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# Digital Communication

Course Objectives:

## To understand the building blocks of digital communication system.

To prepare mathematical background for communication signal analysis.
To understand and analyze the signal flow in a digital communication system.
To analyze error performance of a digital communication system in presence of noise and
other interferences.
To understand concept of spread spectrum communication system.

Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing the course students will be able to
Analyze the performance of a baseband and pass band digital communication system in
terms of error rate and spectral efficiency.
Perform the time and frequency domain analysis of the signals in a digital
communication system.
Select the blocks in a design of digital communication system.
Analyze Performance of spread spectrum communication system.
PEO I: Preparation.
POs: a,c,d, e, k
PEO II: Core competency.

8L

## Introduction to Digital Communication System: Why Digital?, Block Diagram and

transformations, Basic Digital Communication Nomenclature. Digital Versus Analog
Performance Criteria, Sampling Process, PCM Generation and Reconstruction, Quantization
Noise,Non-uniform Quantization and Companding, PCM with noise: Decoding noise, Error
threshold, Delta Modulation, Adaptive Delta Modulation, Delta Sigma Modulation, Differential
Pulse Code Modulation, LPC speech synthesis.

## Unit II : Baseband Digital Transmission

7L

Digital Multiplexing: Multiplexers and hierarchies, Data Multiplexers.Data formats and their
spectra, synchronization: BitSynchronization, Scramblers, Frame Synchronization.Inter-symbol
interference, Equalization.

8L

## Introduction, Mathematical definition of a random process, Stationary processes, Mean,

Correlation &Covariance function, Ergodic processes, Transmission of a random process
through a LTI filter, Power spectral density, Gaussian process, noise, Narrow band noise,
Representation of narrowband noise in terms of in phase & quadrature components

## Unit IV : Baseband Receiver

8L

Detection Theory: MAP, LRT, Minimum Error Test, Error Probability, Signal space
representation : Geometric representation of signal, Conversion of continuous AWGN channel to
vector channel, Likelihood functions, Coherent Detection of binary signals in presence of noise,
Optimum Filter, Matched Filter, Probability of Error of Matched Filter, Correlation receiver.

## Unit V : PassbandDigital Transmission

8L

Pass band transmission model, Signal space diagram, Generation and detection, Error
Probabilityderivationand Power spectra of coherent BPSK, BFSK and QPSK.Geometric
representation, Generation and detection of - M-ary PSK, M-ary QAM and their error
probability, Generation and detection of -Minimum Shift Keying, Gaussian MSK, Non-coherent
BFSK, DPSK and DEPSK, Introduction to OFDM

## Unit VI : Spread Spectrum Modulation

7L

Introduction, Pseudo noise sequences, A notion of spread spectrum, Direct sequence spread
spectrum with coherent BPSK, Signal space dimensionality & processing gain, Probability of
error, Concept of jamming, Frequency hop spread spectrum, Wireless Telephone Systems,
Personal Communication System.

Text Books
1. Simon Haykin, Digital Communication Systems, John Wiley&Sons, Fourth Edition.
2. A.B Carlson, P B Crully, J C Rutledge, Communication Systems, Fourth Edition,
McGraw Hill Publication.
Reference Books
1. P Ramkrishna Rao, Digital Communication, McGrawHill Publication
2. Ha Nguyen, Ed Shwedyk, A First Course in Digital Communication, Cambridge
University Press.
3. B P Lathi, Zhi Ding Modern Analog and Digital Communication System, Oxford
University Press, Fourth Edition.
4. Bernard Sklar,Prabitra Kumar Ray, Digital Communications Fundamentals and
Applications Second Edition,Pearson Education
5. Taub, Schilling, Principles of Communication System, Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill.

## Digital Signal Processing

Course Objectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.

To introduce students with transforms for analysis of Discrete time signals and systems.
To understand the digital signal processing, sampling and aliasing
To use and understand implementation of digital filters.
To understand concept of sampling rate conversion and DSP processor architecture.

Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing the course students will be able to
1. The student will be in position to understand use of different transforms and analyze the
discrete time signals and systems.
2. The student will realize the use of LTI filters for filtering different real world signals.
3. The student will be capable of calibrating and resolving different frequencies existing in
any signal.
4. The student will be in a position to design and implement multistage sampling rate
converter.
PEO I: Preparation

POs: 1,2,4

POs: 2,5,6

POs: 3,5

PEO V : Learning

## Unit I : DSP preliminaries:

6L

Sampling, DT signals, sampling theorem in time domain, sampling of analog signals, recovery of
analog signals, and analytical treatment with examples, mapping between analog frequencies to
digital frequency, representation of signals as vectors, concept of Basis function and
orthogonality. Basic elements of DSP and its requirements, advantages of Digital over Analog
signal processing.

## Unit II : Discrete Fourier Transform

8L

DTFT, Definition, Frequency domain sampling , DFT, Properties of DFT, circular convolution,
linear convolution, Computation of linear convolution using circular convolution, FFT,
decimation in time and decimation in frequency using Radix-2 FFT algorithm, Linear filtering
using overlap add and overlap save method, Introduction to Discrete Cosine Transform.

## Unit III : Z transform:

6L

Need for transform, relation between Laplace transform and Z transform, between Fourier
transform and Z transform, Properties of ROC and properties of Z transform, Relation between
pole locations and time domain behavior, causality and stability considerations for LTI systems,
Inverse Z transform, Power series method, partial fraction expansion method, Solution of
difference equations.

## Unit IV : IIR filter design:

8L

Concept of analog filter design (required for digital filter design), Design of IIR filters from
analog filters, IIR filter design by approximation of derivatives, , IIR filter design by impulse
invariance method, Bilinear transformation method, warping effect. Characteristics of
Butterworth filters, Chebyshev filters and elliptic filters, Butterworth filter design, IIR filter
realization using direct form, cascade form and parallel form, Finite word length effect in IIR
filter design

6L

## Ideal filter requirements, Gibbs phenomenon, windowing techniques, characteristics and

comparison of different window functions, Design of linear phase FIR filter using windows and
frequency sampling method. FIR filters realization using direct form, cascade form and lattice
form, Finite word length effect in FIR filter design

## Unit VI Multirate DSP and Introduction to DSP processor

6L

Concept of Multirate DSP, Sampling rate conversion by a non-integer factor, Design of two
stage sampling rate converter, General Architecture of DSP, Case Study of TMS320C67XX,
Introduction to Code composer studio. Application of DSP to Voice Processing, Music

## processing, Image processing and Radar processing.

Text Books
3. John G. Proakis, Dimitris G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing: Principles,
algorithms and applications Fourth edition, Pearson Prentice Hall.
4. S. Salivahanan, C. Gnanpriya, Digital Signal processing, McGraw Hill
Reference Books
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ifaeachor E.C, , Jervis B. W., Digital Signal processing : Practical approach, Pearson
publication
Dr. Shaila Apte, Digital Signal Processing Wiley India Publication, second edition
K.A. Navas, R. Jayadevan, Lab Primer through MATLAB, PHI
Li Tan, Jean Jiang, Digital Signal Processing : Fundamentals and applications

## Microcontroller and Applications

Course Objectives:

## To understand the applications of Microprocessors & Microcontrollers.

To understand need of microcontrollers in embedded system.
To understand architecture and features of typical Microcontroller.
To learn interfacing of real world input and output devices
To study various hardware and software tools for developing applications

Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing the course students will be able to

## Learn importance of microcontroller in designing embedded application

Learn use of hardware and software tools
Develop interfacing to real world devices

PEO I: Preparation.
PEO II: Core competency.

## Unit I : Introduction to Microcontrollers

8 bit Microprocessor & Microcontroller architecture ,comparison, advantages & applications
of each.Harward & Von Neumann architecture,RISC & CISC comparison . Survey of 8 bit
controllers and its features
Definition of embedded system & its characteristics. Role of microcontroller in embedded
System. Limitation of 8 bit microcontrollers. Study of RS232,RS 485,I2C,SPI protocols.
Software & hardware tools for development of microcontroller based system such as
assembler, compiler, ID, Emulators,debugger,programmer,development board,DSO,
Logic Analyzer,

## Unit II : 8051 Architecture

MCS-51 architecture, family devices & its derivatives. Port architecture, memory organization,
Interrupt structure, timers and its modes & serial communication and modes. Overview of
Instruction set.

Unit III :

## PIC Microcontroller Architecture

PIC 10,PIC12,PIC16 ,PIC18 series architectures ,comparison ,features & selection as per
application. PIC18f architecture, registers, memory Organization & types,stack,oscillator
options,BOD,power down modes & configuration bit settings. Brief summary of Peripheral
support Overview of instruction set, MPLAB IDE & C18 Compiler

## Unit IV : Real World Interfacing Part I

Port structure, interrupt structure & timers of PIC18F. Interfacing of switches.LED,LCD,
Keypad, use of timers With interrupts, PWM generation. All programs in embedded C.

Unit V :

## Real World Interfacing Part II

and EEPROM with SPI. All programs in embedded C.

## Unit VI : Case studies with PIC

1 Design of DAS system
2 Design of frequency counter with display on LCD
3 Design of Digital Multimeter
4 Design of DC Motor control using PWM
Should cover necessary signal conditioning of input stage ,hardware interfacing with PIC
Microcontroller and algorithm or flowchart.

Text Books
1. Mazidi, 8051 microcontroller & embedded system 3rd Edition ,Pearson
2. Mazidi, PIC microcontroller & embedded system 3rd Edition ,Pearson

Reference Books
1. 18F xxx reference manual www.MICROCHIP.COM
2. I2C,EEPROM,RTC data sheets from www.ti.com

## Electromagnetics and Transmission Lines

Course Objectives:

## To study Basic Electrostatic and Magneto static Laws, Theorems.

To understand Maxwells Equation and apply to the basic electromagnetic problem.
To interpret the given problem, and solve it using Maxwells equations.
To analyze boundary conditions, and understand the field at the interface of two
different media.
To analyze time varying electric and magnetic fields, wave propagation in different
types of media.
To understand transmission line fundamentals and apply them to the basic problem.
Tounderstand the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory and transmission lines.

Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing the course students will be able to
Interpret the electromagnetic problem and solve using Maxwells equations.
Apply boundary conditions to different media, and formulate uniform plane wave
equation, which is the basic of Antenna and wave propagation.
Analyze the transmission line problem, use the Smith chart for impedance
calculations
PEO I: Preparation.

POs:

a, c, e, f, k

## Unit I : Fundamentals of Electrostatic Fields

6L

Coulombs Law & Electric Field Intensity, Electric Field due to point charge, line charge and
surface charge distributions,Electric Flux Density, Gausss Law and its Application to
differential volume element, divergence, divergence theorem. Electric potential, Relationship
between E & V, Potential Gradient.An electric dipole and flux lines.

6L

## Polarization in dielectrics, capacitance, capacitance of parallel plate; spherical; cylindrical

capacitors with multiple di-electrics,Boundary conditions,Poission's and Laplace's equation,
General procedures for Solving Poission's and Laplace'sequations.

## Unit III : Magnetostatics

6L

Biot-Savarts Law, Amperes Circuital Law and its Applications, magnetic flux density,
Magnetic Scalar and vectors potentials, Derivations of Biot-savarts law and Amperes law
based on Magnetic Potential, Forces due to magnetic field, magnetic dipole,Classification of
Magnetic Materials, Magnetic boundary conditions.

## Unit IV :Time Varying Fields and Maxwells equations

6L

Faradays law, Displacement current, Maxwells equations in point form and integral form,
Power and Poynting theorem, Boundary conditionsfor time varying field,Retarded magnetic
vector potential, Time harmonic field, Introduction to the concept of Uniform Plane Wave and
Helmholtz equation.

## Unit V : Transmission lines

6L

Line parameters, inductance of a line of two parallel round conductors, coaxial line, skin
effect, A line of cascaded T sections, general solution, physical significance of the equations;
the infinite line, wavelength, velocity of propagation, the distortion less line,Inductance
loading of telephone cables,Reflection on a line not terminated in Z0, reflection coefficient,
open and short circuited lines, reflection factor and reflection loss, T and sections equivalent
to lines.

## Unit VI : The line at radio frequency

6L

Voltages and currents on the dissipation less line, standing waves; nodes; standing wave ratio,
Input impedance of dissipation less line, Input impedance of open- and short-circuited lines,
Power and impedance measurement on lines, Reflection losses on the unmatched line,
quarter-wave line; impedance matching, Single-stub impedance matching on a line, The
circle diagram for the dissipation less line, Application of the circle diagram, The Smith circle
diagram, Application of the Smith chart for calculating impedance and admittance.

Text Books:
1. Matthew N.O. Sadiku ,Principles of Electromagnetics, , 4th Edition, Oxford
University Press, 2009.
2. J. D. Ryder, Networks, Lines and Fields, 2nd Edition, PHI.

Reference Books:
1. Edminister J.A, Electromagnetics, Tata McGraw-Hill.
2. Hayt& Buck, Engineering Electromagnetics, 7th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill.
3. Kraus/Fleisch, Electromagnetics with applications, 5th Edition, McGraw Hill.

Electromagnetics
(Tutorial Assignments)
Tutorials must be conducted batch wise. Batch size should not be more than 20 students.
The main objective of this tutorial is to focus on the outcomes defined in the theory syllabus by
solving the following assignments/problems based on paper work. 12 assignments have to be
carried out covering entire syllabus.

Find the Electric field intensity and electric flux density at a given point due to following
charge distributions. (In all coordinate systems)
1) Point charges
2) Line charges (finite and infinite)
3) Surface charges (finite and infinite)
4) Mixed charges ( Point charge, Line charge, Surface charge)
Find the Electric potential due to different charge distributions (Point charge, Line
charge, Surface charge), in different coordinate systems.
Application of Gausss law.
1) Given v (volume charge density) in a particular region, find D (electric flux
density) using Gausss Law at the given location.
2) Given s (surface charge density), find D (electric flux density) using Gausss
Law at the given location.
3) Given D ( electric flux density), find total charge enclosed by the surface(Q), v
(volume charge density) using Gausss Law.(In all coordinate systems)
4) Given D (electric flux density), prove both sides of Divergences Theorem.
Given v (volume charge density), and the region with reference potential, find the
potential in a given region, using Poissons equation.
Using Laplaces equation, find capacitance between any two surfaces, if the boundary
conditions are given.
Find the electrostatic fields (Tangential and Normal) at the boundary between,
1) Free space and dielectric medium
2) Free space and conductor
3) dielectric medium and conductor
4) Two dielectric media.
5) Two dielectric media when boundary is defined by a equation of plane.
Find the capacitance of,
1) Parallel plate capacitor with multiple dielectric layers.
2) Spherical capacitor with multiple dielectric layers
3) Cylindrical capacitor with multiple dielectric layers,
Also find the total Energy stored within the region for all above mentioned capacitor.

Find H (Magnetic field intensity) and B (Magnetic flux density) at a given point due to,
1) Infinitely long current carrying conductor
2) Finite current carrying conductor
3) Infinite conducting surface
4) Finite conducting surface
5) Different current carrying configurations (i.e. thin conductor, surface all together)
For the following current carrying configurations, find the H (Magnetic field intensity)
in a given region (or point) using Amperes circuital law.
1) Infinitely long current carrying conductor
2) Infinite cylindrical surfaces of different radii all centered at the same axis.
3) Spherical surfaces of different radii all centered at a given point.
Given the H (Magnetic field intensity) of a particular region, find current (I), current
density ( J ), enclosed by the given surface. (In all coordinate systems)
Prove both sides of Stokes theorem when H (Magnetic field intensity) is given in
Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinate system separately.
Find the static magnetic fields(Tangential and Normal) at the boundary between,
1) Two different magnetic media with nonzero surface current density( K )
2) Two different magnetic media with zero surface current density( K )
3) Two different magnetic media when boundary is defined by a equation of plane.
Given H (or E ) and the region properties(like , , etc.), find B,D and E (or H )
using Maxwells equations. (In all coordinate systems)
Given H (or E ) and the region properties(like , , , ), the average power density in

W/m2 , Total power crossing the given surface in watts using Poynting Theorem (In all

coordinate systems)
Given the primary constants (R, L, G, C) along with the generator specifications and
termination, find secondary constants ( , , , Z0 ) and other parameters like velocity,
Given secondary constants ( , Z0 ), find the primary constants (R, L, G, C) at the given

frequency.
Problems on Transmission Line Analysis.
Problems on Impedance matching and design of stub matching using Smith Chart.

## System Programming and Operating Systems

Course Objectives:

## To understand fundamentals of system programming and operating systems.

To study and understand how the system programming and operating system abstractions
can be implemented.
To develop comprehensive skills to design Assembler, Macro Processor, Compiler and
Interpreters.
To understand the importance of application of linkers, loaders and Software tools in
system programming
To Implement System Programming concepts and Operating systems components
To analyze memory allocation methods, input output devices and file system w. r. t.
various operating system.
To study and implement various process scheduling techniques and dead lock avoidance
schemes in operating system

Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing the course
Demonstrate the knowledge of Systems Programming and Operating Systems
Formulate the Problem and develop the solution for same.
Compare and analyze the different implementation approach of system programming and
operating system abstractions.
Interpret various OS functions used in Linux / Ubuntu
PEO I: Preparation.

POs:

b, c, d, e

## PEO II: Core competency.

PEO IV: Professionalism

7L

## Language processors: Language processing activities, Fundamentals of language processing,

Fundamentals of language specification, Language processor development tools.
Data structures for language processing: Search data structure, Allocation data structures.
Scanning and parsing
Assembler: Assembly language programming, simple assembly scheme, Pass structure of

## Unit II: Macro processor, Compilers and Interpreters

7L

Macro Processor: Macro definition and call, macro expansion, Machine Independent macro
processor features, Nested macro calls, advanced macro facilities, Design of macro pre
processor.
Compilers: Basic compilers function, Phases of compilation, memory allocation, compilation of
expression, Compilation of expressions, compilation of control structures, Code of optimization
Interpreters.

6L

Software tools: Software tools for program development, editors, debug monitor, programming
environment, user interfaces.

## Unit IV : Introduction to OS, Process Management and Deadlocks

8L

Operating System: Evolution of OS, OS Functions, Various OS, OS structure, OS System Calls
with example
Process Management: Processes, Inter process communication, Classical IPC problems, Threads,
CPU Scheduling

## Basics of memory management, Swapping, Memory Allocation, Paging, Segmentation

Virtual memory, Demand Paging, Page replacement, Page replacement algorithms Optimal
FIFO, LRU, LRU approximation, Allocation of frames

## Unit VI : Input and Output, File system

6L

6L

Input and Output: Review of computer hardware, principles of I/O hardware, and principles of
I/O software, I/O software layers, disks, disk scheduling Algorithms

File System w.r.t. Linux: Files, directories, file system and implementation, File system layout,
implementing files, implementing directories, shared files, disc space management

Text Books
3. D. M. Dhamdhare, Systems Programming and Operating System, TMH.
4. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems, Second Edition, PHI.
Reference Books
3. J. J. Donovan, Systems Programming, McGraw Hill.
4. Siberschatz A; Galvin P.B; Gagne G, Operating System Concepts, John Wiley.
5. Leland L. Beck, System Software, Pearson Editions.

## Digital Communication and Signal Processing Lab

Note :
1. Perform any 6 experiments from Group A and any 3 from Group B
2. Group A experiments are to be performed with hardware
3. Group B experiments are to performed using suitable software like Matlab, Octave,
Labview, Scilab etc.
Sr. no.
Group A
1
2
3
4
5
6

## Name of the experiment

Experimental Study of PCM and Companded PCM.
ExperimentalStudy of Pulse shaping, ISI and eye diagram
ExperimentalStudy of Generation &detection of BPSK and QPSK.
ExperimentalStudy of Generation &detection of BFSK.
ExperimentalStudy of line codes (NRZ, RZ, POLAR RZ, BIPOLAR (AMI),
MANCHESTER) & their spectral analysis.
ExperimentalStudy of Detection of digital base band signal in presence of noise.
ExperimentalStudy of Generation of PN Sequence and its spectrum.
ExperimentalStudy of Generation &detection of DS-SS coherent BPSK&itsspectum.

7
8
9
Group B
1
Write a simulation program to implement PCM/ DM/ADM system.
2
3
4
5
6

Write a simulation program to study effect of ISI and noise in baseband communication
system.
Write a simulation program to study Random Processes.
Write a simulation program for calculation and plotting the error probability of BPSK,
QPSK, QAM. Comparison of theoretical and practical BERs.
Write a simulation program for implementation of any digital communication system.
Write a simulation program for Constellation diagram of any passband modulated signal in
presence of noise.

Signal Processing
Instructions:
a) Minimum eight practicals to be performed.
b) Practical number 12 is mandatory.
Note: Practical 1 to 11 can be performed in any appropriate software like C/MATLAB/SCILAB etc.
1. Implement the sampling theorem and aliasing effects by sampling an analog signal with various
sampling frequencies.
2. To study the properties of DFT. Write programs to confirm all DFT properties.
3. To study the circular convolution for calculation of linear convolution and aliasing effect. Take two
sequences of length 4. Write a program to find 4 point circular convolution and compare the result
with 8 point circular convolution to study aliasing in time domain.
4. (a) To find Z and inverse Z transform and pole zero plot of Z-transfer function.
(b) To solve the difference equation and find the system response using Z transform.
5. To plot the poles and zeros of a transfer function when the coefficients of the transfer function are
given, study stability of different transfer functions.
6. To study the effect of different windows on FIR filter response. Pass the filter coefficients designed
in experiment 6 via different windows and see the effect on the filter response.
7. Design Butterworth filter using Bilnear transformation method for LPF and write a program to draw
the frequency response of the filter.
8. To
plot the mapping function used in bilinear transformation method of IIR filter
design.(assignment may be given)
9. Effect of coefficient quantization on the impulse response of the filter using direct form I and II
10. Design and implement two stage sampling rate converter.
11. Computation of DCT and IDCT of a discrete time signal and comment on energy compaction
density.
12. To implement at least one of the following operations using DSP Processor
i)
Linear and Circular convolution.
ii)
Low pass filter an audio signal input to DSK with FIR filter.
iii)
Low pass filter an audio signal input to DSK with IIR filter.
iv)
To generate sine wave using lookup table with table values generated within the programme.

## MCA and System Programming

List Of Practicals:
1. 1 write a program for interfacing button, LED, relay & buzzer as follows
A. when button 1 is pressed relay and buzzer is turned ON and LEDs start chasing from left
to right
B. when button 2 is pressed relay and buzzer is turned OFF and Led start chasing from right
to left
2. To display message on LCD without using any standard library function
3. Interfacing 4X4 keypad and displaying key pressed on LCD OR on HyperTerminal.
4. Generate square wave using timer with interrupt
5. Interfacing serial port with PC both side communication.
6. Interfacing DS1307 RTC chip using I2C and display date and time on LCD
7. Interfacing EEPROM 24C128 using SPI to store and retrieve data
8. Interface analog voltage 0-5V to internal ADC and display value on LCD
9. Generation of PWM signal for DC Motor control.
10. Observing supply current of PIC18F controller in various power saving mode and by varying
clock frequency.

## List of Practical (System Programming)

1. Write C Program to implement Lexical Analyzer for simple arithmetic operation which creates
output tables (Uniform Symbol Table or a. Identifier Table b. Literal Table c. Symbol Table)
2. Design of PASS I of two pass assembler for pseudo machine code.
3. Design of a MACRO PASS-I
4. Implement Job scheduling algorithms: FCFS, SJF
5. Implement Bankers Algorithm for deadlock detection and avoidance
6. Implementation of page replacement algorithm: FIFO / LRU
7. Write an shell scripting on UNIX / LINUX
8. Case Study
a. Android mobile operating system
b. Study of System calls to list files, directories
c. Study of System calls to handles process
d. Basic Linux Commands

## Employability Skills in Electronics Design

Course Objectives:

To teach the student , the art of applying basic concepts for designing electronic systems
To imbibe good design practices for robust design of electronic systems
To highlight the importance and significance of customer specifications/requirements
To teach electronic circuit function verification with an EDA tool
To create an interest in the field of electronic design as a prospective career option

Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing the course students will be able to

## Shall be able to understand and interpret the specifications

Shall be able to select optimal design topologies
Shall be able to interpret datasheets and thus select appropriate components and devices
Shall be able to use an EDA tool for circuit schematic and simulation
Shall be able to design an electronic system/sub-system and validate its performance by
simulating the same

PEO I: Preparation.

PO: c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k

## Unit I : Design of linear power supply

6L

Typical specifications, Concept of ideal power supply & Voltage regulation, Rectifier and filter
design, Basic shunt regulator design, Series pass transistorized regulator, Variable output voltage
regulator, Protection circuits for critical devices in regulator circuits (Short-circuit, over-voltage
protection circuits), Heat-sink selection,Three terminal IC regulator, Design examples of IC
based power supplies.

## Unit II : Design of data acquisition systems

10L

Generalized control system, Concept of set point and error, Typical control mechanisms, Role of
data acquisition system, Transducers, sensor and actuator, Active and passive transducers,
Transfer characteristics and non-linearities of transducers, Resolution, accuracy and precision,
Characteristics of an ideal transducer, Instrumentation Amplifiers(IA), Characteristics of an ideal
IA, Selection criteria of IA, Tradeoffs with practical IA, Signal conditioning circuits, Need of
signal conditioners, Design of signal conditioning circuits, Span-zero circuit, Overview of
Analog to Digital Converters, Types of ADCs, Parameters of ADC devices, Selection criteria for
ADC, Overview of Microcontrollers, Types of microcontrollers, Characteristics of
microcontrollers, Examples of MCU devices, Selection criteria for MCU, Overview of Interface
devices and storage, RS-232 interface, RTC, I2C EEPROM, LCD, Keyboard interface, DC
motor driver, relay driver interface.

## Unit III :Design of Switched Mode Power Supply

8L

Advantages of SMPS, Basic concept of switching regulator, Basic topologies ,Step down
converter, Step up converter, Polarity inverter, Characteristics of components, Switching
element, BJT, MOSFET, IGBT, Switching diode, Filter capacitor and inductor, PWM circuit,
General block diagram of SMPS, High frequency transformer design (steps only),Practical
topologies of SMPS, Flyback design, Pushpull Design, Start up circuit design, PWM control
circuit, Isolation circuit.

## Unit IV : Design of Active Filters

4L

Design of various filter types , Low-pass filter (second order),High-pass filter (second order),
Band-pass filter , Band-reject Filter , All-pass filter, State variable filter design, Selection of
components , Sensitivity analysis.

List of Assignments:
[Note:

## Students are expected to complete FOUR assignments during the semester.

Paper design should be functionally verified with an appropriate EDA tool (NI
Specifications should be different for different group of students

## Documentation shall consist of :

Problem statement
Specifications
Block Diagram
Detailed circuit diagram (separate sheet Imperial /Half Imperial size)
Calculations
Component selection
Calculations using the selected component values
Simulation results (partial simulations , in the case where models are not
available)
Component List
Conclusion
Datasheets]

## Single Polarity (Variable/Fixed, Display)

Dual Polarity (Variable/Fixed, Display)
Dual Polarity (tracking, display)
Note:
Protection circuits are also expected to be included
Heat-sink design is mandatory wherever necessary
Transformer design steps are expected
Assignment 2: Design of Data Acquisition System
Multi-channel data acquisition systems
Serial communication/ EEPROM storage/SD card storage
RTC interface, LCD display, Push-button /Matrix Keyboard
DC motor driver, relay driver
Note:

Sub-circuit designs are also expected except for power supply sub-system
Micro-controller programming is expected (cross-compiler/assembly language)

## Single polarity , multiple outputs (Flyback/ Push-pull)

Dual polarity output (Flyback/ Push-pull)

Note:

## Protection and isolation circuits are also expected to be included

Heat-sink design is mandatory wherever necessary
High frequency transformer design steps are expected
Sub-systems like start-up circuit are expected to be designed

## Assignment 4:Design of Active Filter

Second-order LPF/HPF/BRF/BPF
Note:

## Sensitivity analysis should be provided

Reference Books
6. Practical design of power supplies , Ron Lenk, John Wiley & Sons, 2005, ISBN: 978-008-097138-4
1. Intuitive Analog Circuit Design A Problem-Solving Approach using Design Case
Studies, Marc T. Thompson, Elsevier Inc, 2006,ISBN-10: 0-7506-7786-4
2. Linear Circuit Design Handbook, Hank Zumbahlen, Elsevier Inc, 2008 , ISBN 978-07506-8703-4
3. The Circuit Designers Companion, Peter Wilson, Elsevier Ltd, 2012
4. Switching Power Supply Design ,3E, Abraham I. Pressman et. al, The McGraw-Hill
Companies, 2009
5. Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, John G. Webster, CRC Press,
1999
6. Electronic Filter Design Handbook,4E, Arthur Williams, Fred Taylor, McGraw-Hill
,2006

## Information Theory & Coding Techniques

Course Objectives:

## To understand information theoretic behavior of a communication system.

To understand various source coding techniques for data compression
To understand various channel coding techniques and their capability.
To analyze performance of communication system with coding and modulation.

Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing the course students will be able to
Perform information theoretic analysis of communication system.
Design a data compression scheme using suitable source coding technique.
Design a channel coding scheme for a communication system.
Evaluate performance of a communication system.
PEO I: Preparation.
POs: a, c, d, e, k
PEO II: Core competency.

## Unit I : Information Theory & Source Coding

7L

Introduction to information theory, Entropy and its properties, Source coding theorem, Huffman
coding, Shannon-Fano coding, The Lempel Ziv algorithm, Run Length Encoding, Discrete
memory less channel, Mutual information, Examples of Source coding-Audio and Video
Compression. Case Study: Huffmans coding in image compression/Detail overview of JPEG.

## Unit II : Information Capacity & Channel Coding

8L

Channel capacity, Channel coding theorem, Differential entropy and mutual Information for
continuous ensembles, Information Capacity theorem, Linear Block Codes:Syndrome and error
detection, Error detection and correction capability, Standard array and syndrome decoding,
Encoding and decoding circuit, Single parity check codes, Repetition codes and dual codes,
Hamming code, Golay Code, Interleaved code. Case Study: Shannons Publications on

information theory.

## Unit III : Cyclic Codes

8L

Galois field, Primitive element & Primitive polynomial, Minimal polynomial and generator
polynomial, Description of Cyclic Codes, Generator matrix for systematic cyclic code, Encoding
for cyclic code, Syndrome decoding of cyclic codes, Circuit implementation of cyclic code.

## Unit IV : BCH & RS Codes

7L

Binary BCH code,Generator polynomial for BCH code, Decoding of BCH code, RS codes,
generator polynomial for RS code, Decoding of RS codes, Cyclic Hamming code and Golay
code, CRC code, FEC and ARQ systems. Case Study: RS Coding in CD recording. Case Study:
CRC used in Ethernet LAN.

7L

## Introduction of convolution code, State diagram, Polynomial description of convolution code,

Generator matrix of convolution code, Tree diagram, Trellis diagram, Sequential decoding and
Viterbi decoding, Known good convolution code, Introduction to LDPC and Turbo codes.

8L

## Goals of a communication System designer, Error Probability plane, Nyquist minimum

bandwidth, Shannon Hartley theorem, Bandwidth efficiency plane, Modulation and coding
tradeoffs, Defining, designing and evaluating digital communication system.Trellis Coded
Modulation:Concept of TCM and Euclidean distance, Asymptotic coding gain, Mapping by set
partitioning, Ungerboecks TCM design rule. Case Study : TCM used in MODEMs

Text Books
5. Ranjan Bose, Information Theory coding and Cryptography, McGraw-Hill Publication,
2nd Edition
6. J C Moreira, P G Farrell, Essentials of Error-Control Coding, Wiley Student Edition.

Reference Books
7. BernadSklar, Digital Communication Fundamentals & applications, Pearson
Education. Second Edition.
8. Simon Haykin, Communication Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Fourth Edition.
9. Shu lin and Daniel j, Cistellojr., Error control Coding Pearson, 2nd Edition.
10. Todd Moon, Error Correction Coding : Mathematical Methods and Algorithms, Wiley
Publication
11. Khalid Sayood, Introduction to Data compression, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

## Antenna and Wave Propagation

Course Objectives:

## To understand the applications of electromagnetic engineering.

To formulate and solve the Helmholtz wave equation and solve it for Uniform plane
wave
To analyze and understand the Uniform plane wave propagation in various media
To solve the electric field and magnetic fields for a given wire antenna.

Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing the course students will be able to
Formulate the wave equation and solve it for uniform plane wave
Analyze the given wire antenna and its radiation characteristics
Identify the suitable antenna for a given communication system
PEO I: Preparation.

POs:

a, c, e, f,k

## Unit I : Uniform Plane Waves

8L

Maxwell Equations in phasor form, Wave Equation, Uniform Plane wave in Homogeneous, free
space, dielectric, conducting medium. Polarization: Linear, circular & Elliptical polarization,
unpolarized wave. Reflection of plane waves, Normal incidence, oblique incidence,
Electromagnetic Power and Poynting theorem and vector.

## Unit II : Wave Propagation

8L

reflecting surface, Effect of earths curvature. Ground, sky & space wave propagations. Structure
of atmosphere. Characteristics of ionized regions. Effects of earths magnetic field. Virtual
height, MUF, Skip distance. Ionospheric abnormalities. Multi-hoppropagation. Space link

Bandwidth, and Coherence Time.

## Unit III : Antenna Fundamentals

6L

beam width, bandwidth, antenna polarization, input impedance, antenna radiation efficiency,
effective length, effective area, reciprocity. Radiation Integrals: Vector potentials A, J, F, M,
Electric and magnetic fields electric and magnetic current sources, solution of inhomogeneous
vector potential wave equation, far field radiation

## Unit IV : Wire Antennas

6L

Analysis of Linear and Loop antennas: Infinitesimal dipole, small dipole, and finite length dipole
half wave length dipole, small circular loop antenna. Complete Analytical treatment of all these
elements.

## Unit V : Antenna Arrays

6L

Antenna Arrays: Two element array, pattern multiplication N-element linear array, uniform
amplitude and spacing, broad side and end-fire array, N-element array: Uniform spacing, non
uniform amplitude, array factor, binomial and DolphTchebyshev array. Planar Array, Circular
Array, Log Periodic Antenna, YagiUda Antenna Array

6L

## Structural details, dimensions, radiation pattern, specifications, features and applications of

following Antennas: Hertz & Marconi antennas, V- Antenna, Rhombic antenna. TW antennas.
Loop antenna, Whip antenna, Biconical, Helical, Horn, Slot, Microstrip, Turnstile, Super
turnstile & Lens antennas. Antennas with parabolic reflectors

Text Books

## 7. C.A. Balanis, Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design", John Wiley.

8. Mathew N O Sadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics 3rd edition, Oxford University
Press
Reference Books
12. John D Kraus, Ronald J Marhefka, Ahmad S Khan, Antennas for All Applications, 3rd
Edition, TheMcGraw Hill Companies.
13. K. D. Prasad, Antenna & Wave Propagation, SatyaPrakashan, New Delhi.
14. John D Kraus, Antenna& Wave Propagation, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2010.
15. Vijay K Garg, Wireless Communications and Netwoking, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers,
An Imprint of Elsevier, 2008.

Embedded Processors
Course Objectives:

## To understand the applications of 32/64 bit Microprocessors in PC

To understand need of ARM7& ARM CORTEX processors in embedded system.
To understand architecture and features of typical ARM7& ARM CORTEX
Microcontroller.
To learn interfacing of real world input and output devices
To study need and advantages of soft cores in designing SOC based applications.

Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing the course students will be able to

## Learn use of microprocessor in designing PC applications

Learn use of ARM Microcontrollers in designing embedded applications
Learn use of soft core & DSP processors in industrial applications

## Unit1: 32/64 bit processor for PC applications

Various 32 processor architectures X86, MIPS, 68K AND ARM.
80386 architecture, register set, concept of descriptor, real, protected and virtual modes. Virtual
memory, Memory management, segmentation and paging. Superscalar architecture of Pentium
and Pentium multicore processors.
Unit2: ARM7, ARM9, ARM11 processors
ARM processors versions, ARM7, ARM9 & ARM11 features, advantages & suitability in
embedded application. ARM7 data flow model, programmers model, modes of operations.
Instruction set, programming in assembly language.

## Unit3: ARM CORTEX Processors

ARM CORTEX series features, improvement over classical series & advantages for embedded
system design. CORTEX A, CORTEX M, CORTEX R processors series, versions, features &
applications Need of operating system in developing complex applications in embedded system.
Desired features of operating system & hardware support from processor. Interfacing of
CORTEX based controllers using CMSIS standard. Survey of CORTEX based controllers, its
features and comparison.

## Unit4: ARM7 Micro controller real world interfacing

Use of ARM BASED controller interfacing with LCD, GLCD, KEYPAD, and timer, ADC,
interfacing GSM, GPS, and finger print module using embedded c program.

## Unit 5: ARM CORTEX Micro controller real world interfacing

Concept of USB & Ethernet based communication using microcontrollers
Use of M CORTEX M3 BASED Controller with CAN, TFT, SD CARD, USB, ETHERNET
applications in embedded c
Unit6: introduction to DSP controllers & soft cores
Survey of DSP processors, typical DSP based controllers architecture & its features
Industrial applications of DSP controllers. Concept of soft core on FPGA, advantages &
application in SOC. Study of typical FPGA processor core such as NIOS II, Micro blaze etc.

Text Books:
1.

Barry Bray The Intel Microprocessors: Architecture, Programming and Interfacing 8th
Edition by Pearson Education.

2.

Ref Books:

## 1. ARM CORTEX REFERENCE MANUAL www.ARM.com

2 .LPC 2148 User manual www.nxp.com
3 .LPC 1768 User manual www.nxp.com

INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT

Course Objectives:

## To get awareness about various domains in Industrial Management.

To understand concept of Quality Management, Financial Management and Project
Management.
To learn Human Resource Management as one of the major tasks in industry.
To promote Entrepreneurship.

Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing the course students will be able to

## Get overview of Management Science aspects useful in Industry.

Get motivation for Entrepreneurship

PEO I: Preparation.
PEO II: Core competency.

POs:

a, c, e, f

PEO I: Preparation.
PEO II: Core competency.

POs:

a, c, e, f

## Unit I Basics of Management

6L
Introduction, Definition of management, characteristics of management, functions of
management - Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Co-ordination, Controlling,
Motivating, Communication, Decision Making, Principles of management F.W.Taylor,
Henry Fayol, Elton Mayo, Administration and management, Nature of management,
levels of management, scientific management, managerial roles, Forms of OrganizationLine , Line staff,committee etc, Distinction between Traditional organization and
Modern organization, concept of Globalization
Unit II Quality Management
6L
Definition of quality, goalpost view of quality, continuous improvement definition of
quality, types of quality quality of design, conformance and performance, phases of
quality management, Jurans and Demings view of quality, Quality Management
Assistance Tools: Ishikawa diagram Pareto Analysis Pokka Yoke (Mistake
Proofing).quality circles, TQM, Kaizen, Five S (5S), Six sigma Quality Management
Standards (Introductory aspects only)- The ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System

Standard
Unit III Financial & Project Management
6L
Capital Structure, Fixed & working capital, Role of Securities and Exchange Board of
India(SEBI), function of money market and capital Market, sources of finance.
Introduction to capital budgeting, Techniques of capital budgeting. Break even analysis assumptions, importance, Cost-Benefit analysis, CVP graph, Project Management,
Planning and execution of IT projects, Project network analysis, CPM, PERT and Project
crashing and resource Leveling.
Unit IV Human Resource Development
6L
Strategic importance HRM; objectives of HRM; challenges to HR professionals; role,
Responsibilities and competencies of HR professionals; HR department operations;
Human Resource Planning - objectives and process; human resource information system..
Talent acquisition; recruitment and selection strategies, career planning and management,
,training and development, investment in training programme; executive development,
Case study on Recent trends in Human Resource Development
Unit V Entrepreneurship Development
6L
Concept of entrepreneurship, Identification of business opportunities, Generation of
government and nongovernment agencies, Types of businesses / ownerships
Partnership, Proprietorship, Private limited company, Public limited company, Joint
stock, Co-operative society, Govt. Sector etc, Policies and incentives for small business
development, Government policies and incentives, Woman entrepreneurship, Industrial
relations, Case study on Small scale industries in India
Unit VI Management Information Systems
6L
Concept of data and information, characteristics of information, types of information,
Definition of MIS, Need, Purpose and Objectives, Contemporary Approaches to MIS,
Components of an information system, Need to study information systems, Information
as a commodity, Types of information systems, Functional Business systems sales &
marketing, Human resources, accounting, manufacturing etc. Decision-making models,
Types of decisions, Decision Support Systems, Introduction to e-commerce, types B2B,
B2C, C2B, C2C etc. Overview of ERP, Business Process Re-engineering.
Text books:
1. P. Khanna, Industrial Engineering and Management, Dhanpatrai
publications Ltd, New Delhi.
2. L.C.Jhamb , Savitri Jhamb , Industrial Management I , Everest
Publishing House .

Reference Books :
1. Waman S. Jawadekar, "Management Information Systems", Mc-Graw-Hill
Education (India) Pvt. Ltd.
2. G. S. Batra , Development of Entrepreneurship , Deep and Deep Publications,
New Delhi
3. Kenneth C. Laudon and Jane P. Laudon, Management Information Systems",
Eighth Edition, Pearson Education
4. Ashwathappa, Human Resource Management, Mc-Graw-Hill Education (India)
Pvt. Ltd.
5. M.Y. Khan and P. K. Jain, Financial Management, Mc-Graw-Hill Education
(India) Pvt. Ltd.
6. Ravi M. Kishore, Project Management, Mc-Graw-Hill Education (India) Pvt.
Ltd.
7. Pravin Kumar, Fundamentals of Engineering Economics, Wiley India

Power Electronics
Course Objectives:
To introduce students to different power devices to study their construction,
characteristics and turning on circuits.
To give an exposure to students of working & analysis of controlled rectifiers for different
loads, inverters, DC choppers, AC voltage controllers and resonant converters.
To study the different motor drives, various power electronics applications like UPS,
SMPS, etc. and some protection circuits.
Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing the course students will be able to
Design & implement a triggering / gate drive circuit for a power device
Understand, perform & analyze different controlled converters.
Evaluate battery back up time & design a battery charger.
Design & implement over voltage / over current protection circuit.

6L

## Construction, Steady state characteristics & Switching characteristics of SCR,

Construction, Steady state characteristics Power MOSFET & IGBT.
SCR ratings: IL, IH, VBO, VBR, dv/dt, di/dt, surge current & rated current.
Gate characteristics, Gate drive requirements, Synchronized UJT triggering for SCR, triggering of
SCR using IC-785, gate drive circuits for Power MOSFET / IGBT.

## Unit II : AC-DC power converters:

6L

Concept of line & forced commutation, Single phase Semi & Full converters for R, R-L loads,
Performance parameters, Effect of free wheeling diode,
Three phase Semi & Full converters for R load.

## Unit III : DC-AC Converters:

6L

Single phase bridge inverter for R & R-L load using MOSFET / IGBT, performance parameters,
single phase PWM inverters.
Three phase voltage source inverter for balanced star R load.

## Unit IV : DC-DC converters & AC Voltage Controller

6L

Working principle of step down chopper for R-L load (highly inductive), control strategies.
Single-phase full wave AC voltage controller with R load.

## Unit V :Power Electronics Applications:

6L

ON-line and OFF line UPS with battery AH, back up time, battery charger rating.
Electronic ballast: Characteristics of fluorescent lamps and advantages over conventional
ballast.
Single phase separately excited DC motor drive, stepper motor drive, BLDC motors.
Variable voltage & variable frequency three phase induction motor drive.

Unit VI: Resonant converters & Protection of power devices & Circuits:

6L

Need for resonant converters, SLR half bridge DC/DC converter in low frequency, Concept of
zero current switching (ZCS) and zero voltage switching (ZVS) resonant converters.
Cooling & heat sinks, over voltage conditions, over voltage protection circuits, over current fault
conditions, over current protection.
Electromagnetic interference: Sources, minimizing techniques.
Text Books:
1. M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics circuits devices and applications, PHI 3rd edition, 2004
edition, New Delhi.
2. M. S. Jamil Asghar, "POWER ELECTRONICS", PHI, 2004, New Delhi
Reference Books:
1. Ned Mohan, T. Undeland & W. Robbins, Power Electronics Converters applications and
design 2nd edition, John Willey & sons, Singapore
2. U. R. Moorthi, "POWER ELECTRONICS, DEVICES, CIRCUITS & INDUSTRIAL
APPLICATIONS" , Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2005
3. P.C. Sen, Modern Power Electronics, S Chand & Co New Delhi.
4. "GE SCR MANUAL" 6th edition, General Electric, New York, USA
5. Dr. P. S. Bimbhra, Power Electronics, Khanna Publishers, Delhi.
6. Nagrath Kothari, Electrical Machines, TMH.

## 1. Interfacing LPC2148 to LCD/GLCD

2. Interfacing LPC2148 for internal ADC on interrupt basis at regular interval generated by Timer
3. Interfacing SD card to LPC2148
4. Interfacing EEPROM to LPC2148 using I2C protocol
5. Generation of PWM signal for motor control using LPC1768
6. Interfacing TFT display to LPC2148
7. Implementing CAN protocol using LPC1768
8. Implementing ETHERNET protocol using LPC1768
9. High precision ADC interfacing using PSOC
10. Interfacing any controller on FPGA such as NIOS on ALTERA or MICROBLAZE on XILINX
using EDK tool

## List of Experiments (Any 8)

1) Characteristics of SCR
i) Plot V-I characteristics
ii) Observe the effect of gate current
ii) Measure IH & IL
2) V-I Characteristics of MOSFET / IGBT
i) Plot output characteristics
ii) Plot transfer characteristics
3) Triggering circuit for SCR (Using UJT or IC-785)
i) Verify the range of firing angle
ii) Turn on the SCR, observe waveforms across load & SCR
4) Single phase Semi / Full Converter with R & R-L load
ii) Measurement of firing angle, average o/p voltage across loads,
iii) verification of theoretical values with practically measured values.
5) Single-Phase PWM bridge inverter for R load
i) Observe output rms voltage waveforms,
6) Step down dc chopper using power MOSFET / IGBT
i) Measure duty cycle and observer effect on average load voltage for DC chopper

## 7) Find load & line regulation of given SMPS

8) Single phase AC voltage controller using SCRs for R load
i) Observe output rms voltage waveforms,
ii) Measurement of firing angle, o/p voltage across load,
iii) verification of theoretical values with practically measured values.
9) Speed control of DC motor / stepper motor / ac motor
i) Speed control of DC motor using armature voltage control / field control method.
Measure RPM and plot graph of speed versus armature voltage and field current
OR
ii) Study drive circuit for stepper motor- phase sequencing and microstepping
OR
iii) Plot speed-torque characteristic of three phase induction motor.
10) To study over voltage / over current protection circuit.

Communications LAB
Information Theory & Coding Techniques
Note:
1. Perform any 9 experiments from the given list
2. Experiments are to performed using suitable software like C/C++, Matlab, Octave,
Labview, Scilab etc.
3. Minimum 2 experiments are to be implemented in C/C++.
Sr. no.
1

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

## Name of the experiment

Write a program for determination of various entropies and mutual information of a given
channel. Test various types of channel such as
a) Noise free channel.
b) Error free channel
c) Binary symmetric channel
d) Noisy channel
Compare channel capacity of above channels.
Write a program for generation and evaluation of variable length source
codingusingC/MATLAB (Any 2)
a) Shannon Fanocodingand decoding
b) Huffman Coding and decoding
c) Lempel Ziv Coding and decoding
Write a Program for coding & decoding of Linear block codes.
Write a Program for coding & decoding of Cyclic codes.
Write a program for coding and decoding of convolutional codes
Write a program forcoding and decoding of BCH and RS codes.
Write a program to study performance of a coded and uncodedcommunication system
(Calculate the error probability)
Write a simulation program to implement source coding and channel coding for
transmitting a text file.
Implementation of any compression algorithm for either audio, image or video data.
Implement a model of communication system based on Spread Spectrum Communication
System

## Antenna and Wave Propagation

Group A
To Measure Radiation pattern, Return Loss, Impedance, Gain, Beam width for the following
antennas
(Any Five)
1. Dipole antenna
2. Folded Dipole
3. Yagi-Uda
4. Horn
5. Parabolic Reflector
6. Micro strip Antennas
Group B
Plot Standing Wave pattern and Measure SWR for open, short and matched termination
Group C
MATLAB/C/Scilab Simulation of following antenna arrays (Plotting radiation pattern)
1. Broad side linear array with uniform spacing and amplitude
2. End fire linear array with uniform spacing and amplitude
3. Binomial array
4. Dolph-Tchebyshev

Any three of above experiments from Group C to be carried out byusing any EM simulation
software (compulsory).

## Mini Project and Seminar

Course Objectives:
To undertake & execute a Mini Project through a group of students.
To understand the Product Development Cycle through Mini Project.
To plan for various activities of the project and distribute the work amongst team members.
To learn budget planning for the project.
To inculcate electronic hardware implementation skills by a. Learning PCB artwork design using an appropriate EDA tool.
b. Imbibing good soldering and effective trouble-shooting practices.
c. Following correct grounding and shielding practices.
d. Knowing the significance of aesthetics & ergonomics while designing electronic product.
To develop students abilities to transmit technical information clearly and test the same by
delivery of Seminar based on the Mini Project.
To understand the importance of document design by compiling Technical Report on the
Mini Project work carried out.
Course Outcomes:
After successfully completing this course, the student shall be able to:
Understand, plan and execute a Mini Project with team.
Implement electronic hardware by learning PCB artwork design, soldering techniques,
trouble shooting etc.
Prepare a technical report based on the Mini project.
Deliver technical seminar based on the Mini Project work carried out.
PEO I: Preparation.
POs: b, c, f, g
PEO II: Core competency.
Guidelines:

Project group shall consist of not more than 3 students per group.
Suggested Plan for various activities to be monitored by the teacher.
Week 1 & 2: Formation of groups, Finalization of Mini project & Distribution of work.
Week 3 & 4: PCB artwork design using an appropriate EDA tool, Simulation.
Week 5 & 6: Hardware assembly, Testing

## Week 7 & 8: Enclosure Design, Fabrication etc

Week 9 & 10: Preparation, Checking & Correcting of the Draft Copy of Report
Week 11 & 12: Demo and Group presentations

## Mini Project Work should be carried out in the Projects Laboratory.

Project designs ideas can be necessarily adapted from recent issues of electronic design
magazines Application notes from well known component manufacturers may also be
referred.
Hardware component is mandatory.
Layout versus schematic verification is mandatory.
Domains for projects may be from the following , but not limited to:
Instrumentation and Control Systems
Electronic Communication Systems
Biomedical Electronics
Power Electronics
Audio , Video Systems
Embedded Systems
Mechatronic Systems
Microcontroller based projects should preferably use Microchip PIC controllers.
A project report with following contents shall be prepared:
Title
Specifications
Block diagram
Circuit diagram
Selection of components
Simulation results
PCB artwork
Layout versus schematic verification report
Testing procedures
Enclosure design
Test results
Conclusion
References
For the enhancement of Technical Communication Skills, it is advised to refer to the
following or any other good book.
1. Meenakshi Raman, Sangeeta Sharma, Technical Communication, Principles and
Practice, Oxford University Press
2. M Ashraf Rizvi, Effective Technical Communication, Tata McGraw Hill Education
Pvt. Ltd.
3. C Muralikrishna, Sunita Mishra, Communication Skills for Engineers, Pearson