is essential its has to show interest and concern for every
number of his class.

The continuing educator has to play multiple rules like, guide and counselor to the
learner.

An arranger and organize of learning experiences.

Motivator and an encourage of students.

Evaluater of programems.

Involving resources experts for teaching the students.

Producing instructional materials.

Select and evaluate materials prepared by others.

Administrative role.

Public relations role to change the image of nursing and in recognizing the
contributions and potentials of nurses.

ASSESMENT OF LEARNING NEEDS:


1.

EDUCATIONAL PREPERATION:

Masters degree in his area of nursing expertise or with a doctorate in adult


education.

Credentials with more publications.

Writing and organizing skills.

A continuing learner.

Clinical expertisedness.

Depth of nursing knowledge and skill in its application.

Interest in the subject, enthusiasm in teaching.

Skill in working with adult learners.

Adequate knowledge about teaching skills and methods of teaching.

Broad base knowledge.

2. COMPETENCIES AND OTHER CHARECTERISTICS:

Concern for people

Flexibility

Sensitive to group response

Willing to travel

Detailed advance preparation and organization for teaching.

Resourcefulness

Determination

Self- Confidence

A sense of humour

An innate curiosity

Love of adventure

Desire to search the unknown

Interest in self development and other development.

3. THE FACULTY ADMINISTRATOR:

Teaching is a part of his responsibility.

He should posses a high degree of administrative skill.

He must assess and uses the various abilities of different faculty members

Search for faculty with wide varied of talents.

Helps the faculty members to strengthen their teaching skills.

Conducive environment for faculty member and learners to promote personnel


and prefersronal development is necessary.

Grieves adequate orientation creating opportunities on the job which contributes


faculty growth.

The effective administrator is prepared to meet the unexpected.

He must guard against the interference of his own needs with good of the
programme.

Supports his faculty and accepts responsibility, encourages team spirit, working
with other members.

4.

Recognizes the persons contribution.

MOTIVATION OF LEARNER:
Internal motivation ie, the personal needs desire to learn is more effective than

external incentives like certificates, grades, credits, etc, expand learning opportunity for
nurses which required in their work experience is needed to be motivated.
The truly motivated person will learn without external requirements being placed
upon him.

He learns because he has a need for the knowledge.

For the motivated learner, difficulties encountered in the process are been as
challenges not as obstacles.

5.

INVOLVEMENT IN THE LEARNING PROCESS:


Learner has to participate in the learning process learning depends upon the

student himself learning can be done only by the learner. It depends up on the effort put
forth by the learner.

6.

ORGANISED LEARNING EXPERIENCES:


Learner also involved more directly on programme planning and in the conduct of

courses and decided which educational experiences and the activities are most suitable to
him.
7.

THE NEEDS OF SOCIETY


Quality of life and needs of society influences the learning needs of the nurses.

The critical issues facing society can be met by a concerned well informed citizen who
are willing to devote thought, time and energy to their solution. Adequate preparation for
participation approach is essential for continuing nursing education.

8.

UNIVERSALISATION:
Universalisation of continuing nursing education is necessary.

9.

THE LEISURE:
The individual has to learn how to use leisure time constructively, participate in

more educational activities.

10.

LIBERAL EDUCATION:
For the effective human practice requires practitioners with the insight

understanding and attitudes which can be fulfilled through liberal education.

11.

INTER PROFESSIONAL CONTINUING EDUCATION:


Educational programmes now include course content open to all those various

health fields. Nurses have to accept and participate interdisciplinary continuing education.

PRINCIPLES:
Involvement of school and nursing faculty involvement in planning and teaching
the continuing nursing education to improve the standards for the programme.
-

An adequate staff is essential to planning implementing and evaluating a


programme

There should be one director having responsibilities like determination of learning


needs of the nurse population. Development and implementation of a programme
to meet these needs; evaluation of results.

There should be sufficient number of staff with talent to implement the planed
programme.
There should be advisory staffs, secretarial Administrative, supportive and also
some of the staff for Assistance.

An advisory committee has to be appointed.

The community may serve as a liason between the school of nursing and the
health community and full fill a communication and public relations function for
the university.

Continuing education programmes may be decentralized or centralized.

STEPS IN FORMULATION:
PLANNING:
A successful continuing nursing education programme is the result of careful and
detailed planning.
Broad planning by institution and agency responsible for continuing nursing
education.
Planning is essential to:
Meet the nursing needs use available resources.
Meet needs at all levels.

Avoid duplication and fragmentation efforts.


Help keep at a minimum any gaps in meeting the continuing education needs of
nurses.
The selection of teaching factually may depend up on the availability of the
persons rather than his exercise as lunching ability planning is an ongoing process, the
rapid technologic advances and proliferation of knowledge demands continuous planning
to meet ever changing learning needs.

PLANNING PROCESS:
1.

ESTABLISHING GOALS WITH THE PURPOSE OF PHILOSOPHY


OF THE ORGANIZATION.
Making frame week for planning formula putting some of the questine to be what

is to be done? Why is it necessary? How is it to be done? Where is it to be done? whenis it to be done? Who should do the job?

2.

ESTABLISHING GOALS AND OBJECTIVE:


Planning moves towards goals which are significant and realistic which can be

attained. Goals serve to stimulate and direct action and should be reachable.
An objective is specific, it is a desired and or accomplishment to be sought.
OBJECTIVES:
To assist the nurse in identifying and meeting current learning needs and those
need generated by changing professional practice.

To encourage the nurse to identify and influence societal changes.

To promote the development of leadership potential of the nurse.

To varied teaching methods for extending nursing knowledge and competency.

To assist the nursing educator in increasing teaching effectiveness.

To seek opportunity for and collaborate with other health disciplines to effect
improvement in the delivery of health care by stress.

3.

DETERMINING NEEDS AND PRIORITIES OF ACTION:

After assessing the needs prioritization of needs has to be done.

4.

ASSESS THE AVAILABLE RESOURCES FOR ESTABLISHING

THE PROGRAMME:
Faculty, finances and facilities may be seen as the major resources required for a
continuing nursing education programme.
A broad survey of the major resources are necessary to the total continuing
nursing education programme planning involves deciding up on the resources necessary
to the activity and adequate financial support appropriate faculty, facilities with easy
accessibility space and necessary equipment required to conduct offering.

5.

PLANNING THE BUDGET:


Individual offering is expected to be self supporting. Budget requires ascertaining

all the anticipated costs of the offering.

WRITING THE PROPOSAL:


The proposal should be written with carefulness clear, concise familiar forms
which include enough detail so that reviewers have a through understanding of what the
project intends to accomplish.
Format for proposal preparation:

1.

Cover sheet includes:


i)

Name of project

ii)

Summary of project

iii)

Name of funding source to which proposal is directed

iv)

Name and address of institution submitting project

v)

Name of principal initiator and others

vi)

Involved in proposal preparation

vii)

Date of submission

2)

Proposal abstract

3)

Proposal Narrative
a)

A statement of objectives

Describe the nature of problem

Document existence of problem with appropriate dates.

Describe the existing efforts to solve problem or crate opportunity.

Define target group.

State goals of project

b.

Procedure:

Describe phases or sequences of procedures

Describe work performed at each stage and duration.

Show how work will be organized.

c)

Facilities Requires

d)

Resources that will be tapped

4)

Budget Narrative:
Explain each budgetary item
Criteria and data used to make estimate
Break down of budgetary Materials where appropriate

5)

Appendices:

Statement out longing qualifications of institution requesting funds.

Vitae of personnel involved.

Supporting statements from co-operating individuals or agencies.

ORGANISATION:
Programming of professional course in nursing is a joint responsibility of a
director of continuing nursing education and a dean of school of nursing university
faculty may be assigned to continuing education in nursing as a part of the regular
teaching load or an extra compensation basis.

EVALUATION:
EVALUATE THE RESULTS AT STATED INTERVALS:
Evaluation is a needde to assess the effectiveness of the programme or the
progress in order to find out to what extent pre set goals have been achieved. Evaluation
should be done at various stages of the programme.

Eg: Preparatory stage, implementation stage, the impact of programmes, the


process of programme operation, the management systems, efforts and performance
evaluation.
Evaluation should cover.

The growth and satisfaction of participants.

The outcome course and the whole programme, or activity or task.

Effectiveness of faculty members.

Transfer of knowledge.

Effect on the system.


There are some of the method for evaluation they are:

Pre test and post lest.

Attitude test

Observation of skills.

Questionnaire

Audio and Video tapes

PURPOSES OF EVALUATION:

To identify the area which require greater attention.

To identify bottle necks in various activities carried out during the operation of
the programme.

To assess the applicability of training in field or actual situation.

Promotes better learning by qualitative improvement in instruction, can


determine future changes and needs.

For quality control as qualitative improvement.

CONCLUSION:
Continuing education programme help nurses remain current in nursing skill
knowledge and theory.

It involves formal offered by educational and health care

institutions. The main goals of continuing education in nursing are to improve and

maintain nursing practice fulfill professional leaning needs and helping nurses becomes
specialized in a particular area of practice and teaching nurses new skills and technical.