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SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD Assignment 1 - FE Fundamentals Lunar Lander

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

Assignment 1 - FE Fundamentals Lunar Lander Leg Analysis

by

Minh Nguyen Vo Nhat

Student ID: z5026422

1

Faculty of Engineering

March 2015

Table of Contents

  • 1.1. Problems.......................................................................................2

  • 1.2. Research’s Purporse........................................................................2

  • 2.1. Theoretical model.............................................................................3

  • 2.2. Prototype........................................................................................6

2

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1.

Problems

We have the lander as in Figure 1. The intermediate transverse support struts form equilateral triangles which are evenly spaced along the truss. All tubing can be assumed to be 25x1.6 CHS 6060T5 aluminium. The properties of this material is in Table 1

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Problems We have the lander as in Figure 1. The intermediate transverse support

Figure 1. Theoretical model of the MTAS

Density

2700 Kg/m 2

Ultimate Tensile Stress

186

MPa

Yield Tensile Stress

145

MPa

Poisson’s ratio

0.33

Young’s Modulus of Elasticity

68.9 GPa

3

The task is analysing one of the lander legs to determine the allowable force, which can withstand when it impacts the ground

2. METHODOLOGY

This section was separated into three subsections: hand calculation, FE approach by MATLab and FE approach by advanced FEA solver, which is ANSYS. Then the result would be compared to validation.

There are some assumptions:

  • a. The joints are pinned joints, which means there are no bending moments.

  • b. Not consider with the mass of truss.

    • 2.1. Hand calculation

Method of joints was used.

1.

clc;

2.

clear;

3.

syms a;

4.

%Define coordinator of points

5.

Co=[1000 0 0;748.52 348.10 0;666.67 266.67 ­66.67;666.67

266.67

66.67;497.05 696.22 0;333.33 533.33 ­133.33;333.33

533.33

133.33;245.57 1044.32 0;0 800 ­200;0 800 200]

6.

i=1;

7.

j=1;

8.

k=1;

9.

%Calculate the length of element

  • 10. while i<=10;

 
  • 11. j=1;

  • 12. while j<=10;

  • 13. k=1;

  • 14. while k<=3;

  • 15. F(i,j,k)=Co(j,k)­Co(i,k);

  • 16. k=k+1;

  • 17. end

  • 18. j=j+1;

 
  • 19. end

  • 20. i=i+1;

21.

end

  • 22. i=1;

23.

%Calculate sin(alpha) ; sin (beta);sin(gamma)

  • 24. while i<=10;

  • 25. j=1;

  • 26. while j<=10;

4

27.

k=1;

 

28.

Fx(i,j)=F(i,j,1)/((F(i,j,1))^2+(F(i,j,2))^2+

 

(F(i,j,3))^2)^(1/2);

 

29.

Fy(i,j)=F(i,j,2)/((F(i,j,1))^2+(F(i,j,2))^2+

 

(F(i,j,3))^2)^(1/2);

 

30.

Fz(i,j)=F(i,j,3)/((F(i,j,1))^2+(F(i,j,2))^2+

 

(F(i,j,3))^2)^(1/2);

 

31.

j=j+1;

 

32.

end

33.

i=i+1;

 

34.

end

35.

% Define the coefficiency matrix

 

36.

Fmat=[1 2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

37.

1 2 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

38.

­1 0 2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

39.

­1 0 2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

40.

0

­1 ­1 0 1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

41.

0

­1 ­1 0 1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

42.

0

­1 ­1 0 1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

43.

0

0

0

­1 0

 

­2

0

2

1

2

0

0

44.

0

0

0

­1 0

­2

0

2

1

2

0

0

45.

0

0

0

0

0

0

­1

 

­1 0

 

0

1 1

 

46.

0

0

0

0

0

0

­1

­1 0

0

1 1

47.

0

0

0

0

0

0

­1 ­1 0 0 1 1];

48.

49.

Fxfilter=[Fx(1,2),Fx(1,3),Fx(2,3),Fx(2,5),Fx(3,4),Fx(3,5

),Fx(3,6),Fx(5,6),Fx(5,8),Fx(5,9),Fx(6,7),Fx(6,9)];

50.

Fyfilter=[Fy(1,2),Fy(1,3),Fy(2,3),Fy(2,5),Fy(3,4),Fy(3,5

),Fy(3,6),Fy(5,6),Fy(5,8),Fy(5,9),Fy(6,7),Fy(6,9)];

51.

Fzfilter=[Fz(1,2),Fz(1,3),Fz(2,3),Fz(2,5),Fz(3,4),Fz(3,5

),Fz(3,6),Fz(5,6),Fz(5,8),Fz(5,9),Fz(6,7),Fz(6,9)];

52.

Fcomp=[Fxfilter;Fyfilter;Fxfilter;Fyfilter;Fxfilter;Fyfi

lter;Fzfilter;Fxfilter;Fyfilter;Fxfilter;Fyfilter;Fzfilter]

;

53.

i=1;

54.

while i<=12;

 

55.

j=1;

 

56.

while j<=12;

 

57.

A(i,j)=Fmat(i,j)*Fcomp(i,j);

58.

j=j+1;

 

59.

end

60.

i=i+1;

 

61.

end

62.

B=[0 a 0 0 0 0

0

0

0

0

0

0 ];

 

63.

B=transpose(B)

 

64.

x=inv(A)*B;

 

65.

vpa(x,5)

 
 

5

 

1.1.

Full FE approach by MATLAB

  • 1.1.1. FEM for 3D bar

Based on the lecture given in our class, there are 3 displacements of 3 dimensions xyz of each two node i,j for each element, which first 3 is belong to first node and the rest is belong to last node of the element which is:

(
(

(2.1)

The elemental stiffness matrix for global stiffness matrix assemble was given by

1.1. Full FE approach by MATLAB 1.1.1. FEM for 3D bar Based on the lecture given

Where Lij and l,m,n was given by:

(2.2)

1.1. Full FE approach by MATLAB 1.1.1. FEM for 3D bar Based on the lecture given
1.1. Full FE approach by MATLAB 1.1.1. FEM for 3D bar Based on the lecture given

And for the forces there are 3 component forces of 3 dimensions xyz of each two node i,j for each element, which first 3 is belong to first node and the rest is belong to last node of the element which is:

1.1. Full FE approach by MATLAB 1.1.1. FEM for 3D bar Based on the lecture given

(2.2)

After that, solving this linear equations in matrix form

1.1. Full FE approach by MATLAB 1.1.1. FEM for 3D bar Based on the lecture given

(2.3)

When the solution is accquired, let’s find elemental force for each member.

1.1. Full FE approach by MATLAB 1.1.1. FEM for 3D bar Based on the lecture given

6

(2.4)

With Hooke’s law, stresses can be calculated by:

With Hooke’s law, stresses can be calculated by: 1.1.2. MATLAB coding (2.5) 1. clc; 2. clear;
  • 1.1.2. MATLAB coding

(2.5)

  • 1. clc;

  • 2. clear;

  • 3. syms a b;

  • 4. % Add n nodes by a nx3 matrix of coordinator

  • 5. node=[1000 0 0;748.52 348.10 0;666.67 266.67 ­66.67;666.67

266.67 66.67;497.05 696.22 0;333.33 533.33 ­133.33;333.33 533.33

133.33;245.57 1044.32 0;0 800 ­200;0 800 200];

  • 6. numnode=size(node,1);

  • 7. % Add m elements by mx2 matrix content two nodes of the

element

  • 8. ele=[1 2;1 3;1 4;2 3;2 4;2 5;3 4;3 5;3 6;4 5; 4 7;5 6;5 7;5

8;5 9;5 10;6 7;6 9;7 10;8 9;8 10;9 10];

  • 9. numele=size(ele,1) ;

10.

% Set material properties

11.

E=68.9E6;

12.

% Set cross section

13.

r1=25;

14.

r2=25­1.6;

15.

A=pi*(r1^2­r2^2);

16.

% Find the length of element of each two nodes

17.

for i = 1:numnode

18.

for j = 1:numnode

19.

L(i,j) = sqrt((node(i,1) ­ node(j,1))^2 +

(node(i,2) ­ node(j,2))^2 + (node(i,3) ­ node(j,3))^2);

20.

end

21.

end

22.

23.

%Calculate the stiffness matrix

24.

Stiff = zeros(3*numnode,3*numnode);

25.

for i = 1:numele

26.

for j = 1:numnode

27.

if ele(i,1) == j

28.

j;

29.

ele(i,2);

30.

L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1));

31.

l = (node(ele(i,2),1) ­

node(ele(i,1),1))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1));

32.

m = (node(ele(i,2),2) ­

node(ele(i,1),2))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1));

33.

n = (node(ele(i,2),3) ­

node(ele(i,1),3))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1));

34.

matN=[l^2 l*m l*n ­l^2 ­l*m ­l*n; l*m m^2 m*n

­l*m ­m^2 ­m*n; l*n n*m n*n ­l*n ­n*m ­n*n; ­l^2 ­l*m ­l*n l^2

l*m l*n;­l*m ­m^2 ­m*n l*m m^2 m*n ;­l*n ­n*m ­n*n l*n n*m n*n ];

35.

K= E*(A/L(ele(i,1),ele(i,2)))*matN;

36.

Ki(:,:,i)=K;

37.

% Assemble elemental matrix to global matrix by

adding up

38.

for k=1:3

39.

for h=1:3

40.

Stiff(3*(ele(i,1)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,1)­

7

1)+h)=Stiff(3*(ele(i,1)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,1)­1)+h)+K(k,h);

  • 41. Stiff(3*(ele(i,2)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,2)­

1)+h)=Stiff(3*(ele(i,2)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,2)­1)+h)+K(3+k,3+h);

  • 42. Stiff(3*(ele(i,1)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,2)­

1)+h)=Stiff(3*(ele(i,1)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,2)­1)+h)+K(k,3+h);

  • 43. Stiff(3*(ele(i,2)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,1)­

1)+h)=Stiff(3*(ele(i,2)­1)+k,3*(ele(i,1)­1)+h)+K(3+k,h);

  • 44. end

45.

end

46.

end

47.

end

48.

49.

end

50.

% Applying boundary condition, we trim the matrix out of zero

rows and

 

51.

% columns

52.

i=9;

53.

while i>=7

 

54.

j=3;

55.

while j>=1

 

56.

Stiff(3*i+j, :) = [];

57.

Stiff(:, 3*i+j) = [];

58.

j=j­1;

59.

end

60.

i=i­1;

61.

end

62.

63.

%Apply forces, which have the force Fy=a at node 1

64.

fzz=transpose([0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ]);

65.

66.

%Solve the linear equations

 

67.

size(fzz);

 

68.

x=linsolve(Stiff,fzz);

 

69.

70.

%Add BC zero displacement back to global solution

71.

for i = 22:30

 

72.

73.

x(i)=0;

74.

x(i)=0;

75.

x(i)=0;

76.

77.

end

78.

79.

%Calculate elemental axial force:

 

80.

for i = 1:numele

81.

for j = 1:numnode

82.

if ele(i,1) == j

83.

u(i,1)=x(3*ele(i,2)­2)­x(3*ele(i,1)­2);

84.

u(i,2)=x(3*ele(i,2)­1)­x(3*ele(i,1)­1);

85.

u(i,3)=x(3*ele(i,2))­x(3*ele(i,1));

86.

l = (node(ele(i,2),1) ­

node(ele(i,1),1))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1));

87.

m = (node(ele(i,2),2) ­

node(ele(i,1),2))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1));

88.

n = (node(ele(i,2),3) ­

node(ele(i,1),3))/L(ele(i,2),ele(i,1));

89.

F(i)=[E*(A/L(ele(i,1),ele(i,2)))]*[l m

n]*[u(i,1);u(i,2);u(i,3)];

90.

[l m n]*[u(i,1);u(i,2);u(i,3)];

91.

%Calculate the stress

92.

Sigma(i)=F(i)/A;

8

93.

94.

end

95.

end

96.

end

97.

vpa(F,6)

98. vpa(Sigma,6)

1.1.3.

Result

1.2.

After running the code, with the concentrated force as a constant a, in these element, the maximum internal stresses is -12015.208*a , which is tension stress, and it is exactly the same as hand calculation. So the allowance force is a

2. CONCLUSIONS

From the introduction of this paper, there were one goal set forth to be accomplished. It was to research and develop a system which have requirement and performance specifications for the drive train in a full sized passenger vehicle. This goal was achieved through the use of the MATLAB model and equations discussed in the Methodology section of the paper. The requirements were placed into the mathematical model, while the specifications were defined by equations to set the desired functionality of the passenger vehicle. Additionally, the MATLAB code used all aforementioned parameters to create a theoretical model of a single pulse of the system and how each component would react. Within the Methodology, the prototype designed in the project was discussed to show the governing parameters around the modeling. After the manufacturing phase was completed, the system was constructed and data was collected. The data was presented in the Results chapter. Overall, this goal was nearly succeed. Although most of the goals were satisfied, there is still plenty of research and development left for future work. This project set the foundations for the potential of creating a full sized drive train; however, multiple areas are recommended for additional research and improvement.

REFERENCE

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review

of

recent

literature

(2004),

from

 
  • 2. -

SAE.

Transmission

Options.

Retrieved

September

16,

2008,

from

  • 3. Rasmussen, Griffin - Human Body Vibration Exposure and Its Measurement (2008) from http://www.zainea.com/body.htm

  • 4. ANSYS, LS-DYNA User's Guide.

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