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QUAKE/WTutorial

This is the script for the QUAKE/W tutorial movie. Please follow along with the movie,
QUAKE/W Getting Started.

Introduction
The QUAKE/W tutorial presents the step-by-step procedures involved in creating a
simple earthquake analysis.
The objective of the QUAKE/W tutorial is to look at the dynamic response of an
embankment on a loose soil deposit in terms of the motion that will occur at the crest of
the embankment during an earthquake event, and to estimate the excess pore-water
pressures that may develop in the loose foundation soil. Here is a schematic diagram of
the problem. Both the embankment and the foundation soil are linear elastic soils with
slightly different unit weights, but the same Poissons ratio of 0.334 and G max value of
5000 kPa. A damping ratio of 0.1 will be applied to both soils.
The pore-water pressures are only going to be considered in the foundation soil. The
weight of the water will be modeled as a fluid pressure boundary condition on both soils
and the under drain that exists at the toe of the embankment is considered in the analysis
only by the way it controls how the phreatic surface is drawn.
The earthquake record, which is included in the example folder of GeoStudio 2007, has a
peak acceleration of about 0.35g. However, the peak acceleration of the earthquake at the
site we are modeling is considered to be considerably less, at 0.12g, so the record will
need to be modified for the analysis.

Define
We start by creating a new QUAKE/W project from the Start Page of GeoStudio. When
the KEYIN Analyses dialogue box appears, select what type of analysis you are going to
do and give it a name and description. The QUAKE/W tutorial will actually consist to
two separate analyses. Let us first create the insitu static analysis to determine the stress
state conditions that exist before the earthquake occurs. The pore-water conditions will be
determined from the initial water table that we define.
The first time you start working with GeoStudio, it is helpful to learn what different
toolbars exist. Many of the dropdown commands are also available as individual icons
on the many different toolbars. You can familiarize yourself with the toolbars by toggling
them on and off.

When developing a numerical model, the first step is usually to set the working area,
which defines the size of the space available. The working area may be smaller, equal to
or greater than the printer page
The next step is to set the scale. The scale should be set such that the minimum and
maximum extents match those required for the analysis. Define the x and y extents to find
an approximate scale and then fine tune it so you have a 1:1 aspect ratio.
A background grid of points will help you draw the problem. Its always a good idea to
save your file frequently.
It is often helpful to sketch an axis. Before you start, click the zoom page icon so you
can view the entire working area. Then choose Axis from the SKETCH menu. The axis
is drawn by moving the cursor from the bottom left corner and stretching it outward. The
number of increments can be adjusted using the SET: Axis dropdown menu.
Before defining the geometry in QUAKE/W, it is convenient to first sketch the problem.
Select Polylines from the SKETCH menu. Use the cursor like a pencil; click the left
mouse button to create a series of lines. The lines are considered objects, which can be
adjusted or deleted by using the MODIFY: Objects command.
Text can be added to the profile by using SKETCH: Text. Use the cursor to place the text
on the profile.
The approach to use when developing a numerical model is to draw the geometry; create
and assign materials, create and assign boundary conditions and then finally, review and
fine-tune the finite element mesh.
Let us start by drawing the geometry. Individual soil regions are created using the
DRAW: Regions command. Click the left mouse button to create region points. Once the
polygon region has been closed, you can either continue to draw additional regions, or
you can right click the mouse to exit draw regions mode.
Materials are first created and then assigned to geometry objects. Choose Materials from
the DRAW dropdown menu. Click on KEYIN to create a material. Add a new material,
name it, and select the material model from the dropdown list. For this case, we will be
using a linear elastic model for the embankment material. The two most important soil
properties required for the Initial Static analysis is the total unit weight of the materials
and Poissons ratio . Poissons ratio is important because it influences Ko - coefficient
of earth pressure at rest. We will also input a damping ratio and Gmax value. To create
the second material, you have options. You can either add or define a second material as
we did the first, or you can clone an existing material since they are similar. Even though
excess pore-water pressures will not develop during the insitu analysis, we want to model
the generation of excess pressures for the dynamic analysis. Therefore, in the foundation
material we need to define a minimum of two functions. They are called the pore-water
pressure ratio function and the cyclic number function. For this example, we can use the

sample functions, which are included with the software. Watch how these functions are
created and then assigned to the material. The materials can now be assigned to the
individual geometry regions.
To establish the initial pore-water pressure conditions, choose Initial Water Table from
the DRAW menu. The default maximum negative pressure head that will develop above
the water table; set to be 5m. Draw the water table on the profile.
Boundary conditions are created and assigned in the same way materials are. Select
Boundary conditions from the DRAW menu. There are already three commonly used
boundary conditions available to modify or use. You can also create your own boundary
condition by clicking on the add button. For this example, we need a boundary condition
that will reflect the pressure of the water reservoir that exists at an elevation of 12m.
Once the boundary conditions have been created, you can then apply them to the region
geometry.
Along both the left and right vertical boundaries, the soil cannot move in the x-direction,
but is free to settle in the y-direction. Along the bottom, we are going to assume that
movement is fixed in both the x and y directions. Boundary conditions can be applied to
region edges, region nodes, region faces, and free lines or free points.
Now that the geometry has been drawn, the material properties have been created and
assigned and the boundary conditions applied, it is time to review the finite element mesh
and make any necessary adjustments. You can view the finite element mesh using
DRAW: Mesh Properties. The meshing algorithm in QUAKE/W is defaulted to use a
global element size. For this simulation, a global element size of 1 m is adequate.
The finite element mesh will disappear after you leave the DRAW: Mesh Properties
view. If you wish to leave it on, you can click the view mesh icon on the view
preferences toolbar.
We have finished the problem definition and now it is time to verify the analysis. Choose
Verify from the TOOLS menu and QUAKE/W will run a number of checks to see if there
are any errors in the problem definition.

SolveandContour
The solver for QUAKE/W can be launched by clicking on the SOLVE icon. Click the
start button to activate the solver.
You can view the results directly by clicking on the CONTOUR icon in the analysis
toolbar. By default, y-total stress contours are shown, which can be labeled using
DRAW: Contour labels. Since the dynamic analysis is going to use the results obtained
from the initial static analysis, its important to ensure the initial conditions are
reasonable and realistic. Notice how the total stresses under the reservoir where the
ground is horizontal is about 40 kPa, this represents the 4 m of water level in the

reservoir. By default, pore-water pressure contours can also be viewed using the drop
down list. Effective vertical stress contours can be created using DRAW: Contours
Up to this point, we have computed the initial insitu static stress conditions and the initial
pore-water pressure conditions and we have reviewed the total and effective vertical
stresses. These results represent the initial conditions that will be used as the starting
point for the dynamic analysis.

AddAdditionalAnalysis
To create additional analyses, return to the DEFINE view by clicking on the pencil icon.
Click on the analyses icon or use KEYIN: Analyses. To add another analysis to this
project, you can either add one from the dropdown list or you can clone an existing
analysis. Since we want to use the same material properties as what we used before, we
should clone the insitu analysis. Geometry is considered specific to the project file.
The second analysis will be an equivalent linear dynamic analysis that will subject the
profile to the earthquake event. This second analysis will use the results from the first
one as a starting point. In GeoStudio, this means that the insitu analysis will be the
parent of the dynamic one, for both the pore-water pressure conditions and the initial
stress conditions. Since the dynamic analysis is time dependent, we need to define time
steps that are appropriate for the earthquake record we are going to use. First, lets import
the earthquake record into GeoStudio. Go under the Time Tab and click on the KEYIN
button. The example record is stored in the GeoStudio 2007 examples folder. We can
import the record and then modify it to have a new peak acceleration of 0.12g. We will
leave the time frame the same at 10 seconds duration. Once we have created the record,
we can then return to the KEYIN: Analyses Time Steps dialogue box and time steps will
have been automatically generated from this record. There will be 500 time steps with
0.02 increments and we will save the data every 50 time steps.
The boundary conditions applied on the vertical ends of the boundary need to be
changed for the dynamic analysis. Previously we were allowing vertical movement but
restricting lateral movement. Now we need to do the opposite, restrict vertical movement,
but allow the ground to sway from side to side as the horizontal earthquake accelerations
are applied. In addition, the water reservoir stresses can be removed, since they are
already accounted for in the initial stress distribution.
In QUAKE/W you can select specific points where the results will be saved for each and
every time step while integrating through the earthquake record. These points are called
History points. Lets define 2 history points, one at the top of the crest, and one at the
bottom of the profile. History points must be defined to geometry points, so we will need
to insert a geometry point and then apply the history point to it.

QUAKE/W is formulated on the basis of a time integration scheme. This means that
QUAKE/W steps through the earthquake record at a specified time interval and does a
finite element analysis for each time step. By default, QUAKE/W stores data at the 20
highest peaks in the earthquake record. In addition, it has been specified that the data
should be saved every 50th time step. You should be aware that the more time steps you
save and the more history points you select to save the motion history at, the larger your
file will be.
The definition of the dynamic analysis is now complete. Click on the solve icon. It will
take a little while for the program to complete the full 500 time steps. In this simple
example we are only using linear-elastic soils so there are no convergence issues.
Before we look at the dynamic analysis results, lets review what weve done in DEFINE.
We first created an insitu static analysis that had its own boundary conditions and
material properties. We then added a dynamic analysis that used the results from the
insitu static analysis. The dynamic analysis could also have its own material properties
and boundary conditions assigned. In this simulation, we only changed the boundary
conditions.

SolveAnalysisII
Let us look at the dynamic analysis results. The vertical effective stress contours will still
be showing, but will have updated for the new range of data. We had defined a history
point at the crest of the dam and at the base of the problem. In CONTOUR using the
DRAW: Graph command, we can create graphs specific to the history points where the
data was saved for each time step. Select Graph from the DRAW menu and then add a
new graph. Let us plot x-acceleration versus time. You need to point to the location of the
history point that is going to be used to create the graph. Create a clone graph for the
other history point. If you hold down the SHIFT key, you can select multiple graphs to
view them at the same time. You can see from the graph that the peak accelerations at the
crest reach values greater than 0.3g. Since the applied peak acceleration was only 0.12g,
this indicates that there is some amplification in the motion at the crest.
You can also create graphs of lateral displacement profiles along the centre line of the
dam. Lets create a graph of relative lateral displacement, which will be the
displacements along the centre line relative to the fixed base.
In QUAKE/W, its important to understand that only relative displacements cause
dynamic shear stresses and only dynamic shear stresses lead to the generation of excess
pore-water pressures.
In CONTOUR, you can also create a movie of the motion. Lets create a movie of
displacement relative to the fixed base. First, set the view to show the displacement mesh
and define the magnification that you would like included in your movie. Turn off any
additional details you dont want included in the movie, such as the axis or any boundary

conditions. The movie is created separately from GeoStudio and can be played using
windows media player.
In an equivalent linear analysis, a key parameter obtained is the Cyclic Stress Ratio or
CSR. This number is used together with the cyclic number function that we created in
DEFINE to indicate the possibility of liquefaction. Generally, higher the CSR is, the
higher the possibility of liquefaction. Values greater than about 0.2 in this example
indicate liquefaction is possible. You can also show zones of potential liquefaction
directly through the view preferences toolbar.
We were interested in excess pore-water pressures that may develop in the loose
foundation soil. You can create contours of excess pore-water pressure to reveal that
there is a pocket of excess pore-water pressures that exceed 30 kPa in the downstream
side of the dam.
New to GeoStudio 2007 is a reporting feature. If you need to generate a report of your
input; select Report from the VIEW menu. Once you save the report file, your default
word processing program will open with a generated report. You can now insert pictures,
apply style templates or add and delete data.
If at any time you need help with understanding a dialogue box, you can click on the
question mark in the top left corner to access the on-line help or use F1 on your keyboard.
You can also switch to the Analysis Start Page which has PDF copies of all the
engineering books for GeoStudio under the documentation section. These books are
very helpful in describing the features in the software and the theory behind them. You
can also search through the examples database using specific keywords. When you are
done, you can return to your analysis by clicking on the analysis list.
We have reached the end of this introductory lesson. Not all of the powerful features of
QUAKE/W have been used or discussed during this lesson. Specific details about each
command are given in the on-line help and in the supporting documentation for
QUAKE/W.
Thanks for watching.