Sei sulla pagina 1di 432

UNIGRAPHICS

INDUSTRIAL DESIGN WITH


SHAPE STUDIO
VOLUME TWO
STUDENT MANUAL
October 2002
MT10061 - Unigraphics NX

EDS

Proprietary & Restricted Rights Notices

Copyright
Proprietary right of Unigraphics Solutions Inc., its subcontractors, or its suppliers are included in this
software, in the data, documentation, or firmware related thereto, and in information disclosed therein.
Neither this software, regardless of the form in which it exists, nor such data, information, or firmware may
be used or disclosed to others for any purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Unigraphics
Solutions Inc. Recipient by accepting this document or utilizing this software agrees that neither this
document nor the information disclosed herein nor any part thereof shall be reproduced or transferred to
other documents or used or disclosed to others for manufacturing or any other purpose except as
specifically authorized in writing by Unigraphics Solutions Inc.
2002 Electronic Data Systems Corporation. All rights reserved.
Restricted Rights Legend
The commercial computer software and related documentation are provided with restricted rights. Use,
duplication or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to the protections and restrictions as set forth
in the Unigraphics Solutions Inc. commercial license for the software and/or documentation as prescribed
in DOD FAR 227-7202-3(a), or for Civilian Agencies, in FAR 27.404(b)(2)(i), and any successor or
similar regulation, as applicable. Unigraphics Solutions Inc., 10824 Hope Street, Cypress, CA 90630.
Warranties and Liabilities
All warranties and limitations thereof given by Unigraphics Solutions Inc. are set forth in the license
agreement under which the software and/or documentation were provided. Nothing contained within or
implied by the language of this document shall be considered to be a modification of such warranties.
The information and the software that are the subject of this document are subject to change without
notice and should not be considered commitments by Unigraphics Solutions Inc.. Unigraphics Solutions
Inc. assumes no responsibility for any errors that may be contained within this document.
The software discussed within this document is furnished under separate license agreement and is subject
to use only in accordance with the licensing terms and conditions contained therein.
Trademarks
EDS, the EDS logo, UNIGRAPHICS SOLUTIONS, UNIGRAPHICS, GRIP, PARASOLID, UG,
UG/..., UG SOLUTIONS, iMAN are trademarks or registered trademarks of Electronic Data
Systems Corporation or its subsidiaries. All other logos or trademarks used herein are the property of their
respective owners.

Industrial Design With Shape Studio Student Manual Publication History:


Unigraphics V18.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . October 2001
Unigraphics NX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . October 2002

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Analyzing Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyze Shape Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Face Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 11-1: Face Analysis - Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 11-2: Face Analysis -Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edge to Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curve to Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 11-3: Edge to Edge Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Deviation Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 11-4: Face Analysis Using Deviation Gauge . . . . .
Section Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dialog Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radial Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 11-5: Section Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grid Section Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 11-6: Grid Section Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11-1
11-2
11-2
11-6
11-8
11-11
11-13
11-18
11-18
11-19
11-20
11-22
11-22
11-24
11-29
11-30
11-31
11-31
11-31
11-32
11-32
11-33
11-42
11-43
11-48

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Mirror Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 12-1: Creating a Mirrored Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Model Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reordering Features with the Model Navigator . . . . . . . . .
Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When Model Updates Fail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Out of Date Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modeling for Downstream Editing Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12-1
12-2
12-3
12-4
12-8
12-11
12-14
12-15
12-19
12-20

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

Table of Contents

More Feature Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Sew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sewing Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sewing Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 13-1: Sew Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Patch Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selection Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create Hole Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reverse Removal Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Confirm Upon Apply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 13-2: Create Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 13-3: Patch Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13-1
13-2
13-2
13-3
13-5
13-7
13-8
13-8
13-9
13-10
13-11
13-11
13-12
13-16

Creating Advanced Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Developed Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bridge Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curve Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect of Continuity on Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start/End Location and Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shape Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 14-1: Bridge Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symmetric Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 14-2: Symmetric Bridge Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curve on Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 14-3: Creating a Curve on Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14-1
14-2
14-3
14-4
14-4
14-4
14-5
14-5
14-6
14-9
14-9
14-10
14-14
14-14
14-15
14-16

Creating Advanced Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1


Extension Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Tangential Extension Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Sheet Corner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
Angled Extension Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-9
Circular Extension Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-9
Activity 15-1: Creating Tangential Extensions . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
Activity 15-2: Angled Extension Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-14
Law Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16
ii

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Table of Contents

Swoop Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18


Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18
Activity 15-3: Creating and Editing Swoop Surfaces . . . . . 15-21
Advanced Edit Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enlarge Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 16-1: Enlarge Sheet - Natural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transform Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 16-2: Transforming Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deform Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 16-3: Deforming Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Global Shaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control By Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control By Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Match Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 16-4: Match Surface Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16-1
16-2
16-4
16-8
16-12
16-16
16-19
16-22
16-27
16-27
16-28
16-29
16-31
16-32
16-33

Visualization Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visualization Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rendering Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set-Up Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Action Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Materials and Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Materials/Textures Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Texture Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bump Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pattern Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transparency Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Materials and Textures Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 17-1: Adding Materials and Textures . . . . . . . . . .
Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Light Specification/Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Lights Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard Lights Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Light Color and Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17-1
17-3
17-5
17-7
17-9
17-13
17-15
17-17
17-17
17-19
17-25
17-26
17-28
17-34
17-38
17-41
17-42
17-53
17-56
17-58
17-59
17-59

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

iii

Table of Contents

iv

Light Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Light Positioning (Editing Lights) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Light Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reset to Default Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lighting Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 17-2: Assigning Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visual Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Foreground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lens Flare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depth of Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depth of Field Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tips For Realistic Scenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity 17-3: Backgrounds and Foregrounds . . . . . . . . . .

17-61
17-62
17-64
17-66
17-67
17-68
17-70
17-71
17-76
17-81
17-82
17-83
17-86
17-87
17-88
17-89

Point Constructor Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Creating Points vs. Specifying Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Icon Methods To Specify a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inferred Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cursor Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Existing Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
End Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intersection Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Angle on Arc/Ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quadrant Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing a Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rectangular Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylindrical Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spherical Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vector Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Offset Along Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A-1
A-2
A-2
A-2
A-3
A-3
A-4
A-5
A-5
A-6
A-7
A-8
A-9
A-9
A-10
A-10
A-11
A-12
A-12
A-13

Curve Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Explicit Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Work Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B-1
B-2
B-2
B-3

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Table of Contents

The Dialog Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


B-4
PreSelection Highlighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-5
Control Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-5
Inferred Point Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-6
Status Line Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-6
General Curve Creation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-8
Point Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-8
String Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-9
Line Creation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-10
Between Two Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-10
Through a Point and Horizontal or Vertical . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-10
Through a Point and at an Angle to the XC Axis . . . . . . . . B-11
Through a Point and Parallel, Perpendicular, or at an Angle
to an Existing Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-12
Parallel to An Existing Line at a Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-13
Through a Point and Tangent or Perpendicular to a Curve B-14
Tangent to a Curve and Tangent or Perpendicular to Another
Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-15
Tangent to a Curve and Parallel, Perpendicular, or at an Angle
to an Existing Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-16
Activity B-1: Creating Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-18
Creating Arcs and Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-26
Creating Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-27
Creation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-27
Dialog Bar Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-27
Creating Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-28
Center Point, Point on Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-28
Activity B-2: Creating Arcs and Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-29
Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-33
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-34
Simple Fillet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-35
2 Curve Fillet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-36
3 Curve Fillet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-37
Activity B-3: Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-41
Editing Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-45
Edit Curve Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-45
Editing a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-46
Editing an Arc or Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-47
Moving an Arc or Circle to a New Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-47
Using Parameters Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-47
Using Dragging Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-48
Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-49
EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

Table of Contents

Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity B-4: Trimming Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B-49
B-50

Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transformation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transformation Options Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Translate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotate About a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mirror Through a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotate About a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Transformations for Symmetrical Geometry . . . . . . .
Hollow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wall Thickness Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activity C-1: Performing a Hollow Operation . . . . . . . . . .

C-1
C-2
C-2
C-3
C-5
C-5
C-8
C-8
C-9
C-10
C-11
C-11
C-13

Boolean Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boolean Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Target and Tool Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subtract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intersect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D-1
D-2
D-4
D-4
D-5
D-5

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-1
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

IN-1

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Analyzing Surfaces
Lesson 11

PURPOSE

In this lesson you will learn to use face analysis tools


to assess surface quality and diagnose potential
problems.

OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:




Perform Radius, Slope, and Reflection Analyses.

Use Deviation Analysis to find gaps and non


tangent conditions.

Use Dynamic Deviation Gauge to check the


deviation of a sheet body using graphical and
numeric feedback in real time.

Use the dynamic Section Analysis tool and Grid


Section Analysis to ensure that surface integrity is
maintained during edit operations.

This lesson contains the following activities:


Activity

Page

11-1 Face Analysis - Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


11-2 Face Analysis -Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-3 Edge to Edge Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-4 Face Analysis Using Deviation Gauge . . . . . . . . . .
11-5 Section Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-6 Grid Section Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11-11
11-13
11-20
11-24
11-33
11-48

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-1

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Analyze Shape Toolbar


The visual tools related to curve analysis were discussed in Lesson 4. In this
Lesson, the tools used for face analysis will be discussed.
The face analysis tools may be found on the Analyze Shape toolbar.
Face Analysis Icons

Face Analysis Icons

Deviation
Gauge

Section
Analysis

Grid Section
Analysis

Graph
Graph Options...
Output
Listing

Face
AnalysisReflection

Output
Listing
Options...

Face
AnalysisRadius

Face Analysis
Using the Analyze Shape toolbar or AnalysisFace from the pull-down menu,
Radius, Reflection, Slope, and Distance allow you to select faces for the display
of temporary color analysis. These displays can be useful for detecting
inflections or variations in face curvature as well as for obtaining approximate
numerical data such as minimum radius, slope relative to a vector, or distance
from a plane.
Radius allows you to check the curvature properties of the faces.
Reflection allows you to map lines or an image onto the faces to check the
reflective characteristics of the faces.
Slope allows you to analyze the angles of the face relative to a specified vector.
Distance allows you to analyze the distance of the face from a specified plane.

11-2

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Display Type (for Radius, Slope, and Distance)


This option allows you to select the type of display to use.


Fringe displays the surface using a shaded, color-coded plot.


26.421

45.663

168.07

-100.00
0

-38.536

-23.867

Hedgehog displays colorcoded spines on face grid points.


26.421

45.663

168.07

-100.000

-38.536

-23.867

The lines shown are normal to the surface.


Use the Spike Length field to specify the length of the
color-coded spines, using the current Unigraphics units of
measure (e.g., inches).

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-3

Analyzing Surfaces

11

ContourLines displays curves of constant value of the selected analysis


variable.
26.421

45.663

168.07

-100.000

-38.536

-23.867

-17.286

NOTE

After completing a face analysis task the display mode


can be changed by using MB3 Display.

Resolution
The Resolution option lets you set the tolerance for the face analysis display,
enabling you to adjust the quality and performance of the face analysis display.
You can choose from the following options: Coarse, Standard, Fine, Extra Fine,
Ultra Fine, and Customize.
NOTE

For more information on Resolution, please see the


Unigraphics Online Documentation.

Face Selection
Once you have selected faces for analysis, they remain selected, even after you
exit from the analysis dialog.

11-4

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

If necessary, use the Re-highlight Faces button to identify which faces are
selected.
You can use the Reverse Normal option to reverse the normal vectors of any
face. This option only reverses the normal for analysis purposes.

Usage Notes for Face Analysis




When making qualitative decisions, a designer/stylist should decide


which analysis type best suits the specific purpose for checking the
aesthetic characteristics of the faces.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-5

11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Radius
Radii on selected faces are displayed with color coding.

Gaussian
Maximum
Minimum
Mean
Normal
Sectional
U
V

Fringe
Hedgehog
Contour Lines

Coarse
Standard
Fine
Extra Fine
Ultra Fine
Customize...

11-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

Radius Type
Gaussian radius for each checkpoint is indicated by colorcoded output
according to the Gaussian Radius of curvature for the face at that point.
Maximum and Minimum radius analyzes the maximum and minimum radius of
curvature at each point on the face.
Mean radius analyzes the average of the maximum and minimum curvature at
each point on the face.
Normal radius displays the radius based on a normal section plane, defined by
the surface normal and the reference vector at each analysis point. If the vector
is parallel to the surface normal, the normal curvature at that point is set to 0.
Sectional radius displays the radius based on a section plane parallel to the
reference plane. You can select a plane, datum plane, or solid face (surface type
is plane) as the reference.
U radius is the radius in the U direction.
V radius is the radius in the V direction.
Sectioning Plane
Consider a particular point P on a face. Let N be the face normal vector at P.
Any plane containing the point P and the vector N will intersect the face in
some curve through P. This plane is called the sectioning plane." As the
sectioning plane rotates about N, a family of intersection curves will be
produced as shown below. These curves can be used to analyze the curvature of
the face at the point P. This is done internally and no actual curves are output.
N
Sectioning
Plane

Intersection
Curves

Point P

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-7

11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Reflection
This method allows you to analyze the reflective characteristics of the face. You
can choose to reflect black lines, colored lines, a simulated horizon, a
photo-realistic horizon, or a user-defined image.

Image Options Left to Right


Line Images
Scene Images
User Specified TIFF Image

Line Image Options Left to Right


Black Lines
Black and White Lines
Colored Lines

Horizontal
Vertical
Both
Thin
Normal
Thick

Coarse
Standard
Fine
Extra Fine
Ultra Fine
Customize...

11-8

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Scene Image Options

Honor Image Size


Reduce Scale
Coarse
Standard
Fine
Extra Fine
Ultra Fine
Customize...

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-9

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Procedure

11-10

Choose AnalysisFace and choose the type of analysis you wish to


perform (or choose the desired analysis type from the icons on the
Analyze Shape toolbar).

If performing Radius analysis, choose the Analysis Type.

For Radius analysis, select a display type. If using Contour Lines,


specify the number of lines.

For Reflection analysis, specify the type of image, number of lines, the
direction, line thickness (if applicable), and face reflectivity.

Choose the desired display resolution.

Select the face(s) you wish to analyze.

Choose Apply to see the analysis result.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Activity 11-1: Face Analysis - Radius

Step 1 Open the part ids_analyze-radius_1.prt and start the


Shape Studio application.

Top face

ZC
YC
XC
Isocline curves

Step 2 Use a Sectional radius analysis to check the radii of the


face relative to the XC-ZC plane.


From the Analyze Shape toolbar, choose


Face Analysis-Radius.

Set the Radius Type to Sectional.

Choose the Reference Plane button.

Choose the Principal Plane button.

Choose ZC-XC Plane.

Set the Display Resolution to Extra Fine.

Select the top, curved face.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Choose Apply and then compare the radius values indicated


by the color coding with the circles that were used to create
the feature.

Choose OK.

Step 3 Use a V radius analysis to check the radii of the face


perpendicular to the section strings.


Choose Face Analysis-Radius.

Set the Radius Type to V.

Notice that you do not need to select the face. It is still selected
from the previous analysis.


Choose Apply and notice the color where the radius values
switch from negative to positive. This signifies the inflection
area where the curvature flips from one side of the face to
the other.

Choose OK.

Step 4 Close the part.


This concludes activity 11-1.

11-12

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

Activity 11-2: Face Analysis -Reflection

In this activity, you will use the Face Analysis-Reflection feature to inspect the
surface smoothness of Styled Blend transitions.
Step 1 Open the part XXX_studio_surf_1.prt (which was saved
in Lesson 8) or ids_reflection_1.prt and start the Shape
Studio application.

Step 2 Analyze the car hood, fender surfaces, and blends using
Face Analysis-Reflection.


From the Analyze Shape toolbar, choose


Face Analysis-Reflection.

Choose Line Images as the Image Type.

Choose Black Lines.

Drag a rectangle around all of the car surfaces and choose


Apply.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-13

11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

NOTE

You may choose to edit the color of the surfaces so that


you can see the reflection lines easier (use EditObject
Display).
Notice how the reflection lines transition from surface to blend.
The reflection lines are very smooth, thus indicating that the
surfaces and blends transition well.

Fender upper surface

Styled Blend

Fender side surface

Rotate the model around and inspect the reflection lines. They
are especially smooth as they transition from the upper fender
surface, through the Styled Blend and to the side fender
surface.

The Styled Blend provides a very smooth


transition from the fender upper surface
to the fender side surface

11-14

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

Step 3 Customize the Analysis display.


The Face Analysis display may be customized in many ways.
You may increase or decrease the number of reflection lines,
modify the thickness and orientation of the reflection lines,
modify the face reflectivity, use random face colors to clarify
transitions, and alter the resolution of the display, if needed.


Set the Number of Lines to 64.

Set the Line Thickness to Thick.

Set the Face Reflectivity slider slightly to the right of center.

Change the Current Image to Colored Lines.

Set the Display Resolution to Fine.

Unless you require an extremely detailed display, setting the


Display Resolution to Standard or Fine is usually appropriate.
The Extra Fine and Ultra Fine settings can take quite a bit
longer to resolve.

Choose Apply.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-15

11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

You may also customize the display by changing the reflection


from lines to a specific image.

11-16

Set the Image Type to Scene Images. You will see the
available images. Select the Spherical Room image.

Set the Face Reflectivity to approximately 90%.

Choose Apply.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Choose OK.

Step 4 Save and close the part.


This concludes activity 11-2.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-17

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Deviation
Deviation analysis creates exact mathematical output, such as a listing of
distance and angle variations between selected objects.

Edge to Face
Analysis Deviation allows you to perform Edge to Face design checks.
This option allows you to check the correlation of boundaries between two
adjacent or tangent faces, or the boundary of one face to the interior of
another.
If you want to a full listing, choose All Deviations.
The checkpoints are visible in all views.
The Deviation Checking Error Summary listing displays the number of points
checked, distance tolerance, number over dist. tolerance, average distance
error, maximum distance error, angle tolerance (degrees), number over angle
tolerance, average angle error, and maximum angle error.
Surface 1

Edge to surface boundary

+
+ + ++
+

11-18

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Surface 2

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

Curve to Face
Analysis Deviation allows you to perform Curve to Face design checks.
This option allows you to verify by Point/Slope Continuity check that a curve,
which appears to be located on a face, is actually on the face. After selecting
the curve and face, you must specify the number of check points and tolerances
you want for distance and angle error checking.
If you want to enable or disable a full listing, choose the Full Listing toggle. For
more information, please refer to Help Documentation.

+
++ +
+
+
+

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-19

11

11

Analyzing Surfaces

Activity 11-3: Edge to Edge Deviation


In this activity you will analyze edge deviation between two sheet bodies.
Step 1 Open the part ids_edit_poles_1.
Step 2 Analyze the deviation between adjacent edges of the faces.


Choose Analysis Deviation/Edge to Edge.

When the Cue prompts you to Select face 1 and close edge,
select the first sheet near an edge which is adjacent to the
other sheet as shown, then select the second sheet near the
same adjacent edge.

First selection

11-20

Second
selection

Ensure that Check Points is set to 50.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces


Accept the default Distance Tolerance of .0254.

Accept the default Angle Tolerance of .5.

Choose OK.

Set Number of deviations to All deviations.

Choose OK.

11

The Information Window displays the deviation checking error summary.


Notice the value of the Maximum Distance Error, a little over 3.54mm.

Edge to Edge
Information Units Millimeters
Deviation Checking
Error Summary
Number of Points Checked = 50
Distance Tolerance
=
0.02540000000
Number Over Distance Tolerance = 47
Minimum Distance Error =
0.00000000000
Maximum Distance Error =
3.54083341403
Average Distance Error =
1.40828829721
Angle Tolerance (Degree) =
0.50000000000
Number Over Angle Tolerance = 50
Minimum Angle Error
=
15.42721905980
Maximum Angle Error
=
24.54664396518
Average Angle Error
=
18.73038901832
Checkpoint Data
XC
YC
ZC
15.000005 -0.000000
15.139820 -0.000000
15.214846 -0.000000
15.245290 -0.000000
15.251359 -0.000000
15.253262 -0.000000


Dist. Err Angle Err


219.849170 0.000000
217.872180 0.106081
214.908486 0.122401
211.095432 0.062934
206.570362 0.059206
201.470618 0.231402

19.839276
18.933663
18.888357
18.922075
18.956567
18.981018

Close the Information Window.

Step 3 Close the part without saving.


This concludes activity 11-3.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-21

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Dynamic Deviation Gauge


In Lesson 4, the Deviation Gauge analysis, as it related to curves, was
discussed; however, the Deviation Gauge analysis may also be used with sheets
and solid bodies.
The Dynamic Deviation Gauge displays deviation data between target geometry
and a defined reference (or references). The reference data may be a set of
curves, faces, planes, points or the defining points of a spline. This option
allows you to check deviations in 3D, along a specified vector, projected onto
the working view plane or on another specified plane.
The difference between the Deviation Gauge analysis and the standard
Deviation check is that Deviation Gauge provides you with graphical and
numerical feedback in real time. In addition to displaying the real time
graphical and numerical elements, a permanent deviation gauge entity, called a
Deviation Gauge, is created. These permanently displayed entities dynamically
update with any edit of the involved geometry, and are also editable objects.
Dialog

Reference
Options

Parameters

11-22

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

When the Deviation Gauge icon is selected from the Analyze Shape toolbar,
the dialog is identical to the standard Deviation Check dialog that was seen
earlier. A variety of adjustable parameters allow you to customize the deviation
analysis display to best suit your needs.
The available Reference Options are identical to those used with the standard
Deviation Check functions, and also with the Deviation Gauge-Curve Analysis
function.

Reference Face
Allows selection
of one or more
faces as reference
objects.

Reference Plane
Allows selection
of one or more
planes as
reference objects.

Reference Point
Allows selection of
one or more points
as reference
objects.
Reference Defining
Points of Original
Curve

Reference Curve
Allows selection
of one or more
curves as
reference objects.

Vector
Plane

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-23

11

11

Analyzing Surfaces

Activity 11-4: Face Analysis Using Deviation Gauge

In this activity, you will create a Deviation Gauge between two surfaces. Then
you will edit the reference surface and observe the automatic change to the
Deviation Gauge. You will also edit the Deviation Gauge object.
Step 1 Open the part ids_dev_gauge_2.prt and start the Shape
Studio application.

Reference Face

Target sheet

Step 2 Create a Deviation Gauge.




From the Analyze Shape toolbar, choose


Deviation Gauge.

11-24

First, select the lower surface (shown above) as the target


sheet.

Next, the Reference Options in the upper portion of the


dialog will become active. Choose Reference Face and select
the upper surface (shown above) as the reference face.

Choose OK.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Reference Face

Reference Options
become active

Leave the Measuring Method set to the default of 3D.

Set Vectors, Markers and Numbers ON.

This entity represents the


3D deviation between the
two splines. This is the
Deviation Gauge entity.

In the lower portion of the dialog, drag several of the


Parameters option sliders and observe the real time changes
to the display.

Set the Threshold to 400 and choose Apply. Notice that the
markers show only the vectors which are greater than the
threshold value.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-25

Analyzing Surfaces

11

These markers show the


areas where the distance
between the target sheet
and reference sheet
exceeds the threshold
value of 400 millimeters.


Choose OK to create the Deviation Gauge as a permanent


entity.

Step 3 Edit the Reference Sheet to see the Deviation Gauge


update.


Make Layer 2 Selectable. You will see the defining curves


for the surfaces.

Edit this defining curve

11-26

Use the X-form feature to edit the center defining curve of


the reference surface. Notice that the Deviation Gauge
updates after the surface is edited.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Edit the curve so that the


reference surface is
closer to the target sheet.

Observe the changes to


the Deviation Gauge.

Step 4 Edit the Deviation Gauge entity.




Choose the Deviation Gauge icon from the Analyze Shape


toolbar.

Select the Deviation Gauge entity.

Change the Threshold to 500 and choose Apply. Observe the


changes to the Deviation Gauge. When the Threshold value
is increased, less markers are visible. Why?

Use the slider to increase the number of Samples and


observe the changes to the Deviation Gauge. The Deviation
Gauge is an entity that may be edited.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-27

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Step 5 Close the part without saving.


This concludes activity 11-4.

11-28

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

Section Analysis
The Section Analysis tool allows you to analyze the shape and quality of free
form faces. You can dynamically display planar cross-sections of a selected
face or set of faces, and show curvature combs on the cross-sectional curves.
Since this operation is dynamic, if the sectioning plane(s) is translated or
rotated, the cross-sectional curves and corresponding curvature comb displays
are updated in real time.
Depending upon the Section Type selected, you may perform a section analysis
with Parallel Planes, Radial Planes or multiple parallel planes. You may also
analyze isoparametric curves in either the U or V direction. The available
Section Types are shown below.
Parallel
Planes

Allows you to create a section analysis along intersecting planes which are
parallel to a specified reference plane. Options for the reference plane include the
XC Plane, YC Plane, ZC Plane, and General Plane (using the Plane Constructor).
Allows you to create a section analysis on a sectioning plane which rotates about

Radial Planes the specified reference line. Options for the reference line include the XC Axis, YC
Axis, ZC Axis, and General Line (which opens the Line Tool).
Allows you to create a section analysis by specifying a reference curve (or string)

Perpendicular
and dynamically changing the section position, moving it along the curve. The
to Curve
Section Position represents the normalized curve parameter from zero to 100.

U, V Constant Allows you to create a section analysis along the U or V direction of the surface.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-29

11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Dialog
Perpendicular to
Curve
Isoparametric Curves
-U constant
Isoparametric
Curves
-V constant
Parallel Planes
XC Constant
YC Constant
ZC Constant
General Plane

Parallel Planes
Radial Planes

Radial Planes
X-Axis
Y-Axis
Z-Axis
General Line

Curvature Comb
Section Length

Automatic
Scale Factor

Inflection Points

Peak Points

11-30

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Dialog Options
Multiple
Sections

Creates a series of curvature combs. Drag the Section Interval slider to change
the distance between each curvature comb. Data entry field represents distance
for Parallel Planes, angular degrees for Radial Planes.

Create
Section
Curve

Creates a permanent section curve, typically a spline. Creates a permanent cur


vature comb entity if curvature comb display is ON. Creates multiple section
curves if Multiple Sections is ON.

Section
Position

Dynamically moves the sectioning plane back and forth over the surface. Allows
you to quickly judge overall surface quality. Move the sectioning plane using:
Drag the Section Position slider with the mouse
Use the keyboard arrow keys to move the slider (offers greater control)
Enter a numerical value in the Section Position data entry field (then press return)
For Parallel Planes-value represents percentage of the distance
For Radial Planes-value represents angle in degrees section line has moved
For U,V Constant-value represents the normalized isoparameter from zero to 100

Scale

Length or scale of the sectioning plane curvature comb. Value represents length
of the comb teeth.

Density

Density of the curvature comb teeth.

Section
Length

Displays the arc length of the current section. This is a dynamic function;
therefore, the display updates to show any modifications.

Procedure
Parallel Planes


First, select one or more faces or sheets for the analysis.

Choose a reference plane using the Specify Plane option. The section
plane will then display on the selected surface.

You may use the Section Position slider to dynamically move the
section plane back and forth across the surface(s), while it remains
parallel to the reference plane. As you drag the slider, the value
displayed in the Section Position data entry field changes to reflect the
moving section (the value in the data entry field represents the
percentage of the distance that the section moves). If desired, you
may enter a value in the data entry field and press the Return key.

If the sectioning plane does not appear after you specify the reference
plane, change the Section Position or Scale factor values using either
the sliders or data entry fields.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-31

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Radial Planes


First, select one or more faces or sheets for the analysis.

Choose a reference line using the Specify Line option. The section
plane will then display on the selected surface.

You may use the Section Position slider to dynamically move the
section plane back and forth, sweeping it across the surface(s). The
sectioning plane will remain centered on the reference line as you
move it. The value in the Section Position data entry field represents
the angle in degrees between the sectioning plane and its original
position. If desired, you may enter a value in the data entry field and
press the Return key.

Again, if the sectioning plane does not appear after you specify the
reference plane, change the Section Position or Scale factor values
using either the sliders or data entry fields.

Multiple Sections

11-32

First toggle the Multiple Sections option to ON. A set of sections will
display in positions parallel to the reference plane (for Parallel
Planes), in positions radiating about the reference line (for Radial
Planes), or with different isoparameters (for U Constant and V
Constant).

You may adjust the distance between the sections with the Section
Interval slider or by entering a value in the data entry field.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

Activity 11-5: Section Analysis


In this activity, you will perform different types of Section Analysis on various
surfaces. You will then modify the surfaces and observe the changes to the
Section Analysis entities.
Step 1 Open the part ids_section_analysis.prt and start the
Shape Studio application.

Step 2 Create a Studio Surface with the curves provided. What


type of Studio Surface should you create?

Step 3 Perform a Section Analysis using Parallel Planes.




From the Analyze Shape toolbar, choose


Section Analysis.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-33

11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Select the surface that you created.

Choose Parallel Planes in the dialog.

Specify the Parallel Plane as ZC Constant.

Choose More Options.

Set Curvature Comb and Automatic Scale Factor ON.

Slide the Position slider to see how the Section Analysis


looks through the entire surface.
Section Analysis

11-34

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Toggle Multiple Sections ON and enter 8 in the data entry


field. Notice that there are now 8 section analyses through
the surface.

Notice what happens to the multiple sections if you increase


the space between each section by adjusting the Interval
slider.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-35

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Choose OK to create the permanent entity Section Curve


Analysis.

Choose Cancel.

Step 4 Modify the surface and observe the dynamic changes to


the permanent entity Section Curves.


Use X-form to modify the surface (drag one or more of the


surface poles). As the surface deforms, notice that the
section curve analysis continuously updates to reflect the
current shape of the surface.

Use X-form to modify


the surface poles

11-36

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Step 5 Create another Section Analysis using Radial Planes.




Make Layer 5 the Work Layer and Layer 1 Invisible.

Choose ViewOrientOK.

You will see a bottle solid, which was created by revolving a


spline 360 around a vector (the YC axis).

Defining spline

Choose Section Analysis.

Select the bottle solid.

Choose Radial Planes in the dialog.

Specify the Rotation Axis as the X-Axis.

Make sure that the Curvature Comb and Automatic Scale


Factor are ON.

Turn Multiple Sections OFF.

Slide the Position slider to see how the Section Analysis


looks throughout the body.
Notice that as you move the section analysis, it rotates
around the X-Axis.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-37

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Section Analysis

11-38

Toggle Multiple Sections ON and enter a value in the data


entry field. Notice that there are now multiple section
analyses through the surface.

Choose OK to create the permanent entity Section Curve


Analysis.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

Step 6 Modify the body and observe the dynamic changes to the
permanent entity Section Curves.


Use X-form to modify the surface's defining curve this time


(drag the poles of the defining curve). Set Drag On to Plane
of Curve. After the surface has been deformed, notice that
the section curve analysis updates to reflect the modified
shape of the surface.

Edit the defining


spline

Notice that the


Section Analysis
automatically
updates

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-39

11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Step 7 Modify the Section Analysis permanent entity.


Even after the Section Analysis permanent entity has been
created, it may be edited. You may turn Multiple Sections ON
or OFF, change the density or scale of the curvature comb, or
even change the analysis from a Radial Plane section type to a
Parallel Plane section type. In this way, the Section Analysis
may be customized, even after it is created.


From the Analyze Shape toolbar, choose Section Analysis.

Select the Radial Plane Section Analysis permanent entity in


the graphics screen.

Change Position to zero.

Turn Multiple Sections OFF.

Radial Plane
Section
Analysis

You may customize


the Section Analysis
entity even after it is
created.

11-40

With the Section Analysis still highlighted, change the


Section Type to Parallel Planes.

Change Specify Parallel Plane to ZC Constant.

Turn Multiple Sections ON and type 5 in the data entry field.

Set the Interval and Position to values that you desire.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces


Experiment with the Scale Factor and curvature comb


density settings.

When you are satisfied with the settings, choose OK. You
have changed the Section Analysis permanent entity from a
Radial Plane Section Type to a Parallel Plane Section Type.

Parallel
Plane
Section Analysis

Step 8 Close the part without saving.


This concludes activity 11-5.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-41

11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Grid Section Analysis


The Grid Section Analysis tool allows you to analyze the shape and quality of
free form surfaces using quadrilateral, triangular, or circular section grids. The
Grid Section Analysis tool generates persistent Multidirectional Section
Analysis Objects (MSAOs), which are bounded and provide more flexibility for
creating different types of section curves. The sections may be manipulated
using handles in the graphics window.
MSAO with Quadrilateral Grid

MSAO with Triangular Grid

MSAO with Circular Grid

11-42

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Dialog
The Basic dialog is shown below.
Triangular
Grid

Circular Grid
XC Constant
YC Constant
ZC Constant
General Plane
View Plane

Quadrilateral
Grid

Arbitrary
Parallelogram
Rectangle
Square

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-43

Analyzing Surfaces

11

With Anchor Point Options ON, the dialog is shown below.

11-44

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

With Sections Options ON, the dialog is shown below.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-45

Analyzing Surfaces

11

When editing an MSAO, the outer perimeter of the grid, as well as a dynamic
coordinate system, are displayed with handles. You may use the handles for
editing.
MSAO with Quadrilateral Grid and Grid Handles
Normal Vector
Vertex

Rotation
Anchor Point
Midpoint

Plane Vector

MSAO with Triangular Grid and Grid Handles

11-46

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

MSAO with Circular Grid and Grid Handles

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-47

11

Analyzing Surfaces

Activity 11-6: Grid Section Analysis

In this activity, you will create an nxn Studio Surface and perform different
types of Grid Section Analysis on the surface, using various options within the
function.
Step 1 Open the part ids_grid_sect_analysis.prt and start the
Shape Studio application.

Step 2 Create a Studio Surface with the curves provided. What


type of Studio Surface should you create?


Change the work layer to layer 81.

Shade the surface after creation.

Step 3 Create a grid section to perform a Grid Section Analysis


on the surface.

11-48

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces


From the Analyze Shape toolbar, choose


Grid Section Analysis.

Change the display of the surface to wireframe for clarity.

Select the surface that you created.


A grid appears in the plane of the screen. You must change
the reference plane of the grid to the ZC plane so it will be
easier to work with.

Step 4 Change the Reference Plane for the analysis.




Make sure that the Grid Type in the upper dialog is set to
Quadrilateral Grid.

In the upper dialog choose ZC Constant as the Reference


Plane.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-49

11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Notice that the grid is reoriented to a constant ZC plane.




Choose Apply and the grid displays as a permanent entity.

Grid entity

11-50

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Step 5 Display a Curvature Comb on the Grid.




Select the grid in the graphics window.

In the dialog, choose Sections Options.

Sections Options

Choose Curvature Comb and notice that a curvature comb


appears on the grid section in the graphics window.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-51

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Step 6 Position the Grid Section Analysis on the surface.




The grid section analysis is positioned in a default location


on the surface but we would like to analyze the entire surface
instead of a small portion.
Using the third mouse button, orient the view to Top.

Surface

11-52

Grid Section
Analysis

In the dialog choose Rectangle as the Quadrilateral Type.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces


To reposition the grid section analysis, grab the handle at the


midpoint of the left side and drag it to just inside the left
surface edge.

Repeat the step, dragging the handle at the midpoint of the


upper side to just inside the upper surface edge.

Repeat the step, dragging the handle at the midpoint of the


right side to just inside the right surface edge.

Finally, repeat the step, dragging the handle at the midpoint


of the lower side to just inside the lower surface edge. The
grid should be slightly smaller than the perimeter of the
surface in the Top view.

Choose Apply.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-53

11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Using MB3 orient the view to Trimetric.

Step 7 Change the Scale of the Grid Section Analysis.




Changing the Scale of the grid modifies the length of the


curvature comb teeth.
First verify that Auto Scale Factor is turned OFF in the
dialog.

Auto Scale Factor


turned OFF
(pushed out)

11-54

Select the grid section entity in the graphics window.

In the lower dialog enter a value of 10 in the Scale field, then


press Enter. Notice that the length of the curvature comb
teeth increases.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

With the grid entity still selected, choose Auto Scale Factor
in the dialog so that the button is pushed in." Check the
Scale data entry field. When the system automatically sizes
the curvature comb, the scale changes value.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-55

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Choose Apply.

Step 8 Change the normal orientation of the curvature comb.




At times it is desirable to display the curvature comb normal


to the surface; at other times, it is advantageous to display
the curvature comb normal to the Reference Plane. This may
be accomplished using the Normal Direction option.
Select the grid entity.

NOTE

11-56

In the dialog, choose the Normal Direction button.

When the Normal Direction button is pushed in" or ON,


the curvature comb teeth are oriented normal to the
Reference Plane. Conversely, when the Normal Direction
button is pushed out" or OFF, the curvature comb teeth
are oriented normal to the surface.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Normal Direction turned ON


(normal to the Reference Plane)

Alternate between the Normal Direction option ON and


OFF, leaving it off (normal to the surface). Notice the
difference between the curvature comb.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-57

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Normal Direction turned OFF


(normal to the surface)

Step 9 Change the Number of curvature combs in the Grid


Analysis.

NOTE

11-58

Select the grid entity in the graphics window.

In the lower dialog change one of the Number input fields to


8.

Change the other Number input field to 3; choose Apply.

The maximum number of curvature combs in a grid


section analysis is 25 and the minimum number is 1.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Step 10 Reduce the size of the Grid Section Analysis.




Sometimes it is desirable to focus the grid section analysis on


a certain portion of the surface, rather than the entire
surface.
Using MB3 orient the view to Top.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-59

Analyzing Surfaces

11

11-60

Select the grid in the graphics window.

Grab the four midpoint side handles, one at a time, and


reduce the size of the grid to approximately that shown
below.

Choose Apply.

Orient the view back to Trimetric.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

Step 11 Change the Bounded display.




It is possible to display the curvature combs all the way to the


surface edges, even if the grid section analysis is considerably
smaller.
Select the grid entity.

In the lower dialog uncheck one of the Bounded boxes.

Notice that the curvature comb display extends all the way to
the surface edges in one direction.

NOTE

When a Bounded box is checked (turned ON), the


curvature comb display is bounded by the grid itself.
When a Bounded box is unchecked (turned OFF), the
curvature comb display is bounded by the surface edges.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-61

11

Analyzing Surfaces

11

With the grid entity still selected, uncheck the other


Bounded box. The other set of curvature combs also extends
to the surface edges.

Choose Apply.

Step 12 Bound the Grid Display.




With the grid entity selected, make sure both Bounded boxes
are checked (turned ON).
The curvature comb display should extend only to the edges
of the grid.

Step 13 Change the direction of the grid entity.




11-62

With the grid entity selected, select one of the rotation


handles on the dynamic coordinate system and drag slowly,
keeping an eye on the direction of the curvature comb teeth.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Rotation handles

Rotation
handle

Select another rotation handle and drag the grid section


entity.

Continue experimenting with different options.


Try changing the Grid Type to Circular or Triangular and
rotate the grid section entity.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-63

Analyzing Surfaces

11

Circular Grid Type

Step 14 Choose OK and close the part without saving.


This concludes activity 11-6.

11-64

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Analyzing Surfaces

11

SUMMARY
In this lesson you:


Used Radius, Slope and Reflection Analyses


to inspect surface quality for smoothness.

Customized a Reflection Analysis to your


specific needs.

Created a Deviation Gauge between two


surfaces, edited one of the surfaces and
observed the Deviation Gauge update in real
time.

Edited a Deviation Gauge permanent entity.

Created several types of Section Analyses of


a surface, edited the surface and observed
the Section Analysis update in real time.

Edited a Section Analysis permanent entity.

Used a Grid Section Analysis for more


flexible analysis options of a free form
surface.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

11-65

Analyzing Surfaces

11

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

11-66

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator


Lesson 12

PURPOSE

OBJECTIVES

In this lesson, you will perform Feature Operations


on solid bodies and manipulate solid body features by
editing their parameters using the Model Navigator.
You will also demonstrate the Playback function to
review construction of a model, feature by feature,
and the Edit During Update tool to perform edits
when necessary.

12

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:




Mirror a body through a datum plane.

Move a Feature.

Delete a Feature.

Edit a feature's parameters.

Suppress a feature.

Unsuppress a feature.

Rename a feature.

Use the Playback feature to review construction of


a model.

Edit a model using the Edit During Update tool.

This lesson contains the following activities:


Activity

Page

12-1Creating a Mirrored Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

12-1

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

Mirror Body
Mirror Body allows you to mirror an entire body through a datum plane. You
may use this feature to create the second half of a designed part.
When you mirror a body, the Mirror feature is associative to the original body;
it has no editable parameters of its own.

12

Choose the Instance Feature icon from the Feature Operation toolbar or
InsertFeature OperationInstance and then Mirror Body.

12-2

If you change the parameters of a feature in the original (master)


body, changes to all features time stamped before the mirror feature
are reflected in the mirrored body.

If you edit the parameters of the associated datum plane, the mirrored
body changes accordingly.

If you delete the original body or datum plane, the mirrored body is
also deleted.

If you move the original body, the mirrored body also moves.

Features added to the mirrored body will exist only in that body.

Features created in the master body may be reordered before a mirror


instance so that they are also reflected in the mirrored body.

You may combine original and mirrored bodies using Unite, to create
a symmetrical model, as shown on the next page.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

BEFORE
Datum plane

12

AFTER

Mirrored
body

Original
body

Procedure


Select one or more bodies to mirror.

Select a datum plane.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

12-3

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

Activity 12-1: Creating a Mirrored Body


In this activity, you will create a Mirrored Body.
Step 1 Open the part ids_mirror_body.prt and start the Shape
Studio application.

12

You will mirror the solid body, shown below, through the datum
plane.

Datum plane
Solid body

Step 2 Create the Mirrored Body Instance.


The Mirror Body option allows an entire model or single sheet
bodies to be mirrored about a datum plane to form an inverse
copy.


From the Feature Operation toolbar, choose


Instance Feature.

12-4

Choose the Mirror Body option. The cue prompts you to


select the bodies to mirror.

Select the solid and choose OK. You must mirror the body
about a datum plane. The cue prompts you to select the
datum plane.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator




Select the datum plane to complete the operation. The


mirrored body is created as a separate solid.

Note the edges of the two solid bodies


(in Wireframe Display Mode)

12

Although the mirrored body is a separate solid, it is still


associated to the other solid and the datum plane. If you were to
delete the original body or datum plane, the mirrored body
would also be deleted.


Choose Cancel.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

12-5

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

Step 3 Review the Feature List.




Choose InformationFeature to see the new feature


MIRROR(5) listed in the dialog.

12

Since the entire body is mirrored, subsequent changes to a


feature's parameters in the original body would be reflected in
the mirrored copy.


Choose Cancel.

Step 4 Unite the two solid bodies into one solid.

12-6

From the Feature Operation toolbar, choose Unite.

Select both the original and the mirrored bodies; choose OK.
The two solids are united into one solid body.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

12

Choose InformationFeature and scroll down the list to see


the new feature UNITE(6) listed in the dialog.

Cancel the dialog.

Step 5 Close the part without saving.


This concludes activity 12-1.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

12-7

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

The Model Navigator


The Model Navigator is used to perform investigation and actions on features.
Choose the icon from the Resource bar at the right side of the Unigraphics
window. Simply place the cursor over the icon and the Model Navigator
displays in the graphics window. To pin the Model Navigator window in place,
select the push pin at the upper left corner of the window.

12

Model Navigator

Resource Bar

Pin in place

12-8

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

The Model Navigator offers many options. Some of the Edit options are outside
the scope of this class. Those that are within the scope of this class are
documented here.

12

The following options appear on this popup menu:




Display Dimensions-Choosing Display Dimensions causes the


feature's parameter values to be temporarily displayed.

Suppress/Unsuppress Feature-The feature is suppressed and an


immediate update to the model will be performed. The checkbox may
also be used to suppress or unsuppress the feature.

Edit Parameters-Similar to choosing EditFeatureParameters.


Double clicking on the icon associated with a feature in the list box
will display the Edit Parameters dialog box.

Replace...

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

12-9

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator




Reorder Before/After-When a feature is created, the system assigns it


a time stamp. When you modify a body, the update is controlled by the
ordering of the time stamps.
HOLLOW(37)
Feature Name

Time Stamp

Reorder allows you to edit a model by changing the order in which a feature is
applied. Features may be reordered before or after a selected reference feature.

12

Application
Consider a model consisting of a block, hollow, and pad created in the following
timestamp order:
BLOCK(0)
PAD(1)
HOLLOW(2)

BLOCK(0)
HOLLOW(1)
PAD(2)

Since the pad was created last, it was not included in the hollow operation. To
include both the block and the pad in the hollow operation, reorder the pad to
come before the hollow (or the hollow to come after the pad).

12-10

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

Reordering Features with the Model Navigator


The most intuitive way to reorder features is using the Model Navigator. The
Mouse Button 3 popup menu allows you to reorder features before or after a
reference feature.

12

Procedure
The general procedure for reordering features using the Model Navigator is as
follows:


Select the feature(s) to reorder in the Model Navigator or in the


graphics area. (Multiple features may be selected in the Model
Navigator using the Shift or Ctrl keys.)

Activate the Mouse Button 3 popup menu with the cursor over the
highlighted feature(s) in the Model Navigator.

Choose either Reorder Before or Reorder After and the reference


feature you want the selected feature to precede or follow from the
cascade menu.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

12-11

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

TIP You can also drag and drop" to reorder a single feature in the Model
Navigator. If you drag a feature up the tree, it will be inserted before
the feature that is highlighted when you release Mouse Button 1. If you
drag a feature down the tree, it will be inserted after the feature that is
highlighted when you release Mouse Button 1.


12

Make Current Feature-Allows you to quickly create new features in


the middle of a feature tree. All features after the current feature
become inactive. New features will be added immediately after the
current feature.

Current
Feature

Usage Considerations


When you finish inserting features, select the last feature in the Model
Navigator, and choose Make Current Feature.

When you insert a feature ahead of inactive features, the inactive


features are not used in most internal checks. If you make changes
that invalidate the model, you will receive an error when you restore
the inactive features.

A noteworthy check that is performed on inactive features is the


parent relationship on strings. Even if the child body is inactive, you
are required to use Edit Parameters to delete curves or add new ones.

Show/Hide-Allows the parent curves for the selected feature to be


hidden or displayed.

NOTE

12-12

Show works by making parent curve layer(s) selectable


and also by unblanking the curves if necessary. All other
curves in the same layer will also be displayed. Hide parent
curves uses only Blank. The layer is NOT made invisible.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator




Delete-Allows selected features of a solid model to be deleted. If a


feature is mistakenly deleted, Undo may be used immediately after the
delete command to restore the feature.

NOTE

Features dependent upon the deleted feature will also be


deleted. The warning dialog which appears with
EditFeatureDelete is not displayed when you use the
Navigator to delete.

Rename-Features are named by the system on creation, such as


SWEPT(2). The rename option allows user-defined names to be
assigned in place of the system assigned names.

Object Dependency Browse-Allows the parent/child relationships of a


feature to be interrogated.

Properties-Provides information about the feature in the Information


window.

Information-Provides information about the feature in the


Information window. This option performs the same function as
choosing InformationFeature, selecting the feature, and choosing
All from the List menu on the Feature Browser dialog box.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

12-13

12

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

Playback
Playback allows the creation of the model to be reviewed, feature by feature.
The model may also be edited as it is reviewed.
When EditFeaturePlayback is chosen, the Edit during Update dialog
appears and begins with the first feature created.

12

You may browse through features either forward or backward. Once the
intended feature has been reached, its defining parameters may be interrogated
or edited. Once you have operated on a feature, you may browse to the next. A
trigger may be set at any time to update the model, starting at the current
feature and continuing until the model is complete, or until a feature fails to
update.
The Edit During Update Message window displays any applicable error or
warning messages, as well as whether the current feature updated successfully
or failed.

12-14

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

When Model Updates Fail


Some model edits naturally fail when associative links between features are lost.
This commonly happens with:


Attempts to update a model after inserting features into the feature


listing using the Make Current Feature option.

Boolean Operations (tool body completely outside of target body).

Thru Features (associated to faces).

Trim Features (associated to faces).

Blends (associated to edges).

Defining strings (gaps or multiple loops in string, ambiguous string


objects).

Reattach features (cannot reference a later object).

After an update error occurs, the system presents the Edit During Update
dialog, which explains the error and lets you choose how to proceed.

With this dialog, you may accept, delete, suppress, or edit the parameters of the
feature(s) that caused the update failure.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

12-15

12

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

The available options are:

Undo

Step Back To allows backward navigation through the model to a selected


feature that may be chosen from the Update Selection dialog. (The dialog
contains a list of the features created before the current one, in order of
creation.)

12

Step Back

Step

Step To allows forward navigation through the model to a selected feature.


In this case, the Update Selection dialog lists the features that have not yet
been rebuilt.

Continue

Accept is used to acknowledge a single warning message about a failed


feature (but not an error message) to allow the update to continue. The feature
that fails is marked out of date".
The status of features may be viewed by choosing InformationFeature
Update Status Report, listing out of date" features with either update or
dependant failure reasons. Editing the failed feature to resolve the problem
automatically removes the out of date" mark from the Update Status Report.

Accept Remaining, similar to accept, is used to acknowledge multiple


warning messages about failed features to allow the update to continue. This is
useful for messages that will recur, or to ignore a number of messages.

12-16

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

Delete

Suppress

Suppress Remaining

12

Review the model allows investigation, but not editing, of the rebuilt
model with options from the menu bar or the third mouse button popup menu.

Review the model cannot be used to review features that failed during update or that
have not yet been rebuilt.

Edit allows you to change the parameters of the feature currently being
updated. A submenu will display with the Edit Parameters, Remove Unused
References and Edit Positioning Dimension options.

Edit Parameters

NOTE

Remove Unused
References

Edit Positioning
Dimension

An editing option must be selected before any work may


be performed outside the Edit during Update dialog.

If a failure occurs, the options that allow advance through the model (Step,
Step To, and Continue) are grayed out until the failure is resolved and the
feature successfully updates.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

12-17

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

NOTE

Edits are not permanent until the model is completely


rebuilt. If a feature is edited, and then rethought, making
it necessary to return to the beginning of that feature's
rebuilding, or to the rebuilding of an earlier feature, the
edits will be lost. This may happen if Undo, Step Back,
Step Back To, or Edit Parameters is chosen on the same
or an earlier feature.

When Playback is chosen, all of the solids in the model that will be updated
disappear from the graphics window. If Step is chosen to recreate the model
one feature at a time, the display updates each time a feature is rebuilt.

12

NOTE

12-18

For performance reasons, the display does not change


during update when an update method other than Show
Current Model is used. After the model update has
finished, the display is updated.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

Out of Date Features


Accepting features that fail to update will suppress them and assign an out of
date" status while allowing the update to continue. These features will be
marked as out of date in the Model Navigator (by the Status and Out of Date
columns) and in dialogs containing feature lists (by an exclamation point (!)).

12

The Update Status option in the Feature Browser allows you to list all features
that are currently out of date and their reasons for failure. Editing the failed
feature to resolve the problem will automatically remove the out of date"
status and unsuppress the feature.
Should the model fail to update after an edit, the Edit during Update dialog
will be presented.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

12-19

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

Modeling for Downstream Editing Flexibility


Some industries, such as consumer products, may require that models undergo
drastic topological changes soon before production begins.
The following techniques, save time when changes occur. Time invested during
construction will be repaid when you edit the model throughout its lifecycle.

12

12-20

Try to reference edges that are stable. Some edges are formed by the
intersection of faces belonging to different features and are more
likely to be removed or subdivided during future edits.

Apply blends to the part as late as possible.

If a blend is expected to change, edit the radius to ensure that failure


will not occur over an acceptable range of values.

If topological changes are expected, consider using extruded features


instead of form features. This allows more flexibility in changing the
feature profile or trim faces.

When defining extruded and revolved features, consider choosing


Create initially, and adding the Boolean operation later. A Boolean
can be suppressed independently or, edited to replace the target and
tool body. If suppressed, the tool body will appear on the layer on
which it was created.

Consider using Trim rather than the Subtract operation. A surface


may be replaced for a trim feature without losing dependent features
such as blends and hollows. The Trim operation also retains the
original sheet bodies.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

SUMMARY

In this lesson, you were introduced to the most


common method of duplicating features,
Mirror Body.
Mirror Body allows you to mirror an entire
body about a datum plane. There are many
uses for this feature, including quickly creating
the inverse half of a part or feature and easily
creating the opposite of a left hand or right
hand part.

12

This lesson also introduced the Model Navigator and


demonstrated the value of editing
features using the Model Navigator. Some of the
features which may be edited via the Model Navigator
include:


Suppress/Unsuppress a Feature

Edit Feature Parameters

Replace, Rename or Delete a Feature

Reorder Before/Reorder After

Make Current Feature

Parent Curves

Interrogate Object Dependencies

List Properties and Entity Information

Finally, you were introduced to interrogation of models


using the Playback function to step through construction,
feature by feature. You were also introduced to the Edit
During Update tool, which allows manual editing of
features during Playback and during Model Navigator
editing.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

12-21

Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

12

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

12-22

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

More Feature Operations

More Feature Operations


Lesson 13

PURPOSE

OBJECTIVES

To join multiple sheets and combine sheets and


bodies using the Sew and Patch operations.

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:




Sew sheets or solids together.

Use Patch operations to add and remove material


from a solid body using sheet bodies.

13

This lesson contains the following activities:


Activity

Page

13-1Sew Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5


13-2Create Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12
13-3Patch Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

13-1

More Feature Operations

Sew
The Feature OperationSew option allows you to create a single sheet, or a
sewn solid, by sewing two or more sheets together, or create a single solid body
by sewing two or more solid bodies together.

Sewing Sheets
If sheets are sewn together so that they completely enclose a volume and the
Modeling Preference Body Type is set to Solid, a sewn solid is created.
If the sheets being sewn have gaps or openings, or if the Modeling Preferences
Body Type is set to Sheet, the system creates a single sheet body.
The Sew feature may be deleted and/or modified using
EditFeatureParameters or by using the Model Navigator.

13

Target sheet
Tool sheets

13-2

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

More Feature Operations

Procedure


Choose Sheet as the Sew Input Type

Select the Target sheet

Select the Tool sheet(s) to be sewn to the target

Define the Sew Tolerance

Choose OK

Sewing Solids
You can sew two solid bodies together only if they share one or more coincident
faces. The system deletes the common face(s) and sews the solid bodies into
one solid body. The system will convert the separate solids into one solid body.

13

Tool Faces
Target Faces

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

13-3

13

More Feature Operations

Procedure


Choose Solid as the Sew Input Type.

Select the Target face(s) that will be removed by the sew operation.

Select the Tool face(s) on the tool solid that are coincident with the
target solid's selected face(s).

If a selected body is part of an instance array, decide if you want to


Sew All Instances.

Define the Sew Tolerance.

Choose OK.

4 faces to be selected for


sewing - 2 tool, 2 target

13-4

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

More Feature Operations

Activity 13-1: Sew Sheets


In this activity you will sew several sheet bodies representing a phone into a
single solid body.
Step 1 Open the part ids_sew_1.prt and start the Shape Studio
application.
Step 2 Sew the sheets together into a single solid body.


From the Feature Operation toolbar, choose Sew.

13

Target Sheet

Set the Sew Input Type to Sheet.

Accept the default tolerance value.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

13-5

More Feature Operations

13

NOTE

Select the phone face sheet (shown on the previous page)as


the target sheet.

Drag a rectangle around the entire phone to select all


remaining sheets as the tool sheets to sew.

Choose OK.

Make sure the Sew operation creates a solid body by


observing the status line. Keep a close eye on the status
line because the message may just flash and not remain.

Make sure a solid


body was created

Step 3 Close the part without Saving.


This concludes activity 13-1.

13-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

More Feature Operations

Patch
Complex shapes are often modeled by incorporating free form sheet body
features into a solid body. The Patch function is used to combine geometry
defined by a Sheet Body with the geometry of a Solid Body. This is commonly
encountered when a sheet body, needed to define a complex surface, must be
designed into an existing solid. As the following examples show, the Patch
function may be used to add or subtract material from a base solid:

Patching a Sheet Body to a Cylinder


Sheet Body

Solid Body

Single
Solid
Body

13

After Patch

Before Patch

Using a Sheet Body to Apply a Complex Blend


Single Solid
Body

Sheet Body

Solid Body

Before Patch

EDS
All Rights Reserved

After Patch

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

13-7

More Feature Operations

The Patch Dialog


To open the Patch dialog select InsertFeature OperationPatch...

Selection Steps

13

Selection Steps
Three selection step icons appear at the top of the dialog:

Step 1:

Target Body

Used to select the Target Body which may be a Solid Body or a Sheet Body.

Step 2:

Tool Sheet

Used to select the Tool Sheet body that will act as the tool for the patch
operation.

Optional Step 3:

Tool Face

Used when the Tool Sheet body contains multiple faces and only one face is to
be regarded as the tool face.

13-8

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

More Feature Operations

Create Hole Patch


When a closed sheet body is positioned inside a solid body for the purposes of
creating a hole of complex shape, Create Hole Patch must be toggled ON to
create the desired hole.
If the Create Hole Patch option is left in the default OFF setting, a single solid
in the shape of the tool sheet body will result.
The Create Hole Patch Function
Using a Sheet Body to Create a Complex Hole

Solid Body

One Solid Body


WIth a Complex Hole

Closed Sheet Body

13

Before Patch

After Patch

In this example, if the Create Hole Patch function had been left in the default
OFF setting, this single solid body would have been the After Patch result:

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

13-9

More Feature Operations

Reverse Removal Direction


Upon completing the second step in the Patch process, a conic vector arrow will
display to indicate the material Removal Direction. This button is used to
reverse the Removal Direction initially displayed.
Removal Direction
The following figures illustrate various Material Removal Vector directions and
their result. In actual practice, if the desired result is not obtained, undo and
repeat the Patch Operation, reversing the Material Removal Vector.
Tool Sheet Body

13

13-10

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

Target Solid Body

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

More Feature Operations

Confirm Upon Apply


When activated, this option opens the Confirm Upon Apply dialog when the
Apply button is selected. This dialog is used to preview a variety of analysis
results prior to confirming the operation by selecting OK.

Procedure


Select the Target Body (Solid or Sheet body).

Select the Tool Sheet body.

(If applicable) Turn ON the Create Hole Patch option.

(If applicable) Select a Specific Face on the Tool Sheet Body.


Not applicable when the Hole Patch option is on or if the tool sheet
has only one face.

Verify/Change the Material Removal Vector Direction. Not applicable


when the Hole Patch option is on.

Choose OK or Apply.

Step 1: Target Solid Body


Step 2: Tool Sheet Body

Step 4: OK

Step 3: Verify/Change Material Removal Vector Direction

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

13-11

13

More Feature Operations

Activity 13-2: Create Patch


In an earlier activity, you used the Extract feature to extract a face and region,
then join the surfaces into a single sheet body. In this activity you will use the
Patch feature to demonstrate the same task using less steps and without the
need for trimming.
Step 1 Open the part ids_patch_1.prt and start the Shape Studio
application.
The same geometry that was used in the Extract Geometry
activity is displayed.

Surface

13

Solid body

Step 2 Use the Extract Geometry-Region feature to extract the


bottom face from the solid body prior to Patching with the
surface.


From the Form Feature toolbar, choose


Extract Geometry.

13-12

Choose Region.

Toggle Blank Original ON.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

More Feature Operations




Select the Seed Face, shown below, and choose OK.

Seed Face (solid


body above the
surface)

Select the Boundary Face, shown below, and choose OK.

13

Boundary Face
(face of solid
body below the
surface)


Choose OK twice. You will see that the bottom face of the
solid body was extracted, leaving a hollow upper surface only
and the original solid body was blanked.

Step 3 Use Patch to join the sheets together and create a single
sheet body.


Choose InsertFeature OperationPatch.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

13-13

More Feature Operations




Select the large surface as the target body to Patch (shown


below).

Target body
Tool sheet

13

Select the small button surface as the tool sheet to Patch.

Make sure that the direction vector is pointing downward,


toward the large surface (this is the direction of material
removal). If not, choose Reverse Removal Direction.

Ensure that direction vector


is pointed downward

Choose OK twice.
Notice that the underside of the button surface was removed.

13-14

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

More Feature Operations

TIP To achieve the best result from the Patch operation, make
sure the edges of the solid body lie directly on the surface.

Step 4 Close the part without saving.


This concludes activity 13-2.

13

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

13-15

More Feature Operations

Activity 13-3: Patch Body

In this activity, you will use the Patch function to remove material from a solid
body.
Step 1 Open the part ids_patch_2.prt and start the Shape Studio
application.

13

You will use the sheet body above to remove material from a
solid body.

13-16

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

More Feature Operations

Step 2 Make Layer 85 Selectable and Fit the view.




Make Layer 85 Selectable.

Fit the View.

Target Body

Tool Sheet

NOTE

13

Shade and rotate the view to examine the model.

You may want to increase the translucency of the solid


block to see the tool sheet.


When you are finished examining the parts, change the


display to Wireframe.

Step 3 Use the Patch function to patch the sheet body to the solid
body.


Select Insert  Feature Operation  Patch... Verify that


the first step icon is highlighted.

Select the Target Body block (shown above). The second step
icon highlights.

Select the Tool Sheet shown above.

Verify that the Material Removal Vector is pointing away


from the Target Body. This is the direction of material
removal.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

13-17

More Feature Operations




Select OK, the third step icon will highlight, select OK again.
The Patch Operation is now complete.

13

Step 4 Change the Display Mode to Studio and observe the


resulting solid.
Step 5 Close the part without Saving.
This concludes activity 13-3.

13-18

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

More Feature Operations

SUMMARY
In this lesson you:


Sewed two sheets together to create one


sheet body. Despite the fact that there were
remaining gaps between the two sheets, they
were successfully sewn due to the tolerance
setting.

Used the Patch feature to remove material


from a solid body by combining a sheet with
a solid body.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

13

13-19

More Feature Operations

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

13

13-20

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Curves

Creating Advanced Curves


Lesson 14

PURPOSE

OBJECTIVES

In Lesson 5, you realized the importance of creating


developed curves to define free form surfaces. In this
lesson certain types of advanced developed curves will
be demonstrated, including bridge curves and curves
constructed directly on surface faces.

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:




Create Bridge curves.

Construct Curves on surface faces.

This lesson contains the following activities:


Activity

Page

14-1Bridge Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6


14-2Symmetric Bridge Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10
14-3Creating a Curve on Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-16

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

14

14-1

Creating Advanced Curves

Developed Curves
The following table lists developed curve types which were discussed in
previous lessons.


Splines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 3

Extracted curves . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 5

Offset curves (constant offset) . Lesson 5

Projected curves . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 5

Combined Projection curves . . Lesson 5

Intersection curves . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 5

Offset in Face curves . . . . . . . . . Lesson 5

The following developed curve types are discussed in this lesson:




Bridge curves

Curve on Surface curves

14

14-2

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Curves

Bridge Curve
A Bridge Curve blends or bridges two curves at user-defined points on the curves.
Edges may be selected as curves. As the bridge curve is constructed, an analysis of the
curve is performed and the resulting curvature comb is displayed. You can choose
whether or not the bridge curve is associative. You also have the option of selecting
another spline as a reference to control the shape of the bridge curve.

Reference Shape Curve


First Curve
Any
Curve
Edge
Second Curve

14

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

14-3

Creating Advanced Curves

Procedure
To create a BRIDGE CURVE feature:


Choose Insert Curve Operation Bridge.

Use the First Curve selection step to select the first curve or edge.

Use the Second Curve selection step to select the second curve or
edge.

Choose a Continuity Method.

(Optional) Choose a Reference Shape Curve. This option is available


only with the Tangent Continuity Method.

Choose a Shape Control method. These options are not available if


you have chosen to use the Tangent Continuity Method and a
Reference Shape Curve.

Choose whether or not the curve should be associative.

(Optional) Select the appropriate icon (First Curve or Second Curve)


and change the location of the starting or ending point.

(Optional) Select the appropriate icon (First Curve or Second Curve)


and Reverse the direction.

(Optional) Adjust the shape of the curve using the Shape Control
options. This is not available if you have chosen to use the Tangent
Continuity Method and a Reference Shape Curve.

Choose OK or Apply.

Curve Selection

14

Curves or edges are selected using the First Curve and Second Curve selection step
icons. Only one curve can be selected for each step, therefore, if you wish to select a
different curve you can simply select it. The system will automatically deselect the
original curve. This also applies to the curve selected as the Reference Shape Curve.

Effect of Continuity on Degree


Specified Parameters

Resulting Degree

Tangent
Curvature, End Points Slope Control
Curvature, Peak Slope Control, Stiffness Low / Auto
Curvature, Peak Slope Control, Stiffness High

3 (Cubic)
5 (Quintic)
5 (Quintic)
7

14-4

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Curves

Start/End Location and Direction


You may adjust the location for where the bridge curve starts and ends by selecting
either the First Curve or Second Curve icons and then either drag the slider, enter a
percentage value in the text box, or choose the Specify Location button. The start and
end location percentages are derived from the orientation of the selected curve or
edge. Selecting the Specify Location button brings up the Point Constructor dialog.
The Reverse Direction button allows you to change the direction of the bridge curve at
the start or end. Select the appropriate icon (First Curve or Second Curve) and then
select the Reverse Direction button to toggle between the two possible solutions.

Shape Control
You can use these options to change the shape of the bridge curve, unless you chose to
use a Reference Shape Curve. The available options depend on whether you chose
Tangent or Curvature continuity. Choosing Tangent continuity allows you to control
the magnitude of the tangency using the End Points option, the Depth and Skew of the
peak point using the Peak Point option, or the rho value using the Conic option.
Choosing Curvature continuity allows you to control the magnitude of the tangency
using the End Points option or the Depth and Skew of the peak point using the Peak
Point option. Using the Peak Point option also allows you to control the stiffness.

14

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

14-5

Creating Advanced Curves

Activity 14-1: Bridge Curves

In this activity you will create associative bridge curves between the parallel
edges of the two faces.
Step 1 Open the part ids_bridge_curve_1.prt and start the Shape
Studio application.
Step 2 Use a Bridge Curve to create a smooth transition curve
between the edges of the two sheets.

NOTE

Choose Insert Curve Operation Bridge.

Ensure that Associative Output is toggled ON.

Accept the defaults for the rest of the options.

Select Edge 1 and Edge 2.

Select the edges near the ends shown. Although you can
modify the point along the edge at which the bridge curve
starts, it will save time to pick on the desired end.

14

Edge 1

Edge 2

14-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Curves

Since only one entity is allowed for the First Curve selection step,
as soon as you pick the first edge the icon advances to the Second
Curve selection step.

Toggle the Continuity Method between Tangent and


Curvature and notice the difference in the shape of the
curve.

Ensure that the Continuity Method option is set to Tangent.

Choose Apply to create the first bridge curve.


Ellipse

Edge 3

Edge 4

Tangent continuous
bridge curve

Select Edge 3 and Edge 4 and create another tangent


continuous bridge curve on the other side.

Choose OK to create the second bridge curve.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

14

14-7

Creating Advanced Curves

Step 3 Edit the parent ellipse for EXTRUDED(0) to change the


Semimajor from 2 to 1.5 and the Semiminor from 1 to
1.25
Hint: Edit Feature Parameters Extruded(0) Edit
Curve Select the ellipse.
Step 4 Edit the parent arc for EXTRUDED(1) to change the
Radius from .5 to .375.
Hint: The radius can be edited from a text window at the
bottom of the screen, as the arc is being edited by the
procedure in the preceding hint.
Step 5 Choose OK until the model updates. Observe how the
associative bridge curves change to match their parent
geometry.

14

Step 6 Close the part without saving.


This concludes activity 14-1.

14-8

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Curves

Symmetric Bridge
A Symmetric constraint is useful when creating only half of a model that is to
be mirrored across a center plane.
The symmetric Bridge Curve is automatically constructed when the dialog is
configured exactly as described below:

Any
Curve
Edge
Datum
Vector

Second Curve
Curvature Continuity
Peak Point Shape Control
Filter specifically Datum or Vector

When you filter for a Vector the


changeable window presents vector
methods.

Procedure


Enable the options Curvature and Peak Point

Select the first curve.

Filter to Datum or Vector. For symmetry, Any is not a valid choice. You
must specify Datum or Vector every time you choose a second curve.

Select a datum or vector.

Choose Apply.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

14-9

14

Creating Advanced Curves

Activity 14-2: Symmetric Bridge Curves

In this activity you will create symmetric bridge curves to complete a framework for a
sheet that represents only half of an end product.

Step 1 Open the part ids_symmetric_bridge.prt and start the


Shape Studio application.
Step 2 Orient the view to Right.

First selection

Step 3 Create four symmetric Bridge Curves, using the four


roughly horizontal splines and a datum plane in layer 63.

14

Make Layer 63 Selectable.

Adjust the view until just enough of the datum is visible to


select it.

Choose Insert  Curve Operation  Bridge...


or choose the Bridge Curve icon.

14-10

Select the lowest spline on the screen at the right end, as


illustrated above, as the first curve.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Curves




NOTE

Verify that:


Associative Output is ON.

Continuity Method is Curvature.

Shape Control is Peak Point.

Change the Filter to Datum.

You must change the Filter to Datum before selecting the


second curve for each of the four Bridge Curves.


Select the datum plane.

A Bridge Curve is created. The curve is active for editing.




Closely examine the bridge curve at the tip of the spline. Use
Zoom as necessary. If your curve is reversed at the end of the
spline, as shown below, choose the Reverse Direction button.

If the Bridge Curve is


reversed at the tip of the
spline, like this example...

Reversed direction

Bridge Curve

Spline

14

... choose Reverse Direction.

Spline
Correct
configuration

Bridge
Curve

Choose Apply to complete the first Bridge Curve.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

14-11

Creating Advanced Curves




Continue to create Bridge Curves.




For each curve, Filter for Datum as the second curve.

Each time, if the curve is reversed, correct the direction.

Each time, choose Apply when the curve is correct, before


selecting geometry for the next curve.

Choose Cancel.

Step 4 Display Curvature combs for the Bridge Curves.


TIP Combs can be displayed for any curve that has curvature.
Bridge Curves are a special application of splines.

Be sure the Selection mask is set to General Objects before


selecting the curves.

Adjust the combs to look similar to this illustration:


Inflection

14

The Bridge Curve attached to the spline closest to the WCS has
an inflection. This could happen because of excessive curvature
at the end point. In this case, the spline is simply oriented at an
excessively shallow angle.

14-12

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Curves

You will correct the position of the spline to demonstrate the


associativity of the bridge curve.
Step 5 Rotate the spline about the end point at WCS 0,0,0.


Choose Edit  Transform...

Select the spline and choose OK.

Choose Rotate About a Point.

Reset in the Point Constructor, then OK, to rotate about the


WCS Origin.

Enter 1.750 as the Angle, then OK in the transformations


angle dialog.

Choose Move.

Cancel from the Transformations dialog.

The associated Bridge Curve should now have smooth, even


curvature:

Step 6 Close the part.


This concludes activity 14-2.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

14-13

14

Creating Advanced Curves

Curve on Surface
A Curve on Surface is a spline that is created directly on the face of a surface and is
defined by the parameter spacing of that surface. A Curve on Surface may often be
created in place of projecting a curve onto a surface. This feature may be used to
define tangent hold lines for a transition surface or blend or more often, to simply
define a specific trim edge.

Dialog
Create Curve

Select Surface

Edit Points

.1
.01
.001
.0001

More/Less Options

14

14-14

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Curves

Procedure
To create a Curve on Surface feature:


From the Free Form Shape toolbar, choose Curve on Surface.

Select the surface on which the curve will be created.

Toggle Smooth and Closed Curve to ON or OFF.

Select the Curve Fit Method, either Cubic (default) or Quintic.

Select cursor locations for the curve defining points.

Choose Apply or OK.

(Optional) If Apply is chosen rather than OK, the curve may


immediately be edited, without leaving the dialog. If you want to edit
the curve, choose Edit Points and drag the poles as desired.

14

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

14-15

Creating Advanced Curves

Activity 14-3: Creating a Curve on Surface


In this activity, you will retrieve the car hood surfaces which were blended and
analyzed in earlier lessons, and add a Curve on Surface to the fender side
surface. You will then use this curve as the trim for the wheel well.
Step 1 Open the part XXX_studio_surf_1.prt and start the
Shape Studio application.

Fender side
surface

Step 2 Create a Curve on Surface on the fender side surface to


define the wheel well cutout.


Orient the view to that shown below.

TIP If you use MB3 OrientView, orient to a Front view.

14

Fender side surface

14-16

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Curves




From the Free Form Shape toolbar, choose


Curve on Surface.

Select the fender side surface as the face on which to draw.

Toggle Smooth ON.

Choose More Options.

Choose Cubic as the Curve Fit Method.

Select approximately 5 cursor locations to draw the wheel


well cutout curve on the fender side surface.

TIP Make sure to select the first and last cursor locations a
significant distance off the surface. Once the location off
the surface is specified, it will snap to the nearest edge.

14

First point snaps


to this location.
Last point snaps
to this location.

Select the first cursor location


significantly off the face. It
will snap to the closest edge
of the face.

Select last cursor location


significantly off the face. It
also snaps to the closest face
edge.

Choose Apply.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

14-17

Creating Advanced Curves




If you want to change the shape of the curve, before exiting


the dialog choose Edit Points (at the top of the dialog). The
defining poles will be displayed and you may drag the poles
to the desired shape.

When you are satisfied with the shape of the curve, choose
OK.

Drag the poles to


the desired shape.

14

14-18

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Curves

Step 3 Trim the fender side surface to the wheel well cutout
curve.


Use one of the trim features to trim the fender side surface
to the newly created wheel well cutout curve.

14

Step 4 Save and Close the part.


This concludes activity 14-3.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

14-19

Creating Advanced Curves

SUMMARY

In this lesson, you practiced working with an


assortment of advanced curve creation
techniques including:


Bridge curves, and the symmetric modeling


constraint.

Curve on Surface curves.

14

14-20

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Creating Advanced Surfaces


Lesson 15

PURPOSE

OBJECTIVES

In this lesson, you will use an additional technique to


create Extension surfaces from existing free form
surfaces. You will also create and dynamically edit
free-hand surfaces using the Swoop feature.

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:




Create both straight and angled Extension sheets.

Use the Swoop feature to quickly construct and


edit free-hand sheet bodies.

This lesson contains the following activities:


Activity

Page

15-1 Creating Tangential Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11


15-2 Angled Extension Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-14
15-3 Creating and Editing Swoop Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . 15-21

15

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-1

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Extension Surfaces
This option allows you to create extension sheets from an existing sheet or face.
Trimmed edges will not allow construction of an Extension sheet. The system
approximates extensions to within a distance tolerance set in the
PreferencesModeling dialog.
There are four types of extension sheets:


Tangential

Normal

Angled

Circular

Normal
extension
Tangential
extensions
Angled
extension

Law Controlled
extension

Circular extension

A fifth type of extension, Law Extension, has its own toolbar icon and a
separate entry in the Free Form menu.

15

15-2

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Extension Procedures in Common


Extension creation options share some basic steps:


Select an existing face as the base face. This is the face from which the
extension body will be extended.

Select an existing object such as a base curve, an edge, or in the case of


a corner extension, a corner. This specifies the intersection of the base
sheet face with the extension body.

The system also displays various direction vectors to help you in


determining such things as the direction in which the system will
create the body, or the angle specified for the body.
Base curve
Extension vector

Base face

Rail curve
Extension sheet

Swept generator curves (rulings)

15

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-3

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Tangential Extension Sheets


This option creates a body that is tangent to a face, edge, or corner. The
extension can be of a Fixed Length or a Percentage of the base.
A tangential extension is created from an edge or a corner of an existing base
face, as a means of enlarging the base face. The two bodies possess a common
tangent plane at corresponding points, so the transition between them is
smooth.
Base face

Tangential Edge Extension sheets


Tangential Corner Extension sheet

Fixed Length-Allows you to create a tangential extension body of a specified


length along an edge of an existing sheet face.

Procedure
To create a tangential extension of a fixed length, you must:


Select the face.

Select the face edge.

Enter the desired length.

15

15-4

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Selecting an Edge
To create a tangential edge extension, the selected edge must be an original
edge of the face, not one that was generated by a subsequent trimming
operation.
To extend a trimmed sheet, either:


Change the trimming boundary


or

Create angled extension sheets with an angle of zero.

Fixed Length Method


Specify a length (positive or negative) for the new extension. A negative value
for the length creates an extension in the opposite direction of the displayed
vector.
Base face

Sheet edge

Tangential edge extension sheet created in


positive direction of displayed direction vector

15

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-5

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Percentage method
This option allows you to create either an Edge Extension or Corner Extension
at a specified percentage. The percentage expresses the approximate length of
the extension as a fraction of the length of the base face.
In some cases, it is very difficult to determine exactly how long the extension
body will be using the Percentage option.
You should only use this option when:


the precise length of the extension is not important.


or

if you need to create a corner extension whose edges are aligned with
adjacent edge extensions.

Procedure
To create a tangential extension of a percentage, you must:


Choose Edge, or Corner Extension.

Select the base face.

Select the edge or corner.

Enter the percentage value(s) and choose OK.

Sheet Corner
To create a corner extension, the two edges meeting at the corner must be the
original edges of the base face, not ones that were generated by subsequent
trimming operations. To extend a trimmed sheet, change the trimming
boundary.

15

Corner extensions are incompatible with fixed length edge extensions. They will
not blend smoothly.

15-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Percentage Value
If you choose the Corner Extension option, the system displays two direction
vectors indicating the U and V directions of the sheet. You can then specify an
extension percentage in each direction. Remember that these percentages are
only rough approximations of the lengths of the extension in the two directions.
However, if you use the same percentages when creating an edge extension and
an adjacent corner extension, the two extensions will have the same length and
match properly, as shown.
Base face

Tangential edge extension sheet created


using a percentage value of 30

Edge extension created using


percentage value of 20
U

Corner extension created using same percentage


values as edge extensions U=30, V=20

Selected corner of base face

Normal
This option creates an extension normal to a face along an existing curve lying
on the face. In normal extensions, the rulings are all perpendicular to the base
face, and the far rail curve is offset from the base curve by some specified
distance, or length, along the normals of the base face, as shown below.
Far rail curve offset from base
curve by a specified length

Normal Extension sheet

Base face

15

Near rail curve (base curve)


lying on base face

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-7

Creating Advanced Surfaces

After you select the base face and the existing curve, the system displays a
positive direction vector normal to the face near the middle of the selected
curve, as shown below.
Direction vector indicates direction
of positive extension

Normal extension sheet

Base face

Base curve lying on face

If you enter a negative extension length, the system creates the extension in the
direction opposite the displayed vector.

15

15-8

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Angled Extension Sheets


This option allows you to create an extension body at a specified angle to an
existing face along a curve lying on the face.
Both normal and tangential extensions may be regarded as special cases of
angled extension bodies, or bodies in which the rulings emanate from the base
face at some constant specified angle from its tangent plane. If the specified
angle is 90, the angled extension is just a normal body. If the specified angle is
0, the angled extension is similar to (but not identical to) a tangential
extension.
After you select the base face and base curve, the system displays two direction
vectors to establish a frame of reference for measuring the angle. One vector is
in the tangent plane of the face, normal to the base curve, while the other is
normal to the face, as shown below.
Direction vectors establish a frame
of reference for measuring angle
of sheet

Angled extension sheet


created at 45
90

0
Base curve lying on sheet
Base sheet

Values
You enter values for the length and angle. Positive angles will indicate a positive
rotation from the 0 vector towards the 90 vector. In particular, if the length is
positive, entering an angle of 0 produces a type of tangent body in the
direction of the first vector, and entering an angle of 90 produces a normal
body in the direction of the second vector.

Circular Extension Sheets


This option lets you create a circular extension from the edge of a smooth
surface. The extension follows the radius of curvature along the selected edge.
You can specify either a Fixed Length or a Percentage value for the length of
the circular extension.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-9

15

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Procedure
To create a circular extension:


Select the base face.

Select the face edge.

Enter the desired length or the percentage value(s).

To create a circular edge extension, the selected base curve must be a


nontrimmed edge of the face (an Iso-Parametric edge). The extended surface
edge cannot be longer than the full circle length of any area where the radius is
determined by the original surface edge curvature.
Face edge

Base face

Circular edge extension created in positive


direction of displayed vector

15

15-10

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Activity 15-1: Creating Tangential Extensions


In this activity you will create extension sheet bodies.
Step 1 Open the part ids_ext_1.prt and start the Shape Studio
application.
Step 2 Create the first Tangential extension from the top edge of
Sheet 1.


Choose InsertFree Form FeatureExtension

Choose Tangential as the extension type.

Choose Fixed Length.

Select Sheet 1 as the face to extend.

Sheet 1

Sheet 2


Indicate near the top edge of Sheet 1 to specify the edge you
wish to extend.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-11

15

Creating Advanced Surfaces

NOTE

Notice that there is no selection ball. The system is simply


looking for an indication near the edge you wish to
extend. You must indicate within the boundaries of the
face. If you indicate outside the face you will get an error
message. Once selected, a vector will display signifying
which direction the extension will go if a positive value is
used for the length.


Set the Length to 200.

Choose OK and Fit the view.

Step 3 Create the second Tangential extension from the top edge
of Sheet 2.

15

15-12

Choose Back.

Select Sheet 2 as the next face you wish to extend.

Indicate near the top edge of Sheet 2.

Choose OK to accept the Length of 200.

Choose Cancel.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Step 4 Analyze one of the newly created extension sheets to


determine what type of face was created.
TIP

Choose InformationObject, Type, Face, select the


face of one of the extension sheets, and choose OK.

Step 5 Close the part without Saving.


This concludes activity 15-1.

15

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-13

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Activity 15-2: Angled Extension Sheet


In this activity you will create an extension sheet body at an angle to the face of
another sheet body.
Step 1 Open the part ids_ext_2.prt.
Step 2 Create an Extension sheet at an angle to the sheet body
that originates from the curve on the surface. The
extension should extend below the sheet body and should
be angled in from the base curve so that end of the
extension is smaller than the start.


Choose InsertFree Form FeatureExtension.

Choose Angled as the extension type.

Select the surface as the face to extend.

Select the curve on the surface.

If your direction vectors look like the illustration below,


enter a Length of 1 and an Angle of 45. If your direction
vectors are different, enter the proper numbers to create the
desired extension sheet. If you need help, ask your
instructor.

15

90

15-14

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Extension extends
below the sheet and
gets smaller

Choose Cancel.

Shade the display to observe the Angled Extension Surface.

Step 3 Close the part without Saving.


This concludes activity 15-2.

15

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-15

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Law Extension
Law extensions are used to create flanges or extensions where:


a particular direction is important

the reference of the existing face is necessary

With the Law Controlled Extension you can use laws to control both the length
and angle of the extension.
Selection Steps
Curve String
Base Face
Vector
Spine String
Any
Curve
Edge
Face
Sketch

Constant
Linear
Cubic
General

Constant
Linear
Cubic
General

In Editing Mode,
Confirm Upon Apply
is replaced by edit
windows for the
tolerances that were
in effect when the
extension was
created.

15

15-16

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Procedure
To create a law controlled extension:


Select a base curve or edge string.

Choose a direction reference method:




Vector - Temporary, or Vector Constructor

Face Selection

Optionally, select a spine string.

Choose a law option for specifying the length, and enter the desired
values.

Choose a law option for specifying the angle, and enter the desired
values.

If you select a face or collection of faces to specify the direction reference, the
base curve should lie on the faces.
Two direction vectors will display that establish a frame of reference for
measuring the angle. One vector is in the tangent plane of the face, normal to
the base curve, while the other is normal to the face, as shown below.
Direction vectors establish a frame of
reference for measuring angle of sheet
90

Law Extension created at variable


length and angle

0
Base curve lying on sheet
Base sheet

The length can be zero at either end. Negative values are acceptable for both
length and angle.

15

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-17

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Swoop Surfaces
This option allows you to quickly and dynamically create, shape and edit
smooth B-surfaces. No existing geometry is required for construction of Swoop
surfaces.
Swoop surfaces may be edited dynamically in real time. Because they are low
degree of freedom B-surfaces and thus, possess desirable and predictable
shape properties, they are simple and convenient to edit.

Dialog

15

15-18

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Procedure
To create a Swoop surface:


First, the Point Constructor dialog is displayed. Select two points to


define the diagonal corners of the surface (on the XC-YC
construction plane).

Then the Swoop Shape Control dialog displays to allow you to shape
the surface as desired.
TIP When using the Swoop Shape Control sliders, make note
of the Horizontal and Vertical directional vectors
displayed on the surface. This will aid in selecting the
Control method.

The figure below demonstrates a Swoop surface which was created using two
diagonal points, then was shaped using the Swoop Shape Control dialog.

15

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-19

Creating Advanced Surfaces

The next figure demonstrates how the Swoop surface, above, was dynamically
reshaped during a Reflection Face Analysis to remove the center bump (with an
adjustment to the V-Middle Bend).

15

15-20

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces

Activity 15-3: Creating and Editing Swoop Surfaces


In this activity, you will create a Swoop Surface and edit it dynamically using a
Reflection Face Analysis.
Step 1 Open the part ids_swoop.prt and start the Shape Studio
application.
Step 2 Create a Swoop Surface.


From the Free Form Shape toolbar, choose Swoop.

In the Point Constructor dialog, choose the type of points


you will use to define the diagonal corners of the surface.
Since the part is empty, you will use cursor locations. Choose
Cursor Location.

Select two random cursor locations to define the diagonal


corners of the surface.

Select in
diagonal corners

Immediately, you will see the Swoop Shape Control dialog


display.


Experiment with shaping the surface using the Shape


Control sliders. Toggle the Control to Vertical and use the
V-Left, V-Right, and V-Middle sliders. Notice how the
different controls affect the surface.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-21

15

Creating Advanced Surfaces




When you achieve a shape you like, choose OK.

Choose Cancel to dismiss the dialog.

Step 3 While using the Face Analysis-Reflection feature,


dynamically edit the Swoop Surface.


Choose Face Analysis-Reflection from the Analyze Shape


toolbar.

Select the surface.

Make sure that Black Lines are selected in the dialog and
choose OK.

15

15-22

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Creating Advanced Surfaces




Hover your cursor over the Model Navigator icon on the


resource bar.

Double click on the SWOOP feature in the listing.

Using the reflection lines as a guide, use the sliders to


reshape and smooth the surface.

When you achieve a reflection you like choose OK.

Step 4 Close the part without Saving.


This concludes activity 15-3.

15

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

15-23

Creating Advanced Surfaces

SUMMARY

There are many applications for the four types


of Extension Sheet. They are created using
existing sheets.
In this lesson you:


Were introduced to the four types of


Extension Sheet: Tangential, Normal,
Angled, and Circular.

Constructed Tangential Extension Sheets to


extend a surface.

Created an Angled Extension Sheet from a


curved surface.

Used the Swoop feature to quickly create


and edit a surface to achieve a desired look.

15

15-24

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

16

Advanced Edit Features


Lesson 16

PURPOSE

OBJECTIVES

In this lesson, you will use advanced edit features to


Enlarge, Transform, and Deform sheet bodies. Global
Shaping, which allows edits to sheets and bodies while
retaining original aesthetic design properties, will also
be demonstrated, as will the Match Edge function to
eliminate gaps between surfaces and edges.

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:




Use Enlarge to create larger or smaller associative


copies of a sheet.

Quickly and easily Transform sheet bodies.

Reshape sheets using the Deform feature.

Use Global Shaping to quickly perform edits to


sheet bodies.

Use the Match Edge function to eliminate gaps


between surfaces.

This lesson contains the following activities:


Activity

Page

16-1 Enlarge Sheet - Natural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


16-2 Transforming Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16-3 Deforming Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16-4 Match Surface Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16-4
16-12
16-22
16-33

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-1

Advanced Edit Features

16

Enlarge Sheet
This option allows you to create a parametric enlargement of a sheet body. Two
types of enlargement are possible:


Linear

Natural
Enlargements
built from this
face

Linear enlargement

Natural enlargement

Linear-This option tangentially extends the edges of the parent face. With this
option, you may only increase the size of the sheet; you cannot decrease it.
Natural-This option extends the edges of the parent face based on its natural
curvature. You may increase or decrease the size of the sheet.
All-When All is enabled, drag any slider or enter a value in any one of the text
fields and all U-V extents will change uniformly.

16-2

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

16

Procedure
To create an enlarged sheet you must:


Select a face.

Choose the desired enlargement type.

Enter a value in the appropriate text box or drag the slider bar. If you
wish to enlarge all edges uniformly, toggle the All option ON.

When you are satisfied, choose OK.

If you have made changes and wish to return to the original state, choose Reset.

Self Intersecting Sheets


Care should be taken not to enlarge a sheet to the extent that it doubles back or
touches itself. You can visually check the bodies for these conditions or check
for Self-intersecting faces in the Examine Geometry dialog under Analysis.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-3

16

Advanced Edit Features

Activity 16-1: Enlarge Sheet - Natural


In this activity you will create a naturally enlarged sheet, which you will then
use to trim a phone solid.
Step 1 Open the part ids_enlarge_1.prt and use FileSave As to
save it using your initials in the name. (XXX_enlarge_1).

Section string

Guide string

Step 2 Create a 1x1 Studio Surface using the section and guide
curves shown above.

16-4

Choose Studio Surface 1x1.

Select the Section string shown above and click MB2 to


advance.

Select the Guide string shown above.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features




16

Choose OK twice to create the surface.

1x1 Studio Surface

Step 3 Enlarge the 1x1 Studio Surface so that it is large enough


to use as a trim sheet for the phone body.
It would be best to use the Studio Surface to trim the phone
body, but in its current condition, portions of three surface
edges are within the phone body. If you attempted to use it as a
trim surface in this condition, the trim operation would fail.
Enlarging the small sheet will remedy the situation.


From the Free Form Feature toolbar, choose Enlarge.

Select the 1x1 Studio Surface to enlarge.

Toggle All ON.

Select one of the sliders in the dialog (since All is ON, it


doesn't matter which slider is used; the sheet will enlarge
uniformly in all directions.) Increase the size of the sheet so
that all edges are completely outside of the phone solid body.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-5

Advanced Edit Features

16

Choose OK.

Enlarged Studio Surface

Original Studio Surface

16-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

Step 4 Trim the phone body with the enlarged surface.




Use the Trim Body feature to trim the phone body to the
enlarged surface.

Move the curves, original sheet, and enlarged sheet to an


unused layer.

Step 5 Save and Close your part (It will be used again later).
This concludes activity 16-1.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-7

16

Advanced Edit Features

16

Transform Sheet
This option allows you to dynamically scale, rotate and translate a single
surface, while displaying real-time feedback. The transformation options are
shown below.
Transform Sheet Dialog Options
Select Control

Allows you to choose the control type for the transformation. Control
types are:
Scale-Scales, or sizes, the surface about the selected axis
Rotate-Rotates the surface around the selected axis
Translate-Translates, or moves, the surface along the selected axis

XC axis

Scales, rotates, or translates the surface in the direction of the x-axis

YC axis

Scales, rotates, or translates the surface in the direction of the y-axis

ZC axis

Scales, rotates, or translates the surface in the direction of the z-axis

Reset

Resets the surface to the original configuration

The following illustrations demonstrate a sequence of Transform Sheet


operations. The first figure shows the original surface upon selection. A red
grid underlying the surface defines its original shape and position.

Original sheet

16-8

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

The next figure shows the same surface after it has been rotated and translated
to a new position.

Rotated and Translated sheet

Original sheet

The final figure shows the same surface after a further transformation has been
applied; this time it was scaled in the XC Axis direction.

Scaled sheet

Original sheet

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-9

16

Advanced Edit Features

16

Upon selection of the Transform Sheet option, you are first presented with the
choice of transforming the original surface or a copy of the original surface. You
have three options, Name, Edit Original Sheet, and Edit A Copy.
Name-This option performs all changes on the surface name entered.
Edit Original Sheet-This option performs all modifications on the original
surface. If you choose Edit Original Sheet and your selection is parametric, a
warning will display informing you that transforming the surface will result in
the surface becoming unparameterized.
Edit A Copy-This option performs the changes on a copy of the original
surface. The copied surface is not associated with the original, however, it does
adopt the grid count of the original surface. The copied surface follows the
current system display color in order to distinguish it from the original.
Dialog

16-10

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

Procedure
To transform a surface, you must:


First, specify whether you will edit the original surface or a copy of the
original.

Select the surface to transform.

Using the Point Constructor dialog, specify the reference point for the
transformation.

From the Transformation dialog, specify the Control Type for the
transformation, either Scale, Rotate or Translate. You may then use
the sliders to transform the surface in the XC Axis, YC Axis, and
ZC Axis directions.
The surface transformations are dynamic and are displayed in
real-time, depending upon the selected control type and combination
of slider settings. You may combine control types and slider
combinations to achieve a desired result. If you wish to remove all
transformations and start anew, simply choose Reset.

When you are satisfied with the result of the transformations, choose
OK.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-11

16

16

Advanced Edit Features

Activity 16-2: Transforming Sheets

In this activity you will transform the enlarged surface used in the last activity,
then use the transformed surface to trim the phone solid.
Step 1 Open the part XXX_enlarge_1.prt.


Make the layer containing the enlarged sheet selectable.

Enlarged sheet

Step 2 Delete the last trim operation.




Use the Model Navigator and MB3 pop-up menu to delete


the last feature in the listing (TRIM_BODY).

Dismiss the Model Navigator.

Step 3 Transform the enlarged sheet.




From the Free Form Shape toolbar, choose


Transform Sheet.

16-12

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

16

Toggle Edit Original Sheet ON.

Select the enlarged sheet.

Choose OK to the warning message shown below.

From the Point Constructor dialog, choose Endpoint.

Select the endpoint shown below as the reference point,


about which the transformation will take place.

Reference endpoint

NOTE

Choose Rotate as the Control Type and experiment with


moving the XC, YC and ZC Axis sliders. Observe the result
of each movement. When you are satisfied with the amount
and direction of rotation, choose Translate as the Control
Type.

Remember that once a slider is selected, you can use your


keyboard directional arrows to make micro-adjustments.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-13

Advanced Edit Features

16

Experiment with moving the XC, YC and ZC Axis sliders


and observe the result. When you are satisfied with the
amount and direction of translation, choose OK twice. After
the last OK, you will see the final result of the transformation.

Transformed sheet

Step 4 Trim the phone body using the transformed sheet as the
trim sheet.

16-14

Trim the phone body to the transformed sheet.

Blank the transformed sheet.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

16

Step 5 Close the part without Saving.


This concludes activity 16-2.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-15

Advanced Edit Features

16

Deform Sheet
This option allows you to dynamically modify a single surface, while displaying
real-time feedback. The deformation options are shown below.
Deform Sheet Dialog Options
Pivot Control

Allows you to set the reference position or direction from which the
deformation will occur. The available options are:
Horizontal-The surface deforms in the horizontal direction.
Vertical-The surface deforms in the vertical direction.
V-Low-The deformation begins at the lower portion of the surface.
V-High-The deformation begins at the upper portion of the surface
V-Middle-The deformation begins at the middle portion of the
......
surface.
Switch H and V-Resets the slider settings and switches the pivot
......
controls between horizontal and vertical modes.

Stretch

Allows you to deform a surface by stretching. The value range for the
slider is 0-100, with 50 (the default) being the mid, non-deformed
position.

Bend

Allows you to deform a surface by bending. The value range for the
slider is 0-100, with 50 (the default) being the mid, non-deformed
position.

Skew

Allows you to deform a surface by applying skew. Skewing deforms a


surface so that its grid lines are neither parallel with, nor at right
angles to the leading edge. You may have to first apply one of the
other types of deformation to the surface (Bend, Twist or Shift) be
fore Skew has a noticeable effect. The value range for the slider is
0-100, with 50 (the default) being the mid, non-deformed position.

Twist

Allows you to deform a surface by twisting. The value range for the
slider is 0-100, with 50 (the default) being the mid, non-deformed
position.

Shift

Allows you to deform a surface by shifting. The value range for the
slider is 0-100, with 50 (the default) being the mid, non-deformed
position.

Reset

Cancels all deform slider settings and resets the surface to its original
configuration

Section Analysis

This option opens the Section Analysis dialog, allowing you to dy


namically analyze surface curvature along specified sections.

Deviation Check

This option opens the Deviation Check dialog, allowing you to dy


namically generate graphics and numeric deviation data.

16-16

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

16

The following illustrations demonstrate a sequence of Deform Sheet


operations. The first figure shows the original non-deformed surface.

Original sheet

The next figure shows the same surface after it has been deformed using
Vertical Pivot Control and Stretch.

Deformed sheet

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-17

Advanced Edit Features

16

The next figure shows the surface after further deformation has been applied;
this time it was deformed using V-Low Pivot Control and Stretch.

The final illustration shows the surface after it was deformed using V-Low
Pivot Control and Stretch, Bend and Twist.

16-18

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

Upon selection of the Deform Sheet option, you are first presented with the
choice of deforming the original surface or a copy of the original surface. You
have three options, Name, Edit Original Sheet, and Edit A Copy.
Name-This option performs all changes on the surface name entered.
Edit Original Sheet-This option performs all modifications on the original
surface. If you choose Edit Original Sheet and your selection is parametric, a
warning will display informing you that deforming the surface will result in the
surface becoming unparameterized.
Edit A Copy-This option performs the changes on a copy of the original
surface. The copied surface is not associated with the original, however, it does
adopt the grid count of the original surface. The copied surface follows the
current system display color in order to distinguish it from the original.

Options
Section Analysis

Displays a planar cross-sectional analysis or curvature comb for the surface


which will be deformed. Upon return to the Deform Sheet dialog, the section
analysis display updates dynamically as the surface is deformed.

Deviation Check

Displays deviation data for the surface which will be deformed. Upon return to
the Deform Sheet dialog, the deviation display updates dynamically as the
surface is deformed.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-19

16

Advanced Edit Features

16

Dialog

16-20

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

Procedure
To deform a surface, you must:


First choose whether you will edit the original surface or a copy of the
original.

Select the surface to transform.

Specify the desired Pivot Control.

You may now use the sliders to deform the surface. As you drag a
slider control, the selected surface dynamically deforms. You may
combine any of the slider settings to perform several deformations to
the surface. Note that some sliders are not available with certain Pivot
Control types. If a slider option is not available, it will be grayed out in
the dialog.

If you wish to remove all deformations and return the surface to its
original configuration, simply choose Reset.

Analysis and deviation displays which are generated using the Section
Analysis and Deviation Check options, will continue to display in the
graphics window for dynamic updates after returning to the Deform
Sheet dialog.

When you are satisfied with the result of the deformation, choose OK.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-21

16

16

Advanced Edit Features

Activity 16-3: Deforming Sheets


In this activity, you will create a surface using the Swoop feature, then use the
Deform tool and dynamic section analysis to reshape the surface.
Step 1 Open the part ids_deform.prt and start the Shape Studio
application.
Step 2 Use the Swoop function to create a sheet.


Shape the surface any way you'd like or simply leave it flat.
It will be deformed in the next step.

Step 3 Use the Deform tool to reshape the sheet.




From the Free Form Shape toolbar, choose


Deform Sheet.

16-22

Toggle Edit Original Sheet ON.

Select the sheet and choose OK to the warning message.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features




Set the Pivot Control to Horizontal and move the available


sliders. Observe the deformation to the surface.

Set the Pivot Control to Vertical and move the available


sliders. Again, observe the deformation to the surface.

Set the Pivot Control to V-Low and move the available


sliders. Observe the deformation to the surface.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-23

16

Advanced Edit Features

16

Set the Pivot Control to V-Middle and move the available


sliders.

Choose OK twice to display the result of the deformation.

Step 4 Deform the surface further while dynamically updating


the section analysis.

16-24

Choose Deform Sheet.

Toggle Edit Original Sheet ON and select the sheet.

Choose Section Analysis in the lower dialog.

Choose Parallel Planes and specify the parallel plane as


YC Constant.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features




Toggle Multiple Sections ON and enter 3 in the data field.

Set the Interval and Position so that three sections are


visible on the surface.

Choose More Options in the dialog.

Set the Curvature Comb Display Option ON and adjust the


Scale and Density to appropriate values.

Choose OK to return to the Deform Sheet dialog.

Set the Pivot Control to V-Low. Adjust the available sliders


and observe the dynamic update to the section analysis.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-25

16

Advanced Edit Features

16

Set the Pivot Control to Horizontal and adjust the Bend until
the Curvature Comb shows an inflection in the surface. The
dynamic section analysis tool is particularly helpful while
reshaping surfaces using the Deform feature. By using the
Curvature Comb, it is easier to detect unwanted deflections
and imperfections in the surface that might not have been
detected visually.

Surface inflection

Choose OK twice to apply the deformation.


The section analysis is not saved outside the Deform
function because it was not created as a permanent entity.

Step 5 Close the part without Saving.


This concludes activity 16-3.

16-26

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

Global Shaping
Global Shaping allows you to deform a surface, group of surfaces or solid body
in a predictable manner, while retaining full associativity. This option may be
used to style an existing surface or group of surfaces, while preserving the
aesthetic properties.
Global Shaping is found on the Free Form Feature toolbar and includes two
types of variable offset: Overcrown and Stretch. Within both offset types are
two control mechanisms: Control By Function and Control By Surface.

Dialog
General

Any
Face
Body

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-27

16

Advanced Edit Features

16

Control By Function
Control By Function allows a sheet body to be deformed within a specified
region. The amount of offset at any point within the region is specified by a
given transition function or one that you specify.
The Control By Function method produces features that are fully associative to
the provided input data.

Direction
Stretch Direction

Region
Bounds

Any
Curve
Edge
Face
Sketch
String

Point in Region

16-28

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

16
Control By Surface allows deformation to a sheet body through manipulation of
a reference surface. First you select a Base surface and a Control surface. The

deviation between the base and control surfaces determines the amount of
Control By Surface

normal offset that is applied to the sheet body at any given point.

Control

Base

Overcrown
Overcrown creates a new sheet by overcrowning" a selected sheet, based upon
deformation which is defined either by a function or a reference surface.
With the Overcrown Control By Function method, Overcrown uses a law
control to shape the new sheet based on a selected face or sheet to be
overcrowned, a bounded region, a point in the forming region, and a direction
to control the deformation.
With the Overcrown Control By Surface method, Overcrown shapes the new
sheet against a deformed Base, which is the Control Sheet.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-29

Advanced Edit Features

16

Stretch
Stretch shapes a new sheet against base and/or control sheets by stretching it in
a specified stretch direction. This has the effect of pulling the sheet against a
fixed" edge (similar to fixing a sheet of rubber at one end and stretching the
opposite end).
When Stretch is used with the Control By Function method, the new sheet is
stretched in a user-defined direction, against another relatively fixed specified
region. A stretch direction step is available to specify a direction for the Stretch
operation.
When Stretch is used with the Control By Surface method, the new sheet is
shaped against a Base sheet. If the Base is a flat surface and you stretch its
poles to adjust the Control surface, the Stretch option will generate a similar
stretch on the modified faces.
Like the Control By Function method, the Stretch methods produce features
that are fully associative to the provided input data.

Procedure
To perform Global Shaping, you must:

16-30

First select one or more faces on which to operate.

Choose the Type and Control By options desired.

If Overcrown or Stretch is chosen with Control By Function, define the


bounding region to be modified, the point within the region to offset,
the direction and the height of the offset. Then choose the desired
transition function. You may also use the sliders to dynamically alter
the height and thus, manipulate the shape.

If Overcrown or Stretch is chosen with Control By Surface, select the


Base and Control surfaces. Then manipulate the Control surface and
observe corresponding changes to the shaped surface.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

Match Edge
Match Edge allows you to eliminate gaps by matching the edge of a surface to a
reference object (either a curve or surface edge), while providing continuity
control over the transition area. With the Match Edge function, both the edited
surface and the reference object are geometrically continuous across the
common boundary. Either curve continuous (G0), tangent continuous (G1), or
curvature continuous (G2) may be selected.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-31

16

Advanced Edit Features

16

Dialog
Match Edge may be found either on the Free Form Shape toolbar or from the
EditFree Form FeatureMatch Edge pull down menu.
Direction
Preview
Edit Edge
Edge
Face
Curve
Datum

Reference
Object

16-32

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

16

Activity 16-4: Match Surface Edge

In this activity, you will use the Match Edge function to edit a surface to two
reference surfaces. You will then investigate the transition using a Reflection
Face Analysis.
Step 1 Open the part ids_match_edge_1.prt and start the Shape
Studio application.
Step 2 Use Match Edge to match the left edge of the small
surface to a reference face.


From the Free Form Shape toolbar choose


or choose EditFree Form
Match Edge
FeatureMatch Edge from the pull down menu.

Select the small surface near the left edge.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-33

Advanced Edit Features

16

Set the Filter in the upper dialog to Edge and select the two
edges of the left side surface (see below).

In the dialog, set Continuity to G0 (check the box).


If G1 and/or G2 are checked, uncheck the boxes.

16-34

Choose Apply.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

16

Step 3 Match the right edge of the small surface to a reference


face.


Select the far right edge of the small surface.

With the Filter set to Edge, select the edge of the far right
surface (shown below).

Choose More Options to expand the dialog.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-35

Advanced Edit Features

16

16-36

In the lower dialog, toggle Exact ON and End to End OFF.

Select Preview at the top of the dialog.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features




Verify that Display Poles is ON (bottom of dialog).

Verify that Continuity is set to G0.

16

Step 4 Make adjustments to the matched edge.




Slide the center ball handle up and down the edge, taking
note of the changes in the matched edge. Leave the center
ball handle near the middle of the edge.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-37

Advanced Edit Features

16

16-38

Slide the upper arrow along the edge, taking note of the
changes in the matched edge. Leave the upper arrow
anywhere along the edge.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features




Slide the lower arrow along the edge, taking note of the
changes in the matched edge. Leave the lower arrow
anywhere along the edge.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-39

16

Advanced Edit Features

16

16-40

Slide the side arrow sideways, taking note of the changes in


the matched edge. Leave the side arrow back where it
started.

In the lower dialog toggle End to End ON.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

16

Notice that the surface is automatically matched along the


entire edge of the reference surface.

Step 5 Change the Continuity.




In the upper dialog toggle G1 Continuity ON (adding the


tangent continuous requirement).
Notice the changes to the surface structure.

Step 6 Change the Continuity again.




In the upper dialog toggle G2 Continuity ON (adding the


curvature continuous requirement).
Notice the changes to the surface structure.

Step 7 Experiment with Degree and Patch.




As time permits, experiment with changing Degree and Patch


for the surface (found in the lower dialog).

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-41

Advanced Edit Features

16

You may also experiment with changing the Range, Depth,


and Skew parameters using the slider in the lower dialog.

When you are satisfied with the result, choose OK.

Step 8 Close the part without Saving.


This concludes activity 16-4.

16-42

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Advanced Edit Features

16

SUMMARY
In this lesson you:


Used the Enlarge feature to increase the size


of a sheet linearly.

Enlarged a sheet using the Natural option,


so that it could be used as a trim sheet.

Demonstrated the Transform feature by


Scaling, Rotating and Translating sheet
bodies about the XC, YC and ZC axes.

Reshaped sheet bodies quickly and easily


using the Deform feature.

Used Global Shaping to perform edits to


sheet bodies, while retaining the original
aesthetic properties.

Used the Match Edge function to edit


surfaces and eliminate gaps between edges.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

16-43

Advanced Edit Features

16

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

16-44

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Visualization Techniques
Lesson 17

17

PURPOSE

Visualize Shape, within Unigraphics, affords the


designer/stylist a powerful medium to effectively
communicate concepts and ideas. This lesson
introduces you to the methods available to bring
high-end photorealistic rendering within the purview
of every design organization.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-1

Visualization Techniques

OBJECTIVES

17

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:




Use Visualize Shape to set up High Quality Image


shading.

Distinguish the difference between the rendering


methods.

Add Materials and Textures to geometry.

Assign Lights to a scene.

Specify a Background for a scene.

Specify a Foreground effect for a scene.

Utilize Visual Effects to create camera optical


effects.

This lesson contains the following activities:


Activity

Page

17-1Adding Materials and Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-42


17-2Assigning Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-68
17-3Backgrounds and Foregrounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-89

17-2

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Visualization Techniques

17

Creating photorealistic images of products in Unigraphics consists of six basic


steps:


General Unigraphics Render Set-Up

Adding Materials to the geometry

Adding Textures to the geometry

Assigning Lighting to the scene

Specifying a Background

Rendering the image

Within Unigraphics, Unigraphics Render is the tool used to create


photorealistic scenes, and within Shape Studio, the Visualize Shape toolbar
contains the Materials/Textures tool, Lighting, Backgrounds, Shading and
Imaging features.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-3

Visualization Techniques

The Visualize Shape toolbar is shown below:

High
Quality
Image
Artistic
Image

17

Materials/
Textures
Advanced
Lights

Visual
Effects

Start
Shade

Erase
Shade

Preview
Shade

Raster
Image

The Visualize Shape functions may also be accessed via the Unigraphics main
menu:
ViewVisualization

It is important to note that the Visualize Shape options are visible only in the
Studio Display Mode.
TIP While using Visualize Shape, if you do not see what you expect, ensure
that the Display Mode is set to Studio.

17-4

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Set-Up
High Quality Image allows you to set the Visualize Shape specific parameters
for rendering an image, initiating the rendering process, and saving or plotting
the generated images.

17

Many of the functional settings within Visualize Shape, such as certain texture
mappings, shadows, light scattering, foreground, and background mappings are
visible only when using the High Quality Image (HQI) tool. A small camera
icon displayed within a Visualize Shape functional dialog indicates that the
particular setting or input is visible only when using High Quality Image
shading.
Camera icons
indicate High
Quality imaging
is required

Example within Materials/Textures dialog

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-5

Visualization Techniques

There are three steps to High Quality Imaging:

17

Choosing a Rendering Method

Specifying the Set-Up Options

Previewing/Shading the image


Rendering Method
Flat
Gouraud
Phong
Improved
Preview
Photo-Realistic
Ray Traced
Ray Traced/FFA
Radiosity
Hybrid Radiosity

Set-Up
Options

Preview
Options
Action
Options

17-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Rendering Method
The upper portion of the dialog is specification of the Rendering Method. The
method options are generally arranged in order of increasing realism and, thus,
increasing processing time. The table below presents the Rendering Method
options:

Rendering Method

Description

Flat

Truncated images,no shadows,no reflections,no texture mapping


No lighting effect
Fastest method, least functional

Phong

Similar to Gouraud method


Very fast processing
Good for a simple previews

Gouraud

Similar to Phong and Flat methods


Lighting effects are present
Fastest method, least functional

Improved

Normal Unigraphics Render shade mode


Good for images with shiny and polished surfaces
Supports lighting effects, including light scattering

Preview

Similar to Improved method


Slightly better image quality, but much longer processing time

Photo-Realistic

Excellent for final renderings


No Anti-aliasing of textures
Supports lighting effects, including light scattering
Best compromise between image quality and processing time

Ray Traced

Similar to Photo-Realistic method, only not as fast


Anti-aliasing gives good edge and texture definition
Supports lighting effects, including light scattering

Ray Traced/FFA
(Feature Following Anti-aliasing)

Similar to Ray Traced method, except with addition of FFA


Best image quality
Supports lighting effects, including light scattering
Superior edge definition
Excellent for subtle feature shading

Radiosity

Superior lighting effects, including subtle interactions of lights


Superior edge definition, excellent for subtle feature shading
Supports lighting effects, including light scattering

Hybrid Radiosity

Mixture of Radiosity and Photo-Realistic methods

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-7

17

Visualization Techniques

NOTE

Anti-aliasing is a technique to improve image quality by


reducing jagged edges or stair-step" effect along edges
in an image. Anti-aliasing makes lines and edges look
smoother.

It is recommended that the Improved rendering method be used for time


saving, until the final images are rendered.
A visual comparison of the different Rendering Methods is shown below:

17

FLAT

IMPROVED/PREVIEW

17-8

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

GOURAUD

PHOTO-REALISTIC

EDS
All Rights Reserved

PHONG

RAY TRACED/FFA

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Set-Up Options
The Set-Up Options control many variables, such as:


Shading

Previewing

Importing existing image files from a directory

Exporting your shaded image to a file/subdirectory

Shade allows you to control such shading aspects as display color, image size,
shadows, and resolution.
Raster Image
QTVR Panorama
QTVR Object (Low)
QTVR Object (High)

Fill View
Ansi A
Ansi B
Ansi C
Ansi D
Ansi E
ISO a4
ISO a3
ISO a2
ISO a1
ISO a0
User Defined

EDS
All Rights Reserved

RGB+Noise
FS RGB
FS RGB+Noise
Monochrome
Gray Scale
Nearest RGB
Ordered Dither
TC+Noise

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-9

17

Visualization Techniques

If the Image Size is set to User Defined, the Resolution (DPI, Dots Per Inch),
Plot Quality, X Size and Y Size options become available.

17

Fine
Medium
Rough
Coarse

Draft
Low
Medium
High
User Defined

The Generate Shadows option allows the concept of generating shadows. This
option, specified on its own, will not turn shadows on. In order to turn shadows
on, the light source must have the shadow option turned on AND Generate
Shadows must be turned on in the Setup menu.
The Facets slider controls the fineness of rendered shapes; Smooth will
generate a finer rendering, but processing time will increase.
The Use Sub Region feature allows you to shade only one area of the scene at a
time. This is useful when you have a complex model with many different types
of materials and textures applied, and you want to test the shading of only one
area of the scene.

The option Allow Sub Region


shades only the portion you
define

17-10

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

In the Setup dialog, Advanced Setup contains several useful options:


Allow Transparent Shadows allows you to designate transparent shadows
or colored shadows through transparent objects.

Without Transparent Shadows

17

With Transparent Shadows

The Disable Raytracing toggle allows you to bypass raytracing. For highly
complex images, this feature can boost performance with either
Photo-Realistic or Improved rendering methods, at the expense of
reflections.
Super Sampling improves image appearance by reducing the effects of
aliasing. To accomplish this, an image is first produced at a higher
resolution, then the image is scaled down by averaging the pixel values.
The Import and Export options provide a means of customizing Material,
Texture, and Light configurations by either retrieving them from other
files/directories (Importing) or saving them to a subdirectory for use in another
part file (Exporting).
The Preview option works in conjunction with the icons displayed in the dialog.

Block

Cylinder

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Cone

Sphere

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-11

Visualization Techniques

This provides a means of previewing your current materials, textures,


background, and lighting on a variety of different geometric shapes, by invoking
a variety of shading actions. This function is also available as an icon on the
Visualize Shape toolbar. The primitive solids preview the way the assigned
material will display and the effects of the prescribed lighting.

17

Small
Medium
Large

The dialog displays the materials and textures assigned to the model. Here, you
may also specify the size of the preview display.
The Information option provides information regarding the shading process or
specified set-up parameters. The following information is displayed:

17-12

Set-up Information

Image Information

View Information

Timing Information

Part Defaults

Materials specified

Textures specified

Lights specified

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Action Options
The Save option allows you to save an image as a file in your home directory.
The Save option is normally grayed out and becomes active only after a shade
operation has occurred.

17

You may name the image file any way you'd like; the three supported options
for image extensions are .tif, .gif, and .jpg.
The List Files option displays a listing of the directory where the image is saved.
Also, by toggling Compress image to ON, you may compress a large image file
by approximately 80%.
The Plot option allows you to send the image to a plotter. With this dialog, you
may control the resolution and quality of the plot.
Draft
Low
Medium
High
User Defined
Fine
Medium
Rough
Coarse

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-13

Visualization Techniques

When Plot Quality is set to User Defined, a DPI (dots per inch) value may be
keyed into the data entry field. When generating an image for plotting, you
should set the Image Size option to User Defined; then set the X Size and Y
Size fields to fairly large values based on the size of the intended image. If the
image pixel count is too low, the output image quality of the plot will not be
optimal.
For example, if an image size is 12 inches by 9 inches and the desired resolution
is 300 dpi, the X Size value should be set to 3600 (12 inches multiplied by
300 dpi = 3600 pixels) and the Y Size value should be set to 2700 (9 inches
multiplied by 300 dpi = 2700 pixels).

17

17-14

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Adding Materials and Textures

17

Adding Materials and Textures to part geometry is the first step toward creating
realistic images. The Materials/Textures dialog is designed to assign materials
and textures to geometry within the part, while also performing the editing
functions.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-15

Visualization Techniques

The dialog may be expanded by choosing More Options. The dialog contains
three basic sections:

Materials/Textures
Categories
Provides a list of
Material/Texture
options

17

Allows creation,
rename and
delete operations

Materials/Textures
Usage
Assignment of
Materials/Textures
to geometry

Edit
Materials/Textures
This section may be
opened or closed using
More Options/Less Options
to display edit parameters

17-16

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Procedure
To add Material and Texture to geometry:


First, select a category at the top of the dialog.

Select an appropriate material or texture from the displayed list.

Select another category (if applicable).

Select an appropriate material or texture from the displayed list (if


applicable).

Select the intended geometry from the graphics screen.

Choose OK or Apply to assign the selected properties.

NOTE

Assigning the material or texture None to an object clears


the association of that body or face to any material or
texture previously specified. Use this technique to clear
out any assigned materials or textures.

Materials/Textures Categories
Materials and Textures are divided into categories for ease in organization. The
basic categories are:


Metals

Plastic

Glass

Other

Finish

Pattern

Archive

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-17

17

Visualization Techniques

Once a category is selected, all available materials or textures within that


category are shown in the list box. Additional materials and textures may be
imported using the Import tool within the High Quality Image shading feature.

17

List box

Toggling Face Selection On allows you to specify a material or texture for only a
specified face or faces of a solid, rather than the entire solid body. If you think
there may be a later change to any of the individual faces, the procedure is
simplified if Face Selection was ON during the original assignment.

17-18

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Materials
The Materials portion of the dialog is shown below.

Material Types

17

Constant

Single, unchanging color

Matte

Dull, non-shiny surface

Metal

Simple simulation of metal surfaces

Phong

A variation on plastic

Plastic

Basic plastic look

Conductor

More accurate metals

Dielectric

More detailed glass

Environment

Simplified background reflections

Glass

Simple simulation of glass

Mirror

Basic mirror look

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-19

Visualization Techniques

Materials are assigned in accordance with the way light reflects off the
geometry. The main parameters of Materials are:

17

Ambient Factor-The amount of ambient, or global, light reflected


from the surface. This is a floating point value in the range 0.0-1.5.
The Ambient Factor determines the overall brightness of the object,
even when it is in shadow.

Diffuse Factor-Specifies the amount of diffuse light reflected from


the surface. Diffuse light describes light that is scattered in all
directions from a surface. Rough surfaces have higher values of
Diffuse Factor than smooth, polished surfaces.

Specular Factor-Specifies the amount of specular light reflected from


the surface. Specular reflection refers to light reflecting off a surface
in a single direction, where the maximum reflection occurs when the
angle between the incident light and the angle to the eye are the same.
Polished surfaces have high Specular Factors.

Roughness-Controls the sharpness of the specular highlight. A small


Roughness value provides sharp reflections. A larger Roughness value
creates a broader, more diffuse highlight.

Other parameters of Materials are:

17-20

Translucency-Specifies the amount of light that can pass through the


object, from completely opaque to completely transparent. This option
is available for plastic finishes only.

Mirror Factor-Controls the amount of mirrored or reflected light


seen on the surface. A small value means less light is being reflected
from the surface, while larger values indicate that nearly all the light is
bouncing off the surface.

Index of Refraction-Specifies the average index of refraction for any


wavelength of light. A low value yields no bending or refraction, while
a higher value yields more refraction.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

The Diffuse Factor is the simulation of light bouncing off of a rough surface. In
this situation, light is scattered in many directions.

Incoming Light

Reflected (Diffuse) Light

17

Diffuse Factor=0.1

Diffuse Factor=0.25

Diffuse Factor=0.5

Diffuse Factor=1.0

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-21

Visualization Techniques

The Specular Factor is the simulation of light bouncing off of a smooth surface.
In this situation, bright highlights are created.
The Specular Color controls the RGB color of the highlights. The values for
specular color filter the light source color in order to control the color of the
highlight. For plastic-like materials, the specular color should be white. For
more metallic-like materials, the specular color should match the color of the
material.

17

Specular Reflection (Smooth Surfaces)

17-22

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Specular Factor=0.1

17

Specular Factor=0.25

Specular Factor=0.5

Specular Factor=1.0

Generally, objects are either more Diffuse or more Specular. When setting the
Diffuse and Specular Factors of objects and scenes, the Diffuse Factor may
generally be thought of as 1.0 minus the Specular Factor or:
Diffuse Factor = 1.0 - Specular Factor
The Mirror Factor is related to the Specular Factor. As the Mirror Factor is
increased or decreased, you should do the same to the Specular Factor to keep
the scene or object balanced.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-23

Visualization Techniques

The Roughness controls the sharpness of the highlight.

17

Roughness Factor=0.001 Roughness Factor=0.01

Roughness Factor=0.5

Roughness Factor=0.1

Roughness Factor=1.0

Since the Diffuse Factor is related to the way light bounces off of rough
surfaces, higher Diffuse Factors would also result in higher Roughness Factors.

17-24

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Textures
There are two types of textures in UG Render, Procedural Textures and
Wrapped Textures. Procedural Textures are made up of three-dimensional
mathematical functions such as Rough and Cast, while Wrapped Textures
consist of projected two-dimensional images and require definition of a
Texture Space. Examples of Wrapped Textures are Wrapped Images and
Wrapped Grids.

17

2D Image Map-Wrapped Texture


3D Procedural Texture

The Textures portion of the dialog is shown below.

General

Bumps
Pattern

Transparency
Texture Space

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-25

Visualization Techniques

Texture Space
The Texture Space option allows you to map specific images for use in lieu of a
standard texture. You may also control the way the mapped image is to be
spaced on the object or face, once applied.
Arbitrary Plane
Cylindrical
Spherical
WCS Auto Axis
Uv

17

There are several different types of texture mapping. They are listed and
pictured below:


Arbitrary Plane-A texture space where points are mapped onto a


user defined plane. The desired plane is specified, along with a center
point, an up vector, and a vector normal to the plane.

Cylindrical-A texture space where all points are mapped onto a


cylinder. The cylinder is defined by a center point and a vector along
the axis.

Image to be
mapped

Cylindrical object
or face

17-26

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques


Spherical-A texture map where all points are mapped onto a sphere.
The sphere is defined by a center point and a vector pointing to the
north pole of the sphere.

Final imagetexture mapped


to the surface

Image to be
mapped
Spherical object
or face


WCS Auto Axis-A texture space where all points are mapped onto a
plane. The texture space selects one of the three coordinate axes,
based on the surface normal, then performs a planar mapping.

NOTE

WCS Auto Axis uses the global coordinate system of the


model. The default texture space is WCS Auto Axis.

Uv-Uv texture space provides a surface space" mapping technique


that may be more suitable than projective mapping methods when
dealing with irregular or highly complex curved shapes. The U Scale
and V Scale parameters control the size or number of copies of the
texture in the U or V direction. The U Offset and V Offset parameters
control the location of the texture.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-27

17

Visualization Techniques

Bump Maps
Bump Maps, or Displacement Textures, are mapped images that are used to
change the surface normals. Bump Maps, mapped to an object or face, will
make the surface look rough or patterned.

None
Cast
Rough
Wrapped
Wrapped
Wrapped
Wrapped
Wrapped

17

Dimple
Rough
Image
Knurl
Tread

Low
Medium
Medium High
High
Very High
Very Sharp
Sharp
Moderate
Smooth
Very Smooth

17-28

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

The Type option controls the kind of displacement. The default Type is None.
The following are the types of displacement mapping available.
None

No bump mapping

Cast

Various sized bumps & depressions for a cast look

Rough

Random bumps

Wrapped Dimple

Circular bumps

Wrapped Rough

Random bumps that may be oriented & stretched

Wrapped Bump Map

Uses an image file for the bump map

Wrapped Knurl

Diamond shaped bumps

Wrapped Tread

A pattern of cylindrical bumps

Depending upon the type of Bump Map selected, certain options will be
available and others will be grayed out (unavailable).

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-29

17


17

Visualization Techniques

The types of Bumps are listed below.


Scale

Determines the overall size of the bumps, and is enabled for all types of bump maps.
The Scale may be of any value, so you have the option of either entering a value or
using the arrows. The Up arrow doubles the scale, while the Down arrow halves it.

Bump Size

Enabled for Cast, Wrapped Tread, Wrapped Knurl, Rough, Wrapped Rough and
Wrapped Bump Map types, and is controlled by a slider. This option determines the
basic amplitude or size of a bump.

Dent Size

This option is only enabled for Cast type bump maps, and is controlled by a slider.
This option determines the size of depressions in the cast surface.

Threshold

This option is only enabled for Cast type bump maps, and is controlled by a slider.
This option determines the relationship between the number of bumps and dents.

Blend

Enabled for Wrapped Dimple, Wrapped Tread, and Wrapped Knurl types of bump
maps, and is controlled by a slider. This option determines the look of the transition
between bumps. For example, in the case of Wrapped Knurl, Blend controls the look
of the transition from pyramid to cone.

Radius

Enabled for Wrapped Dimple and Wrapped Tread, and is controlled by a slider. This
option determines the size of the bumps.

Depth

Enabled only for Wrapped Dimple type bump maps, and is controlled by a slider.
This option determines the depth of the bumps as a percentage of the radius.

Separation

Enabled for Wrapped Dimple and Wrapped Tread. This option determines the
spacing between bumps as a factor of the radius.

Detail

Enabled for Rough, Wrapped Rough, and Cast types of bump maps. This option
determines the amount of detail in the bumps. The available settings are Low,
Medium, Medium High, High, and Very High.

Sharpness

Enabled for Rough and Wrapped Rough types of bump maps. This option
determines the appearance of bumps, either sharp" or rounded." The available
settings are Very Smooth, Smooth, Medium, Sharp, and Very Sharp.

Image

Enabled only for the Wrapped Bump Map type. Choosing this option displays a file
selection dialog, which allows selection of a TIFF file to use for the bump map.

17-30

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

The following figures illustrate the ranges in appearance of several of the


available parameters with the Cast texture.

Cast Texture Parameters


Bump Size

17

Bump size, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0

Dent Size

Dent size, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0

Detail

Detail values, ranging from Low to Very High

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-31

Visualization Techniques

Rough Texture Parameters


Bump Size

17

Bump size, ranging from low to high

Detail

Detail values, ranging from Low to Very High

Sharpness

Sharpness values, ranging from Very Sharp to Very Smooth

Scale

Scale values, from low to high

17-32

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

The Wrapped Dimple, Wrapped Knurl, and Wrapped Tread Bump Maps are
shown below.

Wrapped Dimple

Wrapped Knurl

17

Wrapped Tread

Image Bump Maps allow you to select a TIFF image from a directory for
mapping. The system uses the gradient, or color change, from a two
dimensional image to map the three dimensional image.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-33

Visualization Techniques

Pattern Textures
Pattern Textures are images applied to an object or face as a texture.
None
Blue Marble(HQI Only)
Solid Cubes(HQI Only)
Solid Clouds(HQI Only)
Wrapped Checker(HQI Only)
Wrapped Diagonal(HQI Only)
Wrapped Grid(HQI Only)
Wrapped S Stripe(HQI Only)
Wrapped T Stripe(HQI Only)
Wrapped Image

17

Low
Medium
Medium High
High
Very High
Tile
Mirror
Single Image

17-34

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

The Type option controls the type of pattern texture that is applied to the face
or object. The following pattern types are available:
None

No pattern texture is applied

Blue Marble

A blue marble-like texture

Solid Cubes

3D Checkerboard

Solid Clouds

A random pattern similar to sky and clouds

Wrapped Checker

2D Checkerboard

Wrapped Diagonal

Diagonal stripes

Wrapped Grid

Rectangular grid of stripes

Wrapped S Stripe

UV space stripes

Wrapped T Stripe

UV space stripes

Wrapped Image

Uses a TIFF or other raster file for the pattern texture

17

Depending upon the type of Pattern Texture selected, certain options will be
available and others will be grayed out (unavailable).

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-35


17

Visualization Techniques

The types of Patterns are listed below.


Pattern Color

Enabled for all pattern types except Blue Marble and Wrapped Image. Choosing this
option displays a basic color selection dialog, which allows you to specify the color
to be mixed with the material color to create the pattern.

Scale

Enabled for every pattern type except Wrapped Image, and determines the size of
the pattern. The Scale may be any value, so you may either enter a value or use the
arrows. The Up arrow doubles the value and the Down arrow halves it.

Width

Enabled for Wrapped Diagonal, Wrapped Grid, and the Wrapped S and T Stripes
pattern types, and is controlled by a slider. This option determines the width of the
material space inside the grid.

Height

Enabled only for the Wrapped Grid pattern, and is controlled by a slider. This option
determines the height of the material space inside the grid.

Line Width

Enabled for all grids and stripes, and is controlled by a slider. This option determines
the line width of the grid stripes as a percentage of the texture space.

Fuzz

Enabled for Wrapped Diagonal and Wrapped S and T Stripes pattern types, and is
controlled by a slider. Determines the look of the edge of the line, from crisp to fuzzy.

Detail

Enabled only for the Solid Clouds pattern. Determines the amount of variation in the
pattern. The available choices are Low, Medium, Medium High, High, and Very High.

Mode

Enabled only for the Wrapped Image pattern type. Determines if a single copy of the
image or multiple copies will be used in the texture. The following options are
available:
STile-Creates multiple copies
SMirror-Creates multiple copies, where the copies are flipped and mirrored to
match adjacent edges
SSingle Image-Only one copy of the image is placed

The Image option is only enabled for the Wrapped Image pattern type.
Choosing this option will display a file selection dialog which allows selection of
an image texture map from an outside directory.
The TIFF Palette contains a database of known materials and several choices
for each of the available materials. The materials included are: Floor, Metallic,
Natural, Paper, Pattern, Rock, Sky, Wall, Wood, Woven, Tree, and Other.

17-36

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

In the illustration below, you will see several of the different Pattern Types
applied to a cylindrical body. All Pattern Types, excluding Wrapped Image,
require High Quality Image shading to observe the application.

17

Blue Marble

Wrapped Diagonal

Solid Clouds

Wrapped Grid

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Wrapped Checker

Wrapped Image

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-37

Visualization Techniques

Transparency Textures
This dialog controls the transparency properties for a texture. The
Transparency Type specifies which kind of transparency to apply. The default
option is None.

17

None
Eroded (HQI Only)
Wrapped Grid (HQI Only)
Wrapped Image
Wrapped Stencil
Glow (HQI Only)

17-38

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

The following Transparency types are available:


None

No transparency

Eroded

The eroded transparency texture operates as a stencil that creates the illusion of
erosion on a surface. The amount of affected surface may be controlled, as can
the size of each area of erosion and the fuzziness of the edges.

Wrapped Grid

This option provides a transparent grid pattern in texture space. The grid
appears opaque, with the holes in the grid appearing transparent. Good choice if
you want to see through an outer surface toward interior parts.

Wrapped Image

Used to map the color of a saved image file into transparency and place that
transparency onto a surface.

Wrapped Stencil

Allows you to create complex logos and lettering stencils using TIFF, BMP, Targa
Postscript raster or LWI image files. The system uses the image to create a
stencil, in which some parts are completely transparent. The stencil may then be
used as a mask, in front of colored or complex objects. In this case, all black
pixels in the mask image result in a transparent surface and all white pixels are
visible. Gray values between black and white, result in partially transparent
surfaces, and may be utilized for anti-aliasing. The masking technique requires
two images, a stencil mask image in black and white and a color image for the
output color.

Glow

Creates a glow effect, similar to atmospheric scattering around a light source.

Depending upon the type of Transparency Texture selected, certain options will
be available and others will be grayed out (unavailable).

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-39

17


17

Visualization Techniques

The types of Transparency are listed below.


Scale

Enabled for Eroded, Glow, and Wrapped Grid types. Determines the size of the
image or pattern applied to the object. The Scale may be any value, so you may
either enter a value or use the arrow keys. The Up arrow doubles the scale, while the
Down arrow halves it.

Width

Enabled for Wrapped Grid type only, and is controlled with a slider. Determines the
width of a cell in the grid.

Height

Enabled for Wrapped Grid type only, and is controlled with a slider. Determines the
height of a cell in the grid.

Line Width

Enabled for Wrapped Grid type only, and is controlled with a slider. Determines the
width of the lines separating the grid cells.

Coverage

Enabled for Eroded type only, and is controlled with a slider. Determines how much
of the geometry is affected.

Fuzz

Enabled for Eroded type only, and is controlled with a slider. Determines how distinct
the eroded edges are.

Center
Density

Enabled for Glow type only, and is controlled with a slider. This option controls the

Edge Density

Enabled for Glow type only, and is controlled with a slider. This option controls the

density of the color in the center of the glow.


density of the color at the edges of the glow.

Zero Angle

Enabled for Glow type only, and is controlled with a slider. This option controls the
angle, measured from the center of the glow, at which the glow fades away.

Edge Falloff

Enabled for Glow type only, and is controlled with a slider. This option controls how
quickly the glow fades at the edges.

Noise Level

Enabled for Glow type only, and is controlled with a slider. This option controls the
consistency of the glow. A larger Noise Level will produce a blotchy appearance
(depending upon the Scale setting, a Scale value of 1.0 or less will produce larger
blotches)

Transparency

Enabled for Wrapped Grid and Eroded types, and is controlled with a slider.
Determines how transparent the surface will appear.

The Image option is only enabled for the Wrapped Image and Wrapped Stencil
types. Choosing this option will display a file selection dialog which allows
selection of an image from an outside directory.

17-40

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Materials and Textures Tips




Make sure to add realistic details that the eye expects to see, such as
seams, lettering, bevels, blends, weld lines, glue lines, caulking, screws,
etc.

Remember that bevels and blends are especially important on dark


objects so that the highlights may help define the shape of the object.

Model or texture map dents and dings to objects (where applicable) to


help age" them.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-41

17

Visualization Techniques

Activity 17-1: Adding Materials and Textures

In this activity, you will experiment with adding various Materials and Textures
to provided geometry.
Step 1 Open the part ids_vis_1.prt and rename the part file
using your initials (***_vis_1.prt) Start the Shape Studio
application.

17

Slide
Orange sphere

Blue sphere

Supporting
Channels

Red sphere

White sphere

Step 2 Assign Materials to the slide and sphere geometry.




Make sure that your file is in the Studio Display Mode.

From the Visualize Shape toolbar, choose


Materials/Textures.

17-42

Choose Finish and select Smooth.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques


Choose Metals and select Silver.

Select the Orange sphere and choose Apply.

For the Blue sphere, choose Metals and select Copper.


Choose Apply.

For the Red sphere, choose Glass and select ball_1. Choose
Apply.

For the White sphere, choose Plastic and select White.


Choose Apply.

For the Slide, choose Metals and select Gold. Choose Apply.

For the two Supporting Channels, choose Metals and select


Titanium. Choose Apply.

Notice the cyan surface. This will be used as the base or floor,
which will allow production of shadows and reflections when a
High Quality Image is rendered.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-43

17

Visualization Techniques

Step 3 Assign Textures to the slide and sphere geometry.

17

If the Materials/Textures dialog is not invoked, choose the


icon.

Choose Plastic and select Yellow.

Choose Finish and select Smooth.

Now you will Copy the Smooth texture to create a new


texture (for the base), to which you will map a TIFF Image.
In the Texture text box, replace Smooth" with base."

Choose the Copy icon and choose Apply.

Notice that
base" was
added to
the list of
finishes

Copy

Replace
Smooth"
with base"

17-44

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

A TIFF image will now be added to the base" finish.


Choose More Options.

Choose the Pattern icon and select Wrapped Image as the


Type.

Pattern

17

Choose
Wrapped
Image

Now a user defined TIFF image or image from the supplied


TIFF Palette may be selected. Choose TIFF Palette at the
bottom of the dialog.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-45

Visualization Techniques


Choose Wood and select the light pine. Choose OK.

Choose Wood

17

Select the
light pine

NOTE

17-46

Select the cyan sheet body in the graphics window and


choose Apply.

If the dialog is too large for you to choose Apply at the


bottom, choose Less Options and the dialog will resize.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

You can use the Texture Space options to customize the


applied TIFF image. Choose Texture Space from the Edit
portion of the dialog. The Texture Space options are
automatically displayed at the bottom of the dialog.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-47

17

Visualization Techniques

Choose
Texture
Space

17

Use the Texture Space options to experiment with changes to


the applied TIFF image. Adjust the UV Scale, slider bars,
and change the Type options.

Step 4 Render the image.




From the Visualize Shape toolbar, choose


High Quality Image.

17-48

Choose Gouraud as the Rendering Method.

Choose Shade in the Setup portion of the menu.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

17

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-49

Visualization Techniques


Toggle Generate Shadows ON and choose OK.

Choose Start Shade.

17

17-50

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

The image processed very quickly, but it is very rough. Even


though you toggled Generate Shadows ON, there are no
shadows displayed because the Gouraud rendering method does
not support shadows.
Let's observe the result when using a more detailed rendering
method.


Choose Erase Shade.

Change the rendering method to Photo-Realistic and


choose Start Shade.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17

17-51

Visualization Techniques

17

The rendering method made quite a difference in the final


rendering of the image. Now shadows and more detail are
displayed in the image; however, the processing time increased
with the Photo-Realistic rendering method. If you'd like,
experiment with some of the other rendering methods.
Step 5 Save and close the part. This part file will be used in the
next section.
This concludes activity 17-1.

17-52

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Lights
The Lights dialog is used to create, enable, disable, and manipulate the lighting
scheme for the scene. Visualize Shape lighting allows for dynamic, real-time
manipulation of the type, position, color, and intensity of light sources.

17

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-53

Visualization Techniques

Lighting may be used to highlight certain features within a scene,

17

or to simply flood the entire scene with light:

17-54

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

The Lights dialog has three basic sections:

17

Light Specification/
Enabling

Light Color & Intensity

Light Positioning

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-55

Visualization Techniques

Light Specification/Enabling
These options provide for the creation, copying, and deletion of light sources,
activation and deactivation of both default and user defined light sources, and
information about lighting schemes.
The upper portion of the dialog is divided into two listings:

17

On-This list contains the names of all lights that are active in the
current view. To remove a light source from the view, first choose the
icon from the On box; then choose the Down arrow at the right of the
dialog. The icon will appear in the Off box below.

Off-This list contains the names of all lights that are available to be
used. To turn a light source on, choose the icon from the Off box, then
choose the Up arrow at the right of the dialog. The icon will appear in
the On box above.

Up and Down
arrows

Selected Light
All Lights
No Lights

New

Copy

Delete
Information

Ambient Light
Distant Light
Eye Light
Point Light
Spot Light
Scene Light
Reset to
Scene
Reset to Lights
Default
Lights

You may create new lights by using the New option. After choosing the icon,
change the Name and Type (if desired), and choose Apply. If the name already
exists, the operation is ignored.

17-56

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Copy is used to create a copy of an existing light. First, select the light you wish
to copy, then choose the Copy icon. Next, enter the new Name (if desired) and
select Apply. The selected light and parameters are copied into the new light
under the new name.
There are five basic types of lights that may be defined in a scene. They are
shown below.
Light Type

Description

Ambient

An Ambient Light provides global illumination for the scene. This light does not cause
shadows and illuminates all objects equally, regardless of the orientation. You may
control the intensity and color of the light.

Eye

An Eye Light source is located at the viewpoint, or directly on the Z axis of the screen.
You may control the intensity and color of the light. This type of light does not cause
shadows in the scene.

Distant

A Distant Light is a light source such as the sun, which may be thought of as being lo
cated infinitely far away. You may control the intensity, color, and a vector that defines the
direction of the light. This light can cast shadows (only shown in High Quality Image
shading) and requires the least computation to determine shadowing.

Point

A Point Light emits light equally in all directions. You may specify the location, intensity,
and color of the light, and set it to generate shadows (only in High Quality Image
shading). The default position for Point Lights is the right-hand corner of the view.

Spot

A Spot Light is similar to a Point Light source, except that it is constrained by a cone
shape. You may specify the location, intensity, and color of the light, and set it to gener
ate shadows (only in High Quality Image shading). The default position for Spot Lights is
in the upper right corner of the view. The default target position is the center of the view.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-57

17

Visualization Techniques

The icons for the five basic light types are shown below.

17

Ambient

Eye

Distant

Point

Spot

Every new part includes a pre-defined set of lights for general usage. These
lights should provide most users with every type of light needed to set up
lighting for a scene or High Quality Image. This set of lights contains at least
one of each of the five basic light types, and is grouped into two subsets called
Default Lights and Standard Lights.
Default Lights Set
Each new part includes a Default Set of lights for basic use. These lights are
turned on when a new scene is created. The Default Set consists of two lights,
each with the word default" in their names. Also, if there are no lights turned
on and OK or Apply is selected, the Default Lights Set is turned back on to
ensure that parts are not saved without a light source.
The Default Set contains the following lights:


Default 1 Ambient-An ambient light source with an intensity of 0.2.

Default 2 Up-Right Dist-A distant light source with an intensity of


1.0, fixed to observer and located just off the user's right shoulder.

NOTE

17-58

The Default lights may be edited for color and/or


intensity, but their names and types may not be changed.
Also, they may not be deleted because they are required
to perform the operation Reset to Default Lights. If you
try to delete them, an error message will appear and the
operation will be cancelled.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Standard Lights Set


The Standard Lights Set contains the following lights:


Std Eye-An Eye Light source with an intensity of 1.0.

Std Z Dist-Distant Light sources with an intensity of 1.0, looking


directly down the Z axis.

Std Z Point-Point Light source with an intensity of 1.0, located at the


default position for point lights.

Std Z Spot-Spot Light with an intensity of 1.0, located at the default


position for spot lights.

Std Up-Right Dist-Distant Light source with an intensity of 0.7,


fixed to observer and located in screen coordinates just off the user's
right shoulder.

Std Up-Left Dist-Distant Light source with an intensity of 0.7, fixed


to observer and located in screen coordinates just off the user's left
shoulder.

Light Color and Intensity


These options provide the means for designating the color and strength of any
specified light source. When specifying light Intensity, values range from 1.00
for the highest intensity to zero for the lowest intensity. The Intensity changes
dynamically as you move the slider. After setting the intensity, choose OK or
Apply to save the change.
The Intensity Factor allows you to set the Intensity of a light to a value greater
than 1.0. With this option, you may multiply the intensity set by the slider by a
factor of either 10x, 100x, or 1000x. This option is only required with a fast
Intensity Fall Off and is available when the Intensity Fall Off is set to something
other than Constant.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-59

17

Visualization Techniques
Clicking on this field invokes
the Color Palette
None
10x
100x
1000x

Constant

17

Inverse
Linear

Constant, then
Inverse Square
Inverse
Square

Constant,
then
Inverse
Linear

Intensity
Fall Off

The Intensity Fall Off allows you to control how the intensity of the light
decreases as it moves away from the source. The available options are:


Constant-The Intensity remains constant for the entire distance of


the light beam.

Inverse Linear-The Intensity decreases linearly with the distance


from the light source.

Inverse Square-The Intensity decreases exponentially with the


distance from the light source.

Constant, then Inverse Linear-The Intensity remains constant for the


distance between zero and 1.0, then decreases linearly.

Constant, then Inverse Square-The Intensity remains constant for the


distance between zero and 1.0, then decreases exponentially.

Since the last two options (Constant, then Inverse Linear and Constant, then
Inverse Square) prevent a massive increase in intensity for distances close to
the light, they are useful effects when placing a light inside a scene. These
effects prevent objects close to the light source from being washed out. The
effects of the last two options are visible only when using High Quality Image
shading.

17-60

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Light Operations
To select a light, choose the icon from either the On or Off List. The name then
displays in the text field labeled Name. At this point, any operations you choose
are applied to the selected light.
The Show option controls how the active lights are displayed in the graphics
window. Options are: Selected Light, which is the light whose name appears in
the Name text field, All Lights, or No Lights. When a light is displayed in the
graphics window, it is represented by a visible object. These objects are shown
in the figure on the next page.

Distant Light

Spot Light

Point Light

NOTE

Ambient and Eye Lights do not have associated object


displays. Ambient light has no position or direction, and
Eye Lights are located directly along the Z axis, relative
to the screen, at a position where the user is located.
Neither light type is displayed in the graphics window.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-61

17

Visualization Techniques

Light Positioning (Editing Lights)

17

17-62

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

The Light Positioning options are available using the expandable arrow at the
bottom of the dialog. These options allow various opportunities for positioning
and editing both sources of lights and their targets. This portion of the dialog
allows dynamic, real-time feedback so that you may observe immediate results
while positioning the light sources.
Rotate Source
about Target

Drag
Source

Drag
Direction Vector
Fixed to Observer
Fixed to Part

Drag
Target

17

Stretch Spot Cone

None
Gradual
Rapid
Coarse
Standard
Fine
Extra Fine
Ray Traced
Hard
Standard Soft
Extra Soft
Ultra Soft

The Position option specifies how the orientation of the light source is affected
during view rotations. When Fixed to Part is selected, the light source remains
fixed with respect to the WCS. Performing a view rotation rotates the light
direction as a component of the part.
When Fixed to Observer is selected, the light source is fixed to the observer (in
screen space), and not to the WCS of the part. Rotating the view has the effect
of rotating the objects in the view, but leaving the light source fixed.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-63


17

Visualization Techniques

Dynamic Light Positioning


The Dynamic Light Positioning system allows you to move the lights inside the
display window by clicking and dragging the light objects displayed in the work
view. Within the Dynamic Light Positioning system, there are five different
operations you may perform. They are listed below.
Option

Description
This operation repositions the destination point of the light beam, while the source point
remains stationary. This option is provided for Spot Lights only.

Drag Target

Rotate Source

Drag Source

Drag Direction
Vector
Stretch Spot
Cone
NOTE

This option rotates the source point, while keeping the destination point stationary and
the distance between the source point and the destination point constant for Spot Lights.
This operation rotates the direction vector for Distant Lights, and rotates the source point,
while keeping the distance between the source and the origin constant for Point Lights.
This provides a method for pushing and pulling a light source.
For Spot Lights, this operation allows you to reposition the source point of the light
beam, while the destination point remains stationary. For Point Lights, this operation al
lows you to move the source point. This provides a method for moving the light source
on a fixed plane, parallel to the screen.
For Spot Lights, this operation moves both the source point and the destination point at
the same time, keeping both the angle and the distance between them constant. For Dis
tant Lights, this operation drags the source, keeping the direction vector constant. For
Distant Lights, you may use this option to move the light source to a desired position.
However, dragging a Distant Light's direction vector will not change the lighting effect in
the scene since the light direction doesn't change.
This operation changes the angle of the cone of light emitted by a Spot Light.

The starting position for Spot and Point lights should


remain close to the model. This way, it is more difficult
for the view's clipping planes to clip away the light object
display. Also, it is easier to move lights dynamically when
they are closer to the part.

There are several options for editing lights at the bottom of the expanded
dialog. These options are defined below.
Cone Angle is the angle of the cone, within which light is emitted for a Spot
Light. The angle is measured in degrees, with a range from zero to 180.
Delta Angle is the angle inside the Cone Angle where the light intensity starts to
fall off. Light will be constant from the center of the cone to the Cone Angle
(Delta Angle), then will fall off to zero at the rate determined by the Beam Fall
Off setting.

17-64

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Beam Fall Off determines the fall off ratio from within the cone described by
Cone Angle. Available options are None, Gradual, and Rapid. The option None
provides uniform intensity across the beam interior. Gradual decreases linearly
with the distance from the center of the cone, and Rapid decreases
exponentially with the distance from the center of the cone.
Shadows controls the generation of shadow information for a particular light
source. Shadows are only calculated for a light source if this parameter is set to
On and shadows are requested in the Setup Shade option of the High Quality
Image dialog. The Shadows toggle is sensitive for Spot, Distant, and Point
lights, but not for Ambient or Eye lights (which do not create shadows).
Light Scattering creates an effect of atmospheric scattering of light. This is an
option provided to increase performance, and as the value increases, aliasing
effects become more pronounced. A value near zero would result in an image
lacking any volumetric effects.
Control of this option is located in the Visual Effects-Foreground dialog;
however, in the Lights dialog, you may enable or disable light scattering for a
particular light.
Detail controls the resolution of shadows. There are five settings offered:


Coarse

Standard

Fine

Extra Fine

Ray Traced-Produces the sharpest and clearest resolution

Edges controls the resolution of shadow edges generated for the chosen light
source. There are four settings offered:


Hard-Produces a distinct line at the shadow edge

Standard Soft

Extra Soft

Ultra Soft-Produces softer edges

The Edges option is available for Spot, Distant, and Point lights, but not for
Ambient and Eye lights (which do not create shadows).

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-65

17

Visualization Techniques

Reset to Default Actions


At any time, you may reverse changes you have made to the light setup. There
are two options available: Reset to Default Lights and Reset to Default
Options.
Reset to Default Lights activates the two default lights, deactivates all other
lights that may have been set, and resets all option values to the default
settings.

17

Reset to Default Options allows you to reset all of the changes you may have
made to the option values for a selected light. All option settings for that
particular light return to default values.
NOTE

17-66

The main difference between Reset to Default Lights and


Reset to Default Options is that Reset to Default Lights
turns lights on and off, whereas Reset to Default Options
simply changes the option settings for a selected light.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Lighting Tips


Generally use one primary light source for a scene, then fill in with
one or two fill lights.

Fill lights have a reduced intensity and are set to illuminate parts of
the object not under direct lighting from the primary source.

For performance reasons, use Distant and Spot lights when possible
and avoid excessive use of Point lights.

Lights should almost never be white. In most cases, you should either
warm or cool the light color, depending upon the desired look.

You may want to use colored fill lights to simulate edge bleeding and
soften the product edges.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-67

17

Visualization Techniques

Activity 17-2: Assigning Lighting

In this activity you will assign Light sources to the slide and sphere geometry
from the previous activity.
Step 1 Open the part ***_vis_1.prt or open ids_vis_2.prt and
start the Shape Studio application.

17

Step 2 Assign various Lights to the scene.




From the Visualize Shape toolbar, choose


Advanced Lights.

17-68

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques


Experiment with turning ON and OFF different lighting


effects. Select an activated light and choose the More
Options arrow. Here, you will see various options for
positioning light sources. Experiment with positioning the
lights and changing the color and intensity.

To view the image after setting up a lighting scheme, choose


the High Quality Image icon, choose a rendering method,
and choose Start Shade. Remember to toggle Generate
Shadows ON (in the Setup portion of the High Quality
Image dialog).

Step 3 When you have achieved a lighting scene that you're


satisfied with, Save and close the part.
This concludes activity 17-2.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-69

17

Visualization Techniques

Visual Effects
The final step of setting up a scene is adding Visual Effects, such as foreground,
background, environmental factors, and any special optical effects. Within
Visualize Shape, the Visual Effects dialog controls these options.

17

17-70

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

The Visual Effects dialog is split into four sections, Foreground, Background,
Environment, and Effects.

17

Foreground

The Foreground Visual Effect may be defined as the area of the scene which
includes all Unigraphics geometry.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-71

Visualization Techniques

None
Fog
Depth Cue
Ground Fog
Snow
TIFF Image
Light Scatter

Low
Medium-Low
Medium
Medium-High
High
Very High

17

17-72

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

There are several types of Foreground effect. They include the following:
None

No Visual Effects are applied to the foreground.

Fog

This option provides exponential attenuation of color as the distance is modified.


You may use this option to simulate a diffuse atmosphere. When observing the
scene with Fog applied, only the geometry is affected by the Fog. Fog has two
parameters:
Distance-represents the distance at which Fog begins to take effect
Fog Color-becomes less dominant as the Distance parameter increases

Depth Cue

Similar to the Fog foreground type. Provides a linear attenuation of color within a
specified range. It interpolates between a specified Target Color within a range of
distances (near to far). The parameters are:
Near Distance-minimum distance for the Depth Cue effect
Far Distance-maximum distance for the Depth Cue effect
Target Color-color for the effect

Ground
Fog

Simulates a layer of fog that attenuates with increasing altitude. The parameters
are:
Color-color for the fog
Point-reference point for the normal vector
Normal-vector that controls the direction of attenuation of the fog
Distance-distance in global coordinates at which the fog completely obscures
the scene
Fog Height-determines the rate of decrease for the fog effects

Snow

Provides the effect of snowflakes falling in front of the viewing camera. The effect
is produced by placing random snowflakes on two planes at different scales in
front of the camera. The parameters are:
Color-specifies a color for the snow
Near Scale, Far Scale-specify the relative size of the flakes on the two planes
Flake Size-specifies the average size of a flake
Density-controls the density of the snowfall
Noise Level-determines the irregularity of the snowflakes

TIFF Image

This option positions a TIFF image in front of the generated shaded image. The
parameters are:
Color-specifies a color to be made transparent within the image
X and Y Position-specifies distance from the upper left corner of the graphics
window to the position of the image in the foreground (measured in pixels)
Tiff Image-allows you to select the image to be displayed

Light
Scatter

17

Creates an atmospheric scattering of light effect, with attenuation. The


parameters are:
Samples-determines the sample rate of the light scattering
Density-controls the density of the light
Max Distance-controls the distance to which light is calculated
Noise Scale-specifies the scale of irregularity in the light scattering
Noise Level-determines the amount of random variation in the light scattering
Attenuation-specifies how quickly light attenuates with distance from the source

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-73

Visualization Techniques

Below, you can observe the effects of the various Foreground Types.

17

Type: None

Type: Fog

Type: Depth Cue

Type: Ground Fog

Near Distance=250
Far Distance=800
Color=Light Gray

17-74

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

Distance=800
Color=Warm Tan

Distance=200
Color=Light Pink
Point-Left of screen
Normal-Pointing toward right
Fog Height=32

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

17

Type: TIFF Image

Type: Snow

Color=Black
Default parameters for
X and Y Positions

Used default parameters

Type: Light Scatter


Samples-High
Density-1.6
All other values used were
default parameters

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-75

Visualization Techniques

Background

17

There are two modes of Backgrounds, Primary and Secondary. The Primary
Background mode is the background used behind the geometry in the scene,
while the Secondary Background mode is the background used for reflecting
objects. These background modes work in conjunction with the four types of
backgrounds available within the Visual Effects function.
The four background types available are:
Type
Simple
Mixed
Ray Cube

Two Planes

17-76

Description
This option automatically uses the Primary background.
This option combines the Primary and Secondary backgrounds.
This option utilizes both Primary and Secondary backgrounds.
The Primary background functions as the background and the
Secondary background functions as the image that is reflected in
the geometry.
Similar to the Ray Cube option, this option utilizes both Primary
and Secondary backgrounds.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

The four types of background patterns are:


Type
Plain
Clouds

Graduated

Tiff Image
Environment

Description
This option allows you to specify a single-colored background.
This option provides a sky with clouds type background. You may
specify the sky color, cloud color, and the size and amount of
detail in each cloud. This background is supported only with the
Improved, Ray Traced and Photo-Realistic modes of High
Quality Image shading.
This option provides two colors, one at the top of the screen and
another color at the bottom. The screen between the two colors
interpolates between them. You may specify both the top and
bottom colors. This background is not supported with the Flat or
Gouraud modes of High Quality Image shading.
This option allows you to select an image file from an outside
directory for use as the background. Only uncompressed TIFF
files should be used as backgrounds.
This option sets up a virtual, six-sided environment cube around
the model geometry. When configured, the Environment option
displays the environment cube as the background for a shaded
image of the model. The environment cube parameters are
controlled within the Environment option of the Visual Effects
dialog.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-77

17

Visualization Techniques

Below, you can observe the effects of the various Background Types.

17

Simple-Graduated

Simple-Plain

Simple-Clouds

17-78

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

17

Simple-TIFF Image

Mixed

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-79

Visualization Techniques

Simple
Mixed
Ray Cube
Two Planes

17

None
Plain
Clouds
Graduated
Tiff Image
Environment(HQI Only)

Low
Medium
Medium High
High
Very High

None
Smear
Tile

Center
Tile
Fill

The Mixed option enables you to specify two backgrounds, a Primary and a
Secondary. The interrelation of the two backgrounds may be controlled using
the Mix Ratio slider. To use the Mixed option, first toggle Primary to On and
set the Primary background. Then toggle Secondary to On and set the
Secondary background. Choose Ok or Apply and High Quality Image shading
to observe the assigned backgrounds.
The Fill Mode determines the size of the rendered TIFF image. If the image
does not fill the screen, you may need to set the Fill Mode to Fill.

17-80

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Environment
The Environment dialog controls the parameters of the environment cube
which is invoked with the Background option. By selecting the Global Cube
type, you may use the Image List to specify an image to be mapped to the
environment cube. This image then functions as the background for the scene.

17

None
Global Cube

In order to activate the Image List option and retrieve an image from an
outside directory for use as an Environment Background, the Type must be set
to Global Cube.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-81

Visualization Techniques

Effects
The Effects dialog controls optional Visualize Shape post processing effects,
such as Lens Flare and Depth of Field (Camera focusing).
Lens Flare and Depth of Field can provide very artistic special effects to
rendered images.

17

Standard
35mm Lens
50mm Lens
105mm Lens
Polygonal
35mm Poly
50mm Poly
105mm Poly
Spark
Star

f2.8
f5.6
f8
f11
f16
f22

17-82

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

28mm
35mm
50mm
70mm
105mm
135mm
210mm
300mm

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Lens Flare
Lens Flare is generally an undesirable side effect of taking a photograph of
bright lights. The light interacts with the camera lens optics and creates the
flare effects in the image. For computer graphics, a lens flare is a special post
processing activity applied to an image for a more realistic looking scene.
The Lens Type determines the kind of lens flare that you will observe in the
scene. The elements of a lens flare include the halo, the streaks, and the ghosts.

17

Ghost images

Halo image

Lens Flare works with either Spot or Point Lights. For a Point Light, the light
source must be either in the field of view or close to the edge of the field of
view. For a Spot Light, the light cone for the Spot must directly include the eye
point.
The Fall Off characteristics for the light source must be set to either Inverse or
Inverse Square, with an intensity greater than 1.0. The lens options include:


Standard-One circular ghost and random light streaks

35mm-Five ghosts and mixed light streaks

50mm-Accentuated bloom, eight ghosts, random streaks

105mm-Fuzzy halo, 20 ghosts, mixed light streaks

Polygonal-One polygonal ghost and random light streaks

35mm Poly-35mm effect with polygonal ghosts

50mm Poly-50mm effect with polygonal ghosts

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-83

Visualization Techniques


105mm Poly-105mm effect with polygonal ghosts

Spark-No halo or ghosts, mixed streaks

Star-Accentuated bloom, no ghosts, regular streaks

The Flare Intensity determines the brightness of the lens flare in the scene.
This factor is combined with the light source intensity to determine if the light is
bright enough to cause a flare effect.

17

NOTE

Normally, the light sources must be either Inverse or


Inverse Square (Fall Off), with a fairly bright intensity, for
Lens Flare to be activated.

Typical Lens Flare options may be seen on the following page.

17-84

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Normally rendered image with


no post processing effects,

Lens Flare using 50mm Lens Type,


Flare Intensity=44

Lens Flare using 50mm Lens Type,


Flare Intensity=25

Lens Flare using Spark Lens Type,


Intensity=70

Point Light with Intensity=5


Fall Off=Inverse

17

Lens Flare using


35mm Poly Lens Type,
Intensity=40

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-85

Visualization Techniques

Depth of Field

17

The Depth of Field effect simulates the camera lens optical effect where
different objects may be in or out of focus. The main use for this feature would
be to create an image where the primary object of the scene was in focus and
the rest of the image was slightly blurry. This effect tends to draw the viewer's
attention to the primary object in the scene.

17-86

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Depth of Field within Visualize Shape simulates the effects of a real camera
lens. You may specify the following parameters:


Focal Length (Lens Size)-Determines the length of the lens. Some


typical lens lengths were chosen, in various steps from 28mm to
300mm. A 28mm lens is a very wide angle, a 50mm is a typical camera
lens, a 135mm is a portrait lens, and a 300mm is a long telephoto lens.

Aperture setting-This parameter is also known as f-stop. The higher


the f-stop number, the more in focus the image or geometry will be.

Focal Distance-Distance from the lens to the focal point where items
will be in focus. You may enter any value into the data field.

NOTE

In order for the Depth of Field effect to be visible, the


Perspective option must be activated in the Perspective
dialog of Visualization Preferences. A Distance value
must also be set in the Perspective dialog.

Depth of Field Tips




Depth of Field effects become more pronounced with longer lenses


(210mm and longer) and lower values for f-stop (2.8).

Depth of Field calculations, when significant blur is desired, may take


quite a while to process. It is advisable to use a smaller image as a test
scene (Sub Region) before rendering the full size image with Depth of
Field effects.

Depth of Field should be used with Perspective, and the perspective


distance of the model geometry is a good gauge for what the Focal
Distance would be to the center of the model.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-87

17

Visualization Techniques

Tips For Realistic Scenes




Make sure that the scene is not too ordered. It must appear lived in"
and offer the viewer's eye what it expects to see. If the product is
placed on a desktop, place other objects the viewer would expect to
see there. This balances the scene and helps it to look more like a
photograph than a rendered computer image.

Pay close attention to detail. The smallest details can make the largest
improvement to the scene.

Do not place every object in the visible area. Sometimes, viewing only
part of an object provides the scene with a more realistic look.

Always use perspective.

Use camera positions to communicate emotion.

17

17-88

High camera angles emote power.

Low camera angles emote tension.

Tilted camera angles emote tension and confusion.

Use Depth of Field to call viewer attention to certain areas of a scene.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

Activity 17-3: Backgrounds and Foregrounds

In this activity you will specify various Backgrounds and background images,
and observe the effect of the various Foreground options.
Step 1 Open the part ids_vis_effects.prt and start the Shape
Studio application.
You will see a phone in a stand, placed on a tabletop with an
outerspace-type background. You will observe the result of
changing the background image.

Step 2 Change the background image to the standard Clouds


Background.


From the Visualize Shape toolbar, choose


Visual Effects.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-89

17

Visualization Techniques

17

17-90

Choose Background at the top of the dialog.

Choose Simple as the Type.

Choose Clouds and select the colors you like for the Sky and
Cloud colors from the Color Palette.

Experiment with changing the Scale and Detail settings and


the Sky and Cloud colors, while observing the immediate
results.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

17

NOTE

If at any time, you'd like to view a more detailed rendered


image using a High Quality Image, simply select the High
Quality Image icon, select a rendering method, and
render the image.

Step 3 Change the background image to a user defined Tiff


Image.


If the Visual Effects dialog is not invoked, choose the Visual


Effects icon.

Choose Background at the top of the dialog.

Choose Simple as the Type.

Choose Tiff Image and choose the Image button.

The directory listing becomes active. In the Images folder,


choose the image called tropical_sunset.tif.

Choose Apply.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-91

Visualization Techniques

17

Experiment with several of the Tiff Image backgrounds.


Step 4 Change the background image and specify a Snow
Foreground image.

17-92

If the Visual Effects dialog is not invoked, choose the Visual


Effects icon.

Change the Background to Plain and select a color you like


from the Color Palette.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Visualization Techniques

NOTE

Choose Foreground at the top of the dialog.

Choose Snow as the Type.

Accept the default values and choose Apply.

Since there is a small camera icon next to the Snow


Foreground type in the dialog, you will need to render the
image as a High Quality Image to observe the effect.


Choose the High Quality Image icon.

Select a type of rendering method (Improved is a good


choice here).

Choose Start Shade to view the effect.

Go back to the Visual Effects dialog and change some of the


Snow Foreground default values.

Return to High Quality Image and shade the image to view


the changes.

If desired, experiment with other Foreground effects.

17

Step 5 Close the part without Saving.


This concludes activity 17-3.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

17-93

Visualization Techniques

SUMMARY

17

With Visualize Shape, your organization can


quickly and easily showcase your product in its
best light.
In this lesson you:

17-94

Set up a High Quality Image and observed


the differences between the various
rendering methods.

Used the standard material libraries to


assign materials to model geometry. These
libraries control the color, reflectivity,
absorption, and spectral characteristics.

Applied standard finishes to model geometry


to change the appearance of faces.

Used the standard texture libraries to assign


various textures to model geometry.

Assigned various Light sources to a scene.

Applied various Foreground effects to a


scene.

Applied standard Backgrounds to a scene.

Applied TIFF Images from outside


directories to scenes to serve as
Backgrounds.

Were introduced to camera optical effects to


create special Visual Effects, such as Lens
Flare and Depth of Field, in a scene.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Point Constructor Options

Point Constructor Options

Appendix A

PURPOSE

This appendix describes the various Point Constructor


methods available for use.

The Point Constructor dialog box provides a standard way to specify points
throughout Unigraphics. It allows the creation of point objects as well as the
determination of locations in threedimensional space.

Points may be specified in one of two ways: either choose one of the provided,
icons at the top of the dialog box, or directly enter the X-Y-Z coordinates in
the fields provided.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

A-1

Point Constructor Options

Creating Points vs. Specifying Locations

When you choose the Point icon, the Point Constructor allows you to create
point objects. Points appear on the screen as plus signs (+).
When you use the Point Constructor in any other option, you are only
specifying temporary locations, not creating permanent entities. These locations
are displayed as asterisks (*). Choose Refresh to remove the asterisks.
Points have many uses in Unigraphics. Points may be used to locate other
objects. Points may also be used to construct curves or surfaces.
Locating positions with the Point Constructor dialog box is also valuable. For
example, the end of a line or the center of a circle may be specified to locate
objects in model space. The positions of the control points of a curve may also
be specified.

Icon Methods To Specify a Point


The top of the Point Constructor dialog box displays icons representing various
methods for specifying a point. As the cursor is passed over these icons, the
icon block displays the name of the method.
The icon methods are described below.

Inferred Point
Depending upon where you select when using this option, one of the following
single selection options will be used: cursor location, existing point, end point,
control point or arc center. This option does not require selection of the
particular point type for each selection.

A-2

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Point Constructor Options

Cursor Location
Use this option to construct points anywhere on the screen by positioning the
cross hairs and indicating a location. The location defined lies on the WCS
Work plane.
To locate points quickly and precisely, use a grid (see PreferencesWork Plane
Show Grid). When Snap to Grid is on, points snap to the nearest grid
position. The grid spacing may be set as desired. The spacing in the
X-direction does not need to be the same as the spacing in the Y-direction.
For example, if the smallest increment on the part is in eighths of an inch
(.125), then the grid spacing would be set to .125. A point at exactly one inch in
X and two inches in Y could be created by counting over eight grid points in X
and up sixteen in Y to indicate a screen position.

Existing Point
Use this option to specify a location by selecting an existing point.
Remember that the point constructor allows locations in model space to be
specified. In the case where an existing point is being selected, it is generally to
aid in the construction of another object.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

A-3

Point Constructor Options

End Point
Use this option to specify locations at the end points of existing lines, arcs,
conics, and splines.
Lines
Conics
Arcs
Splines

When selecting geometry, place the cursor near the end point you wish to
select. The point is located at the end of the curve nearest to where it was
selected (see below). Closed curves, such as complete circles, have only one
endpoint because the two ends are at the same coordinate location.
Selection
Position

A-4

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Point Constructor Options

Control Point
Use this option to locate points at the control points of geometric objects. The
control points, which vary for each object type, include: Existing points, End
points of conics, End points and Mid points of open arcs, Center points of
circles or arcs, Mid points and End points of lines, and End points or Knot
points of splines.
Use the cursor to select objects. Since some objects have more than one control
point, place the cross hairs near the control point desired. The system locates
the control point nearest the position where the curve is selected.
Open Arcs

Lines

Conics
Circles
Splines

Intersection Point
Use this option to locate a position at the intersection of two curves or at the
intersection of a curve and a surface or plane. If the curves intersect more than
once, the system creates the point nearest to where the second curve was
selected.
Two Possible Intersections

1
Select second curve
nearest the intersection
you want

When the two selected curves are not coplanar with the XC-YC plane, an
apparent intersection occurs and the system creates the point on the first curve
selected. The system calculates an apparent intersection by projecting the curve
parallel to the ZC axis to find the intersection point (see below). Projections are
always done along the ZC-axis.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

A-5

Point Constructor Options

Second Curve
ZC
YC

Point

XC
First Curve

Positions may be indicated at the intersection of any two nonparallel curves.


Implied intersections may be located even if the objects do not actually touch
(see below).

Intersection point of line and arc

Implied intersection
of two lines

Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center
Use this option to specify a position at the center of an arc or ellipse by
selecting the arc along its circumference.

A-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Point Constructor Options

In the example below, selecting with the circumference of the large circle within
the selection ball defines the center point of the large circle.
Selection Point
Center
Point

Selecting near the center of the large circle (see below) will not select the
center of the large circle since the selection ball touches the circumference of
the small circle.

Selection
Point
Center
Point

Angle on Arc/Ellipse
Use this option to locate a position at an angular location on an arc or an
ellipse.
Position on
Arc

105

The angle value is entered in degrees. The angle is referenced from the positive
XC axis and is measured counterclockwise in the WCS. The angular position on
the arc or ellipse may also be defined on the unconstructed portion (or
extension) of an arc or ellipse (see below).

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

A-7

Point Constructor Options

Position on
Arc

225

Quadrant Point
Use this option to locate positions at the quarter points of an arc or an ellipse.

Select Here
Quadrant Point is Located

Points may be located at the starting point of the arc or ellipse and then at
quarterdistance intervals along the object. The point located is the quadrant
point nearest to the position selected. The quadrant position may also be
defined on the unconstructed portion (or extension) of an arc (see below).

Select Here

Quadrant Point is Located

A-8

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Point Constructor Options

Choosing a Coordinate System


Choose WCS or Absolute to specify which coordinate system the system
references when locating positions using the Base Point text entry fields. The
WCS (Work Coordinate System) is the default. The WCS may be moved to any
location and placed in any orientation. The absolute coordinate system is a
fixed coordinate system.

Offset
This option allows the specification of a position in model space offset from a
reference position in model space. The offset location may be specified relative
to the reference position using either the absolute or the work coordinate
system.

Once an offset method has been specified, it remains in effect until another
offset method is selected. The default setting is None (no offset).
Offset allows a position to be specified away from a specified reference, or base
position in one of the five ways discussed below. This is a useful tool if the
desire is to specify many positions where each position is offset from the
previous position, or when the position that is being specified is relative to
another position most easily defined by selecting a preexisting point.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

A-9

Point Constructor Options

In the example below, the need is to specify a quick row of points, offset in the
X direction and Y direction. The first point could be specified, the offset would
be set to rectangular and the values entered, OK could then be chosen a
number of times (7) to offset the remaining points from each previous point.
Each alternating OK specifies the next base position, then the next offset
position based on the values.

Offset 4
Offset 3
First Point

Offset 2
Offset 1

Exiting the Point Constructor menu when using an offset requires the return of
the offset setting to NONE. This may be accomplished by choosing the RESET
button, or by manually changing the offset type back. If The NONE setting is
not reset, the Point Constructor continues to offset positions from the last
specified position.

Reset
Use the Reset button to quickly set the X-Y-Z coordinate fields to 0.0, and to
set the Offset option to None.

Rectangular Offset
This option allows a position to be offset by entering values that represent the
X, Y, and Z directions relative to the coordinate system specified from a
reference point (see below).
The direction of the offset is determined by the coordinate system selected and
the orientation of that coordinate system.
The origin of the coordinate system has no effect on the offset.

A-10

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Point Constructor Options


Offset

Offset
Point

X = 2.0
Y = 0.5
Z = 1.5
Reference
Point

Z
Y
X
Coordinate System

Cylindrical Offset
This option allows an offset position to be specified by entering cylindrical
coordinates (see below).
The offset values for Radius, Angle, and DeltaZC are defined relative to the
specified coordinate system and applied as illustrated below. The radius and
the angle always lie in the XY plane of the coordinate system specified.
A cylindrical offset may reference either the absolute coordinate system or the
work coordinate system.
Offset

Radius
Angle
Delta-ZC

Radius

Offset Point

Distance Along
ZC-axis (Delta - ZC)

ZC
YC
XC

Angle
Reference Point

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

A-11

Point Constructor Options

Spherical Offset

This option allows specification of an offset position using spherical


coordinates, two angles and a radius (see below).
Angle 1 always lies in the X-Y plane, and Angle 2 defines the elevation of the
offset point from the X-Y plane. The radius defines the distance between the
base point and the offset point. A spherical offset may reference either the
work coordinate system or the absolute coordinate system.
Offset

Offset Point

Radius
Angle 1
Angle 2

Radius

Angle 2

Z
Y
X

Reference
Point

Angle 1

Vector Offset
This option allows specification of an offset position by indicating a direction
and entering a distance in that direction (see below). The direction is defined
by selecting a line. The point is offset toward the end of the line that is closest
to where the line was selected.

Entered
Distance

Offset Point
Direction of Offset

Z
Y

Reference
Point

A-12

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

Line Selected Here


Line Selected to Define Vector

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Point Constructor Options

Offset Along Curve


This option allows an offset position to be defined along a curve by a specified
arc length distance or a percentage of the total curve path length (see below).
Note that lines may also be used as the curves" for this offset.

Offset
Point

Offset Point

Direction of Offset
Reference Point

Direction of Offset
Reference Point

How the curve is selected determines the direction in which the offset will
occur. Select the curve away from the reference position on the side of the
curve you want to specify the position (see below).

Select Here . . .
Reference
Point

Select Here . . .
For this Offset Direction

EDS
All Rights Reserved

For this Offset Direction

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

A-13

Point Constructor Options

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

A-14

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Curve Creation
Appendix B

PURPOSE

This appendix introduces basic curves. You will


develop lines, arcs, circles, and fillets and edit curves
using parameters and the trim function.

This appendix contains the following activities.


Activity

Page

B-1
B-2
B-3
B-4

B-18
B-29
B-41
B-50

Creating Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Arcs and Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trimming Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-1

Curve Creation

Explicit Curves
The intent of this appendix is to teach 2D guide geometry for the purpose of
sweeping through space to create solid and sheet bodies.
NOTE

In Unigraphics, a curve is considered to be a point, line,


arc, spline or conic.

The Curve creation options are made available by choosing InsertCurve or by


selecting the specific function from the Curve toolbar.

The Work Coordinate System


When creating curves, the orientation or direction can be based on the WCS.
The term horizontal appearing in any dialog box or Cue line is meant as
parallel to the XCaxis, vertical is parallel to the YCaxis, and normal is parallel
to the ZCaxis, regardless of the work view or perspective on the screen. Any
2D curve, except the 2 curve fillet, will be created on the XC-YC plane or a
plane parallel to it.
B-2

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Basic Curves
When the Basic Curves icon is chosen, the Basic Curves dialog box is displayed.
The icons on this dialog box are displayed below.
Circle

Fillet

Edit Curve
Parameters

Line

Arc

Trim

The portion of the Basic Curves dialog box below the icons is different for each
of the options selected.
The Basic Curves dialog box is used to create lines, arcs, circles, and fillets.
While creating these curves, there is also quick access to the Trim Curve and
Edit Curve Parameters functions.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-3

Curve Creation

The Dialog Bar


The Dialog Bar is a series of text fields that appear at the bottom of the
graphics window while in the Basic Curves function. The text fields in the
Dialog Bar will vary depending upon which type of curve is being created and
which options have been selected. For example, the Dialog Bar below appears
during line creation.

The Dialog Bar

Location Fields

Parameter Fields

Location fields - XC, YC, and ZC. These fields track the location of
the cursor, or they can be used to input a coordinate location to the
WCS.

Parameter fields - These fields control parameters of the curve, such as


length of a line, or radius of an arc.

To give a text field focus, the <Tab> key may be used or click the first mouse
button in the fields desired. Select once in the field to insert text in the existing
string, or select twice for overstrike mode.


When the XC, YC, or ZC field has focus, and <Enter> is pressed, the
location specified is accepted and an asterisk will appear in the
graphics area indicating that point.

When a parameter field (such as length, radius, etc. - any field other
than the three mentioned above) has focus and <Enter> is pressed,
the values in all parameter fields are accepted and applied to the curve
being constructed.

As soon as a line, arc, or circle is created, new values may be entered


in the parameter text fields and the newlycreated object will be
updated accordingly (unless String Mode is turned on.).

In PreferencesUser Interface the number of decimal places displayed in the


fields may be controlled as well as whether or not the fields track the current
location of the cursor.

B-4

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

PreSelection Highlighting
When the Basic Curves dialog box is active, and the Point Method is Infer, an
object on which the cursor is placed will always be prehighlighted, regardless of
the setting of the Preselection option in the Selection Preferences dialog box.
This includes all Control points (see below) of the highlighted objects. The
preselection color is determined by the setting in the Selection Preferences
dialog window.

Control Points
Each type of curve has its own unique set of control points (endpoints and
midpoints). This table shows the control points for some common curve types.
Curve

Control Points

Line

Endpoints,
midpoint

Arc

Endpoints,
midpoint

Complete Circle

Center of circle,
Endpoint

TIP The endpoints of a circle are at 0and 360 degrees, (at the 3 0'clock
position). There are 2 endpoints at the same exact location.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-5

Curve Creation

Inferred Point Selection


With line and arc creation, the position of the cursor, during selection, is very
important.
When the Infer point method is being used, the system infers the following:

Cursor Location (when a control point, arc center, or object is not in


the cursor)

Control points (when inside the cursor)

An entire curve (when an object is selected where a control point is


not encircled)

Status Line Feedback


While Basic Curves are being created, valuable feedback is given in the Status
line. It displays the type of point or object that is highlighted. It also displays
the type of line or arc being created, as well as other useful information.

B-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Inferred Selection Chart


Contents of Selection Ball

Selected
Geometry

Nothing

A screen
position

An existing point

The existing
point

An endpoint or midpoint of a
line, arc, or partial ellipse

The control
point

A line, arc, conic, or spline, but


not one of its control points

The line, arc,


conic, or
spline

A complete circle or ellipse,


(selection ball not over a
control point)

The circle or
ellipse

An arc center of a circle or


ellipse

The center of
the circle or
ellipse

A complete circle or ellipse,


(selection ball over the control
point)

The control
point (end
point)

A knot point of a spline


(splines are covered in the
Freeform Modeling Course)

The
knotpoint

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Examples

or

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-7

Curve Creation

General Curve Creation Options


This section discusses some of the options in the center of the Basic Curves
dialog box which apply to many different curve creation situations. The options
include Delta, Point Method, and String Mode. We will discuss Point Method
and String Mode in this appendix.

Point Method

The Point Method option menu, shown below, allows points to be specified
relative to existing geometry by specifying a cursor location or by using the
Point Subfunction. The options on this menu (other than Inferred Point and
Select Face) work similarly to those in the Point Constructor dialog box.
Inferred Point
Cursor Location
Existing Point
End Point
Control Point
Intersection Point
Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center
Quadrant Point
Select Face
Point Constructor
(See page Appendix B for more information)

When using a point method other than Infer, several things change:


The cursor location is no longer tracked in the Dialog Bar.

Preselection highlighting reverts to the Selection Preferences dialog


box status.

Control points are no longer highlighted.

NOTE

B-8

A Cursor Location, sometimes called Screen Position, is


simply projected onto the XC-YC plane. The ZC value
of the point will be 0.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

The Select Face option allows the selection of a face for use as the limiting
object for a line. When in any other curve creation mode (arc, circle, spline,
etc.) this option is not available. This option may also be used to create a line
normal to a face.
If the Point Constructor method is chosen, the Point Constructor dialog box is
displayed. When Back is chosen from that dialog box, the Basic Curve dialog
box returns.

Existing Point

End Point
Control Point

Cursor Location

Intersection Point
Inferred Point
Arc/Ellipse/Sphere
Center

Quadrant Point

Angle on Arc/Ellipse

None
Rectangular
Cylindrical

Restores Base
Point values
to zero and
Offset to none

Spherical
Vector
Along Curve

String Mode
When this option is ON, the end of one object becomes the beginning of the
next. To stop string mode, turn the button OFF. To stop string mode and start it
again with the next object created, choose Break String or press the middle
mouse button.
NOTE

When String Mode is turned on, the entering of new


values in the parameter text fields when the line or arc is
created will not update the previously constructed curve.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-9

Curve Creation

Line Creation Methods


Between Two Points
Simply define the two points (see below). The points may be a combination of
screen positions and control points selected in the graphics area, or values
established by entering numbers in the XC, YC, and ZC fields in the Dialog Bar
and pressing <Enter>.

YC
ZC

Second point
XC

First point

NOTE

If a screen position is specified as the second point, and


the Angle Increment value is not zero, the line will snap
to the nearest increment of that angle.

Through a Point and Horizontal or Vertical


When the second point of a line is defined using a screen position, and this
selection defines a line that is within the Snap Angle of being vertical or
horizontal from the first point, the line will snap to vertical or horizontal. (The
Snap Angle is controlled in the Sketch Preferences dialog box.) Snap Angle is
only applicable when using the Inferred point method.
YC
ZC

First point 

XC

Snap angle is set to 3


Second point

3

3 
Second point

First point

B-10

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Through a Point and at an Angle to the XC Axis




Define the start point.

Enter the desired angle in the Angle text field in the Dialog Bar and
press the <Tab> key. A line at this angle or at this angle plus 180
degrees (depending upon where the cursor is relative to the start
point) will rubberband in the graphics area. See the illustration below.
The value in the Angle text field will also update to reflect the
start/cursor locations.

Establish the length by specifying a screen position, selecting


geometry, or entering a length value in the Dialog Bar.

NOTE

Angles are measured counterclockwise from the XC axis.


YC
ZC

XC

Cursor location

Angle from XC Axis

Start location

Angle from XC Axis


plus 180 degrees

Start location
Cursor location

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-11

Curve Creation

Through a Point and Parallel, Perpendicular, or at an Angle to


an Existing Line


Define the start point of the new line.

Select the existing line, being careful not to select one of its control
points.

NOTE

The first two steps may be completed in either order.

Move the cursor around. Depending upon where the cursor is, the parallel,
perpendicular, or angled line (see below) may be previewed. The Status line
shows which mode is being previewed.
Parallel line

Line at an angle

Defined point

Perpendicular line
Selected line

B-12

If you'd like to create a line at an angle to the selected line, enter the
desired value in the Angle text field in the Dialog Bar and press tab.

When the line is displayed, establish the length by: specifying a screen
position, selecting geometry, or immediately after the line is created,
entering a new value in the Dialog Bar.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Parallel to An Existing Line at a Distance


Parallel at Distance From - This option affects line creation when a series of
parallel lines are being created. When this option is set to Original, each new
line is created at the specified distance from the line that was originally
selected. When it is set to New, each new line is created at the specified
distance from the last line created.


Make sure String Mode is Toggled Off.

Select a line.

Enter the Offset Distance in the Dialog Bar.

Choose Apply. The new line is offset from the selected line and is
equal in length. The direction of the offset is dependent upon how the
original line was selected.
The offset line is
created on the side
where the center of the
selection ball is when
the original line is
selected.

Selected line

Offset
distance

New line

If Apply is continually chosen, additional parallel lines will be created. The


Offset Distance value may be changed at any time.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-13

Curve Creation

Through a Point and Tangent or Perpendicular to a Curve




Define the start point of the new line.

Select the existing curve, being careful not to select one of its control
points.

NOTE

The curve may be selected first, then the point may be


defined, if a tangent line is being created. If a
perpendicular line is being created, the point must be
defined first.
The line rubberbands tangentially to the selected curve.
There are times when the rubberbanding line is on the
wrong side of the curve. Move the cursor inside, then outside
the curve until the line snaps to the other side.

When the desired line is displayed, select the highlighted geometry.

The example below shows two examples of creating a line through a point and
tangent or perpendicular to an arc or circle. (Notice that the dashed line shows
the line that would be created with the dashed cursor in that position, or by
selecting the object in that position.) The same is true for the solid line and
cursor.

Defined point
(the endpoint of the arc)
Tangent line

Tangent line
Perpendicular line
Defined point

Perpendicular line

B-14

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Tangent to a Curve and Tangent or Perpendicular to Another


Curve


Select the first curve, being careful not to select one of its control
points.
The line rubberbands tangentially or perpendicularly to the
selected curve, depending upon the cursor position.

Select the second curve, again being careful not to select one of its
control points.

When the desired line is displayed, select the highlighted geometry.

The illustration below shows the creation of 2 lines; one is tangent to a circle
and the other is perpendicular to a circle.
Tangent line
Second curve

Perpendicular line
First curve

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-15

Curve Creation

Tangent to a Curve and Parallel, Perpendicular, or at an Angle


to an Existing Line


Select the curve, being careful not to select one of its control points.

Select the line, again being careful not to select one of its control
points.
The rubberbanding line will be shown parallel, perpendicular,
or at an angle to, the selected line.

When the desired line is displayed, establish the length by specifying a


screen position or selecting geometry. A specific length may also be
established immediately after the line is created by entering the value
in the Dialog Bar.

NOTE

If selecting geometry to specify the length of the line


would result in the line type being changed, press the
middle mouse button to choose Lock Mode, then select
the limiting geometry.

Second
object
First object

Select the curve and line as


shown

The parallel, perpendicular, and angled lines will


appear individually as the cursor is moved
around

B-16

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Line Creation Chart


Line between two points

Select two points

Line through a point and


horizontal, vertical, or at an
angle to the WCS

Y
X

Line through a point and


parallel, perpendicular, or
at an angle to a line

1
2

Line through a point and


tangent or normal to a curve

2
1

Line tangent or perpendicular


to two curves

Line tangent to a curve and


parallel or perpendicular to
a line

 Define the first point


 Define second point within
the Snap Angle setting or
 Enter the desired angle,
press <Tab>, and define
second point.
 Define a point
 Select a line
 Select limiting point/object
[Can also select line,
then point]

 Select a point
 Select a curve
 Select limiting point/object
(if necessary)

Select two curves

2
1

A bisector line

 Select two curves


 Select limiting point/object

Select two lines

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-17

Curve Creation

Activity B-1: Creating Lines

In this activity lines will be created using the methods previously discussed.
Create the lines as described in the steps only. Additional curves will be created
in subsequent activities to further increase understanding.

Step 1 Open part file ids_curves_1.prt and start the Shape


Studio application.
Note the location and orientation of the WCS.
Step 2 Save the part file as ***_curves_1.
Step 3 Choose InsertCurveBasic Curves.
Step 4 Create Lines Between Two Cursor Locations.


Choose the Line icon if not already selected.

The snap angle is set to the default of 3. Therefore, when


cursor locations are specified within 3 of vertical or horizontal,
the line will snap to a truly vertical or horizontal orientation.


Toggle String Mode to Off.

Create a horizontal and vertical line by clicking at two


different screen positions each time as shown:

Second selections
here

First selections
here

B-18

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

TIP If a start position was erroneously selected, choosing the


icon again will reset the line creation process. There is
no need to cancel out of the Basic Curve dialog box.

Create a diagonal line as illustrated below.

Select here

Select here

Notice that the line remains highlighted.




Double click in the Length text box on the Dialog Bar in


overstrike mode and enter 4, then press Enter.

The line is edited to that length.




Tab to the Angle text box on the Dialog Bar, enter 45, and
press Enter.

The line is edited to that angle.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-19

Curve Creation

Step 5 Create Lines From Endpoints or Midpoints of One Line


to Another.

Change the work layer to 2 and make layer 1 invisible.


Turn Fit All before Displaying to On and choose OK.

Choose Refresh (third mouse button).

Select the two lines at their midpoints as shown. A line will


be created point to point regardless of the snap angle.

Select this
line here

Select this
line here

Before


After

Select the same two lines at their endpoints on the right. A


line will be created point to point regardless of snap angle.

Select this
line here

Select this
line here

Before

B-20

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

After

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Step 6 Create a Line Through a Point and Parallel to Another


Line.


Choose InsertCurveBasic Curves.

Select the bottom diagonal line with the cross hairs on the
endpoint as shown below. The endpoint highlights before
selection.

Select the base line at the top as shown, avoiding control


points. (The order does not matter - the line could have
been selected before the endpoint.)

A line appears rubberbanding from the first point at 90 angles


from the base line, relative to the cursor position.

Select this line


as a base line
Select this
endpoint


Move the cursor to the right so the rubberband image is


parallel to the base line and select the middle mouse button
to lock in the construction mode of parallel.

A trim point or object now needs to be selected.




Choose the line created on the right, avoiding its control


points. This line and the line being created define the
intersection point to which the line being created is trimmed.

Choosing this line causes the new


line to be trimmed to a point that the
two lines have in common
(intersection point).

Step 7 Create a Line Parallel to an Existing Line at a Distance.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-21

Curve Creation

Change the work layer to 3 and make layer 2 invisible.

Select the line as illustrated below (avoid the line's control


points).

In the Dialog Bar, key in an Offset Distance of 2 and press


Enter.
A line the same length as the existing line is created.

Notice that the line was created on the side of the base line that
the selection ball was on at the time of line selection.


Select third mouse buttonCancel.

Choose third mouse buttonUndo.

The last line created is removed.


Step 8 Create a Line Through a Point at a Specified Angle.
This line will be started at the WCS origin and its angle defined
relative to the WCS.

B-22

InsertCurveBasic Curves.

Put focus in the XC text box located in the Dialog Bar.

Enter 0 (zero) and press the Tab key.

In the YC text box, key in 0 (zero) and press the Tab key.

In the ZC text box, key in 0 (zero) and press Enter.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation


Double click in the Angle text box of the Dialog Bar, type
200, and press the Tab key to lock in that value.
Moving the cursor around displays the intended
rubberbanded line (or a line at 20 if the cursor is in the
upper right area).

Position the cursor in the lower left to display the 200 line.

Instead of selecting a trim line as in Step 6, select a screen


position.
A theoretical trim line was projected off of the current
cursor position and perpendicular to the line created,
defining the endpoint of the line.
200

Theoretical trim line

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-23

Curve Creation

Step 9 Create a Line Through a Point and Tangent to an


Existing Arc/Circle.

Change the work layer to 5 and make layer 3 invisible.

Ensure that Unbounded is Off.

Select the left endpoint of the horizontal line.

Select on the right side of the arc, not on a control point.

As you do this, the Status line will indicate Tangent.

B-24

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Step 10 Create a Line at an Angle from a Line and Tangent to a


Curve.
To create a line at a specific angle from a base line and tangent
to an existing curve, both objects must be coplanar.
The angle is measured counterclockwise from the base line.


Select the last line created avoiding its control points. This
defines the base line.

In the Dialog Bar, double click in the Angle text box and key
in 20. Press Tab to lock in the angle value.

Select the circle on the upper left side.

Move the selection ball around until the status line reads
Angle, then use the middle mouse button to select Lock
Mode.

Select the horizontal line away from its control points.

A line is created tangent to the arc, at an angle of 20 from the


base curve and trimmed to the horizontal line.

20

Step 11 Save the part.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-25

Curve Creation

Creating Arcs and Circles


Arcs and circles are created with different icons and minor differences in
functionality. Both provide immediate display feedback and rely on the simple
definition of arc center, size, and start and end points.
As a matter of definition, circle means a complete circle, and an arc is a portion
of a circle.

B-26

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Creating Arcs
When creating arcs, there are several things to keep in mind:


Arcs have four control points: two endpoints, a midpoint, and the arc
center.

If an arc is chosen such that one of its four control points lies within
the cursor, its control point will be selected.

If an arc is chosen with none of its control points within the cursor, the
arc itself will be selected, inferring tangency or a trim location.

Creation Method
There are two methods for creating arcs:


Start, End, Point on Arc


With this method, an arc may be created that passes through three
points, or which passes through two points and is tangent to a selected
object.

Center, Start, End


With this method, the center point, then the start and endpoints of the
arc are defined, which may be adjusted by entering angle values in the
Dialog Bar.

Dialog Bar Fields


Radius

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Diameter

Start Angle

End Angle

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-27

Curve Creation

Creating Circles
Circle creation requires the definition of a center location and a size. That
information may be defined by numerical entry or selections from the screen.

Center Point, Point on Circle




Define a point. This becomes the center of the circle.

Define a second point. The circumference of the circle passes through


this point.
A value may be entered in the Dialog Bar to establish an exact radius
or diameter.
Second point

First point

B-28

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Activity B-2: Creating Arcs and Circles

In this activity, various methods will be used to create arcs and circles.
Continue working with the ***_curves_1.prt file.
Step 1 Create an Arc through three points.
Three points will be used to create an arc. The arc will start at
the first point, end at the second, and pass through the third.


Change the work layer to 7 and make layer 5 invisible.

Choose InsertCurveBasic Curves.

Choose the Arc icon.

Turn String Mode Off.

Choose the Start, End, Point on Arc Creation Method (if


necessary).

Create an arc by selecting the screen positions in order as


shown:
Third selection
(for arc size)

First selection
(for start point)

Second selection
(for end point)

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-29

Curve Creation


Zoom out, if necessary, to see the entire arc.

Step 2 Create an Arc through two points and tangent to another


arc.

Select the ends of the 45 line, as shown below.

Select the arc just created. Do not select on a control point.

An arc is created that is tangent to the first arc created.

Third selection
(for arc size)
First selection
(for start point)

Second selection
(for end point)

Step 3 Create an Arc by defining the size and end angles.




Choose the Center, Start, End method.

Double click in the XC text box on the Dialog Bar and enter
0, press Tab, in the YC text box enter 0, press Enter

Select the upper right endpoint of the 45 line again.


An arc displays in preview and the Cue Line prompts for an
end point or object.

B-30

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation


Select the right endpoint of the horizontal line as shown:


First selection
(for start point)

Second selection
(for end point)

Choose Fit.

The arc is created starting at the diagonal line endpoint and


ending at a point that is in line with the arc center and the end
of the horizontal line endpoint.
Step 4 Save the part.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-31

Curve Creation

Arc/Circle Creation Chart


Start point, end point,
point on arc

 Define first point


 Define second point
 Define third point

Start point, end point,


tangent object

 Define first point


 Define second point
 Select tangent object

Start point, tangent object,


end point

1
3

Arc center, start point,


end point

 Define start point


 Select tangent object
 Define end point

 Define first point


 Define second point
 Define third point

Circle center, point on circle

 Define first point


 Define second point

2
1

Circle center, tangent object


1

B-32

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

 Define point
 Select tangent object

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Fillets
Fillets are arcs that have tangent relationships with one or more curves. They
are editable as fillets, meaning the tangent relationships will be maintained as
the fillet radius or arc center is changed.
This section contains a brief explanation of Fillet creation functionality. At the
end of this section, you will find a summary of Fillet creation methods. There
are three Fillet creation methods:


Simple

2 Curve

3 Curve

The 2 Curve and 3 Curve fillets allow manual trimming options.


When the Fillet icon is chosen on the Basic Curves dialog box, the Curve Fillet
dialog box is displayed, as shown below:

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-33

Curve Creation

Procedure

Choose the type of fillet desired.

Indicate the desired trim methods for the objects (two and three curve
only).

Enter the radius of the fillet.

Select the objects.

Specify the approximate center of the fillet (two and three curve only).

When creating 2 and 3Curve Fillets, trim options for each of the selected
curves may be specified. If no trimming options are selected, none of the curves
are trimmed. Select from the following trim options:


Trim First Curve

Trim/Delete Second Curve

Trim Third Curve

The Delete Second Curve and Trim Third Curve options are applicable to the
3Curve Fillet only.
When creating 2 and 3Curve Fillets the approximate center must be indicated;
this is accomplished by using the cursor or the Point Constructor. Using the
cursor location method in Point Constructor allows selection of a position in the
XY plane of the WCS.
If a fillet is created other than desired, Undo may be selected to delete the fillet
and restore the selected curves.

B-34

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Simple Fillet
Simple Fillet creates a fillet between two coplanar nonparallel lines. The size
of the fillet is determined by entering a value for the radius first. The lines are
automatically trimmed to the points of tangency.
NOTE

The trim options and Point Constructor are not available.

The fillet that is created is directly related to where the lines were selected. The
cursor must be positioned in such a manner as to include both lines. If the
cursor contains only one line, an error message displays.
Crosshairs
L1

L1

Selected quadrant

L2

L2

AFTER

BEFORE

As both lines are selected, the crosshairs determine which fillet is created; it
indicates the center of the arc. Position the crosshairs in the quadrant formed
by the lines to define the desired fillet center. Each line extends or trims to
thearc.

Before

After
EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-35

Curve Creation

2 Curve Fillet
The 2 Curve Fillet constructs a fillet between two curves, including points, lines,
circles, conics or splines. A two curve fillet is generated in the counterclockwise
direction from the first curve to the second.

Curve 1

Curve 2

Approximate fillet
center

Curve 2

Curve 1

If the two selected curves are in different planes, the fillet plane is the plane
containing the tangent of the first curve. The plane is normal to the vectors that
are normal to both tangents and is totally independent of the WCS.
(See below.)
Curve 1

Fillet plane

Fillet

Vectors
normal to
both
tangents
Curve 2

B-36

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

3 Curve Fillet
This option creates a fillet between three curves, which may be any combination
of points, lines, arcs, conics, and splines. The Radius entry box is not available
because it is determined by the geometry selected.
A three curve fillet is a circular arc generated in a counterclockwise direction
from the first curve to the third curve. The system constructs the fillet in such a
manner that the center of the arc is equidistant to all three curves. The three
curves do not have to lie in the same plane.

Curve 3

Curve 1

Curve 2
Before

After

The system trims curves, based on the selected options, to the tangent point of
the fillet.
If any one of the curves selected is an arc, the system prompts for additional
information to create the fillet:


Tangent Outside

Fillet Within Circle

Circle Within Fillet.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-37

Curve Creation

Curve 1

Curve 1
After

Before

Fillet

Curve 2
Curve 3

Curve 3

Tangent Outside

Curve 1
Curve 1

Fillet

Curve 2
Before

Curve 3

Curve 3
After

Fillet Within Circle

B-38

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Curve 1

Curve 1

Fillet

Curve 2

Curve 3

Curve 3

Before

After

Circle Within Fillet

The Point Constructor selections may be used to create a cliff edge fillet, where
the fillet is contiguous with a selected curve, but not tangent to it.

3
1

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-39

Curve Creation

Fillet Creation Methods Chart


Note: Numbered steps indicate this is not the
only way the arc/circle can be created.
Simple fillet
(lines only)

 Select both lines


simultaneously (both must
intersect the selection ball)

2 curve fillet

 Select first object


 Select second object
2

If the objects extend beyond


their intersection point, you
must also specify a quadrant
for the center of the fillet.

3 curve fillet

 Select first object


 Select second object
 Select third object

3
1

To edit a fillet, use the Edit CurveFillet option.


This concludes discussion of the creation functions found on the Basic Curves
dialog box.

B-40

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Activity B-3: Creating Fillets

Step 1 Create a Simple Fillet.




Open part file ids_fillet_1.prt and select the Shape Studio


application.

Choose InsertCurveBasic Curves.

Choose the Fillet icon.

Choose the Simple Fillet icon.

Remember, only two lines are used to create a Simple Fillet.




Enter a radius of .75.

Practice placing fillets in 4 different line configurations.




In Area #1, select the fillet lines in each of the four corners
as shown below. Keep both lines inside the Selection Ball
when selecting. Cursor placement is critical.

Before

After

To restore the lines to their original state, choose Undo (using


the third mouse button).

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-41

Curve Creation

Step 2 Create a 2 Curve Fillet (Trimming Only One Curve).


For this step create a fillet with two curves, but trim just one of
the curves.


Choose the 2 Curve Fillet icon.

Define which object will be trimmed. In this case trim the line
but not the arc. (See below.)

Ensure that Trim First Curve is turned on.

Choose the Trim Second Curve button to turn the option off.

Ensure that the system retained .75 for the radius.

In area #2, select the yellow line (first object), then select
the arc (second object).

Indicate the approximate center of the fillet as shown below.

Select second
Indicate here

Select first

Before

B-42

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

After

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Step 3 Create a 2 Curve Fillet (and Use a Point for One of the
Curves).
Notice that the fillet process is modal, that more fillets may be
created without reselecting any icons.


Enter 1.5 for the radius.

In area 2, select the cyan line.

Choose Point Constructor.

Select the endpoint at the left end of the white line.

Indicate here
Select point
Select first

Before

After

Choose Back to return to the Create Fillet dialog box.

Indicate the approximate center of the fillet as shown above.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-43

Curve Creation

Step 4 Create a 3 Curve Fillet.


Trim the first and third curves and delete the second.

Choose the 3 Curve Fillet icon.

Ensure that Trim First Curve is turned on.

Choose the Delete Second Curve button to turn it on.

Ensure that Trim Third Curve is turned on.

Select the 3 curves in a counterclockwise order as shown.

Select first

Select second

Select third

Indicate here

Before

After

Indicate the approximate center of the fillet as shown above.

Step 5 Close all part files and do not save.

B-44

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Editing Curves
The options on the Edit Curve dialog box allows modifications to existing
curves. To display the dialog box, either choose the Edit Curve Parameters icon
from the Edit Curve toolbar, choose EditCurveParameters from the
pull-down menu, or choose InsertCurveBasic Curves to display the Basic
Curves dialog box, then choose the Edit Curve Parameters icon.

Edit
Curve
Parameters
Trim

Edit Curve Parameters


When this icon is active and a curve is selected, the edit mode for that type of
curve appears.
The following types of curve edits are discussed in this section:


Editing a Line

Editing an Arc or Circle

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-45

Curve Creation

Editing a Line
A line may be edited by changing its endpoints or its parameters (length and
angle).
To change a line's endpoint:

Select the line end to be modified. The line now rubberbands from
the fixed end.

Specify a new position using any of the Point Method options on the
dialog box.
A line may also be Stretched to move its endpoint.

To change a line's parameters:

B-46

Select the line, avoiding its control points.

Enter new values for the length and/or angle in the Dialog Bar, then
press <Enter>.

The direction that the line is extended is dependent upon which side
of the center control point is selected.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Editing an Arc or Circle


The two methods used to edit an arc or circle are Parameters and Dragging.
The arc's or circle's parameters may be changed by entering new values in the
Dialog Bar, or changing them by dragging to a new location.

Moving an Arc or Circle to a New Location


An arc or circle may be moved to a new location, regardless of the editing mode
that is active, as follows:


Select the center of the arc or circle.

Drag the arc or circle to a new location, or enter a new XC, YC, ZC
location in the Dialog Bar.

Using Parameters Mode


To change an arc or circle using Parameters mode:


Select the arc or circle, avoiding its control points.

Enter new values in the radius, diameter, start angle, and/or end angle
fields in the Dialog Bar and press <Enter>.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-47

Curve Creation

Using Dragging Mode


There are two ways to change an arc or circle using Dragging mode:


To change the radius of the arc or circle, select it, avoiding its control
points, and drag it. When it is the size desired, press the first mouse
button.
Other geometry may also be selected to control the size of the
arc. For example, a line may be selected to make the arc tangent
to it, or the endpoint of another arc may be selected to make the
selected arc pass through it.

To change the start or end angle of the arc or circle, select it at the
desired endpoint and drag it. When the angle is correct, press the first
mouse button.
Other geometry may also be selected to control the start and/or
end angles of the arc. A line may be selected to stop the arc at
its intersection with the line, or an endpoint of another object
may be selected, and that endpoint will be projected onto the
arc to determine its start angle.

B-48

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation

Trim
When a curve is trimmed, it is trimmed to its intersection with one or two
bounding objects. A bounding object may be a curve, face, point, plane, or view
point.
Caution must be taken when selecting the curve to trim. The portion of the
curve that is selected determines which end is trimmed. The segment of the
object that is selected is always removed or extended (see below). If there are
multiple intersection points near the desired intersection, the system will
prompt for the selection of the desired intersection point to be used as the
bounding point.
Bounding Arc

Bounding Arc

Intersection
Point

Intersection
Point
If the line is selected here

The left part of the line is trimmed


AFTER TRIM

BEFORE TRIM

One bounding object must be specified, and not more than two, when trimming
a curve. Once the bounding objects have been specified, multiple curves may be
specified and they will all be trimmed to the bounding objects.

Procedure


Select the bounding objects.

Define the type of trim to perform.

Select the curve to trim.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-49

Curve Creation

Activity B-4: Trimming Curves

Step 1 Trim Curves to One Bounding Object.

Open the part file ids_editcurve_1.prt.

Select the Shape Studio application.

Choose InsertCurveBasic Curves.

Choose the Trim icon.

Step 2 Trim the Three lines to an Arc.




Select the arc as the first bounding object.

LINE1
Select the arc as the bounding object

LINE2

LINE3

B-50

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

Click MB2. In this case, it is not necessary to have a second


bounding object, so the selection may be skipped by clicking
MB2.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Curve Creation


Select LINE1 as shown below as the curve to trim.

Select the first line


to be trimmed

LINE1
LINE2

LINE3

The bounding curves don't change, so continue trimming.




Select the lower end of the second line.


LINE1
LINE2

LINE3

The second line is trimmed to the defined bounding line.




Select the lower end of the third line.


LINE1
LINE2

LINE3

The system will trim LINE3 by the combination of the side of


the midpoint of LINE3 and the side of the bounding curve.
Step 3 Close the part.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

B-51

Curve Creation

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

B-52

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Transformations

Transformations
Appendix C

PURPOSE

This appendix discusses the fundamentals of


transformations and introduces the face operation
Hollow. The following topics are covered.


Transformation procedure

Terminology

Translate

Scale

Rotate about a point

Mirror through a line

Rotate about a line

Hollow

This appendix contains the following activities.


Activity

Page

C-1 Performing a Hollow Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-13

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

C-1

Transformations

Transformations
The EditTransform option allows objects to be translated, rotated, and
scaled. Transformations may be used to create multiple copies of selected
objects, make multiple moves, perform multiple scale operations, etc.
NOTE

Views, layouts, and the current WCS are not translatable


objects. There are separate options from the main menu
bar to deal with these items.

Transformation Procedure

C-2

Choose EditTransform.

Select the objects for transformation. The Class Selection Subfunction


dialog box may be used to select the objects.

Choose a transformation type from the dialog box shown below.

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Transformations


Complete the additional selections and choices from dialog boxes.


Then complete the choices in the dialog box shown below, and choose
OK.

Transformation Options Terminology


Destination Layer allows you to select a layer on which to place the transformed
objects. Choose one of the following options:


Work

Places the transformed objects on the current work layer.

Orig

Keeps the transformed objects on their original layer.

Specify

Moves the transformed objects to the specified layer.

Trace Status ON creates connecting curves between the original objects end
points and their transformed copies. When trace status is OFF, connecting lines
are not created between the original object and the transformed copies.

Original object
Transformed Object
Trace Curves
Before

After

Trace Status may be used with Translate, Scale, Rotate, Mirror, or Reposition
to create closed wireframe shapes. Trace Status is not applicable to solid
bodies, surfaces, or boundary objects. Trace curves are independent of the

Destination Layer setting, and are always created on the current Work layer.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

C-3

Transformations

Subdivisions allows the transformation distance to be divided into a number of


equal parts. The subdivision factor is equal to the number of parts.
Use Subdivisions to translate, scale via uniform method, or rotate an object.
With translation, the distance is divided by the subdivision factor. With rotation,
the angle of rotation is divided by the subdivision factor. With scale, the
subdivision distance is the nth root of the transformation (where n is equal to
the subdivision factor).
NOTE

Subdivisions only divides the transformation distance into


equal parts. It does not display selected objects at each
subdivided segment.

After the number of subdivisions has been entered, the Transform Type dialog
box redisplays. Multiple Copies may be selected to enter a desired number of
copies.
Move allows transformation of an object from its original location to a new
location. The selection in this option is object based. A feature of a solid body
may not be selected for this operation.

When a solid body is moved, all associated entities (such as dimensions and
datum planes) are also moved.
When a solid body containing swept features is moved, the sweep outlines, or
paths, move as well. Other features or solid bodies sharing those sweep outlines
are also moved.
NOTE

A solid body cannot be moved with the transformation


type set to scale. Use the Scale operation to accomplish
this.

Copy allows an object to be duplicated at a new location, while keeping the


original object intact in its original position.
NOTE

When a solid body is copied, its parametric information is


lost.

Multiple Copies allows duplication of objects a specified number of times


during certain transform operations.

C-4

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Transformations

Undo Last cancels any immediately preceding transform operation. Use Undo
Last after a transformation via Move, Copy, or Multiple Copies. Undo Last
remains available until you choose Reselect Objects.
Changes in Transform Type, Destination Layer, Trace Curves, or Subdivisions
made after a transformation, but before it is undone, occur during the next
transformation operation. They will not affect the execution of Undo Last.
Objects originally selected for transformation remain selected at the completion
of the Undo Last, and ready for the next transformation operation.
Move, Copy, or Multiple Copies selected immediately following Undo Last,
regenerates the objects in a state that preceded Undo Last.

Translate
Objects may be Translated (moved) to a point, or by a distance of delta.
Translated objects maintain the original orientation.

To a Point allows the selected objects to be translated by indicating a reference


and a destination point.
Delta allows the selected objects to be translated by specifying a new location in
terms of the work (delta XC, delta YC, and delta ZC) coordinates.

Scale
This option affects the size of an object and the distance between the object
and its reference point. A nonuniform scale method may be specified with the
values relative to the WCS..

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

C-5

Transformations

Scale allows the selected objects to be proportionately resized. Care must be


exercised in choosing a reference point for the scale operation because the
scale factor is applied to the geometry equally (relative to the reference point).
The results of different reference point positions are illustrated below.
Reference
Point

Reference
Point

Reference
Point

Reference
Point

Scale Factor=1/2

NOTE

When a solid body is scaled using copy, its parametric


information is lost.

NonUniform Scale allows objects to be resized independently with respect to


the XC, YC, and ZC axes.

C-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Transformations

The figure below illustrates an example of NonUniform Scale.

ZC

ZC
YC

YC
Scale Factors

XC

XC Scale = .75
YC Scale = .5
ZC Scale = 1.25

Before

NOTE

XC
After

NonUniform Scale will not allow a Move operation on a


solid body. Use Copy instead. However, analytic face
geometry (for example, a block feature) cannot be
nonuniform scaled via Copy.

If you wish to nonuniform scale a solid body containing analytic surfaces, first
convert those sheet bodies into bsurfaces using the Convert function, then sew
them together into a new solid body valid for nonuniform scaling.
With the NonUniform Scale method, Undo Last is available even if the
rescaled object had been converted to a different kind of object.
NOTE

Once an arc is converted to a spline, it can no longer be


restored to its original object type.(See figure below)

Arc

YC

ZC

XC

Before

Spline

YC

Scale Factors
XC Scale = 1.35
YC Scale = 1.02
ZC Scale = 1.00

ZC

XC

After

When an object is transformed to a different type, some or all of the original


object data may be lost (for example, attributes, view modifications, drafting
objects, dimensions, tool paths, and offset sheet bodies). Subdivisions may not
be used in NonUniform Scale.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

C-7

Transformations

Rotate About a Point


Use this option to move objects around a line parallel to the ZC axis, and
passing through a specified reference point. A positive rotation direction is
counterclockwise. After the reference point for rotation has been selected, a
rotation and angle dialog box displays.

The figure below illustrates Rotation About a Point, with multiple copies.
Original Object

Number of Copies: 3
Subdiv Factor: 4
Rotation Angle: 270
Reference Point

ZC
YC
XC
Line Parallel To ZC

Mirror Through a Line


A mirror image of an object may be created on the opposite side of a reference
line. Three options are available for line selection.

The figure below illustrates an example of Mirror Through a Line.

C-8

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Transformations
Transformed Object

YC

ZC

XC

Reference Line

Original Object

Rotate About a Line


This option allows objects to be moved around a reference line which is not
necessarily parallel to the ZC axis. Three options are available for line
selection:


Two Points

Existing Line

Point and Vector

The positive rotation direction is counterclockwise.


The figure below illustrates an example of Rotate About a Line, multiple copies.
Original Hole

Reference
Point

Z
Y
Number Of Copies: 7
Rotation Angle: 315
Reference Point: Arc Center

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

C-9

Transformations

Using Transformations for Symmetrical Geometry


For swept solids using explicit curves that have common geometrical subsets,
the use of Mirror Through a Line and Mirror Through a Plane can save users
considerable creation time.
Consider the example below, which shows a combination of Offset Curves and
curves Mirrored Through a Line:

Associative Offset
Curves

No Associativity

Mirrored Curves

Parent Curves

(Not Mirrored)

TIP Careful consideration of the curves used as parents for


the Offset Curves is necessary. Remember, except for
the offset distance, editing of the Offset Curves is
accomplished only by editing the parents. The Offset
Curves are handled as a complete set. Also, note that
the circle and arc at the bottom were not mirrored, but
the lines at the top were.

C-10

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Transformations

Hollow
The Hollow operation creates a cavity inside, or a shell around an existing solid,
based upon a specified thickness. The entire solid body is hollowed during this
operation.
In the figure below, the top face has been selected as the face to be pierced.
Thickness

Face to be
pierced

Before

After

Wall Thickness Value


Positive or negative values may be used as follows:


Positive values will hollow the existing solid so that the wall thickness
is measured inward from the original faces of the solid.

Negative values for the wall thickness will result in a hollow that forms
a shell of the specified value around the original solid.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

C-11

Transformations

Choosing InsertFeature OperationHollow from the main menu will display


the following dialog box for hollow creation.
Region

Body

Face

Offset
face

Pierced
face
Type
Filter

Default
Thickness
Alternate
Thickness

A hollow may be created in three different ways:





The "Face" button may be chosen to select pierced faces individually.


The "Region" button may be selected to quickly select a region of
faces to be pierced. Since a region of the body is pierced rather than
individual faces, any changes to the region are automatically reflected
in the hollow.
The "Body" button may be selected to create a void region in a body
without piercing any faces.

A unique thickness may be assigned for each face with the Offset Face option.
When Offset Face is selected, the Alternate Thickness text box becomes active.
Using variable thickness hollows reduces the number of features in the part (as
the offset features are not required) and results in more compact models.

C-12

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Transformations

Activity C-1: Performing a Hollow Operation

In this activity the Hollow operation will be used to take material away from the
model of a plastic molded part.
Step 1 Open the Part File.


Open the part file ids_hair_dryer_1.prt, and start the Shape


Studio application.

The figure below illustrates the solid that will be hollowed.

Right

Step 2 Inspect the Part.




Set the Display Mode to Shaded and Rotate the part (third
mouse button) to verify that the solid requires hollowing.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

C-13

Transformations

Step 3 Hollow the solid and pierce the proper faces.




Set the display mode back to Wireframe and Restore the


view (third mouse button).

Choose InsertFeature OperationHollow.

Enter a Default Thickness of 2.

Select the right, and back side faces to pierce.

After both of the desired faces are selected to be pierced,


choose OK twice. The finished part is shown below.

Back side face

Right face

Step 4 Inspect the Part.




Set the Display Mode to Shaded and Rotate the part


(third mouse button).

Step 5 Choose FileCloseAll Parts.

C-14

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Boolean Operations

Boolean Operations
Appendix D

PURPOSE

This appendix discusses the fundamentals of Boolean


Operations. The following topics are covered.


Target and Tool solids

Unite

Subtract

Intersect

There are no activities.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

D-1

Boolean Operations

Boolean Operations
Boolean operations are used to create a single solid body out of two or more
existing solid bodies. Unigraphics senses when a solid already exists in a file
and another is being created, and the following menu appears for the Boolean
Operation.

The new solid may be created as a separate solid using Create, or a Boolean
operation (Unite, Subtract, or Intersect) may be performed on the two solids
during creation to make one resultant solid.

D-2

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Boolean Operations

The Boolean Operations may also be created as a separate feature using the
InsertFeature Operation options shown in the menu below. When using these
operations, a Target Solid and a Tool Solid need to be specified to perform the
boolean operation.
NOTE

Creation of Booleans as separate features allows for


future editing of the Boolean operations.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

D-3

Boolean Operations

Defining Target and Tool Solids


The Target solid is the solid body on which operations are performed. In the
figure below, to unite the two cylinders to the block, the block is chosen as the
target solid.
The Tool solid is the solid body that operates upon the target solid.
NOTE

The target solid passes its attributes on to the Boolean


operation result. Therefore, the resultant solid inherits
the layer, material density, etc. of the Target Solid.
Target solid

Tool solids

The Boolean Operations are described below.

Unite

This option allows two or more solid bodies to be combined into one.
Target solid

Completed solid

Tool solids

Before

D-4

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

After

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Boolean Operations

Subtract
This option allows material to be removed from a solid body (Target Body) by
using another solid body as the Tool Solid, leaving empty space where the Tool
body existed.
Tool solid
Target solid

Before

After

Tool solid

Intersect
This Boolean allows a new solid to be created from two solids. The resultant
solid will be that portion which is common to both of the selected solids.
Before

After

Target solid
Tool solid

TIP Intersecting the target solid with more than one tool solid in one
operation will result in an unparameterized solid.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

D-5

Boolean Operations

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

D-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Glossary

Glossary

ABS - Absolute coordinate system.


Absolute Coordinate System - Coordinate system in which all geometry is located
from a fixed or absolute zero point.
active view - One of up to 49 views per layout in which you can directly work.
angle - In Unigraphics, an angle measured on the XY plane of a coordinate
system is positive if the direction that it is swept is counterclockwise as viewed from
the positive Z axis side of the XY plane. An angle swept in the opposite direction
is said to be negative.
arc - An incomplete circle; sometimes used interchangeably with the term circle."
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It is a set of 8bit
binary numbers representing the alphabet, punctuation, numerals, and other
special symbols used in text representation and communications protocol.
aspect ratio - The ratio of length to height which represents the change in size of a
symbol from its original.
assembly - A collection of piece parts and subassemblies representing a product.
In Unigraphics, an assembly is a part file which contains components.
assembly part - A Unigraphics part file which is a userdefined, structured
combination of subassemblies, components and/or objects.
associativity - The ability to tie together (link) separate pieces of information to
aid in automating the design, drafting, and manufacture of parts in Unigraphics.
attributes - Pieces of information that can be associated with Unigraphics
geometry and parts such as assigning a name to an object.
block font - A Unigraphics character font which is the default font used for
creating text in drafting objects and dimensions.
body - Class of objects containing sheets and solids (see solid body and sheet body).
bottomup modeling - Modeling technique where component parts are designed
and edited in isolation of their usage within some higher level assembly. All
assemblies using the component are automatically updated when opened to reflect
the geometric edits made at the piece part level.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

GL-1

GL


GL

Glossary

boundary - A set of geometric objects that describes the containment of a part


from a vantage point.
CAD/CAM - Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing.
category, layer - A name assigned to a layer, or group of layers. A category, if
descriptive of the type of data found on the layers to which it is assigned, will assist
the user in identifying and managing data in a part file.
chaining - A method of selecting a sequence of curves which are joined
endtoend.
circle - A complete and closed arc, sometimes used interchangeably with the term
arc."
component - A collection of objects, similar to a group, in an assembly part. A
component may be a subassembly consisting of other, lower level components.
component part - The part file or master" pointed to by a component within an
assembly. The actual geometry is stored in the component part and referenced, not
copied, by the assembly. A separate Unigraphics part file that the system associates
with a component object in the assembly part.
cone direction - Defines the cone direction using the Vector Subfunction.
cone origin - Defines the base origin using the Point Subfunction.
half angle - The half vertex angle defines the angle formed by the axis of the cone
and its side.
constraints - Refer to the methods you can use to refine and limit your sketch.
The methods of constraining a sketch are geometric and dimensional.
construction points - Points used to create a spline. Construction points may be
used as poles (control vertices), defining points, or data points. See POLES,
DEFINING POINTS, and DATA POINTS.
control point - Represents a specific location on an existing object. A line has
three control points: both end points and the midpoint of the line. The control
point for a closed circle is its center, while the control points for an open arc are its
end and midpoints. A spline has a control point at each knot point. A control point
is a position on existing geometry. Any of the following points: 1. Existing Points 2.
Endpoints of conics 3. Endpoints and midpoints of open arcs 4. Center points of
circles 5. Midpoints and endpoints of lines 6. Endpoints of splines.
convert curve - A method of creating a bcurve in which curves (lines, arcs, conics
or splines) may be selected for conversion into a bcurve.

GL-2

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Glossary

Coordinate System - A system of axes used in specifying positions (CSYS).


counterclockwise - The righthand rule determines the counter clockwise
direction. If the thumb is aligned with the ZC axis and pointing in the positive
direction, counterclockwise is defined as the direction the fingers would move from
the positive XC axis to the positive YC axis.
current layout - The layout currently displayed on the screen. Layout data is kept
in an intermediate storage area until it is saved.
curve - A curve in Unigraphics is any line, arc, conic, spline or bcurve. A
geometric object; this may refer to a line, an arc, a conic, or a spline.
defaults - Assumed values when they are not specifically defined.
defining points - Spline construction points. Splines created using defining points
are forced to pass through the points. These points are guaranteed to be on the
spline.
degreeoffreedom arrows - Arrowlike indicators that show areas that require
more information to fully constrain a sketch.
design in context - The ability to directly edit component geometry as it is
displayed in the assembly. Geometry from other components can be selected to aid
in the modeling. Also referred to as edit in place.
dimensional constraint - This is a scalar value or expression which limits the
measure of some geometric object such as the length of a line, the radius of an arc,
or the distance between two points.
directory - A hierarchical file organization structure which contains a list of
filenames together with information for locating those files.
displayed part - The part currently displayed in the graphics window.
edit in place - See design in context.
emphasize work part - A color coding option which helps distinguish geometry in
the work part from geometry in other parts within the same assembly.
endpoint - An endpoint of a curve or an existing point.
expression - An arithmetic or conditional statement that has a value. Expressions
are used to control dimensions and the relationships between dimensions of a
model.
face - A region on the outside of a body enclosed by edges.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

GL-3

GL


GL

Glossary

feature - An allencompassing term which refers to all solids, bodies, and


primitives.
file - A group or unit of logically related data which is labeled or named" and
associated with a specified space. In Unigraphics, parts, and patterns are a few
types of files.
filtering - See object filtering.
font box - A rectangle or box" composed of dashed line objects. The font box
defines the size, width and spacing of characters belonging to a particular font.
font, character - A set of characters designed at a certain size, width and spacing.
font, line - Various styles of lines and curves, such as solid, dashed, etc.
free form feature - A body of zero thickness. (see body and sheet body)
generator curve - A contiguous set of curves, either open or closed, that can be
swept or revolved to create a body.
geometric constraint - A relationship between one or more geometric objects that
forces a limitation. For example, two lines that are perpendicular or parallel
specifies a geometric constraint.
grid - A rectangular array of implied points used to accurately align locations
which are entered by using the screen position" option.
guide curve - A set of contiguous curves that define a path for a sweep operation.
virtual intersection - Intersection formed by extending two line segments that do
not touch to the position that they cross. The line segments must be nonparallel
and coplanar.
inflection - A point on a spline where the curve changes from concave to convex,
or vice versa.
interactive step - An individual menu in a sequence of menus used in performing a
Unigraphics function.
isometric view (TfrISO) - Isometric view orientation - one where equal distances
along the coordinate axes are also equal to the view plane. One of the axes is
vertical.
knot points - The defining points of a spline. Points along a Bspline, representing
the endpoints of each spline segment.

GL-4

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Glossary

layer - A layer is a partition of a part. Layers are analogous to the transparent


material used by conventional designers. For example, the user may create all
geometry on one layer, all text and dimensions on a second, and tool paths on a
third.
layout - A collection of viewports or window areas, in which views are displayed.
The standard layouts in Unigraphics include one, two, four or six viewports.
layouts - Standard layouts are available to the user. These include:
L1 - Single View,
L2 - Two Views,
L3 - Two Views,
L4 - Four Views,
L6 - Six Views.
Information window - The window used in listing operations, such as Info.
loaded part - Any part currently opened and in memory. Parts are loaded explicitly
using the FileOpen option and implicitly when they are used in an assembly being
opened.
menu - A list of options from which the user makes a selection.
model space - The coordinate system of a newly created part. This is also referred
to as the absolute coordinate system." Any other coordinate system may be
thought of as a rotation and/or translation of the absolute coordinate system.
name, expression - - The name of an expression is the single variable on the left
hand side of the expression. All expression names must be unique in a part file.
Each expression can have only one name. See expression.
objects - All geometry within the Unigraphics environment.
offset face - A Unigraphics surface type created by projecting (offsetting) points
along all the normals of a selected surface at a specified distance to create a true"
offset.
options - A number of various alternatives (functions, modes, parameters, etc.)
from among which the user can choose.
origin - The point X = 0, Y = 0, Z = 0 for any particular coordinate system.
parametric design - Concept used to define and control the relationships between
the features of a model. Concept where the features of the model are defined by
parameters.
part - A Unigraphics file containing a .prt extension. It may be a piece part
containing model geometry, a subassembly, or a toplevel assembly.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

GL-5

GL


GL

Glossary

part or model - A collection of Unigraphics objects which together may represent


some object or structure.
partially loaded part - A component part which, for performance reasons, has not
been fully loaded. Only those portions of the component part necessary to render
the higher level assembly are initially loaded (the reference set).
point set - A distribution of points on a curve between two bounding points on that
curve.
Point Subfunction Menu - A list of options (methods) by which positions can be
specified in Unigraphics.
readonly part - A part for which the user does not have write access privilege.
real time dynamics - Produces smooth pan, zoom, and rotation of a part, though
placing great demand on the CPU.
Refresh - A function which causes the system to refresh the display list on the
viewing screen. This removes temporary display items and fills in holes left by Blank
or Delete.
righthand rule, conventional - The righthand rule is used to determine the
orientation of a coordinate system. If the origin of the coordinate system is in the
palm of the right fist, with the back of the hand lying on a table, the outward
extension of the index finger corresponds to the positive Y axis, the upward
extension of the middle finger corresponds to the positive Z axis, and the outward
extension of the thumb corresponds to the positive X axis.
righthand rule for rotation - The righthand rule for rotation is used to associate
vectors with directions of rotation. When the thumb is extended and aligned with a
given vector, the curled fingers determine the associated direction of rotation.
Conversely, when the curled fingers are held so as to indicate a given direction of
rotation, the extended thumb determines the associated vector.
screen cursor (cursor) - A marker on the screen which the user moves around
using some position indicator device. Used for indicating positions, selecting
objects, etc. Takes the form of a fullscreen cross.
sheet - A object consisting of one or more faces not enclosing a volume. A body of
zerothickness. Also called sheet body.)
sketch - A collection of geometric objects that closely approximates the outline of
a particular design. You refine your sketch with dimensional and geometric
constraints until you achieve a precise representation of your design. The sketch
can then be extruded or revolved to obtain a 3D object or feature.

GL-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Glossary

Sketch Coordinate System (SCS) - The SCS is a coordinate system which


corresponds to the plane of the sketch. When a sketch is created the WCS is
changed to the SCS of the new sketch.
solid body - An enclosed volume. A type of body (see Body).
spline - A smooth freeform curve.
stored layout - The last saved version of a layout.
stored view - The last saved version of a view.
string - A contiguous series of lines and/or arcs connected at their end points.
subassembly - A part which both contains components and is itself used as a
component in higherlevel assemblies.
surface - The underlying geometry used to define a face on a sheet body. A
surface is always a sheet but a sheet is not necessarily a surface (see sheet body).
The underlying geometry used to define the shape of a face on a sheet.
system - The Unigraphics System.
temporary part - An empty part which is optionally created for any component
parts which cannot be found in the process of opening an assembly.
topdown modeling - Modeling technique where component parts can be created
and edited while working at the assembly level. Geometric changes made at the
assembly level are automatically reflected in the individual component part when
saved.
trim - To shorten or extend a curve.
trimetric view (TfrTri) - A viewing orientation which provides you with an
excellent view of the principal axes. In Unigraphics II, the trimetric view has the
Zaxis vertical. The measure along the Xaxis is 7/8 of the measure along Z, and the
measure along the Yaxis is 3/4 of the measure along Z.
Unigraphics - A computer based turnkey graphics system for computeraided
design, drafting, and manufacturing, produced by UGS.
units - The unit of measure in which you may work when constructing in
Unigraphics. Upon log on, you may define the unit of measure as inches or
millimeters.
upgraded component - A component which was originally created preV10 but has
been opened in V10 and upgraded to remove the duplicate geometry.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

GL-7

GL


GL

Glossary

version - A term which identifies the state of a part with respect to a series of
modifications that have been made to the part since its creation.
view - A particular display of the model. View parameters include view orientation
matrix; center; scale; X,Y and Z clipping bounds; perspective vector; drawing
reference point and scale. Eight standard views are available to the user: Top,
Front, Right, Left, Bottom, Back, TfrISO (topfrontright isometric), and TfrTri
(topfrontright trimetric).
view dependent edit - A mode in which the user can edit a part in the current work
view only.
view dependent modifications - Modifications to the display of geometry in a
particular view. These include erase from view and modify color, font and width.
view dependent geometry - Geometry created within a particular view. It will only
be displayed in that view.
WCS - Work Coordinate System.
WCS, work plane - The WCS (Work Coordinate System) is the coordinate system
singled out by the user for use in construction, verification, etc. The coordinates of
the WCS are called work coordinates and are denoted by XC, YC, ZC. The XCYC
plane is called the work plane.
Work Coordinate System - See WCS.
work layer - The layer on which geometry is being constructed. You may create
objects on only one layer at a time.
work part - The part in which you create and edit geometry. The work part can be
your displayed part or any component part which is contained in your displayed
assembly part. When displaying a piece part, the work part is always the same as
the displayed part.
work view - The view in which work is being performed. When the creation mode
is view dependent, any construction and view dependent editing that is performed
will occur only in the current work view.
XC axis - Xaxis of the work coordinate system.
YC axis - Yaxis of the work coordinate system.
ZC axis - Zaxis of the work coordinate system.

GL-8

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Index

Index
A
ABS, GL-1
Absolute Coordinate System, GL-1
Active View, GL-1
Analyze Shape, 11-2
Dynamic Deviation Gauge, 11-22
Dialog, 11-22
Parameters, 11-22
Reference Options, 11-22
Grid Section Analysis, 11-42
Section Analysis, 11-29
Dialog, 11-30
Multiple Sections, 11-31
Procedure, 11-31
Multiple Sections, 11-32
Parallel Planes, 11-31
Radial Planes, 11-32
Analyze Shape Toolbar, 11-2
Angle, GL-1
Arc, GL-1
Arcs, B-26
Arc Creation Chart, B-32
Creating Arcs, B-27
Fillets, B-33
ASCII, GL-1
Aspect Ratio, GL-1
Assemblies, GL-1
Associativity, GL-1
Attribute, GL-1

B
Background, 17-76
Background Patterns, 17-77, 17-29
Background Types, 17-76, 17-29
Body, GL-1
Boolean Operations, D-2
Intersect, D-5
Subtract, D-5
Target and Tool Solids, D-4
Unite, D-4

Bridge Curve, 14-3


Curve Selection, 14-4
Effect of Continuity, 14-4
Procedure, 14-4
Shape Control, 14-5
Start/End Direction, 14-5
Start/End Location, 14-5
Symmetric Bridge, 14-9

C
Category, Layer, GL-2
Chaining, GL-2
Circle, GL-2
Circles, B-26
Circle Creation Chart, B-32
Creating Circles, B-28
Component, GL-2
Part, GL-2
Cone
Direction, GL-2
Origin, GL-2
Constraints, GL-2
Construction Points, GL-2
Control Point, GL-2
Control Points, B-5
Convert, Curves to BCurves, GL-2
Coordinate Systems, GL-3
Sketch, GL-7
Counterclockwise, GL-3
Current Layout, GL-3
Cursor, GL-6
Curve, GL-3
Curve Creation, B-1
Arcs, B-26
Circles, B-26
Explicit Curves, B-2
Line Creation, B-10
Options, B-8
Point Method, B-8
String Mode, B-9
Curve on Surface, 14-14
Dialog, 14-14
Procedure, 14-15

Bottom-Up Modeling, GL-1


Boundary, GL-2

IN

Defaults, GL-3

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

IN-1


IN

Index
Defining Points, GL-3
Deform Sheet, 16-16
Deviation Check, 16-19
Dialog, 16-20
Dialog Options, 16-16
Edit A Copy, 16-19
Edit Original Sheet, 16-19
Name, 16-19
Procedure, 16-21
Section Analysis, 16-19
Degreeoffreedom Arrows, GL-3
Depth of Field, 17-86
Aperture Setting, 17-87
Focal Distance, 17-87
Focal Length (Lens Size), 17-87
Tips, 17-87
Design in Context, GL-3
Developed Curves
, 14-2
Bridge Curve, 14-3
Curve on Surface, 14-14
Deviation, 11-18
curve to face, 11-19
edge to face, 11-18
Dialog Bar, B-4
Location Fields, B-4
Parameter Fields, B-4
Dimension Constraints, GL-3
Direction, Cone, GL-2
Directory, GL-3
Displayed Part, GL-3

E
Edit During Update, 12-15
Accept, 12-16
Accept Remaining, 12-16
Continue, 12-16
Delete, 12-17
Edit, 12-17
Information, 12-16
Out of Date Features, 12-19
Review the Model, 12-17
Step, 12-16
Step Back, 12-16
Step Back To, 12-16
Step To, 12-16
Suppress, 12-17
Suppress Remaining, 12-17
Undo, 12-16

IN-2

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

Edit Features, 16-1


Deform Sheet, 16-16
Enlarge Sheet, 16-2
Global Shaping, 16-27
Match Edge, 16-31
Transform Sheet, 16-8
Edit in Place, GL-3
Editing Curves, B-45
Edit Curve Parameters, B-45
Editing a Circle, B-47
Using Dragging Mode, B-48
Using Parameters Mode, B-47
Editing a Line, B-46
Editing an Arc, B-47
Using Dragging Mode, B-48
Using Parameters Mode, B-47
Trim Curve, B-49
Effects, 17-82
Depth of Field, 17-86
Lens Flare, 17-83
Emphasize Work Part, GL-3
Endpoint, GL-3
Enlarge Sheet, 16-2
All, 16-2
Linear, 16-2
Natural, 16-2
Procedure, 16-3
Self Intersecting Sheets, 16-3
Environment, 17-81
Explicit Curves, B-2
Basic Curves, B-3
Dialog Bar, B-4
Preselection Highlighting, B-5
Expressions, GL-3
Names, GL-5
Extension Surfaces, 15-2
Angled, 15-2, 15-9
Values, 15-9
Circular, 15-2, 15-9
Procedure, 15-10
Law Extension, 15-2, 15-16
Normal, 15-2, 15-7
Procedure, 15-3
Sheet Corner, 15-6
Percentage Value, 15-7
Tangential, 15-2, 15-4
Fixed Length, Procedure, 15-4
Fixed Length Method, 15-5
Percentage Method, 15-6
Procedure, 15-6
Selecting an Edge, 15-5

F
Face, GL-3

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Index
Face Analysis, 11-2, 11-6, 11-8
analysis type, 11-7
Gaussian radius, 11-7
maximum radius, 11-7
mean radius, 11-7
minimum radius, 11-7
normal radius, 11-7
sectional radius, 11-7
U radius, 11-7
V radius, 11-7
display type, 11-3, 11-4
fringe, 11-3
hedgehog, 11-3
resolution, 11-4
Procedure, 11-10
sectioning plane, 11-7
Failed Update, 12-15
Feature Operations, 12-1, 13-1
Mirror, 12-2
Patch, 13-7
Sew, 13-2

Grid Section Analysis, 11-42


Anchor Point Options, 11-44
Editing Circular Grid, 11-47
Editing Quadrilateral Grid, 11-46
Editing Triangular Grid, 11-46
Sections Options, 11-45
Guide Curve, GL-4

H
Half Angle, GL-2
Hollow, C-11
Body, C-12
Face, C-12
Region, C-12
Wall Thickness Value, C-11
Negative Values, C-11
Positive Values, C-11

Features, GL-4

File, GL-4
Fillets, B-33
2 Curve Fillet, B-36
3 Curve Fillet, B-37
Fillet Creation Methods Chart, B-40
Procedure, B-34
Simple Fillet, B-35
Trim Options, B-34

Inferred Point Selection, B-6


Inferred Selection Chart, B-7
Inflection, GL-4
Instance, 12-2
Mirror, 12-2
Intersect, D-5

Filtering, GL-4

Font
Box, GL-4
Character, GL-4
Line, GL-4

Knot Points, GL-4

Foreground, 17-71
Types, 17-73

Free Form Feature, GL-4

G
Generator Curve, GL-4
Geometric Constraint, GL-4
Global Shaping, 16-27
Control By Function, 16-28
Control By Surface, 16-29
Dialog, 16-27
Overcrown, 16-29
Procedure, 16-30
Stretch, 16-30

IN

Grid, GL-4

Law Extension, 15-16


Procedure, 15-17
Layer, GL-5
Layout, GL-5
Lens Flare, 17-83
Intensity, 17-84
Lens Fall Off, 17-83
Lens Type, 17-83
Line Creation, B-10
Between Two Points, B-10
Line Creation Chart, B-17
Parallel to Line, at a Distance, B-13
Tangent to Curve, at an Angle to Line, B-16
Tangent to Curve, Parallel to Line, B-16

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

IN-3


IN

Index
Tangent to Curve, Perpendicular to Another,
B-15
Tangent to Curve, Perpendicular to Line, B-16
Tangent to Two Curves, B-15
Through a Point and at an Angle to XC Axis,
B-11
Through a Point and Horizontal, B-10
Through a Point and Parallel to Line, B-12
Through a Point and Perpendicular to Line, B-12
Through a Point and Vertical, B-10
Through a Point, at an Angle to Line, B-12
Through a Point, Perpendicular to Curve, B-14
Through a Point, Tangent to Curve, B-14
Listing Window, GL-5
Loaded Part, GL-5

M
Make Current Feature, 12-15
Failed Update, 12-15
Edit During Update, 12-15
Match Edge, 16-31
Dialog, 16-32
Materials, 17-19
Ambient Factor, 17-20
Diffuse Factor, 17-20
Index of Refraction, 17-20
Mirror Factor, 17-20
Roughness, 17-20
Specular Factor, 17-20
Translucency, 17-20
Menu, GL-5
Mirror, 12-2
Procedure, 12-3
Mirror Through a Line, C-8
Model, GL-6
Model Navigator, 12-8
Make Current Feature, Usage Considerations,
12-12
Out of Date Features, 12-19
Reorder Before, After, Application, 12-10
Reordering with the Model Navigator, 12-11
Procedure, 12-11
Model Space, GL-5
Modeling for Flexibility, 12-20

Offset Surface, GL-5


Origin, Cone, GL-2
Out of Date Features, 12-19

P
Parametric Design, GL-5
Part, GL-5, GL-6
Partially Loaded Part, GL-6
Parts Used, mff_edit_poles_1, 11-20
Patch, 13-7
Confirm Upon Apply, 13-11
Create Hole, 13-9
Dialog, 13-8
Procedure, 13-11
Reverse Removal Direction, 13-10
Selection Steps, 13-8
Target Body, 13-8
Tool Face, 13-8
Tool Sheet, 13-8
Playback, 12-14
Point Constructor, A-1
Angle on Arc, A-7
Angle on Ellipse, A-7
Arc Center, A-6
Control Point, A-5
Coordinate System, A-9
Cursor Location, A-3
Ellipse Center, A-6
End Point, A-4
Existing Point, A-3
Inferred Point, A-2
Intersection Point, A-5
Offset, A-9
Quadrant Point, A-8
Sphere Center, A-6
Point Constructor Offset, A-9
Cylindrical Offset, A-11
Offset Along Curve, A-13
Rectangular Offset, A-10
Reset, A-10
Spherical Offset, A-12
Vector Offset, A-12
Point Set, GL-6
Point Subfunction, GL-6
Preselection Highlighting, B-5

Object, GL-5

IN-4

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

ReadOnly Part, GL-6

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Index
Real Time Dynamics, GL-6

Scale, C-5
Non-Uniform Scale, C-6

Textures, 17-25
Bump Maps, 17-28
Cast Texture Parameters, 17-31
Rough Texture Parameters, 17-32
Types, 17-30
Wrapped Dimple, 17-33
Wrapped Knurl, 17-33
Wrapped Tread, 17-33
Pattern Textures, 17-34
Types, 17-36
Texture Space, 17-26
Arbitrary Plane, 17-26
Cylindrical, 17-26
Spherical, 17-27
Uv, 17-27
WCS Auto Axis, 17-27
Transparency Textures, 17-38
Types, 17-40

SCS, GL-7

TfrISO, GL-4

Sew, 13-2
Sewing Sheets, 13-2
Procedure, 13-3
Sewing Solids, 13-3
Procedure, 13-4

TfrTri, GL-7

Refresh, GL-6
Right Hand Rule, GL-6
Rotate About a Line, C-9
Existing Line, C-9
Point and Vector, C-9
Two Points, C-9
Rotate About a Point, C-8
Rotation, GL-6

Sheet, GL-6
Sketch, GL-6
Coordinate System, GL-7
Solid Body, GL-7
Spline, GL-7
Stored Layout, GL-7
Stored View, GL-7
String, GL-7
Subassembly, GL-7
Subtract, D-5
Surface, GL-7
Swoop Surfaces, 15-18
Dialog, 15-18
Procedure, 15-19
Symmetric Bridge, 14-9
Procedure, 14-9
System, GL-7

IN

Tool Solid, D-4


Top-Down Modeling, GL-7
Trace Status, C-3
Transform Sheet, 16-8
Dialog, 16-10
Dialog Options, 16-8
Edit A Copy, 16-10
Edit Original Sheet, 16-10
Name, 16-10
Procedure, 16-11
Transformation, C-2
Mirror Through a Line, C-8
Rotate About a Line, C-9
Rotate About a Point, C-8
Scale, C-5
Symmetrical Geometry, C-10
Terminology, C-3
Copy, C-4
Destination Layer, C-3
Original, C-3
Specify, C-3
Work, C-3
Move, C-4
Multiple Copies, C-4
Subdivisions, C-4
Trace Status, C-3
Translate, C-5
Translate, C-5
Delta, C-5
To a Point, C-5

Target Solid, D-4

Trim, GL-7

Temporary Part, GL-7

Trim Curve, B-49

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

IN-5


IN

Index

U
Unigraphics, GL-7
Unite, D-4
Units, GL-7
Upgrade, Component, GL-7

V
Version, GL-8
View, GL-8
Isometric, GL-4
Trimetric, GL-7
Work, GL-8
Visual Effects, 17-70
Background, 17-76
Effects, 17-82
Environment, 17-81
Foreground, 17-71
Visualization, 17-3
Adding Materials, 17-15
Categories, 17-17
Dialog, 17-16
Procedure, 17-17
Tips, 17-41
Adding Textures, 17-15
Categories, 17-17
Dialog, 17-16
Procedure, 17-17
Tips, 17-41
Set-Up, 17-5
High Quality Image, 17-5
Rendering Method, 17-7
Set-Up Options, 17-9
Action Options, 17-13

IN-6

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

Advanced Setup, 17-11


Allow Transparent Shadows, 17-11
Disable Raytracing, 17-11
Export, 17-11
Facets, 17-10
Generate Shadows, 17-10
Import, 17-11
Information, 17-12
Preview, 17-11
Smooth, 17-10
Super Sampling, 17-11
Use Sub Region, 17-10
Tips for Realistic Scenes, 17-88
Visual Effects, 17-70
Visualize Shape Toolbar, 17-4

W
WCS, GL-8
Work Layer, GL-8
Work Part, GL-8

X
XCAxis, GL-8

Y
YCAxis, GL-8

Z
ZCAxis, GL-8

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Reference Chart Tear Outs


These tear out reference charts are provided for your convenience.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Student Profile
Industrial Design With Shape Studio
Name
Employer
U.S. citizen? Yes / No

Date

When is your planned departure time?________________am/pm


Please answer the following questions as honestly as you can. We are concerned about providing training that
meets your needs. If you have any additional comments please write them on the back of this form.
1. Job title:
2. Current responsibilities:
3. How long have you held these responsibilities? Years ______ Months ______
4. How long have you been working with CAD/CAM/CAE systems? Years ______
5. What other CAD/CAM/CAE systems are you familiar with?
6. Are you currently using Unigraphics? _______ Version _______ Hours per week?
7. What is the function of your CAD/CAM/CAE system (documentation, modeling, analysis,
translation interface, etc.)?
8. What do you model in your Unigraphics part files (castings, assemblies, floor plans, etc.)?

9. Please list other completed CAD/CAM/CAE courses and the provider including Unigraphics CBT
and CAST:

Course

Provider

10. Please check the box that best describes your current skill level in the various Unigraphics
disciplines listed below.
none

novice

intermediate

advanced

future use

Wireframe Modeling
Solid Modeling
Parametric Modeling
Drafting
Assemblies
Manufacturing

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

Additional Comments

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Unigraphics NX Industrial Design with Shape Studio


Course Agenda

Day 1

Monday Morning
 Introduction & Overview
 Instructorled Mouse Activity
Workbook Section 1
 Lesson 1
Getting Started

Afternoon
 Lesson 2
Working With the WCS and Raster Images
 Workbook Section 2
Project Description
 Workbook Section 3
Capture the Stylists Intent (begin)
 Lesson 3
Creating Splines
 Workbook Section 3
Continue
 Lesson 4
Editing Splines (begin)

Day 2

Tuesday Morning
 Brief Review
 Lesson 4
 Lesson 5

Editing Splines (continue)


Analyzing Curves

Afternoon
 Workbook Section 4
 Lesson 6
 Lesson 7
 Lesson 8

Day 3

Edit the Splines and Begin 3D Construction

Creating Developed Curves


Creating Sheet Bodies Using Extrude and Revolve
Free Form Styling Surfaces (begin)

Wednesday Morning
 Brief Review
 Lesson 8
Free Form Styling Surfaces (continue)
 Workbook Section 5
Create and Edit the Side Body Surfaces
 Lesson 9
Editing Free Form Surfaces

Afternoon
 Workbook Section 6
Create a Transition Surface (begin)
 Lesson 10
Creating Transition Surfaces
 Workbook Section 6
Create a Transition Surface (continue)
 Lesson 11
 Lesson 12

Analyzing Surfaces
Feature Operations and the Model Navigator

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

Day 4

Thursday Morning





Brief Review
Workbook Section 7
Create the Snowmobile Hood
Lesson 13
Free Form Feature Operations
Workbook Section 8
Complete Surfacing of the Snowmobile Hood

 Lesson 14
Creating Advanced Curves
 Workbook Section 9
Add a Headlight to the Snowmobile Hood (begin)

Afternoon





Workbook Section 9
Add a Headlight to the Snowmobile Hood (continue)
Lesson 15
Creating Advanced Surfaces
Workbook Section 10 Begin Construction of the Hood Scoop
Lesson 16
Advanced Edit Features

 Workbook Section 11
 Workbook Section 12

Day 5

Complete Construction of the Hood Scoop (begin)


Complete the Snowmobile Hood (begin)

Friday Morning
 Brief Review
 Workbook Section 11 Complete Construction of the Hood Scoop (continue)
 Workbook Section 12 Complete the Snowmobile Hood (continue)
 Lesson 17
Visualization Techniques (begin)

Afternoon
 Workbook Section 13 Add Visualization Techniques to the Snowmobile Hood
(begin)
 Lesson 17
Visualization Techniques (continue)
 Workbook Section 13
(continue)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

Add Visualization Techniques to the Snowmobile Hood

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Inferred Selection Chart

Contents of Selection Ball

Selected
Geometry

Nothing

A screen
position

An existing point

The existing
point

An endpoint or midpoint of a
line, arc, or partial ellipse

The control
point

A line, arc, conic, or spline, but


not one of its control points

The line, arc,


conic, or
spline

A complete circle or ellipse,


(selection ball not over a
control point)

The circle or
ellipse

An arc center of a circle or


ellipse

The center of
the circle or
ellipse

A complete circle or ellipse,


(selection ball over the control
point)

The control
point (end
point)

A knot point of a spline


(splines are covered in the
Freeform Modeling Course)

The
knotpoint

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Examples

or

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Line Creation Chart


Line between two points

Select two points

Line through a point and


horizontal, vertical, or at an
angle to the WCS

Y
X

Line through a point and


parallel, perpendicular, or
at an angle to a line

1
2

Line through a point and


tangent or normal to a curve

2
1

Line tangent or perpendicular


to two curves

Line tangent to a curve and


parallel or perpendicular to
a line

 Define the first point


 Define second point within
the Snap Angle setting or
 Enter the desired angle,
press <Tab>, and define
second point.
 Define a point
 Select a line
 Select limiting point/object
[Can also select line,
then point]

 Select a point
 Select a curve
 Select limiting point/object
(if necessary)

Select two curves

2
1

A bisector line

 Select two curves


 Select limiting point/object

Select two lines

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Arc/Circle Creation Chart

Start point, end point,


point on arc

 Define first point


 Define second point
 Define third point

Start point, end point,


tangent object

 Define first point


 Define second point
 Select tangent object

Start point, tangent object,


end point

1
3

Arc center, start point,


end point

 Define start point


 Select tangent object
 Define end point

 Define first point


 Define second point
 Define third point

Circle center, point on circle

 Define first point


 Define second point

2
1

Circle center, tangent object


1

EDS
All Rights Reserved

 Define point
 Select tangent object

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Fillet Creation Methods Chart


Note: Numbered steps indicate this is not the
only way the arc/circle can be created.
Simple fillet
(lines only)

 Select both lines


simultaneously (both must
intersect the selection ball)

2 curve fillet

 Select first object


 Select second object
2

If the objects extend beyond


their intersection point, you
must also specify a quadrant
for the center of the fillet.

3 curve fillet

 Select first object


 Select second object
 Select third object

3
1

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Importing a Raster Image


To import a raster image into the part file, the user first specifies the TIFF
image to import and the size of the plane to create. With this information, a
plane is created at the current WCS origin and orientation (on the XY plane).
The TIFF image is then selected and mapped to the plane. The Raster Image
plane is a sheet body with an assigned texture and material.
To create a new raster image plane, the user is required to specify the following
plane characteristics:
Parameter

Description

Dimensions

Dimensions may be specified in several different ways. When working with standard
sized drawings, users may select the drawing size from the standard pull-down
menu. For non-standard sized TIFF images, users may set the dimensions using the
Height and Length data entry fields.

Location

The location of the image plane is specified by the location and orientation of the
current WCS. Change the WCS to the desired location and orientation before
importing the raster image. The lower left corner of the image is placed at the WCS
origin.

TIFF Image

The TIFF Image is specified by first choosing the TIFF Image button in the dialog. The
file containing the image may then be selected from the file selection menu. Once
specified, a sheet body with the specified dimensions and location will be created.
The TIFF image is applied to the sheet body.

Units

The image plane dimensions may be specified in either Inches or Millimeters. By


default the units are set to the units of the part file. When Inches is selected, the size
options menu displays the standard inch drawing sizes. When Millimeters is selected,
the size options menu displays the standard millimeter drawing sizes. The dimensions
of the image plane are saved with the part in the units of the part file.

Automatic
Aspect Ratio

This option is a toggle that determines whether the Height/Length aspect ratio is kept
to the aspect ratio of the original selected TIFF image. By default, this toggle is ON,
meaning that the aspect ratio for the specified image plane is automatically set to the
aspect ratio of the selected TIFF image. As the Height value is entered into the data
field, the Length value is automatically calculated. Note that this option also applies
when you select a standard size from the size option menu. If this is not desired,
toggle the Automatic Aspect Ratio OFF. If the toggle is OFF, the image plane is
constructed to the exact dimensions in the data entry fields. In some cases, this may
cause extra area in the image plane that is not covered by the mapped image,
however, the image will be mapped to the plane without distorting the aspect ratio of
the original image.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Spline Continuity
Common Term

Internal Continuity

Curve to Curve
Continuity

Same Position

C0

G0

Same Slope

C1

G1

Same Curvature

C2

G2

With the Symmetric constraint, the curvature comb will be parallel to the curve
at the point of symmetry. Continuity conditions are easy to describe with a
simple illustration:

G0
The curves are in contact at the end points,
but not tangent.
Three poles form a line. Adjacent combs are not the same length.

G1
The curves are tangent. Notice that the common pole and the adjacent
pole in each curve form a straight line.
Adjacent combs may have
sharp angle between them.

G2
The curves are tangent. Notice that the combs, which have an identical scale
factor, are the same length at the point of contact. This is curvature continuity.

Symmetric
Comb and its mirror flow
together smoothly.

Mirror need not exist to


apply the constraint.

The curvature has zero rate of change at the plane of symmetry. The curve is
perpendicular to the plane of symmetry. The comb is parallel to the curve at the end
point.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Trimming Sheets
There are two functions available for trimming sheet bodies, Trimmed Sheet
and Trim Body. Each function is used for a different application.
Trimmed Sheet may be used to trim a single sheet body to multiple boundaries,
while Trim Body may be used to trim multiple target sheets to a single
boundary.

Single Target Sheet

Use Trimmed Sheet

Multiple Boundary Sheets


Multiple Target Sheets
Single Boundary Sheet

Use Trim Body

TIP While Trim Body may be used with sheets and solids, Trimmed Sheet
may be used with sheets only.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Rendering Method
The rendering method options are generally arranged in order of increasing
realism and, thus, increasing processing time. The table below presents the
Rendering Method options:

Rendering Method

Description

Flat

Truncated images,no shadows,no reflections,no texture mapping


No lighting effect
Fastest method, least functional

Phong

Similar to Gouraud method


Very fast processing
Good for a simple previews

Gouraud

Similar to Phong and Flat methods


Lighting effects are present
Fastest method, least functional

Improved

Normal Unigraphics Render shade mode


Good for images with shiny and polished surfaces
Supports lighting effects, including light scattering

Preview

Similar to Improved method


Slightly better image quality, but much longer processing time

Photo-Realistic

Excellent for final renderings


No Anti-aliasing of textures
Supports lighting effects, including light scattering
Best compromise between image quality and processing time

Ray Traced

Similar to Photo-Realistic method, only not as fast


Anti-aliasing gives good edge and texture definition
Supports lighting effects, including light scattering

Ray Traced/FFA
(Feature Following Anti-aliasing)

Similar to Ray Traced method, except with addition of FFA


Best image quality
Supports lighting effects, including light scattering
Superior edge definition
Excellent for subtle feature shading

Radiosity

Superior lighting effects, including subtle interactions of lights


Superior edge definition, excellent for subtle feature shading
Supports lighting effects, including light scattering

Hybrid Radiosity

Mixture of Radiosity and Photo-Realistic methods

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Material Types
The Materials portion of the dialog is shown below.

Material
Types

Constant

Single, unchanging color

Matte

Dull, non-shiny surface

Metal

Simple simulation of metal surfaces

Phong

A variation on plastic

Plastic

Basic plastic look

Conductor

More accurate metals

Dielectric

More detailed glass

Environment

Simplified background reflections

Glass

Simple simulation of glass

Mirror

Basic mirror look

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Light Types
The basic light types are listed below.
Light Type

Description

Ambient

An Ambient Light provides global illumination for the scene. This light does not cause
shadows and illuminates all objects equally, regardless of the orientation. You may
control the intensity and color of the light.

Standard
Eye

An Eye Light source is located at the viewpoint, or directly on the Z axis of the screen.
You may control the intensity and color of the light. This type of light does not cause
shadows in the scene.

Standard
Distant

A Distant Light is a light source such as the sun, which may be thought of as being lo
cated infinitely far away. You may control the intensity, color, and a vector that defines the
direction of the light. This light can cast shadows (only shown in High Quality Image
shading) and requires the least computation to determine shadowing.

Standard
Point

A Point Light emits light equally in all directions. You may specify the location, intensity,
and color of the light, and set it to generate shadows (only in High Quality Image
shading). The default position for Point Lights is the right-hand corner of the view.

Standard
Spot

A Spot Light is similar to a Point Light source, except that it is constrained by a cone
shape. You may specify the location, intensity, and color of the light, and set it to gener
ate shadows (only in High Quality Image shading). The default position for Spot Lights is
in the upper right corner of the view. The default target position is the center of the view.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

The icons for the basic light types are shown below.


Ambient

Standard Eye

Standard Distant

Standard Point

Standard Spot

Scene (shown below)

Scene Top
Scene Front
Scene Bottom
Scene Left Top
Scene Right Top
Scene Left Bottom
Scene Right Bottom

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Foreground Types
None

No Visual Effects are applied to the foreground.

Fog

This option provides exponential attenuation of color as the distance is modified. You may
use this option to simulate a diffuse atmosphere. When observing the scene with Fog
applied, only the geometry is affected by the Fog. Fog has two parameters:
Distance-represents the distance at which Fog begins to take effect
Fog Color-becomes less dominant as the Distance parameter increases

Depth Cue

Similar to the Fog foreground type. Provides a linear attenuation of color within a specified
range. It interpolates between a specified Target Color within a range of distances (near to
far). The parameters are:
Near Distance-minimum distance for the Depth Cue effect
Far Distance-maximum distance for the Depth Cue effect
Target Color-color for the effect

Ground
Fog

Simulates a layer of fog that attenuates with increasing altitude. The parameters are:
Color-color for the fog
Point-reference point for the normal vector
Normal-vector that controls the direction of attenuation of the fog
Distance-distance in global coordinates at which the fog completely obscures the scene
Fog Height-determines the rate of decrease for the fog effects

Snow

TIFF Image

Light
Scatter

Provides the effect of snowflakes falling in front of the viewing camera. The effect is
produced by placing random snowflakes on two planes at different scales in front of the
camera. The parameters are:
Color-specifies a color for the snow
Near Scale, Far Scale-specify the relative size of the flakes on the two planes
Flake Size-specifies the average size of a flake
Density-controls the density of the snowfall
Noise Level-determines the irregularity of the snowflakes
This option positions a TIFF image in front of the generated shaded image. The
parameters are:
Color-specifies a color to be made transparent within the image
X and Y Position-specifies distance from the upper left corner of the graphics window to
the position of the image in the foreground (measured in pixels)
Tiff Image-allows you to select the image to be displayed
Creates an atmospheric scattering of light effect, with attenuation. The parameters are:
Samples-determines the sample rate of the light scattering
Density-controls the density of the light
Max Distance-controls the distance to which light is calculated
Noise Scale-specifies the scale of irregularity in the light scattering
Noise Level-determines the amount of random variation in the light scattering
Attenuation-specifies how quickly light attenuates with distance from the source

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Background Types
The Primary Background mode is the background used behind the geometry in
the scene, while the Secondary Background mode is the background used for
reflecting objects.
The four background types available are:
Type
Simple
Mixed
Ray Cube

Two Planes

Description
This option automatically uses the Primary background.
This option combines the Primary and Secondary backgrounds.
This option utilizes both Primary and Secondary backgrounds.
The Primary background functions as the background and the
Secondary background functions as the image that is reflected in
the geometry.
Similar to the Ray Cube option, this option utilizes both Primary
and Secondary backgrounds.

The four types of background patterns are:


Type
Plain
Clouds

Graduated

Tiff Image
Environment

Description
This option allows you to specify a single-colored background.
This option provides a sky with clouds type background. You may
specify the sky color, cloud color, and the size and amount of
detail in each cloud. This background is supported only with the
Improved, Ray Traced and Photo-Realistic modes of High
Quality Image shading.
This option provides two colors, one at the top of the screen and
another color at the bottom. The screen between the two colors
interpolates between them. You may specify both the top and
bottom colors. This background is not supported with the Flat or
Gouraud modes of High Quality Image shading.
This option allows you to select an image file from an outside
directory for use as the background. Only uncompressed TIFF
files should be used as backgrounds.
This option sets up a virtual, six-sided environment cube around
the model geometry. When configured, the Environment option
displays the environment cube as the background for a shaded
image of the model. The environment cube parameters are
controlled within the Environment option of the Visual Effects
dialog.

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX

Industrial Design with Shape Studio


Training Course Evaluation
Name (Optional)
Instructor

Date
Location

UG Version NX

Please give your honest opinion about the training you have received during this class. Provide
additional comments on the reverse side of this evaluation form.
Please check the box if you would like your comments, regarding the training you just received,
featured in our training publications. We will contact you if more information is needed.
Hotel Accommodations (if applicable) Hotel name
What was your overall impression of this hotel?

Poor 2

Facilities - How would you rate the training facilities?

Poor 2

Instruction - How would you rate the instruction?

Poor 2

Was the instructor knowledgeable of the subject?

Poor 2

Comments

1. Were the course objectives clearly defined and were they met?
Please explain:

Yes

No

2. Were concepts effectively communicated so that you understand how to apply the
software? Yes No Please explain:

3. How well prepared do you now feel to use the functions covered in this course in your day
to day activities? Please explain:

4. Were the student activities effective in learning Unigraphics?


Please explain:

Yes

No

over

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

5. Was the workbook snowmobile activity effective in reinforcing the concepts taught?
Yes
Please explain:

No

6. What additional topics related to industrial design would you like to see covered in this
course? Please explain:

7. Do you have any other suggestions on how the course could be improved?
Please explain:

Yes

No

8. In order to continually improve our courseware a post class survey is conducted; would you
be willing to participate in this survey.  (If you checked this box, make sure that your name is on the sheet.)
Course - What was your overall impression?

Poor 2

Additional Comments

Industrial Design With


Shape Studio

EDS
All Rights Reserved

Unigraphics NX