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Mustafa Kemal and Enver in Conflict, 1919-22 Author(s): Salahi R. Sonyel Source: Middle Eastern Studies,

Mustafa Kemal and Enver in Conflict, 1919-22 Author(s): Salahi R. Sonyel Source: Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 25, No. 4 (Oct., 1989), pp. 506-515 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4283334 Accessed: 16-03-2015 16:34 UTC

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MustafaKemalandEnverin Conflict, 1919-22

SalahiR. Sonyel

of the

Armistice of Mudros

the defeatedOttoman into the Great

the Talat-Enver-Cemaltriumvirateof the

Turkey Committeeof Union

escaped According to British

to Turkish sources,3 it was Odessaor

coast, near Sebastopol.They

Ottoman government in Istanbulfor alleged warcrimes.4 They wereto be

were wanted

the new

On the night of 8 November 1918, nine days after the

(Mondros) by

Empire

and

the accredited

War,

signature plenipotentiaries of

Britain, those responsible for dragging

and Progress,1together withsomeof their henchmen,

fromIstanbulin greatsecrecy on the German torpedo boat U-67.

sources,2 theirdestinationwas Constanza;according

on the Crimean

Eupatoria(Gozleva)

by

the Allies and

by

July 1919 by the special court martial

DamatFeritCabinetfor offencesconnected

condemnedto death in absentiain

appointedby the Anglophile

with the war.5 Two of them, Talat and Cemal, would later die at the

by

hands of Armenian assassins, while Enver would be killed in action

the Russiansin Bokharawhile leading the Muslim 'Basmaji'(marauders)

insurgents.

Of the

three, only Enverbecamea thornin the flesh of MustafaKemal

a

(the future Ataturk), and his supporters the Turkish Nationalists, who

national resistanceand a war of liberationin the heartland

organized of Anatolia against the enemies occupying their country.6 Enverdesiredto

share, or ratherto usurp,anyglory thatMustafaKemalandhis supporters

would achievein Anatolia. However, at first, his

pushed

unlimited megalomania

overthrowthe Bolshevik

independence

fromthe BritishandFrench Empires in AfricaandAsia.

sidewiththe Bolsheviksand struggle forIslamicfreedomand

him into

greater things;

either to

ally

with Britain and

fight

to

'yoke' in MuslimCentral Asia; or, failingthat, to

from

Istanbul, and following a numberof personal

adventuresin the Crimea,7 Enverarrivedin Berlintowardsthe end of 1919

and

One of his earliest contactswas Karl Radek, a Bolshevik

report,

Soon afterhis

began

escape

to intrigue with German,British, FrenchandRussianelements.

revolutionary,

him in touchwith Moscow.8 According to a secretBritish

February1920,

Enver was

working hard to establisha military

Azerbaijan

whowas

with 'Bolshevik

who

put

dated 3

dated 3

alliancebetween the Germansandthe

Bolsheviks, and to unite the Arab,

Turkishand Egyptian movementsso as to consolidateall effortsbeforehe

undertook'the invasion'of Asia Minor and

army'. He even sought the sympathy of Emir Feisal, who would take no definiteactionuntilsuchtime

as 'the independence of

amenable, but

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MUSTAFAKEMALAND ENVER

507

Arabiaand

of

24 February1920, he had an interviewwith Major Ivor Hedley of the

British Military Missionin Berlin,to whomhe

to Moscowto workwiththe Soviet

going

up

he had decidedto

throughout its Muslim possessions.However,

insurrection against Britain

Syria was recognizedby Russia, and by

the Sultanof

Turkey'.9

night

Simultaneously, Enverwas

intriguing with the British. On the

disclosedthathe was

government,simply and solely

as he was

to stir

extremely

anxiousto workwithBritainratherthanwithBolshevikRussia.He wanted

Egyptian independence

Egyptiantreaty

Arabia, and the settlementof the IzmirandThrace questions in Turkey's

favour.If Britaincameto termswith him, he wouldremainin Berlinuntil

negotiations

everything was finally

with Moscow, andwouldthen travelto the Eastwherehis presence would

be essentialif the feelings towardsBritainwere to be

W.S. Edmondsfound Enver'sambitions

delay

his

departure for a few days,

to be extended to the Sudan, and an

Anglo-

concluded; self-determinationto

settled. He would

definitely

ForeignOffice,

Egypt

be grantedthroughout

breakoff

entirelychanged.

In the British

'incompatible with Britishrule with

and India'. 'Even if we were

regard as a criminal',

prepared to stoop

he commented,

work together, whateverEnver maysay,

we should

Cemal Pasha, dated hoped, he said, to

work 'for the salvationof the Turkishand Muslimworld'.1lBut, when

26 February1920,

the British bluntly turnedhim down,12 he went to Moscow in the spring

or early summerof 1920 after a numberof adventurous attempts to get

there

Congress

only

imperialists'.They

military and monetaryassistance, andEnverfell

to treating with a manwhomwe

'it woulddo us no good. The CUP andthe Bolshevistswill

andif we madetermswith Enver,

only give himmore prestige to use against us'.10

expressed

the same idea in a letter to

underhis assumedname 'Ali'. He

Enver had

by air.13 Despite

held in

the fact that he was not well receivedat the Baku

September-October1920,14 the Bolshevikleaderswere

too pleased to makefulluse of his 'Islamic image'against the 'Western

showeredhim with

attention,praises and promises of

for it.

spring There he met variousMuslim

of 1921he left Moscowandvisited

Germany,

Switzerland

representatives, and persuaded

in orderto co-ordinatetheireffortsin the Pan-Islamiccause.

the assistancewhich they would receive from

was held

during

government.15 The meeting

meansin its power. In

Enver,

who

In the

Italy.

and

themto accept the Soviet government's invitationto a meeting in Moscow

during June

They would also arrange

the Soviet

of June, and a Pan-Islamiccommittee was established to draw up a

the second week

programme of commonactionfor submissionto the Soviet Commissariat

for

fact, all fundsfor the movementwere suppliedby the Soviet government.

ForeignAffairs, which promised to helpbyevery

The membersof the Pan-Islamic Committee, in additionto

becameits

Tripoli, Rahman Gargarini, a representative of

president, were: Emir ShekipArslan, Feyzi Bey 'representing'

the Tunisian Muslims,

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508

MIDDLEEASTERNSTUDIES

Wahid (anIndian), wholater

formerCUP leadersDr Rifat, Dr

Bey. ZiyaBey

Vehip

SamiandHarunAlica in Lausanne, andCemalPashain Afghanistan.

resigned andwas replacedby Abdul Rab, and

andBedri

Mansur, Dr Nazim,Ziya Bey

wouldlater supervise a branchof the

organization in Berlin,

CemalettinMulla

PashaandAbdulhamitSaitin

Rome, Fuat Selim,

The committee gave sufficient

mild. It was evident

guarantees to uphold Communismto

Communistdoctrines

eachside was using the other

satisfy the Soviet government, but its preaching of

was very as a tool. After the third

associatesset out to workto

was two-fold: directionof the Muslim

and elsewhere aimed at the overthrowof British rule, and extension

India

programme. Their object

that, in reality,

congress of the Third International, Enver and his

give

effect to their

revolutionary movementin

of this movement into North Africa to

regimes.Arrangements were made to set up

in Berlin,

andPersia. At the end of

and

Italy supporters, as confirmed by

who cabledAnkaraon 23 August 1921, as follows:

French and Spanish

Europe, mainly

Rome, Lausanneand Paris; as well as in Turkey,Afghanistan

upset

the

branchesin

July,

Enver left Russia to visit

Germany,

Switzerland

for the second time. In Rome he met Vehib Pasha, one of his

Cami

Bey,

the

Kemalist representative there,

The former Ministerof War, Enver Pasha, came to Rome from

Moscow via Berlin, and was the

favour and confidencein Soviet Russia

and among the Soviets,

cooperation withthe IslamicSocietiesin Europe,taking as muchaid

fromthe Sovietsas he can

guest of Vehib Pasha. According

to himself, he enjoys great

and his future activitieswill be devoted to

.

.16

His main

MeanwhileEnver was

objective

transformtheminto a joint movement.Forthatreasonhe placed morethan

150formerTurkishofficersat the disposal of branchesin the Caucasusand

in the east. These brancheswere also in in Anatolia.17

The Government of the Grand National

taking place Assembly18 which was established in Ankara

the

strugglei in orderto save Turkey from

in the

(Kemalists) risked losing most, if not all, the advantagesthey had gained

busy establishing branches everywhere.

was to co-ordinatethe work of the various branches, and to

touchwiththe CUP organization

expanding his organization, new developments were

on 23 April

waging

1920 under

and whichwas

a life-and-death

extinction, faceditsmostcrucial days

While Enver was

in Anatolia.

presidency of Mustafa Kemal,

spring

and summerof 1921. At the time, the TurkishNationalists

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MUSTAFAKEMALANDENVER

509

through diplomatic

the Greek

enmity of Britain, Franceand Italy,

the

friendly relations.

intrigues of Bolshevik Russia,

and

military

efforts.

of

the

the Kemalistsalmost fell victim to

withwhom they were supposed to have

While facing the onslaught

army

in Western

Anatolia, and inadvertentlyprovoking

According to Ali Fuat Pasha, then ambassadorin Moscowof the GNA

andthe Third

they

agreement withthe

the

very TurkishNationalistswould come to an

and turn

in case the Russiansmade an agreement with the Western Powers, thus

possibility of losing

isolating

Government, the RussianCommissariatfor

International, had become very

WesternPowers.19 During

to the secondInonii victory in March 1921, relationsbetween

thought, wouldcome to an

ForeignAffairs,

hostile towardsthe Kemalists who,

strained.Moscow

periodup

Ankara and Moscow became

against

suspected understanding with the French

the Russians.20 Similarly, the Kemalistswere worried

that the

them.21 They were also concernedaboutthe

already

befallenthe Northern

their independence to Bolshevik Russia,having savedit from Britain, afate

whichhad

Caucasus,Azerbaijan,Georgia

It was suspected, at the time, that the Russianswere planning certain

reportdespatched to Ankaratowards

andArmenia.22

actionsin the Caucasus.Ali Fuat, in a

the end of May 1921, observed:

in the eastern

region

.I believe that the Russians will create

occupy

our

great

.23

a

problem Dr Riza Nur, the

who was touring the Caucasusat the time,

andwent even further by claiming thatthe Russianswoulddeclarewaron

Turkey.24 These warnings,

not completely unfounded, because, as soon as the Soviet Commissar

for

their advancein

intervenein the warin

Commander-in-Chiefof the Soviet armiesin the Caucasus, thathe should

concentratethe Red Army on the Anatolianborder.25

thatwill

Ministerof NationalEducationof the GNA

government, also confirmedthese

warnings,

whichcaused much concernin Ankara, were

ForeignAffairs,

Chicherin, ascertainedthat the Greeks would renew

Anatolia, and believing that the Soviets would have to

Turkey, he suggested to General Orjonikidze, the

In view of these

developments,

Kemal warnedKazim Karabekir, the

very vigilant

Turkish Army Commanderin

and

to keep the TurkishEastern Army

the directionof the Caucasus.26 Karabekir, who was

vigilance,

Communismin Anatolia, and that, having eliminated the GNA, they

revolutions'. They

wouldsearchfor elementsthatwould

with

on alert in case of an attack from

Eastern Anatolia, to be

alreadyacting

informedKemal that the Russian leaders wished to

organize'bloody

Karabekirwarned:'If

they [the Russians]

would do

power to resist, they

establish

had already made lavish promises to, and rewarded, such people with

money.

see that the Turkish

army

already done in

exactly what they have

During the renewedGreekoffensivein the Izmirfronton 11 July 1921,

is without

Azerbaijan andArmenia.'27

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510

MIDDLEEASTERNSTUDIES

whichwas initiallysuccessful, the relationsbetweenthe GNA government

andBolshevikRussiabecamestrainedalmostto

Greek

did not show any

power Kemal,

taken the bruntof

the Greek

a 'revolutionaryarmy'.28 Enver's biographer,Sevket SiireyyaAydemir,

states that the Pasha, who was at Batum at the time, had sent for his

uniform, decorationsand sword, which were kept

to enterAnatolia.29 Sincehis arrivalin Moscowin the

earlyspring of

1920, Enverhad been

intriguing withChicherinandhis assistant,Karakhan, bothof whomwished

replace Kemalif a peace treaty

was signed between the Kemalistsand the Entente Powers.These Soviet

leaders hoped to provoke a Red Revolution in Anatolia through the

medium of Enver in order

Turkishcommunist leader, to

breakingpoint.

Whilethe

army was advancing towards Ankara, the Russians, who believed

collapse,

that the Turkishnational movement would

benevolencetowardsthe Kemalists.In orderto oust from

who, they believed, would be exhaustedafter having

attack,they kept

Enveron the Anatolianborderat the headof

Istanbul, in readiness

to send him to Anatolia later in orderto

to rectify the failure of Mustafa Suphi, the

spread communismin Turkey.30

they

the Russian Bolsheviks',

accusedof

to the

BritishWarOfficewas awarethat Enver,

andthe 'leading extremistsunderthe influenceof

hesitating to take the

War Office on 17

the Nationalistsin Anatolia regarding the intentionof Enverto marchat

the head of a

commanding 'fromPersiato Marash'in south-east

observers, and

by those on the spot, for example by Commander Harry Luke, the

British representative at Tiflis;32by Frank Rattigan,acting British High

Commissionerin Istanbul, and by his chief

dragoman, Andrew Ryan;33by

As early as February 1920the

wishedto 'throwover' Kemalwhom

offensive. The BritishGeneral

large

This was confirmed by

Headquarters in Istanbul reported

February that 'much propaganda has been made by

Moslem Bolshevik army', whichhe was stated to be

Turkey.31

other 'well-informed'British

General Harington,

tion in Turkey;34 and by SirHorace Rumbold, British High Commissioner

in Istanbul.35 A secretBritish

claimthat there were two

MustafaKemal and the Nationalists,who, 'imbued by patriotic and reli-

giousmotives, have been, and are, endeavouring to resistthe peace

and resultantdismembermentof

theiradherentswere going overto the otherand'farmore

that of Enver, Talat,

Enverandhis associateshadsacrificed Turkey to the

of

Lenin, and were disseminating

themin Anatolia.Mustafa Kemal, on the other

principles, andwas consequently aboutto be discardedin

Commander-in-Chiefof the British

IntelligenceReport of 12 August

parties in Anatolia;

Army of Occupa-

1920went so far as to

the weakerone was that of

had

terms

failed, however, and

dangerousparty,

Turkey'.They

and the CUP-Jew-German-Bolshevikcombination'.

the

principles

of

Bolshevik conception

hand, had rejected

Lenin's

favourof Enver

Pan-Islam;accepted

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MUSTAFAKEMALAND ENVER

511

and Talat. 'He shouldcome over and

accept the treaty and save Turkey,

than prolong the resistanceat

him',commentedD.G. Osborneof the Enverhimselfadmittedto

in Berlin, during a conversationon 25 February1920, that he would go

incognito

to Istanbul'to talk with the leaders there'.37In a letter to his

cousinHalilPasha,whichhe despatched on 5 December1920from Berlin,

he mentionedthe

if

the Russiansallowed it,

the fact

so forfearhisaction

that, at the time, he was not

Angora(Ankara) untilEnverhas supplanted

Foreign

Office.36

MajorHedley

of the British Military Mission

possibility of makingpreparations to crossinto Anatolia

Army'(YesilOrdu),

at the headof a Muslim force, the so-called'Green

mightjeopardize the

(February1921) to whichthe

andto fightagainst the Greeks;38despite

encouragedby

KoutchoukHalil Pashato do

forthcoming LondonConference

invited.39 Nevertheless,

Kemalistswere also

on 16 May 1921 Talat wrote to Halil, from Tuapse, as follows:

governmentbegan

a bloody

revolution'.40

to act. It took measures

against

.there

shouldbe no mercy towardsthese men (Kemalists)any more. We mustbe

prepared for a full-scale revolution,

Both Ali Fuat in Moscow41and Karabekirin EasternAnatolia42sent

regularreportsinforming AnkaraaboutEnver's intrigues,whereupon the

Ankara

supporters in Anatolia, similarmeasures.

and advisedKarabekirto be vigilant and to take

the Enver

Meanwhile, Enver through his organization knownboth as the 'Muslim

RevolutionarySociety'

tried to

but without success.

TurkishNational Forces in the Western Front, warnedKarabekirto be

vigilantagainst

NationalistMinisterof Defence, asked Karabekirto remove the Enver

supporters from the Eastern Army;

entered

tion.44Karabekirdid not

measures;45and also informedthe other commandersconcernedabout

Fevzi'sorders.46At the same time, the

its military attachein Moscow, Staff Major Saffet

surveillance, andto

askedits Moscow ambassador, Ali Fuat, the

Enverunder

and Halk $uralar Firkasi

(People's Shura Party),

enlist the help of a section of the Kemalists'Eastern

Thereupon

Army,

the

Ismet Pasha, the Commanderof

a Bolshevik-Enver plot;43 while Fevzi Pasha, the Turkish

and if Enver and his

'accomplices'

to arrestandsendthemon to Ankaraunderstrict protec-

neglect

to take all the

necessaryprecautionary

government of the GNA instructed

Bey,

to

keep

informKarabekir regularly abouthis activities.It also

to sendinformationto Ankaraon

threatening towardsthe middleof

lately,

supporters

Turkey,

same subject.47 As the Greek advancebecamemore

July 1921, there were indicationsin Ankara that the Enver

were preparing a coup d'etat.The new Soviet diplomatic missionunder

became involvedin

the intrigues of the Enver supporters.48 In all his reports to Moscow,

Natzarenusstressedthe

M. Natzarenus, which had arrivedin Ankara

necessity of

overthrowing MustafaKemalin favour

communist groups increased

of Enver.At the sametime the CUP andthe

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512

MIDDLEEASTERNSTUDIES

their activities, andRussiaconcentratedits army on the Caucasianfrontier

of Turkey.49 WhenAli Fuatsawthe SovietCommissarfor

in Moscowin

desirethe assistanceof a Russian army, EnvershouldenterAnatoliaat the

headof an Islamic army, and promised moreRussianaidfor Turkey;50 but thiswas bluntly turneddown.

the summerof 1921the Kemal-Enverconflictbecameso acute that

the

attackedEnveron 13Junefor

for wishing to do the same thing

MorningPost,

Foreign

attempt

November1921to be

the

Enver's

that Enver,

arrangements for the overthrowof the Ankara

Russianswere

During theBattleof Nationalistswere hard

pressedby Talat, Dr Nazim and other CUP

agents

formerstewardof the stevedoresat Trabzon, thathe wouldenterAnatolia

underthe assumednameof 'Ali', in the

over the

and

Turkey.51 Even the London paper,

Foreign Affairs

mid-August, Chicherin suggestedthat,

as the Turksdid not

In

TurkishNationalist paperHakimiyet-iMilliye(NationalSovereignty),

havingdestroyed the Ottoman Empire,

for

on 12 December 1921carriedwhat D.G. Osborneof the

Officedescribedas 'an

interestingreview',

to throw over Kemal'.52 While, about five weeks earlier (on 4

underthe title 'Lenin's

precise),

Cami

Bey,

the

representative in Rome of

one of

GNA government, had reported to

companions,

with the

Ankarathat

CaptainFevzi,

capital,

who had arrivedin the Italian

help

of a secret

had declared

in

making

and that the

society, was engaged

government,

assisting him.53

Sakarya(August-September1921) whentheTurkish

the

Greeks,Enver,

Halil

Pasha,Kuquk

leaders, who met at Batum, sent their

Yahya Kaptan,

the

and intriguers into Anatolia. Enver wrote to

company of volunteers, and take had already sent a similarletter

to Kemal,55andthe GNA, saying thathe couldnot be kept out of Anatolia

whenhe felt thatthe Turkish people needed him.56

of 22 June 1922claimsthat Enver

had offered his servicesto MustafaKemala numberof times,

thatthe

Russians,particularly when the latter

their plans

urged

began

to 'bolshevize'Anatolia. The Soviet leaderswere believed to have

Enver to overthrowMustafaKemal's

leaders themselves were divided; one

government.Actually, the Russian

other Kemal.As a resultof the

Anatolia,

who

Enver became the favouriteof the

government aftera putsch.54 He

IntelligenceReport

A

secret British

past

be

suggesting

forgotten,

butKemal brusquely turnedthisdown.57Hence

to regard the TurkishNationalistsas a seriousobstacleto

group supportingEnver,

and the

Kemalist campaignagainst communismin

whichfavoured Kemal, was obliged to yield to those

the

group,

supported Enver.

the

However,

the

victory

of the Kemalistsover the

Greeks at Sakarya

IntelligenceReport

greatly

concerned

upset

of

aboutthese

not sign any agreement

plans

of Enver and Moscow. The British

22 June

1922 also claims that Kemal, who was

developments,gave

with

assurancesto the Russiansthathe would

the Entente Powersthat would jeopardize

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MUSTAFAKEMALAND ENVER

513

the mutual interests of Kemalist

requested adhesionto Bolshevik

administrationshouldbe

Kemal was

and Bolshevik Russia, and

declarationof

principles:any changesnecessary in

in

government, aboutthe matter.This 'secret' undertaking of Kemalwas said to

and even Ali Fuat in Moscow knew

The Bolshevikleadersweresaid

shortlyafterwards, carriedout a very

Turkey

the Russiansnot to force him to make an

introduced gradually.

these

open

the Anatolian

reported to have given

Sami

prevent

undertakingspersonally,

writing,

nothing

by to be satisfiedwiththis assurance, and

to the Soviet

havebeen takento Moscow

conceived

plan

to

Bey.

skilfully

to

the Caucasiannationalists.The schemewascarriedout

withsuchskillthatEnverwas thoroughlypuzzled, andfoundhe couldnot

cope

andhis

told himthathis failurewasdue to

to

Enver and his

The Soviet

removedon the

partisans were arrestedin Anatolia,60 was then

help

diplomaticrepresentative in Ankara,Natzarenus, wasalsolater

attempt

kindof revolt against himin the Batum

Enver from

succeeding

in his

upset Ankara. Theyorganized a

area,ostensiblyby

withthe situation.

him

Seeing

partisansdispersed. TheBolsheviks gave

all his

plansdestroyed, he left for Moscow,

good reception, and

hima

incompleteorganization, and promised

help

again.58Thus,

the Russianshad no alternativebut to remove

Ankara's

complaint.

supporters from the scene, following

request

whose

of the

government of

the GNA.59

Enver, most of

persuadedby quell a very

among

supporters,Haji Sami,persuaded himto join

as the

compelled

Basmaji,

is

the Russianleadersto proceed to Turkestanin orderto

serious rebellionwhich had

erupted against

the Bolsheviks

the Muslimsof CentralAsia.61While he was

'Basmaji',

and lead them

against

path,

him to choose that

there, one of his

the rebels, who were known

the Russians.62The reasonsthat

his activities as the leader of the

his final defeat and death at the hands of the Russians will, it

be dealtwithin a forthcoming article.

hoped,

NOTES

1. Hereafterto be referredto as the CUP.

2. PublicRecord Office, BritishFO documents, FO 371/3411/196725:British actingHigh

CommissionerAdmiralWebbto

ciphertelegram, Pera26 Nov. 1918.

3. Sevket SureyyaAydemir,Makedonya'danOrtaasya'ya Enver Papa 1914-1922 (Enver

PashafromMacedoniato

Central Asia, 1914-1922),Vol.III, (Istanbul,1972),p.494.

IntelligenceReport, Berne 12 Nov. 1918; ibid.,

FO,

memorandum, datedLondon23 Nov. 1918;

1918;ibid., doc. no.206293:Sir

4. FO 371/3411/189162:Secret British

doc. no.196867:Italianambassadorto

FO to the Italian ambassador,letter, London3 Dec.

HoraceRumboldto FO, ciphertelegram,Berne, 13Dec. 1918.

5. FO 371/4174/118392:Webbto Lord

6. For more informationon the TurkishWar of

Diplomacy, 1918-1923 (London,1975).
7.

Aydemir,p.509.
8.

Curzon,despatch, Istanbul7 July 1919.

Liberation, see S.R.Sonyel, Turkish

Ibid., p.518.

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514

MIDDLEEASTERNSTUDIES

9. FO 371/5137/E119: India Office to FO, secret despatch, 13 Feb. 1920, attaching a report dated3 Feb. 1920.

10. FO 371/5211/E1311: Major Ivor Hedley to Major-General Neill Malcolm, letter, Berlin23 Feb. 1920.

11. Aydemir,p.531.

12. FO 371/5211/E1311:W. Thwaitesof DMI to Curzon,letter, 17March1920.

13.

the week ending 16 Sept.

FO 371/4142/170885:Russell to ForeignOffice, ciphertelegram, Berne 5 Jan. 1920;

FO 371/5171/E12473:SecretBritish

1920,BehaeddinSakirto Talat

IntelligenceReportfor

(SaiBey), letter, Baku27 July 1920.

14. FO 371/5178/E13412:SecretPolitical Report, 29 Sept. 1920to 5 Oct. 1920.

15.

16.

Aydemir,p.582.

FO 371/6535/E12660:Pan-IslamicMovement-EnverPasha and the RussianBolshe-

viks, doc. no.435, dated 15 Nov. 1921; FO 371/6531/E11086:Secret BritishIntelli-

genceReport, Geneva27 Sept. 1921.

17. Ibid.;W/23,Geneva, 22 Oct. 1921; see also Aydemir,p.550.

18.

19. Ali Fuat Cebesoy, MoskovaHatiralari (MoscowMemoirs)(Istanbul,1955),pp.196-7.

Hereafterto be referredto as GNA.

20.

21.

22.

Ibid.;pp.199-200.

Ibid.;pp.152-4: Ali Fuatto Ankara,ciphertelegram, Moscow11 April 1921.

Ibid., pp.180-81: Ali Fuat-EnverPasha conversation,Moscow, 16 April 1921. The

CaucasianstatesmentionedabovewereBolshevized.

Liberation)(Istanbul,1960),p.972;

Fethi

Communistactivitiesin

Tevetoglu,Turkiye'deSosyalist ve Komunist Faaliyetler, 1910-1960 (Socialist and

23. Kazim Karabekir, IstiklalHarbimiz (Our Warof

24.

25. FO 371/6473/E8147:

26.

27.

Turkey, 1910-1960)(Ankara, 1967), pp.315-8;

1921.

Ali Fuat to

Ankara,ciphertelegram, Moscow26 May

Karabekir,ibid., p.970 - Karabekirto Kemal,ciphertelegram, Kars31 May 1921.

General Harington to War Office, ciphertelegram, Istanbul13

July 1921.

Karabekir,op.cit.,

telegrams and statementsof Ataturk)(Ankara, 1964), p.383 - Kemal to Karabekir,

telegram, Ankara10June1921.

Kazim Karabekir, IstiklalHarbimizdeEnver Pa4a ve Ittihatve TerakkiErkani

Pashaand the Committeeof Union and Progress leadersin our Warof Liberation)

(Istanbul,1967),p.144.

p.972; Ataturk'un Tamim, Telgraf ve Beyannameleri(Circulars,

(Enver

28. FO 371/6473/E8417: Harington to War Office, cipher telegram, Istanbul 13 July

1921.

29. Aydemir,p.586.

30. FO 371/6473/E9074:SecretBritish IntelligenceReport, 28

31. FO 371/5041/E4686: War Office to

July

1921.

General Headquarters in Istanbul,cipher tele-

gram, 9 Feb. 1920; General Headquarters to War Office, secret telegram, Istanbul17

Feb. 1920.

371/4946/E11431: Harry Luke to Lord Curzon,ciphertelegram, Tiflis 15 Sept.

Istanbul8 June 1921;

FO

June1921.

Harington to War Office,ciphertelegram, Istanbul13 July1921;

see alsominute by D.G.

Istanbul15 and26

July1921; secretBritish Intelligencereports,

32. FO

1920.

33. FO 371/6471/E6786:Frank

34. FO 371/6473/E8417:

July

Rattigan to Lord Curzon,despatch,

371/6472/E7936: 'very confidential'memorandum by Andrew Ryan, Istanbul30

Osborne, dated25

1921in FO 371/6472/E9074andFO 371/6473/E8417.

35. FO 371/6536/E13331:Sir Horace Rumboldto Lord Curzon, despatch, Istanbul29

Nov. 1921.

36. FO 371/5178/E11702:

dated, Istanbul12 Aug.

Intelligencereport on Asia Minor,

Anatolia',

1920,tracing the development of Bolshevismin Anatolia; see also

entitled'Affairsin

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MUSTAFAKEMALAND ENVER

515

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

47.

48.

49.

50.

51.

52.

53.

54.

55.

56.

57.

58.

59.

60.

61.

62.

FO 371/5171/E12803:SirJohnde Robeckto Lord Curzon, secret despatch, Istanbul5 Oct. 1910.

FO 371/5211/E1311: Major Ivor Hedley Berlin25 Feb. 1920.

Aydemir,p.599.

Ibid., p.600-

Ibid., p.603;

see also FO 371/6480/E13103:SecretSituation Report, Istanbul22 Nov.

to Major-General Neill Malcolm, letter,

Halilto Enver,letter, 10Feb. 1921.

1921to 5 Dec. 1921.

Cebesoy,p.245.

- Karabekirto Ankara,

ciphertelegram,Sarikami§, 5 May1921; Kemalto Karabekir,ciphertelegram, Ankara

17 May 1921.

Karabekir, IstiklalHarbimizdeEnver Pasa,

op.cit., pp.125-6

Ibid., pp.133-4 - Ismetto Karabekir,ciphertelegram, 24 May 1921.

Ibid., pp.132-3 and 136-7 - Fevzi to

May

Ibid.,pp. 138-9- Karabekirto Fevzi,ciphertelegram,Sarikamis, 26 May 1921.

Ibid., pp.145-7

Ibid., - FevziandKemalto Karabekir,ciphertelegrams, Ankara15June 1921;Aydemir,

p.604.

FO 371/7947/E6421:SecretBritish IntelligenceReport, 22 June1921.

FO 371/6473/E8417:Minute by D.G. Osborneof the

25

Cebesoy,pp.203-29;Aydemir,p.585.

FO 371/6472/E8417:Secret

on the activitiesof Enver Pasha, Istanbul1 July

FO 371/6276/E13474.

FO 371/6477/E12408:Italian

Ministerto the Governorof Rhodes, 'most

secret' cipher

Ankara,

SamiSabitKaraman:IstiklalMucadelemizve Enver Pala (Our Warof Liberationand

Enver

Tanin newspaper,Istanbul,February 1945 -

FO

FO 371/7947/E642.

FO 371/7947/E 642; ibid.

Cebesoy, pp.161-2 and 187-8; Karabekir:Istiklal Harbimiz, pp.954 and 1012-3;

and Istiklal HarbimizdeEnver

Adalet newspaper, 23 Jan. 1965; §evket

munasebetleri' (Turco-Russianrelations),

SureyyaAydemir, Tek

Kemal,1919-1922)(Istanbul,1965),p.383.

FO 371/6528/E10122:Secret IntelligenceReport, 2 Sept. 1921.

Tevfik Biyiklioglu, AtaturkAnadolu'da (Ataturk in

Tuncay, Turkiye'de Sol Akimlar, 1908-1925

Mussulman,1,iii, 1922,pp.204-5; EdwardHallett Carr,

A

British ForeignOffice, London

Karabekir,ciphertelegrams, Ankara24 and 29

Kars,ciphertelegrams, 9 June1921.

1921.

- Karabekirto the commandersin

July 1921.

1921.

Report

Foreign

telegram, Rome 12 Nov. 1921, enclosingtelegram from Cami Bey to

1911;Aydemir,p.604.

Kemal,letter, 16 July 1921.

dated4 Nov.

Pasha)(Izmit,1949),p.32;Aydemir,p.601.

Enverto

371/7881/E147:SecretSituation Report, 6 to 19Dec. 1921.

.,

pp.157-9; Hikmet Bayur: 'Turkiye-Rusya

Adam, MustafaKemal, 1919-1922 (The UniqueMan, Mustafa

Anatolia),

Ankara 1959,p.69; Mete

(Left Movementsin Turkey) (Ankara,

1967),p.128;

Revuede Monde

Historyof SovietRussia (London,1966),p.474.

Karabekir,op. cit., p.352.

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