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Supplementary Assignment

Task 1
1. A) Thermoset: a polymer that becomes permanently hard while its being initially
formed and doesnt soften when re-heated.
B) Thermoplastic: a polymer that will soften when heated and harden when its
cooled, it can be repeated as it has weak Van der Waal bonds between its
molecules.
C) Elastomer: materials that can withstand large elastic strains at ambient
temperatures.
D) Mer: the simplest repeating unit of a long chain molecule in a polymer.
E) Copolymer: a polymer consisting of two or more different repeating units.
F) Isomer: a compound/molecule which has the same chemical formula but
different structure.
G) Branched molecule: side-branch chains that are connected to the main ones,
they are considered to be part of the main chain molecule.
H) Crosslinking: adjacent linear chains that are strongly joined to one another at
various positions by covalent bonds.
2. The structure of polyvinyl chloride

3.

DP=

M
9500 g
=
=151
m 2 (12 g ) +3 ( 1 g )+1 ( 36 g )

4. Freshly spun fibers are not as strong as stretched fibers because the stretched ones
have already been worked which means that the molecules are orientated in the
working direction. When a load is applied to the stretched fibers in the worked
direction it will be much stronger than the freshly spun fibers.

5. The Mylar sheet would be rolled in both directions, its length and width, because
rolling it in both directions will make the molecules the same length and will give
the mylar sheet uniform strength in both directions. If it was only worked in one
direction then the molecules in the working direction with become longer and
aligned which would increase its tensile strength in the direction but dramatically
decrease it in the direction perpendicular to it.
7. As the butadiene rubber was exposed to air outdoors for several months the ozone
in the atmosphere reacts with UV rays which produces a chemical reaction with
the rubber, because of this chemical reaction the volume of the rubber increases
which would explain a slight increase in weight.

Task 2
1. A) Processes which are used for boat building include; vacuum assisted resin
transfer molding, rotational molding, resin transfer molding and lay-up method.
B) Materials that are used for boat building include; plywood and
polyvinylchloride which can be used to make boat fenders.
2. Zircronium carbide
Density:

c = m V m + f V f
c =(4600 kg /m3)(0.5)+(6800 kg / m3)(0.5)
c =5700 kg /m3

Upper Limit:

Ec =E m V m + E f V f
Ec =(120 GPa)(0.5)+(450GPa)(0.5)
Ec =285 GPa

Lower Limit:

Ec =
Ec =

Em E f
V f E f +V m Em

(120 GPa)(450 GPa)


( 450 GPa)(0.5)+(120 GPa)(0.5)

Ec =169.8 GPa

Saffil alumina fibers


Density:

c = m V m + f V f
c =(4600 kg /m3)(0.5)+(3850 kg /m3)(0.5)

c =4225 kg/m 3
Upper Limit:

Ec =E m V m + E f V f
Ec =(120 GPa)(0.5)+(290 GPa)(0.5)
Ec =205 GPa

Lower Limit:

Ec =
Ec =

Em E f
V f E f +V m Em

(120 GPa)(290 GPa)


(290 GPa)(0.5)+(120GPa )(0.5)

Ec =169.8 GPa
Nicalon silicon carbide fibers
Density:

c = m V m + f V f
c =(4600 kg /m3)(0.5)+(2600 kg / m3)(0.5)
c =3600 kg /m3

Upper Limit:

Ec =E m V m + E f V f
Ec =(120 GPa)(0.5)+(320 GPa)(0.5)
Ec =220 GPa

Lower Limit:

Ec =
Ec =

Em E f
V f E f +V m Em

(120 GPa)(320 GPa)


(320 GPa)(0.5)+(120GPa )(0.5)

Ec =174.5 GPa