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## Faculty of Engineering

### March 2015

• 1.1. Problems.......................................................................................2

• 1.2. Research’s Purporse........................................................................2

• 2.1. Theoretical model.............................................................................3

• 2.2. Prototype........................................................................................6

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1.

Problems

We have the lander as in Figure 1. The intermediate transverse support struts form equilateral triangles which are evenly spaced along the truss. All tubing can be assumed to be 25x1.6 CHS 6060T5 aluminium. The properties of this material is in Table 1

Figure 1. Theoretical model of the MTAS

 Density 2700 Kg/m 2 Ultimate Tensile Stress 186 MPa Yield Tensile Stress 145 MPa Poisson’s ratio 0.33 Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 68.9 GPa

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The task is analysing one of the lander legs to determine the allowable force, which can withstand when it impacts the ground

2. METHODOLOGY

This section was separated into three subsections: hand calculation, FE approach by MATLab and FE approach by advanced FEA solver, which is ANSYS. Then the result would be compared to validation.

There are some assumptions:

• a. The joints are pinned joints, which means there are no bending moments.

• b. Not consider with the mass of truss.

• 2.1. Hand calculation

Method of joints was used.

 1 clc; 2 clear; 3 syms a; 4 %Define coordinator of points 5 Co=[1000 0 0;748.52 348.10 0;666.67 266.67 ­66.67;666.67 266.67 66.67;497.05 696.22 0;333.33 533.33 ­133.33;333.33 533.33 133.33;245.57 1044.32 0;0 800 ­200;0 800 200] 6 i=1; 7 j=1; 8 k=1; 9 %Calculate the length of element
 10. while i<=10; 11. j=1; 12. while j<=10; 13. k=1; 14. while k<=3; 15. F(i,j,k)=Co(j,k)­Co(i,k); 16. k=k+1; 17. end 18. j=j+1; 19. end 20. i=i+1; 21. end 22. i=1; 23. %Calculate sin(alpha) ; sin (beta);sin(gamma) 24. while i<=10;
• 25. j=1;

• 26. while j<=10;

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 27. k=1; 28. Fx(i,j)=F(i,j,1)/((F(i,j,1))^2+(F(i,j,2))^2+ (F(i,j,3))^2)^(1/2); 29. Fy(i,j)=F(i,j,2)/((F(i,j,1))^2+(F(i,j,2))^2+ (F(i,j,3))^2)^(1/2); 30. Fz(i,j)=F(i,j,3)/((F(i,j,1))^2+(F(i,j,2))^2+ (F(i,j,3))^2)^(1/2); 31. j=j+1; 32. end 33. i=i+1; 34. end 35. % Define the coefficiency matrix 36. Fmat=[1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 37. 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 38. ­1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 39. ­1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40. 0 ­1 ­1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 41. 0 ­1 ­1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 42. 0 ­1 ­1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 43. 0 0 0 ­1 0 ­2 0 2 1 2 0 0 44. 0 0 0 ­1 0 ­2 0 2 1 2 0 0 45. 0 0 0 0 0 0 ­1 ­1 0 0 1 1 46. 0 0 0 0 0 0 ­1 ­1 0 0 1 1 47. 0 0 0 0 0 0 ­1 ­1 0 0 1 1]; 48. 49. Fxfilter=[Fx(1,2),Fx(1,3),Fx(2,3),Fx(2,5),Fx(3,4),Fx(3,5 ),Fx(3,6),Fx(5,6),Fx(5,8),Fx(5,9),Fx(6,7),Fx(6,9)]; 50. Fyfilter=[Fy(1,2),Fy(1,3),Fy(2,3),Fy(2,5),Fy(3,4),Fy(3,5 ),Fy(3,6),Fy(5,6),Fy(5,8),Fy(5,9),Fy(6,7),Fy(6,9)]; 51. Fzfilter=[Fz(1,2),Fz(1,3),Fz(2,3),Fz(2,5),Fz(3,4),Fz(3,5 ),Fz(3,6),Fz(5,6),Fz(5,8),Fz(5,9),Fz(6,7),Fz(6,9)]; 52. Fcomp=[Fxfilter;Fyfilter;Fxfilter;Fyfilter;Fxfilter;Fyfi lter;Fzfilter;Fxfilter;Fyfilter;Fxfilter;Fyfilter;Fzfilter] ; 53. i=1; 54. while i<=12; 55. j=1; 56. while j<=12; 57. A(i,j)=Fmat(i,j)*Fcomp(i,j); 58. j=j+1; 59. end 60. i=i+1; 61. end 62. B=[0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ]; 63. B=transpose(B) 64. x=inv(A)*B; 65. vpa(x,5) 5

1.1.

Full FE approach by MATLAB

• 1.1.1. FEM for 3D bar

Based on the lecture given in our class, there are 3 displacements of 3 dimensions xyz of each two node i,j for each element, which first 3 is belong to first node and the rest is belong to last node of the element which is:

(

(2.1)

The elemental stiffness matrix for global stiffness matrix assemble was given by

Where Lij and l,m,n was given by:

(2.2)

And for the forces there are 3 component forces of 3 dimensions xyz of each two node i,j for each element, which first 3 is belong to first node and the rest is belong to last node of the element which is:

(2.2)

After that, solving this linear equations in matrix form

(2.3)

When the solution is accquired, let’s find elemental force for each member.

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(2.4)

With Hooke’s law, stresses can be calculated by:

• 1.1.2. MATLAB coding

(2.5)

• 1. clc;

• 2. clear;

• 3. syms a b;

• 4. % Add n nodes by a nx3 matrix of coordinator

• 5. node=[1000 0 0;748.52 348.10 0;666.67 266.67 ­66.67;666.67

266.67 66.67;497.05 696.22 0;333.33 533.33 ­133.33;333.33 533.33

133.33;245.57 1044.32 0;0 800 ­200;0 800 200];

• 6. numnode=size(node,1);

• 7. % Add m elements by mx2 matrix content two nodes of the

element

• 8. ele=[1 2;1 3;1 4;2 3;2 4;2 5;3 4;3 5;3 6;4 5; 4 7;5 6;5 7;5

8;5 9;5 10;6 7;6 9;7 10;8 9;8 10;9 10];

• 9. numele=size(ele,1) ;

 10. % Set material properties 11. E=68.9E6; 12. % Set cross section 13. r1=25; 14. r2=25­1.6; 15. A=pi*(r1^2­r2^2); 16. % Find the length of element of each two nodes 17. for i = 1:numnode 18. for j = 1:numnode 19. L(i,j) = sqrt((node(i,1) ­ node(j,1))^2 + (node(i,2) ­ node(j,2))^2 + (node(i,3) ­ node(j,3))^2); 20. end 21. end 22. 23. %Calculate the stiffness matrix 24. Stiff = zeros(3*numnode,3*numnode); 25. for i = 1:numele 26. for j = 1:numnode 27. if ele(i,1) == j 28. j; 29. ele(i,2); 30. L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1)); 31. l = (node(ele(i,2),1) ­ node(ele(i,1),1))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1)); 32. m = (node(ele(i,2),2) ­ node(ele(i,1),2))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1)); 33. n = (node(ele(i,2),3) ­ node(ele(i,1),3))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1)); 34. matN=[l^2 l*m l*n ­l^2 ­l*m ­l*n; l*m m^2 m*n ­l*m ­m^2 ­m*n; l*n n*m n*n ­l*n ­n*m ­n*n; ­l^2 ­l*m ­l*n l^2 l*m l*n;­l*m ­m^2 ­m*n l*m m^2 m*n ;­l*n ­n*m ­n*n l*n n*m n*n ]; 35. K= E*(A/L(ele(i,1),ele(i,2)))*matN; 36. Ki(:,:,i)=K; 37. % Assemble elemental matrix to global matrix by adding up 38. for k=1:3 39. for h=1:3

40.

Stiff(3*(ele(i,1)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,1)­

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1)+h)=Stiff(3*(ele(i,1)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,1)­1)+h)+K(k,h);

• 41. Stiff(3*(ele(i,2)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,2)­

1)+h)=Stiff(3*(ele(i,2)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,2)­1)+h)+K(3+k,3+h);

• 42. Stiff(3*(ele(i,1)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,2)­

1)+h)=Stiff(3*(ele(i,1)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,2)­1)+h)+K(k,3+h);

• 43. Stiff(3*(ele(i,2)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,1)­

1)+h)=Stiff(3*(ele(i,2)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,1)­1)+h)+K(3+k,h);

• 44. end

 45. end 46. end 47. end 48. 49. end 50. % Applying boundary condition, we trim the matrix out of zero rows and 51. % columns 52. i=9; 53. while i>=7 54. j=3; 55. while j>=1 56. Stiff(3*i+j, :) = []; 57. Stiff(:, 3*i+j) = []; 58. j=j­1; 59. end 60. i=i­1; 61. end 62. 63. %Apply forces, which have the force Fy=a at node 1 64. fzz=transpose([0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ]); 65. 66. %Solve the linear equations 67. size(fzz); 68. x=linsolve(Stiff,fzz); 69. 70. %Add BC zero displacement back to global solution 71. for i = 22:30 72. 73. x(i)=0; 74. x(i)=0; 75. x(i)=0; 76. 77. end 78. 79. %Calculate elemental axial force: 80. for i = 1:numele 81. for j = 1:numnode 82. if ele(i,1) == j 83. u(i,1)=x(3*ele(i,2)­2)­x(3*ele(i,1)­2); 84. u(i,2)=x(3*ele(i,2)­1)­x(3*ele(i,1)­1); 85. u(i,3)=x(3*ele(i,2))­x(3*ele(i,1)); 86. l = (node(ele(i,2),1) ­ node(ele(i,1),1))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1)); 87. m = (node(ele(i,2),2) ­ node(ele(i,1),2))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1)); 88. n = (node(ele(i,2),3) ­ node(ele(i,1),3))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1)); 89. F(i)=[E*(A/L(ele(i,1),ele(i,2)))]*[l m n]*[u(i,1);u(i,2);u(i,3)]; 90. [l m n]*[u(i,1);u(i,2);u(i,3)]; 91. %Calculate the stress 92. Sigma(i)=F(i)/A;

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 93 94 end 95 end 96 end 97 vpa(F,6)

98. vpa(Sigma,6)

1.1.3.

Result

1.2.

After running the code, with the concentrated force as a constant a, in these element, the maximum internal stresses is -12015.208*a , which is tension stress, and it is exactly the same as hand calculation. So the allowance force is a

2. CONCLUSIONS

From the introduction of this paper, there were one goal set forth to be accomplished. It was to research and develop a system which have requirement and performance specifications for the drive train in a full sized passenger vehicle. This goal was achieved through the use of the MATLAB model and equations discussed in the Methodology section of the paper. The requirements were placed into the mathematical model, while the specifications were defined by equations to set the desired functionality of the passenger vehicle. Additionally, the MATLAB code used all aforementioned parameters to create a theoretical model of a single pulse of the system and how each component would react. Within the Methodology, the prototype designed in the project was discussed to show the governing parameters around the modeling. After the manufacturing phase was completed, the system was constructed and data was collected. The data was presented in the Results chapter. Overall, this goal was nearly succeed. Although most of the goals were satisfied, there is still plenty of research and development left for future work. This project set the foundations for the potential of creating a full sized drive train; however, multiple areas are recommended for additional research and improvement.

REFERENCE

• 1. Nakashima, A. - The effect of vibration on human performance and health: A

 review of recent literature (2004), from 2. - SAE. Transmission Options. Retrieved September 16, 2008, from
• 3. Rasmussen, Griffin - Human Body Vibration Exposure and Its Measurement (2008) from http://www.zainea.com/body.htm

• 4. ANSYS, LS-DYNA User's Guide.

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