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Tomato Production Guide

Tomato, scientifically known as Lycopersicum esculentum Miller


is an important and popular vegetable grown in many parts of
the world. The fruit is used as an ingredient in many food
preparations and is regarded as one of the most profitable crops for
off-season production, preferably from May to September.
Recommended Varieties
Tomato varieties are classified according to their growth habit such
as indeterminate or determinate type. The indeterminate type
develops new stems from axillary bud in the leaf subtending the
inflorescence with continued growth of internodal inflorescence every 3rd to 4th leaf with
sequential maturity depending on the type variety and management, prolonging the harvesting
period.
The determinate type is bushy with an inflorescence limited only to 4-6 leaves and the next buds
are developed slowly if not aborted restricting the prolific flowering resulting in shorter
production period. The characteristics of tomato varieties recommended for production are
shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Characteristics of recommended varieties of tomato.
Days to
harvesting
(DAT)

Variety

Productive
Yield
period (months) (t/ha)

Fruit
Type
Color

Apollo for fresh


35
market

2-3

30

Red
orange

Magilas for
fresh

30

1-2

30

Atlas (F1)

40

2-3

Atlas(rafted)
(kamlong)

40

Cherry

50

Size
Medium
large

Shape

Planting
season

Reaction to
pests and
diseases
TMV-MR
bacterial wiltMR

oblong Determinate

Dry season

Pink red Large

oblong Determinate

Dry and wet Dumping off-R


season
wilt-R TMV-R

40

Red
orange

Medium
Large

oblong

Semi
determinate

Dry and wet Bacterial-R wiltseason


R TMV-R

2-3

40

Red
orange

Medium
large

oblong

Semi
determinate

Wet season

4-5

40

Red
orange

Medium

round

Indeterminate

Dry and wet Wilt R TMV season


MR

Bacterial wilt-R
TMV-R

TMV Tomato Mosaic Virus. MR Moderately resistant; R resistant

Site Selection
Choose a part of the farm that is slightly elevated and has good drainage to avoid water logging
in case a flash flood occurs during the wet season. For dry season planting, make a catchment
with a canal directed into it to drain excess water after each irrigation schedule. Choose a sandy
loam or clay loam soil with a pH of 5.5-8.0.

Growing Season
Tomato can be grown anytime of the year. In hilly areas, plant tomato from September to
January. For lowlands, plant from November to February. Grow off-season type and grafted
tomatoes (kamlong) from May to September for bigger profit.
Land Preparation
With a carabao drawn implement, plow and harrow the area once and twice if the soil is not in
good tilt. Then set furrows at a distance of 100 cm before transplanting the indeterminate type or
semi-viny. For determinate type with bushy growth habit set at 75 cm distance between furrows.
Crop Establishment
There are two methods of seedling production: the use of seedbed and seedling trays.
1. Seedbed method
* For 1000 m2 tomato production, use one seedbed measuring 1 x 10 m so that seedlings will not
be overcrowded, thereby producing seedlings with bigger stems. Cover the seedbed with 3-5 cm
thick rice hull and then burn completely to minimize the incidence of pre-emergence dampingoff on the seedlings.
* Mix 10 kg compost and 100 g complete fertilizer and incorporate these evenly into the
seedbed. Sow the seeds in small shallow furrows at 20-30 g/10 m2. Cover the seeds lightly with
fine soil. Dust the surroundings of the seedbed with Sevin SP to control ants, and spray 1 tbsp of
Vitigran Blue per gallon of water to avoid infection of damping-off. To ensure uniform
germination of the seeds, saturate the seedbed with water for the first three days using sprinkler
until the seeds emerge.
* To avoid succulent stem, regulate watering as soon as the seedlings have emerged. For the
seedlings to have a good start, apply urea at a rate of 1 tbsp/gal of water at 7-14 days after
emergence (DAE). Sprinkle water on the seedlings using a sprinkler (regador) immediately after
applying the fertilizer to avoid burning effect on the leaves. Drench the seedbeds with Vitigran
Blue at the rate of 1 tbsp/gal of water once damping-off is observed.
* To produce hard seedlings, water the seedbed only when plants show temporary wilting (this
can be observed in the morning) and repeat regularly starting at 14 DAE until the seedlings are
ready for transplanting, which is at 25-30 DAE. Water the seedbeds thoroughly before pulling
the seedlings for transplanting to minimize root damage.
2. Seedling tray method
* Seedling tray method needs only 100 g seeds/ha or 10 g for 1000 m2. Plant the seeds singly in
each hole of the tray intended for seedlings with potting medium available at seed stores, or bake
garden soil for 2 hours. When cooled, mix the garden soil, fine sand and compost at the ratio of

3:1:1. Drop 2-3 grains of 14-14-14 in each hole before filling with the soil mixture. Care and
maintenance of seedlings is the same as in seedbed, but transplanting shock is minimized in tray
method.
3. Transplanting
* For wet season planting, use one month old seedlings because these are harder, taller, and can
withstand the impact of rain. Transplant seedlings at a spacing of 0.50 m between hills and 1.0 m
or 0.75 m on rows or furrow right after irrigation water run in the furrows. For dry season,
transplant 25-day-old seedlings.
* To avoid breaking the stem of seedlings during transplanting on irrigated furrows, hold the
roots with the thumb and forefinger then push towards the soil at 3-5 cm deep depending on the
length of the stem. For an area of 1000 m2, transplant the seedlings on the right side of the
furrows for the first half of the area. For the next half, transplant on the left side of the furrows.
For easier off-barring, use a carabao-drawn plow.
* For seedlings in trays, transplant each seedling together with the soil medium from the tray
using the same planting distance and method of transplanting as in seedbed method. If grafted
tomato will be used, transplant the seedlings 3 cm deep to the hole and cover firmly with light
soil. Do not cover the grafted part to avoid infection. Support the transplanted seedlings with
trellis.
Nutrient Management
Broadcast chicken manure or organic fertilizer before land preparation or at final harrowing to
fully incorporate the fertilizer into the soil (Table 2). Apply 14-14-14 at transplanting so that
seedlings will be healthy and vigorous before flowering. Delayed application will result in
weaker plants and smaller fruits. Side dress using urea mixed with muriate of potash (0-0-60) for
higher fruit setting, and to prolong the fruiting period of the crop.
Table 2. Fertilizer requirement for tomato production.
Kind of Fertilizer Rate of Application per ha 1000m2)
Chicken manure

500 kg (250 g/plant)

or

Time of Application
before plowing

Method of Application
Basal/broadcast

or

Organic fertilizer

250 kg (125 g/plant)

final harrowing

Basal/broadcast

14-14-14

25 kg (125 g/plant)

At transplanting

Basal

15 kg
Urea+0-0-60

15 g/plant
15 kg

Source: Gajete, T.D. et. al 2004

21 days after transplanting (DAT) (at 3rd irrigation) Side dress

Water Management
1. Four to five irrigations are needed from transplanting to 14 days before the last harvest
depending on the type of soil. Tomato is very sensitive to flooding; hence, irrigation must be
done just to moisten the root zone especially during the onset of flowering up to the last harvest.
2. The following irrigation schedule must be followed for a 1000 m2 area:
* First : during transplanting (flooding) or hand watering
* Second : 14 DAT (flooding) or hand watering
* Third : at vegetative stage (21 DAT), water at 1 L/hill.
* Fourth : at flowering and early fruiting (30 DAT) water at 1 L/hill.
* Fifth : optional, depending on the appearance of the plants at harvesting stage (hand water if
necessary)
3. Irrigate by furrow (quick passing) to minimize soil erosion and to favor high fruit setting.
Waterlogging for 24 hours will favor the occurrence of wilt diseases and reduce fruit setting. In
the absence of surface irrigation, water the plants weekly at the rate of 1 L/hill until two weeks
before the last harvest.
4. For tomato with plastic mulch, water twice a week for the whole crop duration.
Pest Management
Insect pests and diseases of tomato are managed by using chemical, biological, and remedial
measures. Most of the pests and diseases of tomato are common throughout the year except
thrips and whiteflies, which are present only during dry season starting in January, declining in
May and ending in June or July depending on the arrival of rain. The farmer or any amateur
grower may try the suggested biological and remedial measures in managing the insect pests and
diseases as presented in Table 3. In case of pest outbreaks, the use of chemical pesticides as
shown in Table 4 is the last resort.
Insect Pests
1. 28-spotted beetle (Epilachna philippinensis) This is a small beetle with brownish yellow
forewings dotted with 28 black spots. Both adults and larvae are destructive by feeding on the
leaves of tomato and other solanaceous crops. They feed by scraping the surface of the leaves
until it has been skeletonized.
2. Fruit worm (Heliothis armigera.) The polyphagous larva of this insect feed on corn,
tobacco, cotton and other vegetables. In tomato, the larva damages the fruit at any stage of
growth rendering it non-marketable.
3. Aphids (Aphis gossypii) The insect pest attacks tomato, cotton, and other crops by sucking
the sap of the leaves and stem of the plant. It can also transmit (vector) cucumber mosaic virus.
Severe infestation of aphids results in the accumulation of their sweet and sticky substances on

the infested plant parts, which serve as a medium for the growth of black molds that block the
photosynthetic activity of the leaves. It is the aphids secret toxic substances that result in curling
of the shoots and dwarfing of the internodes of tomato. This symptom reduces the plants
reproductive potentials.
4. White fly (Bemicia tabaci) This white fly is a serious pest of tomato that attacks the plant by
sucking the sap of the leaves. It also acts as a vector of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)
that causes yellowing and curling of tomato leaves resulting in stunted plants with aborted flower
and fewer fruits.
5. Thrips (Frankiniella occidentalis) are minute pests that suck the leaves of the tomato. It is a
vector of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that reduces yield.
Diseases
1. Tomato mosaic Virus (TMW) This virus causes mosaic pattern on the leaves of tomato
coupled with curling of the young leaves and shoots. Most of the varieties are tolerant to tomato
mosaic virus and are capable of bearing fruits throughout their life span but are not prolific as the
healthy plant. The disease is seed-borne.
2. Late blight is caused by the fungus. Phytophthora infestans (Montagne) de Bary. The
symptoms are seen as brown spots on the older leaves with yellowish advancing lesion. Under
favorable condition the symptom progress to upper leaves, stems and fruits of the plant.
The advance stage of the disease is seen as a whitish growth on the fruit. The disease can be
transmitted by mechanical means while the growth and development of this fungus is favored by
a moist and cooler condition of the environment. Under severe infection, the plant may succumb
to death.
3. Bacterial wilt The causal organism is Pseudomonas solanacearum that infects tomato and
other solanaceous crops. The pathogen is either soil-borne or seed-borne. It invades the roots of
tomato then progresses to the vascular bundle where it interferes with the translocation of
nutrients and water. Advanced symptom is browning of the inner parts of the stem, wilting of the
plant before it dies.
4. Bacterial spot is caused by Xanthomonas campestris var. vesicatoria an agent of bacterial
spot, which is characterized by a sunken irregular brown spots on the fruits, stems, and leaves of
tomato (Fig. 4d). Fruits infected with bacterial spots are considered non-marketable. The disease
is common during wet season planting and is transmitted through the seeds. Weeds are some of
the alternate hosts of this bacterium, which becomes latent after the cropping period.
5. Root knot nematode This parasitic nematode (Melodogyne incognita) attacks the roots of
tomato that results in the formation of knots and galls on the roots. Infected tomato become
susceptible to other root disease. Above ground symptoms shows stunting of the plant with
moderate wilting as that of water stress.

6. Fusarium Wilt the fungus Fusarium oxysporum is the causal agent of the fungal wilt of
tomato. The pathogen is soil-borne with the similar symptom with that of bacterial wilt. The only
difference is the presence of white mycelia (thread-like) that grow on the infected part of the
plant.
7. Early blight Alternaria solani (Ell. and G. Martin) Sor. This fungus incites the symptom of
early blight in tomato. This fungus is prevalent during the cool months of the year, infecting the
leaves, stems and aboveground parts of the plant. The symptom appears as target-like spots on
the leaves. At fruiting stage, infected fruit shows numerous irregular spots and the disease can
cause high yield loss if not immediately controlled
8. Powdery mildew is caused by the fungus Leveillula taurica (Lev) Arnaud. The symptom is
like a white talcum powder on the surface and undersurface of the leaves. The growth and
development is favored by warm condition of the environment with low humidity. The profuse
powdery growth of the organism covers the surface of the leaves and other parts causing the
leaves to become yellowish then turns brown and die.
9. Leaf mold The causal organism of this disease is Cladosporium fulvum Cooke. It is
characterized by brownish spots with molds on the under surface of the leaves and later coalesce
into blight. During severe infections, the leaves turn brown and die resulting in reduced
flowering and fruiting span of the plant.
10. Blossom end rot The primary symptom of this physiological disorder is calcium
deficiency, which is characterized by dry rot with water-soaked appearance at the blossom end of
the immature fruits, It later enlarges and turns into papery or leathery sunken brown to black rot
upon infection of saprophytic fungi (secondary symptom). Fruits with end rots are non
marketable.
Table 3. Biological and remedial control of pests and diseases of tomato.
Insect pest and diseases

A.) Insect pest:


fruitworms/cutworms

Suggested management
To control worms at fruiting stage, spray neem seed extract at 200300 ml/16 L or hot pepper fruit extract 100-200 ml/16 L. For
cutworm, spray before twilight.
Spray with Thuricide HP or Dipel (Bacillus thuringiensis) following
manufacturers recommended dosage. These are bacterial pesticides
To drove other pests spray 100-200 ml pure tubai leaf extract/16 L
of water on the plants alternate it with spraying karot tuber extract
(100-200 ml tuber extract per 16 L water). Do it twice a week.

28 spotted beatle, mites,


leafhoppers,
whitefly/thrips

Puff smoke on the crop twice a week during the whole growing
period.
For thrips, mites, leafhopper and white fly, practice overhead
irrigation.
For thrips use blue sticky trap, for whitefly use yellow sticky trap.

B) Diseases:
Leaf spot

To control these disease spray the leaves with zinc oxide power at 23 tbsp/16 L water (with 1 tbsp sticker during wet season). Spray
decoction of serpentina 10ml extract per 16 L water.

Fungal wilt/bacterial wilt

Treat the seeds with Centella asiatica (takip kuhol) decoction at


45C to 50 C for 2-5 minutes. Uproot infected plants and burn
outside the area. Drench infected soil with 5% solution of zonrox
then expose to sunlight. Avoid surface irrigation. Do not cultivate or
touch infected plants as this will transfer the pathogens to other
plants. If possible, hand water the plants early in the morning or late
in the afternoon with 1 L/plant every week at vegetative stage and 2
L/plant every two weeks at fruiting stage for clay loam soil.

Bacterial spot

To prevent this disease, spray a decoction of guava, star apple and


avocado (done by boiling 1 kg leaves of each in 3 gallons of water
for 5 minutes). For stronger concentration, restore 1 gallon
decoction to 16 L water with 1 tbsp sticker. Spray on leaves and
fruits of tomato once a week.
Minimal infection if grown after rice. Practice good drainage and
use large dose of organic manure.

Powdery mildew

Spray Cassia alata (Andadasi or Acapulco) leaf extract at the rate of


1 L leaf extract/16 L water with sticker then spray vigorously on
leaves and whole plants. For severe infection, spray a ratio of 1:1
leaf extract to water twice a week until the fruiting stage. As a
disinfectant and as a preventive measure, spray 16 ml zonrox per/6
L of water or 1tbsp baking soda/16 L of water on the whole plant
once a week.

Leaf mold

Burn infected plant residues after harvest. Plant tomato after rice
and plant other crops after tomato (crop rotation). Plant resistant
varieties.

Nematode

Plant 1 month old marigold seedlings as intercrop two weeks before


transplanting of tomato. Plant resistant varieties.

Early Blight

Spray Acapulco leaf extract.

Late Blight

Spray Acapulco leaf extract alternate with serpentine decoction.

Blossom rot

Spray the plants with nutrients high in calcium at flowering stage.


Or spray the plant with fresh malunggay leaf extract at a ratio of 1:4
malunggay extract to water. Or spray with decoction of seaweeds,
decoction of burned sea shells, crabs and shrimps skeletons (1:10
shells to water).

Sources: Colting, L. M., et al, 2003; Farmers/Gardeners Practices

Table 4. Chemical control of insect pests and diseases of tomato.


Suggested Pesticides
Insect Pests
and Diseases

Common Name

Product
Name

Rate
Application
(tbsp/16 L
water)

When and How to Apply

A. Insect Pests
Aphids
28-spotted
beetle

Methomyl

Carbaryl

Thrips

4.0-6.0

Provin 85
4.0-6.0
WP
4.0-8.0

Deltametrin

Decis R

1.5-2.5

Lambdacyhalothrin

Karate
2.5 EC

1.0-1.5

Carbaryl

Provin 85
4.0-6.0
WP

Thiamethoxan

Actara 25
1.5-2.0
WG

Triazophos

Hercules

4.0-6.0

Chlorathalonil

Daconil
75 WP

4.0-6.0

Mancozeb

Dithane
M-45

4.0-6.0

Metalaxyl

Ridomil
MZ 58
WP

6.0-10.0

Copper
oxychloride

Source: Gajete, T.D. et. al 2004


Weeding

Sevin 85
S

Lannate
40 SP

Whiteflies

Bacterial spot
Bacterial wilt

4.0-8.0

Methomyl

Fruit worm

B.Diseases
Powdery
mildew, Early
& late
blight/Leaf
spot

Lannete
40 SP

Vitigran
Blue 35
WP

4.0-6.0

Spray any of the insecticides


as soon as insect infestation is
observed. Repeat spraying at
7-10 days interval or
depending on level of insect
population.

Spray as soon as symptoms


are observed. Repeat at 7-10
days depending on level of
infection.

Spray as soon as symptoms


are observed. Repeat at 7-10
days depending on level of
infection.

Spray when the first cluster is


well formed. Repeat if
required. Treat the seeds with
5% lime solution than subject
to 50C for two hours; air dry
the seeds before sowing.

By using a carabao-drawn plow or hand hoe, cultivate in between rows of plants by off barring at
14-21 DAT. Hill-up at 28-35 DAT. Spot-weed at the surrounding of the seedlings after each offbarring and hilling-up if there are standing weeds. If plastic mulch is available, mulch the area
before transplanting.
Harvest Management
Harvest fruits intended for future use at matured green stage at 1-2 months during rainy season.
Matured green fruits gradually ripen in one month at room temperature. Frequent harvesting
sustains the production of more fruits. For immediate use, harvest the fruits at breaker pink stage.
These will fully ripen within three days at ambient temperature but can be slowed when stored in
a refrigerated condition.
References: Production and Management of tomato. July 7, 2008. Open Academy for Philippine
Agriculture. http://www.openacademy.ph/.

Tomato Production Guide Technology Option 1


Seedbed Preparation
1. Make seedbed 50 cm apart with any convenient length in an area fully exposed to sunlight
2. Pulverize the soil thoroughly and add compost or dried animal manure at the rate of 5 kg per
sq meter.
3. Sterilize the soil by burning rice straw or rice hull on top of the seedbed for 4-5 hours to kill
soil-bon pathogens.
4. Drench the seedbed with fungicide-insecticide solution.
5. To protect the seedlings from heavy rains, place plastic roofing.
Sowing
1. Wet the seedbed thoroughly before sowing.
2. Make horizontal rows 5cm apart.
3. Sow 80-100 seeds in every 50 cm row (150-200 g of seeds are needed per hectare).
4. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil and place rice straw mulch.
5. Water the seedbed daily (seedlings start to emerge 3-6 days from sowing).
Care of Seedlings
1. 3-5 days fater germination, prick the seedlings by transferring them into a tray or seedbox to
allow more space between seedlings and prevent damping-off. In the absence of seedling tray or
seedbox, use paper pots (rolled), lukong or rolled banana leaves, and plastic bags.
2. Plant the seedlings in a soil mixture consisting of garden soil, compost (or well decomposed
animal manure, and rice hull in a 2:3:1 ratio). If possible, sterilize the soil mixture by baking or
through steam.
3. Drench the newly pricked seedlings with fungicide solution to prevent damping-off. If insect
appears, spray the seedlings with appropriate insecticide.

4. For large scale production, use seedbed. In this case, pricking is not done. Instead, thinning is
done to allow more space between seedlings.
5. A week after pricking or thinning, apply starter solution (2 tbsp Ammonium Phosphate (1620-0) or 14-14-14 dissolved in 1 gal water).
6. A foliar fertilizer may also be used.
7. 1 week before transplanting, harden the seedlings by gradually reducing the amount and
frequency of watering until the seedlings experience temporary wilting.
Land Preparation
1. Plow and harrow the soil twice.
2. Make furrows distanced at 0.75-1 meter for determinate and semi-determinate varieties and
1.5 m for indeterminate varieties.
3. Place 500g compost or dried manure per hill if the soil is not fertile.
Transplanting
1. Select healthy seedlings with 3-5 leaves 3-4 weeks after seedling emergence.
2. Transplant 2-3 seedlings per hill spaced 40 cm apart.
3. Transplant in the afternoon.
4. Press the soil gently around the base of the seedlings.
5. Water immediately.
6. Replant missing hills 5-7 days after transplanting.
Trellising
1. Trellising is recommended in growing semi-determinate and indeterminate varieties.
2. Use bamboo or ipil-ipil poles as post.
3. Tie the branches to the post and train the vines using plastic straw.
Nutrient Management
1. 1-2 days before planting, apply 20 g 14-14-14 per hill and mix it thoroughly with the soil.
2. 3-4 weeks after transplanting, mix 2 parts of Urea (46-0-0) with 1 part Muriate of Potash (0-060) and apply 1 tbsp (10g) of the mixture 6-8cm away from the base of the plants in bands (first
sidedressing).
3. Apply another 1 tbsp of the mixed fertilizer two weeks later (second sidedressing).
Water Management
Depending on the weather and soil, water the plants once a week until early fruiting stage.
Pests Management
Pest

1. Use Trichogramma chilonis or botanical insecticides like native hot pepper.


2. Use insecticide only if necessary.
Diseases
1. If the disease is caused by a fungus, spray with fungicide and remove the damaged leaves.
2. If the disease is caused by a virus and bacteria, pull-out, bury or burn the whole plant
immediately to prevent its spread to other healthy plants
Weeding
1. Remove the weeds near the base of the plants before the first sidedressing.
2. Off-bar and hill-up the soil to prevent the weeds.
3. Mulch with rice straw during dry season. For large plantation, mulch with black plastic.
Mulching also conserves soil moisture.
Harvest Management
1. Harvest mature green or pink-blushed fruits early in the morning
2. Place the harvest in bamboo crates lined with banana leaves or used newspaper to prevent
mechanical damage to the fruits.
3. Avoid over- or under- packing.
4. Remove bruised and damaged fruits.
5. Pack together fruits with similar maturity in one container.
Seed Production
Harvesting
Harvest fruits that have reddish streaks to fully red ripe stage.
Seed Processing
1. Cut fruits in half and squeeze out the seed with the juice into a container. Allow mixture to
ferment 1-2 days or easier removal of mucilaginous seed coat.
2. Dip a fine-holed strainer and rub seeds gently into the strainer to remove the coating.
3. Put the seeds in a pail of water to allow immature seeds to float. Discard water together with
the floated seeds leaving the good seeds that settled at the bottom of the pail. Repeat the
procedure until no floats can be found.
4. Put seeds in a net bag and air dry them for 2-3 days before sun drying for 4-5 days. Increase
the sun drying time as the seeds dry. For oven drying, dry seeds initially to no more than 30C,
and increase it to 40C as the seeds dry.
5. For dry sealed packaging, dry the seeds to 8% moisture content.

Packaging
1. Dry seed absorb moisture from the air. Use moisture resistant packaging materials such as
thick polyethylene plastic, aluminum foil, tin cans, or glass jars. Seal well.
2. Seeds can be packed in paper packets but must be placed in large tin cans or wide-mouth glass
jars with desiccants (charcoal, silica gel, calcium chloride, quick lime, or wood ash) at the
bottom.
3. Cover tightly.
Storage
Keep seeds away from moisture and high temperature. The cooler and drier the area, the longer
the life of the seeds.
Proper Handling
Tomato is a perishable crop which deteriorates rapidly if not properly handled. Some tips to
preserve the freshness and lengthen the storage life of the fruits are as follows:
1. Harvest fruits at the right stage of maturity. If intended for fresh market and long distance
shipment, harvest at the mature-green stage; for processing purposes, harvest at the red-ripe
stage.
REASON: Harvesting of immature fruits results in irregularly ripened and poor quality fruits
while picking beyond the optimum stage of maturity renders them unsuitable for long-distance
shipment.
2. Pick tomatoes during the cooler times of the day, usually at dawn. If it is necessary to harvest
up to noon time, keep the harvested fruits in a shaded area soon after picking.
REASON: During this time, temperature is low thus, metabolic processes are slowed down. At
noon time, the temperature is high and exposure of the fruits to the sun will increase fruit
temperature which hastens weight loss and ripening.
3. Avoid harvesting during rainy days.
REASON: Rain water accumulated on the stems favors growth and development of diseasecausing microorganisms.
4. Avoid wounding the fruit when harvesting.
REASON: Injuries incurred during harvesting serve as avenue for entry of microorganisms,
hasten water loss and speed up the ripening process.
5. Avoid dropping the fruits into the harvesting containers or when transferring them to the
collecting crates.
REASON: Impact bruises on the commodity can result in non-visible symptoms of deterioration
manifested internally as brown to black discoloration in the seed area.

6. Avoid over and under packing; allow enough spaces after shaking the containers.
REASON: Over-filled or loosely-packed containers will have a high percentage of injured fruits.
7. Line the crates with newspaper or thin pin-pricked polyethylene bag.
REASON: Liners protect the fruits from mechanical injury while pin-pricked polyethylene bags
regulate ripening.
8. Pack only clean, disease-, insect- and injury-free tomatoes.
REASON: Diseased fruits may infect sound ones while injured commodities are readily infected
and ripen faster.
9. Have a uniform stage of ripeness within the pack.
REASON: Ripening fruits produce ethylene which causes faster ripening of green ones.
10. Use crates with smooth inner sides.
REASON: Rough inner sides cause bruising of fruits during transport.
11. Arrange containers with enough spaces to allow air circulation during transport.
REASON: Free air circulation will prevent over-heating and will also allow free gas exchange
between the commodity and the environment.
12. Be careful when loading and unloading the containers.
REASON: Careless loading and unloading aggravate compression and abrasion damage.
13. Store ripe fruits separately from unripe ones.
REASON: Ripe fruits give off ethylene which hastens the ripening of unripe ones.
14. Delay the ripening of green-mature fruits by keeping them in pin-pricked, (0.05 mm)
polyethylene bags for six days at ambient condition.
REASON: The high carbon dioxide and low oxygen inside the polyethylene bag delay ripening.
15. Store green-mature fruits (in small amounts) in moist sawdust.
REASON: The high relative humidity and relatively low temperature attained with sawdust
storage minimize weight loss.
References:
Fliers. Tomato. September 2008. Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines, Los
Baos, Laguna.
Package of Technology of Different Vegetable Crops: Technology Generation and
Dissemination for the Growth and Development of Vegetable Industry.2005.DA-RFU 4A&
Bureau of Agricultural Research, Diliman Quezon City.
Source: bar.gov.ph