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A STUDY OF ADJUSTMENT AMONG HOSTELLERS AND DAY SCHOLARS IN RELATION TO THEIR EMOTIONAL MATURITY

Anjana Vishwakarma M.Ed. (Student) I.Ed. (SHEPA), Nibia, Bachchaon, Varanasi

The present study has probed into the adjustment among hostellers and day scholars in relation to their emotional maturity. The sample comprised of 100 students (50 hostellers & 50 day scholars) of secondary & senior secondary level from Varanasi city. The Mann-Whitney U test & Rank difference method was computed to analyze the data. The results revealed that:

(i) there is significant relationship between adjustment & emotional maturity of hostellers & day scholars, (ii) there is a significant difference between adjustment of hostellers & day scholars and (iii) there is no significant difference between emotional maturity of hostellers & day scholars.

INTRODUCTION In the present circumstances, youth as well as children are facing difficulties in life. These difficulties are giving rise to many psycho-somatic problems such as anxiety, tensions, frustrations and emotional upsets in day to day life. Adjustment is a process of finding and adopting modes of behaviour suitable to the environment or the changes in the environment (Good,1959). A person does not always get success according to his desires and efforts. The reason for this lies either in an unfavorable situation or in the limited capacities of the individual. When he fails in this effort some abnormality may appear in his behavior. There are many factors which can influence the process of adjustment - level of aspiration, socio- economic status, family environment, school environment, anxiety ,frustration and above all his emotional maturity . Kaplan and Baron (1986) elaborated the characteristics of an emotionally mature person and pointed to the capacity to withstand delay in satisfaction of needs, belief in long term planning and capability of delaying or revising his expectations in terms of demands of situation. Thus, an emotionally mature child has the capacity to make effective adjustment with himself, members of his family, his peers in the school, society and culture. But maturity means not merely the capacity for such attitude and functioning but also the ability to enjoy them fully. Therefore, the emotionally mature child is not one who necessarily has resolved all conditions that aroused anxiety and hostility but it is continuously a process of seeing himself in clearer perspective, continually involved in a struggle to gain healthy integration of feeling, thinking and action. So emotional maturity can be called as the process of impulse control through the agency of self . The main thrust of the present study was to find out whether there is any correlation between the emotional maturity & the level of adjustment of hostellers & day scholars of secondary & senior secondary level.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Several studies have been reported regarding study of adjustment in relation to different variables. Some studies have tried to relate adjustment with variables like intelligence, achievement, age, sex, socio-economic status, needs, anxiety and security. Student’s reaction to frustration has been studied. A few studies have focused on the nature, causes and extent of indiscipline among students. But very few studies on the relationship between adjustment and

emotional maturity have been carried out. To know the level of adjustment and relationship between adjustment and emotional maturity among hostellers and day scholars is the main purpose of the study.

RATIONALE OF THE STUDY Secondary stage is a very crucial stage in the student’s life. It is the beginning of adolescence group. From the review of different studies it becomes clear that many factors affect this stage. Individual’s adjustment problem is an important aspect in his /her overall development. Emotional maturity also affects the adjustment in secondary school students. Hence the present problem is significant in the field of education. The study will be helpful in providing a direction to younger generation to achieve proper level of adjustment and healthy behavior. Also teachers and parents will get a very useful insight from this study because their concern is also the best output and balanced development of the younger generation.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Gakhar, S. C. (2003). “Emotional maturity of students at secondary stage: self-concept and academic achievement”, Punjab University, Chandigarh. This paper probes into the relationship between emotional maturity and self-concept on academic achievement of students at secondary stage. A significant negative correlation was found between self-concept and emotional maturity. It was also found negative correlation between academic achievement and emotional maturity. There is significant difference in the emotional maturity of boys and girls. It is revealed that there is significant difference in the emotional maturity of students belonging to urban and rural areas and emotional maturity of students of rural areas is more as their mean scores on emotional maturity inventory is less. There is significant difference in the emotional maturity of students who study in government and private schools. Further emotional maturity of students of private schools is more as compared to their counterparts due to low mean score one emotional maturity scale. It also shows that there is insignificant difference in the emotional maturity of students who live in hostels and those who are day scholars. This study also reveals that there is insignificant difference in the emotional maturity of children of working and non-working mothers. Meenakshi & Saurashtra (2003) and Kaur (2001) conducted a study on a sample of 356 adolescents and revealed significant relationship between emotional maturity and intelligence. However, no significant relation was observed between emotional maturity and academic achievement. Further she found no significant difference in the emotional maturity of boys and girls, adolescents of urban and rural areas but significant difference in the emotional maturity of arts and science students. Tyagi (1985) pointed out that emotional maturity was positively correlated to personal, social and overall adjustment and female subjects scored higher on emotional and overall maturity. Mishra (1987) conducted a study on the hostel life of university students and found that hostellers were emotionally more mature as compared to non- hostellers. Digumarti Bhaskara Rao & Digumarti Harshitha (2006). “A Study of the Adjustment of Secondary School Students”. Andhra Pradesh. Life in general and for a student in particular has become highly competitive. Today there is no place for a mediocre student as there is a limited room at the top. The objectives of the study were: to identify the adjustment of secondary school students; to find out the difference in the level of adjustment between residential and non-residential secondary school students; to find out the difference in the level of adjustment between private and government secondary school students; to find out the difference in the level of adjustment between boys and girls. A sample of 200 students was taken from different residential and non-residential schools in Andhra Pradesh. The findings of the study were: the secondary school students were with low adjustment; the non-residential school students were more adjusted than the residential school students, though both were with low adjustment; there we no significant differences in the level of adjustment possessed by the private and government

secondary school students, though both of them were with low adjustment; there was no significant difference in the level of adjustment possessed by boys and girls, though both were with low adjustment. Thakur (2002) in her study "Emotional Maturity as related to Home Environment" found that there exists a positive relationship between Home Environment and Emotional Maturity. Rathaiah and Bhaskara Rao (1997) found a positive relationship between adjustment and achievement. Sabapathy, T. (1986) in “A study of Relationship of Manifest Anxiety, Emotional Maturity of standard Xth students of their Academic Achievement.” examined the relationship between the variables anxiety, emotional, social maturity, socioeconomic status and academic achievements of students and found that emotional maturity was positively and significantly related to achievement in individual subjects and academic achievement in particular.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY i. To study the relationship between adjustment and emotional maturity of hostellers.

ii.

To

study the relationship between adjustment and emotional maturity of day scholars.

iii.

To find out whether there is any significant difference between the adjustment level of hostellers and day scholars.

iv.

To

find out whether there is any significant difference between the emotional maturity of

hostellers and day scholars.

HYPOTHESES The substantive research hypothesis underlying this research is that adjustment and emotional maturity of hostellers and day scholars are related. This hypothesis has been rendered in null form in order to make it amenable to statistical testing through appropriate non-parametric tests. These are as follows:

i. There is no relationship between adjustment and emotional maturity of hostellers.

ii. There is no relationship between adjustment and emotional maturity of day scholars.

iii. There is no difference between the adjustment of hostellers and day scholars.

iv. There is no difference between the emotional maturity of hostellers and day scholars.

METHODS

(I) Research Methodology Descriptive survey method has been used in the present study in which students were given specific questionnaires for the assessment of the adjustment and emotional maturity level among the students. The data so obtained were carefully organized and analyzed in terms of the purpose of the study and the hypotheses formulated within the ambit of the research.

(II)

Population And Sample

Population- In the present study hostellers and day scholar students from class IX, X, and

XI

of different schools of Varanasi city were taken as population for study.

Sample- The sample of the present study comprised of 100 students (50 hostellers and 50 day scholars) of 14-18 years of age studying in class IX to XI. Convenience sampling method was used for the selection of the students.

(III)

Tools And Techniques Following standardized tools were used by the for the data collection in the present study.

Emotional maturity scale constructed by Dr. Yashwir Singh & Mahesh Bhargava (1990).

Adjustment inventory developed by A.K.P. Sinha and R.P. Singh.

(IV)

Procedure of Data Collection and Analysis

To achieve the objective of the present study, it was required to collect the data from hostellers and day scholar students of secondary level (class IX to XI) from the selected schools of Varanasi city. The investigator got permission letter from the Principal, Department of

Education, SHEPA, and Varanasi to collect the data. The investigator then contacted the principal/teacher incharge of the concerned school and got permission to collect data from their schools. Subsequently, the investigator developed proper rapport with the students and provided necessary instructions to them for indicating relevant information sought through the scales used for the purpose. The students were asked to read the items carefully and give their response to each item honestly. They were explained to fill the answer in the box appropriately and they were also assured that their responses will be used only for research purposes. After completion, the questionnaires were collected from the students and checked by the investigator whether all the entries were filled by the students or not. The questionnaires were scored as per the scoring pattern prescribed in the manuals. The data collected from the students were analyzed by using following statistical techniques:

MANN-WHITNEY U TEST

RANK DIFFERENCE METHOD

RESULTS The analysis has been carried out using tabular representations. The data as analyzed and interpreted were presented in four sections. The first section brings out the relationship between adjustment and emotional maturity of hostellers, the second section is devoted to indicating the relationship between adjustment and emotional maturity of day scholars. Subsequently the third section presents the data in respect of difference between hostellers and day scholars in terms of their adjustment and the fourth section deals with the difference between hostellers and day scholars in terms of their emotional maturity.

The findings have been summarized through the following four tables:

Table 1 Relationship between adjustment & emotional maturity of hostellers.

Variables

Group

N

∑ D 2

Correlation(ρ)

Interpretation

Adjustment and emotional maturity

       

Low positive

Hostellers

50

12482

0.401

coefficient of

correlation

Table 1 reveals that the obtained value of ρ i.e. 0.401 which shows low positive coefficient of correlation and it may be stated on this basis that although low, there seems to be positive correlation between adjustment and emotional maturity of hosteller students. Hence our null hypothesis Ho is rejected as there seems to exist a relationship between adjustment and emotional maturity of hostellers.

Table 2 Relationship between adjustment & emotional maturity of day scholars.

Variables Group N ∑ D 2 Correlation(ρ) Interpretation
Variables
Group
N
∑ D 2
Correlation(ρ)
Interpretation

Adjustment & emotional maturity

Day scholars

50

High positive

coefficient of

correlation

7980.5

0.617

From the perusal of Table 2 it is observed that the coefficient of correlation between scores of adjustment and emotional maturity of day scholars comes out to be 0.617 which represents high positive correlation between adjustment and emotional maturity of day scholars. Hence, null

hypothesis Ho is rejected and alternatively it may be held that there exist a relationship between adjustment and emotional maturity of day scholars.

Table 3 Difference between hostellers & day scholars in terms of their adjustment

Variable

Group

N

∑R1

∑R2

U

z

Level of significance (0.05)

Adjustment

Hostellers

50

2933

-

842

-2.813

Significant

Day scholars

50

-

2117

From the perusal of Table 3, it is observed that the calculated z value comes out to be -2.813 which is greater than the value of z at 0.05 level of significance.

Therefore, the obtained value of z is taken to be significant at the 0.05 level of significance and the value of U being significant the difference between the adjustment of hostellers and day scholars may be declared as statistically significant. Accordingly the null hypothesis in this regard will be rejected and consequently the substantive research hypothesis may be accepted. Finally, while rejecting the null hypothesis Ho at 0.05 level of significance, it is asserted that the two groups i.e. hostellers and day scholars differ significantly on their adjustment level.

Table 4 Difference between hostellers & day scholars in terms of their emotional maturity

Variable

Group

N

∑R1

∑R2

U

z

Level of significance (0.05)

Emotional

Hostellers

50

2690

-

1085

-1.14

Not-significant

maturity

Day scholars

50

-

2360

It may be observed from table 4, that the obtained value of z comes out to be -1.14. The obtained value of z being less than ± 1.96 is declared not significant at the 0.05 level of significance. Thus it may be stated that in respect of emotional maturity both hostellers and day scholars do not appear to differ. Hence, null hypothesis Ho is accepted at 0.05 level of significance and it can be concluded that there is no significant difference between hostellers and day scholars in terms of emotional maturity.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS The findings of this study reveal that there exists a relationship between adjustment and emotional maturity of hostellers and day scholars. Previous studies also support this finding where emotional maturity was found to be positively correlated to personal, social and overall adjustment (Tyagi, 1985). It may be concluded from the results that there is significant difference in adjustment of hostellers and day scholars, but there is no significant difference between hostellers and day scholars in terms of their emotional maturity. Digumarti Bhaskara Rao & Digumarti Harshitha (2006) concluded in “A Study of the Adjustment of Secondary School Students” of Andhra Pradesh that : the secondary school students evinced low adjustment; the non-residential school students were more adjusted than the residential school students, though both were showing low adjustment. Nehra.S conducted a study on adjustment and emotional maturity of class IX students and found that the boys and girls studying in secondary class were not significantly different in terms of their adjustment and emotional maturity.

Day scholars have shown an edge over hostellers in terms of both emotional maturity and general level of adjustment as per the scoring norms. So, the better adjustment of day scholars may be due to the reason that they spend more time with their family members after school hours in comparison to hostellers. Several studies also have supported this. Shah, (1989) studied the effect of family climate on the home adjustment of adolescent students. It was found that home adjustment of students having satisfactory family climate was found to be far superior to those who had highly dissatisfactory family climate.

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS The findings of the present study may be helpful to the students, teachers, principals, administrators and educational planners. It hardly needs stressing that secondary stage is a very crucial stage in the student’s life; it is the starting of adolescence group. From the review of different studies it becomes clear that many factors affect the development at this stage. Emotional maturity affects the adjustment in secondary school students. Hence the findings of the present problem have great implications for planning and designing curriculum and using appropriate teaching methods. In addition to these the following implications are also worth noting.

This study will be helpful in providing a direction to younger generation to develop good adjustment and healthy behavior.

The teachers and parents will get a useful guidance from this study because their concern is also the balanced development of the younger generation. Parents at home and teachers at school always play a major role in influencing and developing emotional maturity. They may channelize an adolescent’s energy into constructive dimension.

Counselors or school administrators or teachers who face problems with adolescents like aggression, depression or use of drugs, can also benefit by the findings of this study.

The implication of this study may also be indicated for Teacher Training Programs. The aim of such programs should be familiarizing teachers about how factors like adjustment and emotional maturity affect the academic performance of the students of Secondary Schools.

Another implication of the present study relates to the handling of adolescent’s problems

and managing their orientation and pre-occupations with various types of social and educational activities and programs including hobby clubs and non-interfering approaches to promote and enhance their creative leverages. It is pertinent to observe that if teachers, principals, policy makers, parents and well- wishers of the society want to enhance academic performance of the students, they should think to improve the adjustment & emotional maturity of the students through various ways particularly by arranging in house and outside the school programs for the youth.

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