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An introduction to Moroccan Arabic [by] Ernest T. Abdel-Massih.

Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. Ann Arbor, MI : MPublishing, 2011.

http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015087418672

2011. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015087418672 Open Access http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#oa This

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 Published in 2011 by MPublishing University of Michigan Library ©1973 Ernest T. Abdel-Massih This

Published in 2011 by MPublishing
University of Michigan Library
©1973 Ernest T. Abdel-Massih
This volume is reprinted from the 1982 revised edition by arrangement
with the Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies, University
of Michigan
Permission is required to reproduce material from this title in other
publications, coursepacks, electronic products, and other media.
Please send permission requests to:
MPublishing
4186
Shapiro
919
South University
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
lib.pod@umich.edu
ISBN 978-1-60785-218-6
Tapes accompanying this textbook may be ordered from the
University of Michigan Language Resource Center
1195
North Quad
105
S. State Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1285
(734) 764-0424
flacs@umich.edu
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 FOREWORD The preparation of this volume was initiated and supported by the University of

FOREWORD
The preparation of this volume was initiated and supported
by the University of Michigan Center for Near Eastern and North
African Studies as part of its general program of research and
training on the languages and cultures of North Africa. A
number of studies in anthropology, history, and political science
have appeared and others are in preparation, as well as a complete
course in Middle Atlas Berber.
We are indebted to the Ford Foundation for the grants to
the Center that have made this work possible. We are most grate-
ful for the assistance of the people and government of Morocco
to our faculty and students.
First Edition
August, 1973
W. D. Schorger
V
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 INTRODUCTION This book grew out of the great need for an introductory text in

INTRODUCTION
This book grew out of the great need for an introductory text in
Moroccan Arabic for college students. Most students beginning the study
of Moroccan Arabic in modern universities are prospective field
researchers in the social sciences, or linguists with special .interest
in the field of Arabic dialectology. To assure interest among such
users of this book, maintenance of a .level of linguistic and cultural
contact commensurate with their background and ability was felt to be
of great importance. With such considerations in mind, overly repetitive
sentences and sentence patterns .have been avoided.
This study was originally the product of a research project sponsored
by the Center for Near Eastern and North African .Studies at the University
of Michigan. Following .preliminary .research in Ann Arbor, a variety of
field materials was collected during the summer of 1969, in preparation
for the teaching of a course .in Moroccan Arabic during the 1969-1970
school year. A large number of field tapes were checked for linguistic
and cultural content by the author with the assistance of native speakers
of Moroccan Arabic. During the preparation .of course materials, all the
data were carefully .checked by the author with Mr. Ali Kanouni, a native
of Fez. This work resulted in the .publication of A Course in Moroccan
Arabic in .1970. The contents of this present book are a revision and
expansion of the units of the above-mentioned book.
The present volume consists of seven parts. Part 1-3 are available
on tapes and should be studied in order.
Part One, "Phonology", consists of detailed explanations
vi
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 of the phonological system of Moroccan Arabic, and twenty pronun- ciation drills to acquaint

of the phonological system of Moroccan Arabic, and twenty pronun-
ciation drills to acquaint the student with the system of trans-
cription employed here. This system is in striking contrast to other
systems of transcription used for Moroccan Arabic, particularly with
respect to tense consonants, short vowels, phonological structure of
words, etc. (see pp 1-38). It is advisable that the .student master this
system completely before beginning the units of the book. This mastery
can be achieved by repetition of the pronunciation drills with the help
of the language laboratory tapes.
Part Two, "Basic Units", is composed of ten units that present the
essential grammar of Moroccan Arabic. Part Three, "Conversations", is
comprised of ten units that introduce dialogues varying in length and
structural complexity with explanations of new grammatical points. The
conversations are designed to serve as an introduction to Moroccan
culture as well as reinforcing the basic patterns of the dialect.
Part Four, Appendix A, consists of twenty-four verb tables. Part Five,
Appendix B, the "Glossary of Technical and Grammatical Terminology",
presents, in a simple and concise manner, most of the terminology and
grammatical information that a .student of Moroccan Arabic will encounter
in using the language. It is hoped that it serves as a brief reference
grammar of the language. Part Six, "Lexica": Arabic-English and English-
Arabic, include all vocabulary items used in this volume, and in the
author's Advanced Moroccan Arabic, Center for Near Eastern and North
African Studies, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 1973.
It is worth mentioning here that the .Advanced .Moroccan Arabic is entirely
based on this volume. It contains thirty-eight texts which are adapta-
tions of field tapes and serve as an introduction to Moroccan ethnology,
history, folklore and literature.
vii
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 Part Seven, xrayf 1ha, or Jeha Stories, is in Arabic script and also in

Part
Seven, xrayf 1ha, or Jeha Stories, is in Arabic script and also
in
transcription. It consists of seven stories which all are on tape.
The
preparation of this book has been made possible by the cooperation
of
a number of individuals. In particular, I would like to express my
appreciation to Mr. Mohammed Mahmoudi for his helpful comments, construc-
tive
suggestions and for his hard work with me. Many thanks are due as
well
to Mr. Ali Kanouni, Mr. Mohammed Guerssel, and Mr. Mohammed Mahmoudi
for
recording the units for use in the language laboratory. I would also
like
to express my gratitude to Peggy, J. Owens for her devoted and most
conscientious efforts in typing the manuscript, and for her helpfulness
and
great dependability throughout the work on this study.
To
Loraine K. Obler, I owe an especial debt. I am deeply grateful to
her
for her insightful observations and constructive suggestions during
the
preparation of the manuscript. To her goes my sincerest thanks and
deepest appreciation for her interest and great assistance in the study.
I
would like to thank Mr. Umar Hassan and Mr. Jamil Ragep for their
valuable assistance on the Enlgish-Arabic Lexicon.
I
would like to express my thanks to Professor William D. Schorger
who
as the Director of the Center for Near Eastern and North African
Studies initiated the program of research on North African languages
and
linguistics at the University of Michigan and has whole-heartedly
supported it.
The
Center defrayed the costs of research assistants, field trips,
typists, tapes and tape recordings, as well as providing me with the
time
and opportunity to carry out the field research and analysis.
viii
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 As always, I am deeply grateful to my family and, in particular, to my

As always, I am deeply grateful to my family and, in particular,
to my wife, Cecile, whose patience, constant encouragement and deep
understanding have sustained my efforts during the work on this book.
To Professor Ernest N. McCarus, who introduced me to the field
of Arabic dialectology, I present this study.
Ernest T. Abdel-Mass ih
Ann Arbor, Michigan
March 1982
ix
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 TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword .0 0 0 0 v Introduction * vi PART ONE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword
.0
0
0
0
v
Introduction
*
vi
PART ONE - PHONOLOGY
.
1
1. Introduction
2
2. Organs of Speech
2
Diagram
3
3.
Consonants and Semi-Vowel Inventory
4
3.1
Explanation of Terminology
.
.
.
.
.
4
Diagram
6
3.2
Places of Articulation
10
3.3
Manner of
10
3.4
Voiced - Voiceless
11
3.5
Emphatic -
11
3.6
Remarks on Pronunciation of Consonants and
.
12
4.
?ronunciation Drills
13
4.1
Pronunciation Drill 1: Moroccan Arabic sounds that occur in
13
4.2
/
q
,
x
,
x,
h,T , r
14
4.3 x
Pronunciation Drill 2:
/
q
,
,
Y
15
4.4 /h/
17
4.5 Pronunciation Drill 3:
/h/
17
4.6
I,
18
4.7
Pronunciation Drill 4: /T
18
4.8
Pronunciation Drill 5:
/
x
,
, q,h , V
18
5.
Emphasis , Labialization, and Tenseness
19
5.1
Emphasis
19
5.2
Pronunciation Drill 6:
Emphatic
20
5.3
21
5.4
Pronunciation Drill 7:
Labialized
21
5.5
22
5.6
Pronunciation Drill 8: Tense Consonants
22
6.
Moroccan Arabic Vowels
22
6.1
Vowel Allophones
23
6.2
faf/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
23
6.3
Pronunciation Drill 9:
24
6.4
//
25
6.5
Pronunciation Drill 10:
l //
25
6.6
//
26
6.7
Pronunciation Drill 11:
/u/
26
6.8
Phonetic Schwa or Short Vowel
27
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 6.9 7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 8. 8.1 9. 9.1 10. 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4

6.9
7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
8.
8.1
9.
9.1
10.
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
Pronunciation
Drill 12: Phonetic Schwa .
Phonological
Structure of Words
Stress
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Pronunciation
Drill 13: Consonant Clusters
Pronunciation
Drill 14: C: , C:C , C:C: .
Diphthongs
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Pronunciation
Drill 15: Diphthongs
Interchange
of Phonemes
Pronunciation
Drill 16: Interchange of Phonemes
General
Pronunciation Drills
.
.
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Pronunciation
Drill 17 .
.
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Pronunciation
Drill 18.
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Pronunciation
Drill 19 .
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Pronunciation
Drill 20
.0
27
27
29
29
31
31
31
32
32
32
33
33
36
37
PART
TWO - BASIC UNITS
UNIT
ONE
I.1 Text.
.
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.
.
1.2
Grammatical
Notes
.
.
.
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.
.
.
1.
Noun
gender
.
.
.
2.
Definite
article .
3.
Noun-modifier
agreement
4.
Equational
sentences
.
.
5.
Noun-adjective
phrases'.
I.3 Vocabulary
.
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1.4
Grammatical
Notes:
Feminine in
1.5
Drill
1-.
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1.6
Vocabulary
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I.7 Grammatical Note: Assimilation
1.8
Vocabulary.
I.9 Drill 2
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I.10 Drill 3
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/a#/
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 111.2 111.3 111.4 111.5 111.6 111.7 111.8 III.9 III.10 III.11 111.12 111.13 111.14 111.15

111.2
111.3
111.4
111.5
111.6
111.7
111.8
III.9
III.10
III.11
111.12
111.13
111.14
111.15
111.16
11
1/.
111.18
111.19
111.20
IV.1
IV.2
IV.3
IV.
4
IV.
S
IV.
6
IV.
7
IV.
8
IV.9
IV.
10
IV.11
IV.12
IV.
13
IV.14
IV.15
IV.
16
IV.17
Review-Drill 2
Text
Grammatical
Notes
1. /was/
2.-6. Demonstr
Text
.
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Drill
3
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Drill
4
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Text
.
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Grammatical
Note.
Text
Drill
5
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Drill
6
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Drill
7
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Text
.
Text
.
Grammatical
Notes:
Word
Study List:
Drill
8
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Drill
9
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Drill
10
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natives
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Suffixed
pronoun
set
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.

.

.

.

.

.

.

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.

N

k

 V.11 V.12 V.13 V.14 V.15 V.16 V.17 Drill 6 Text: Possession Grammatical Notes: Drill

V.11
V.12
V.13
V.14
V.15
V.16
V.17
Drill 6
Text: Possession
Grammatical Notes:
Drill 7
Drill 8
Drill 9
Drill 10
.
Possession
UNIT SIX
VI.1 Review-Drill 1
VI.2
Review-Drill 2
VI.3
Review-Drill 3
VI.4
Review-Drill 4
VI.5
Review-Drill 5-
VI.6
Review-Drill 6
VI.7
Review-Drill 7
VI.8 Text: How much?
VI.9 Grammatical Notes
1.
Cardinal numerals 11 - 19
2.
Verb form
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
VI.10 Drill 8
VI.11 Text: fktb/
VI.12 Grammatical Note: Sound verbs
VI.13 Text: Sound verbs
VI.14 Drill
VI.15 Text: Form II verbs
VI.16 Grammatical Notes
1.
Form II verbs
2.
Derivations
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
VI.17 Text: Form II verbs
.
.
.
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.
.
VI.18 Drill 10
.
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.
VI.19 Text: Sentences for Practice .
VI.20 Drill 11
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
VI.21 Text: Imperatives
.
.
.
.
VI.22 Grammatical Note: Imperative inflect
VI.23 Drill 12
VI.24 Drill 13
.
.
.
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.
.
.
UNIT -SEVEN
VII.1 Review-Drill 1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
VII.2 Review-Drill 2
VII.3
Review-Drill 3
VII.4 Text: Sentence conjunction
VII.S Text: Ten Forms of sound verbs
.
.
VII.6
Grammatical Notes: Derived forms
VII.7 Text
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
VII.8 Drill 4
VII.9 Drill 5
VII.10 Drill 6
VII.11 Drill 7
VII.12 Text: Yes-No questions
VII.13 Drill 8
VII.14 Text:. Imperatives
VII.15 Grammatical Notes: Object pronominal
VII.16 Verb List
ions
97
97
99
100
101
101
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101

x

x

 VII .17 VII.18 VII.19 VII.20 VII.21 VII.22 VIII.1 VIII.2 VIII.3 VIII.4 VIII.5 VIII.6 VIII.7

VII
.17
VII.18
VII.19
VII.20
VII.21
VII.22
VIII.1
VIII.2
VIII.3
VIII.4
VIII.5
VIII.6
VIII.7
VIII.8
VIII.9
VIII.10
VIII.11
VIII.
12
VIII.13
VIII.14
VIII.15
VIII.16
VIII.17
VIII.18
VIII.19
VIII.20
VIII.
21
VIII.
22
VIII.23
VIII.24
VIII.25
IX.
1
IX.
2
IX.3
IX.
4
IX.5
IX.6
IX.
7
IX.8
IX.9
IX.10
IX.11
IX.12
IX.13
IX.14
IX.15
IX.16
Drill
9
Drill
10
Grammatical
Notes:
Cardinal numerals
Drill
11
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Drill
12
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Grammatical
Note:
Third Person Direct
UNIT
eIGHT
Review-Drill 1
Review-Drill 2
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Review-Drill 3
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Review-Drill 4
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.
Text:
Medial weak verbs
.
.
.
.
Grammatical
Notes:
Medial weak verbs
Drill
5.--
-
Text:
Final weak verbs
Grammatical
Notes:
Final weak verbs
Drill
6
.
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.
Text:
Final weak verbs
Drill
7
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Drill
8
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Drill
9
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 X.2 Review-Drill 2 166 X.3 Review-Drill 3 167 X.4 Review-Drill 4 168 X.5 Review-Drill

X.2 Review-Drill 2
166
X.3 Review-Drill 3
167
X.4 Review-Drill 4
168
X.5 Review-Drill 5
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.168
X-6
Text: Past habitual
171
X.7 Grammatical Notes
172
1.
/
ka n/ as tense marker
172
2.
/radil/+ imperfect verbs
172
3.
/x
: /
172
X-8
Drill 6
173
X-9
Text : Imperatives
173
X.10 Grammatical Notes: Imperatives
174
X.ll Drill
175
X.12 Text : Two-verb verb phrases
173
X.13 Grammatical Notes: Two-verb verb phrases
. 176
X.14 Text
176
X.l5 Drill
177
X.16 Text
177
X.17 Drill
17
9
X.18 Text : Asking directions
180
PART
THREE - CONVERSATIONS
UNIT ELEVEN
XI.1
Greetings
186
XI.2
Proverbs
195
UNIT TWEBLVE
XII.1
Phone
.
19 7
Vocabulary
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.198
XI
I.2 Qulestions
199
XI
I.3
199
UNIT THIRTEEN
XI
II.1 With Ahmed' s Family
201
203
2(111.2 Grammatical Notes
204
1.
/Ilabd :
204
2 . /bas/I
204
3.
Participles
204
4.
Constructs
206
5.
Verbal Nouns
207
X
I II.3
209
XIII.4 Proverbs
209
UNIT FOURTEEN
XIV.1
At the Dinner Table
211
Vocabulary
216
XIV.2
Grammatical Notes
218
1.
Ordinal
numerals
218
2.
/wa
lu/ 'nothing'
219
3.
Object pronominal suffixes
219
X.TV. 3
223
XIV.
4 Proverbs
224
xv
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 UNIT FIFTEEN XV.l Ahmed and George Meet in a Detroit Coffee Shop 226 Vocabulary

UNIT
FIFTEEN
XV.l
Ahmed and George Meet in a Detroit Coffee Shop
226
Vocabulary
230
XV.
2 Grammatical Notes
232
1.
Ibayl:aI 'that'
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
232
2.
Comparatives and superlatives
.233
3.
Either
.or
233
4.
/ras/
233
XV.3
Questions
234
XV.4
Proverbs
235
UNIT
SIXTEEN
XVI.l Ahmed and Lila Visit George and Mary
237
Vocabulary
24
2
XVI
2
Grammatical Notes
245
1.
/rna
wale/
245
2.
/bIhaII 'like'
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.245
4.
Ihad
s: i makan
45
5.
/was/
46
6 . relative clauses
4
7.
optionality
of /ka-/
46
XVI.3 Questions
247
XVI.4 Proverbs
248
UNIT
SEVENTEEN
XVII.l George and Mary Visit Ahmed and Lila
250
253
XVII.2 Grammatical Notes
253
1. / ku n/
255
2. / nuI
.2555
3.
/ai (i)
255
XVII.3 Questions
256
XVII.4 Dinner at Ahimed and Lila'
256
259
XVII.5 Grammatical Notes
260
1.
/qliI
bas
/
.
.260
2.
/mafy a mat
260
XVII.6 Questions
t.
260
XVII.7 Proverbs
261
UNIT
EIGHTEEN
Mary and Lila
XVI
II.1 A Phone Call
263
Vocabulary
.
.264
XVIII.2 Grammatical Notes
264
1.
Ima
i / futures
.264
2.
/ma tnd k/ , Itdf
264
3.
I/an
daba/
26S
XVI
II.3 Questions
266
XVIII.4 Mary Visits Lila
. 266
Vocabulary
27
0
xvi
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 XVIII.5 Grammatical Notes 1. . Variants . . . 2. . Bedroom . .

XVIII.5
Grammatical Notes
1. .
Variants
.
.
.
2. .
Bedroom
.
.
.
3.
Relative I:i.
4.
Kinship terms
XVIII.6
Questions
XVIII.7 Mary Visits Lila - Part
Vocabulary .
.
.
.
.
XVIII.8
Questions
XVIII.9
Proverbs
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
2
UNIT NIN.TEEN
George
and Mary Arrive in Morocco
XIX.1 At the Airport in Sale
.
.0
Vocabulary .
XIX.2
Grammatical Notes
1.
'used to'
2.
possibility
3.
/Yir/ .
.
XIX.3 Questions
XIX.4 With Ahmed and Lila's
Vocabulary .
.
.
.
XIX.5 Grammatical Notes
1.
/xtq/ , /xlaq/
2.
'excellent'
3.
/hadi amayn/
XIX.6
Questions
XIX.7 After Dinner
.
.
.
Vocabulary .
.
.
XIX.8
Grammatical Notes: 'Z
XIX.9 Questions
XIX.10 Proverbs
.
.
.
.
t;
Family
in
Rabat
:he
same'
272
272
272
272
272
276
277
279
280
281
283
285
286
286
286
287
287
288
291
292
292
293
293
294
294
298
299
299
300
302
304
304
304
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UNI
WEN
Y
XX
'
N
H
V
b
XX
N
v
I
'
,
'
XX
Q
XX
L
V
b
XX
N
P
b
XX
Q
XX
B
N
F
V
b
XX
N
'
'
k
'
'
I
k
XX
Q
'
XX
R
b
V
b
xv
 XX.ll Grammatical Notes 318 2 Structures with numerals . ' . 318 2. Conditional

XX.ll Grammatical Notes
318
2
Structures with numerals
.
'
.
318
2.
Conditional sentences
320
XX.12 Questions
321
XX.13
322
APPENDIX A - Verb
324
APPENDIX B - Glossary of Technical and Grammatical Terminology . " 351
LEXICA
380
Arabic-English
381
English-Arabic
409
ZHA STORIES - XRAYF ZHA
435
Text 1 - Jeha and the Clay Pots
437
Vocabulary
438
Questions
Arabic Text 1 - zha wlqdur
440
Text 2 - Jeha, His Son, and Their Donkey
441
Vocabulary
441
Questions
443
Arabic Text 2 - zha w:lidu w:
dyalhum
444
Text 3 - Jeha from Morocco and Jeha from Algeria
445
Vocabulary
445
Grammatical Notes - Conditional
446
Questions
448
Arabic Text 3 - zha ntaa imayrib Crd sla Tha nta~ a lz.'it bas
ytt : a
448
Text 4 - The Age of Jeha' s Uncle
449
Vocabulary,
449
Arabic Text 4 - ha
449
Text 5 - Jeha and the
430
Vocabulary
450
Questions
451
Arabic Text 5 - h1a wJJ~tmir
451
Text 6 - Jeha and the Ducks
452
Vocabulary
453
Questions
453
Arabic Text 6 - ha
454
Text 7 - Jeha from Duijdi and Jeha from Fez
.
.
.
455
4S55
456
Arabic Text 7 - zha duzda wzha dfas
456
INDEX
0
457
x713.i
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 TABLES AND ILLUSTRATIONS Map of Morocco . . . . . . . .

TABLES AND ILLUSTRATIONS
Map of Morocco
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ii
Figure 1. - Diagram of the Organs of Speech .
.
.
.
3
Table 1.
Moroccan Arabic Consonants and Semi-Vowels
4
Figure 2. - Places of Articulation
6
Figure 3. - Tongue Position for /t/
.
.
7
Figure 4. - Tongue Position for /t/
7
Figure 5. - Tongue Position for /s/
8
Figure 6. - Tongue Position for /s/
8
Table 2. - Moroccan Arabic Vowels
23
Table 3. - Moroccan Arabic Vowel Allophones
23
Moroccan .Arabic Script Sample
.0.
.
376
xix
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 /4' T.te daeeecut 7&4ww" 4w&;a - " ,&,&A ff ow-,d4j- ININIPP, . W, wT.

/4'
T.te daeeecut
7&4ww"
4w&;a
-
"
,&,&A ff
ow-,d4j-
ININIPP, . W,
wT. r
d laht!
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 Map of Morocco Sebta Tetouan Chechaouen o Oujda oVolubilis o Fez 0 0 Taza

Map
of Morocco
Sebta
Tetouan
Chechaouen
o
Oujda
oVolubilis
o
Fez 0
0
Taza
Meknes
Sero
0
Azrou
0
Midelt
El
Jad:
Saf
i
Aga&:
Ifni,
0
Marrakesh
0
Ksar es Souk
0
Erfoud
Ouarzazate
0
Zagora
oGoulimine
DISTANCES FROM CASABLANCA IN-MILES
Al
Boceima
Agadir
Azrou
Chechacuen
El
Jadida .
Erf
Fez
Goulimine
Larache
338
330
189
205
62
403
183
453
180
Marrakesh .
.
Meknes
Midelt
Ouarzazate
Oujda
Rabat
Safi
Tangier
Taza
Tetuian
149
146
267
273
403
58
158
236
257
248
ii
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 PART ONE PHONOLOGY Generated on 2013-10-09 17:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015087418672 Open Access /

PART ONE
PHONOLOGY
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 Moroccan Arabic 2 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 2 Phonology PART ONE PHONOLOGY OF MOROCCAN ARABIC

Moroccan Arabic
2
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
2
Phonology
PART ONE
PHONOLOGY OF MOROCCAN ARABIC
1.
Introduction
Since we are primarily concerned here with spoken Moroccan Arabic
rather than the written form, it is only appropriate to begin this
volume with some discussion of the pronunciation. To help the student
pronounce the sounds of this foreign language, some details about the
organs of speech and the articulation of Moroccan Arabic sounds are
given here.
2.
The Organs of Speech (See Figure 1)
The stream of air expelled by breathing passes out of the lungs and
is used for speech. The larynx is a cartilaginous box at the upper end
of the trachea or windpipe. The importance of the larynx in speech is
that it contains the vocal cords, or vocal folds which are two horizon-
tal folds of elastic tissue. The triangular space enclosed by the two
vocal cords is referred to as the glottis. The tongue has four sections:
the apex or tip, the blade or front, the dorsum or back, and the root
which forms the front wall of the pharynx. The tongue is one of the
most important movable articulators. The upper front teeth are
important in speech formation. Both the lps_ are of importance in
speech. The roof of the mouth could be divided into four parts:
the
alveolar ridge, the convex portion of the mouth just behind the front
teeth; the hard palate, which is the portion behind the alveolar ridge ;
the velum or soft palate, which is the area behind the hard palate;
and, finally, the uvula, the small appendage that hangs down from the
very edge of the velum.
There are three major resonance cavities: the mouth, which is known
as the oral cavity, the nose or nasal cavity and the throat or the
pharynx; their main function in speech is to serve as resonators.
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 Moroccan Arabic 3 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 3 Phonology Upper Lip Lower Lip Pharynxc Figure

Moroccan Arabic
3
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
3
Phonology
Upper
Lip
Lower
Lip
Pharynxc
Figure 1. - Diagram of the Organs of Speech
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 Moroccan Arabic 4 Phonology 3. Consonants and Semi-Vowels .0 as 0r 0d O 4.1

Moroccan Arabic
4
Phonology
3.
Consonants and Semi-Vowels
.0
as
0r
0d
O
4.1
Oo
swd
U
0S
CS
0
b8
0z
$.i
0
'-4
0
i->
i->
0
voiceless
p*
t
k
q
stop
voiced
b
d
g
voiceless
f s
x
h
h
fricative
voiced
v* z
Y
nasal
voiced
m
n
lateral
voiced
i
flap
voiced
r r
semi-vowel
voiced
w
y
and Semi-Vowels
Table 1. Moroccan Arabic Consonants
*These phonemes occur in a few words borrowed from
French, e.g. /rapist/ . /lab:ist/ 'unpaved road,
trail' (French 'la piste'), /paris/ 'Paris' (French
'Paris'), /avri1/
/abriI/
'April' (French 'avril').
3.1
Explanation of Terminology
Speech sounds are usually described in terms of:
(a)
Place of articulation, i.e. position of the speech organs during
the production of a sound, e.g. position of the tip of the tongue in
relation to the upper teeth is referred to as Dental when we pronounce
/t/ (notice that English /t/ is alveolar).
(b)
Manner of articulation, i.e. the way in which the speech organs
perform during the production of a certain sound, e.g. when the lower
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 Moroccan Arabic 5 Phonology and upper lips form a complete closure thus stopping the

Moroccan Arabic
5
Phonology
and
upper lips form a complete closure thus stopping the air flow as in
the
case of a /b/ which is here termed "Stop".
(c)
Voiced - voiceless, this refers to whether or not the vocal cords
vibrate. A voiced consonant is one which is accompanied by vibration
of
the vocal cords; for examble /b/ in the English word "boy". A
voiceless consonant is one which is produced without any accompanying
vibration of the vocal cords; for example /f/ in the English word "foot"
The
difference between voicing and voicelessness can be felt strongly
if
one covers one's ears with one's hands, then pronounces the English
words "pear" and "bear" paying attention to /p/ and /b/.
(d)
Emphasis:
In addition to the above, Moroccan Arabic is charac-
terized by having a set of "Emphatic" consonants which are sometimes
referred to as either "Velarized" or "Flat".
An
Emphatic consonant is one which is produced by pressing the blade
of
the tongue against the palate so that the articulation is velarized
or
alveolarized rather than just dental (See Figures 3-6). Table 1
lists
/ t d s Z
I/ as the emphatic counterparts of the PLAIN
/
t d
s
z
I
r
/ .
We will refer to /
td s z
ir Ias the "Primary
Emphatics". The occurrence of a primary emphatic consonant will cause
a
plain consonant in the same syllable (sometimes in the preceding
and/or the following syllable) to become emphatic. This set of
changed consonants will be referred to as the "Secondary Emphatics".
The
domain of the spread of emphasis is the syllable, which means that
a
syllable has all or none of its sounds emphatic. This also means
that
in Moroccan Arabic all of the consonants occur as both emphatic
and
plain because of the influence of emphatic consonants on plain
consonants as explained
The
influence of emphatic consonants on vowels is very noticeable
to
a non-native speaker. This is particularly clear with the vowel
/a/, when in the environment of an emphatic consonant. Listen to your
teacher pronouncing /tab/ = [t1b] 'to be cooked' with the a as in
English father, Bo, cot and then listen to him pronouncing /t ab/ =
[tab] 'to repent' with the a as in English cat, na, lac.
Now try pronouncing /lab/ and then /tab/ and notice when pronouncing
the
first word how your tongue is drawn back, spread to the sides
completely filling your mouth with the dorsum of your tongue raised
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 Moroccan Arabic 6 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 6 Phonology 1. Bilabial /p b m wI

Moroccan Arabic
6
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
6
Phonology
1.
Bilabial /p b m wI
2. Labiodental If vf
3. Dental ft t
d
s s
z
z I1~
4. Alveolar /n r r/
S. Alveopalatal /5 j/
6 . Palatal /yi/
7.
Velar /k S/
8. Back-Velar /x Y1
9 . Uvular /q/ 10. Pharyngeal
/
tc/
11. Glottal I h /
Figure 2.
Places of Articulation
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 Moroccan Arabic 7 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 7 Phonology Figure 3. - Tongue Position for

Moroccan Arabic
7
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
7
Phonology
Figure 3. - Tongue Position for /t/
Figure 4. - Tongue Position for /t /
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 Moroccan Arabic 8 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 8 Phonology FK Figure S. - Tongue Position

Moroccan Arabic
8
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
8
Phonology
FK
Figure S. - Tongue Position for /5/
Figure 6. - Tongue Position for /s/ .
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 Moroccan Arabic 9 Phonology and most cases your lips are slightly rounded. Watch your

Moroccan Arabic
9
Phonology
and most cases your lips are slightly rounded. Watch your teacher
pronouncing /tab/ and see how even his cheeks bulge and also watch the
tension he builds up in the muscles around his throat.
The influence of emphatic consonants on plain non-emphatic neighbor-
ing consonants is also very clear, e.g. /drb/ [drab] 'to hit' can be
transcribed as /drb/ or /dtb/. The latter form marks /d/ as a primary
emphatic and /C/ as a secondary emphatic, since only / t d s z Iir /
can occur either as primary or secondary emphatics. In any case, all
emphatics do color the neighboring consonants. Thus, when there is
more than one emphatic, we may not mark them all, e.g.
dars - dars
dars 'lesson'.
(e)
Labialization is a feature of the peripheral consonants / b m f /
and
/
k
q
x
y
I . It is here indicated by a rounded stroke over the
consonant, e.g. b . Labialization is manifested as simultaneous
lip-rounding when producing any of the above-mentioned consonants.
Thus, fb/ is pronounced as
bw or bw
and /k/ is pronounced
kw or
kw . Notice that / b 'm /can vary with
bw
,
mw
,
fw
,
or
bu ;
mu
,
fu .
(f)
Tenseness is a very important feature of Moroccan Arabic. A
tense (also fortis) consonant in general is produced with more force
than its lax (also lenis) counterpart. Tense or fortis here refers to
two identical consonants with no intervening vowel pronounced with
stronger articulation and greater tension on the muscles of the articu-
lator and, usually, aspiration. Lax or lenis refers to a single
consonant pronounced with lesser muscular tension in the speech organ
and weaker, laxer articulation and, usually, no aspiration. A tense
consonant has precisely twice the duration of a single consonant.
The intensity and aspiration (puff of breath) which are characteristic
of the tense consonants give them' a syllabic quality (i.e. maximum
degree of sonority in the syllable) so that /b:/ is heard as [abb] or
[ebb] . This is transcribed in most other systems that treated
Moroccan Arabic phonology as /ebb/ . The same systems use [a] in the
transcription of [htt] as [ahh] .
In our system of transcription [ebb]
is transcribed as /b:/ and pronounced [ebb] and [ath] is transcribed as
/h:/ and pronounced as [ ah] . The raised up vowel - [a], [a] - denotes
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 Moroccan Arab ic 10 Phonology that it is purely phonetic, i.e. totally predictable and

Moroccan Arab ic
10
Phonology
that
it is purely phonetic, i.e. totally predictable and causing no
semantic differentiation.
3.2
Places of Articulation (See Figure 2)
1. Bilabial: lower lip and upper lip ( p b m w )
2. Labiodental: lower lip and upper teeth ( f v )
3.
Dental: apex of tongue and upper teeth ( t t d d s s z z 1
)
4. Alveolar: apex of tongue and alveolar ridge ( n r r )
5. Alveopalatal: apex of tongue and front part of palate ( s z )
6. Palatal: tongue blade and palate ( y )
7. Velar: tongue dorsum and back of palate ( k g )
8. Back-Velar: tongue dorsum and velum ( x y )
9. Uvular: tongue dorsum and uvula ( q )
10. Pharyngeal: root of tongue and pharynx forming a stricture ( h e )
11. Glottal: produced by complete closure and instantaneous release of
the
vocal cords. The sound / 9 / is produced in the glottis or the
opening at the upper part of the larynx, between the vocal cords and
thus
called glottal stop or glottal catch.
3.3
Manner of Articulation
1.
Stop: refers to consonants characterized by a complete closure of
the
air passage, thus blocking the air stream momentarily, e.g.
closing
of both lips in production of /b/ ( p b t t d cj kg q ' )
2.
Fricative: refers to consonants produced by friction caused by the
air
moving through a narrow passage in the mouth ( f v s s z z
x
yh rh)
3.
Nasal: refers to consonants produced with the uvula lowered, allowing
the
air to escape through the nose, so that the nasal cavity acts as
a
resonator ( m n )
4.
Lateral: refers to consonants produced with the tongue touching
only
the middle of the palate, thus allowing the air flow to escape
around
one or both sides of the tongue (
1. )
5.
Flap: refers to a consonant produced by the rapid vibration of the
apex
of the tongue. It is a single tap of the tongue in which the
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 Moroccan Arabic 11 Phonology tip of the tongue makes a single rapid contact against

Moroccan Arabic
11
Phonology
tip
of the tongue makes a single rapid contact against the alveolar
ridge ( r r )
6.
Semi-vowel:
a sound partaking of the nature of both a consonant and
a
vowel ( w y )
3.4
Voiced - Voiceless
Voiceless Consonants
Voiced Counterparts
p
b
t
d
t.
k
g
q
f
v
s
z
Sz
x
r
h
in
n
r
w
Y
3.5
Emphatic
- Plain
Plain Consonants
Emphatic Counterparts
(Primary Set)
t
t
d
-
s
s
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 Moroccan Arabic 12 Phonology 3.6 Remarks on the Pronunciation of Moroccan Arabic Consonants and

Moroccan Arabic
12
Phonology
3.6 Remarks on the Pronunciation of Moroccan Arabic Consonants and
Semi-Vowels
A
look at Table 1 shows that Moroccan Arabic has more consonants
than
English. Most of the sounds are pronounced like their English
counterparts while a few are quite unlike anything in English; and,
therefore, require great practice on the part of the student.
3.6.1 Moroccan Arabic consonants pronounced
Counterparts
Moroccan Arabic
b
p
(occurs in for rowings)
t
d
k
9
f
v
5
z
z
n
n
w
y
almost like their English
As
in English
boy
pin
toy
dog
cat, Katherine
go
fine
vine
so
zest
she
pleasure, measure
me
no
well
yet
(occurs in borrowings)
The
following
following:
sounds also exist in English, but please note the
/I/
- Moroccan Arabic /I/ is like the /1/ in English lazy, leave,
late
rather than the /1/ of English feel, pull, role. Moroccan Arabic
/I/
then is like the first /1/ in the English word level but never like
the
second unless velarized (primary or secondary emphatic).
To
realize what this means you might like to try to say "pull", then
start
the word "leave" where you finished "pull". Now you may realize
that
initial l's in English are different from medial/final ones.
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 Moroccan Arabic 13 Phonology Thus Moroccan Arabic: /1a/ 'no', /ila/a 'if' or /ma/ 'capital,

Moroccan Arabic
13
Phonology
Thus Moroccan Arabic: /1a/ 'no', /ila/a 'if' or /ma/ 'capital, money'
have an /1/ like that of English leave; and Moroccan Arabic / :ah/ 'God'
has an /I/ like that of English pull. Linguists refer to the first /1/
in level as "Clear" /1/ and to the last /1/ as "Dark" /1/ . Moroccan
Arabic plain /I/ is "Clear" and the emphatic /1/ is "Dark".
/h/ as in English "he"
/h/ is not difficult when it begins a
syllable or a word, e.g. Moroccan Arabic /ha/ 'here is' or /mfhum/ 'It
is understood'. But the student may have difficulty pronouncing /h/
when it is within a syllable or word final, e.g. /Ighwa/ 'coffee' or
/rah/- 'there he is'.
/1'/ is a sound that should not give the English speaker any trouble.
/1/, the glottal stop, which is produced by complete closure and
instantaneous release of the vocal cords, is sometimes found in English
as in New York dialect pronunciation /bo'l/ 'bottle' or as the initial
sound of English "ouch".
In Moroccan Arabic ,words or utterances never begin with a vowel. In
all cases where a non-native speaker hears what he thinks is an
initial vowel, it is always / ' + V
/; thus, /ana/ is / "ana/ tI'.
4.
Pronunciation Drills
(All Pronunciation drills are on tape in the language laboratory.)
Each drill is read three times. The first reading is to acquaint the
student with the items of the drill. The second reading allows spaces
for practice. Ideally, the third reading should be practiced without
looking at the printed drill. Also note that, while a drill is meant
to help the student master a certain sound, sometimes a minimal pair
containing a previous sound is also drilled for purposes. of practice
and differentiation
4.1
Pronunciation Drill 1. : Moroccan Arabic sounds that occur in
English.
Notice that /a/ = [a]
as in English
cat, na,
lack
bab [bab]
door
abadan
never
tab
he repeated
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 Moroccan Arabic 14 Phonology fat he passed by ka n he was malak angel

Moroccan Arabic
14
Phonology
fat
he passed by
ka
n
he was
malak
angel
ana
I
l'ais lam
Islam
dar
he did
gal
he said
fat
he passed by
ra
f d
carrying (m)
sala
he finished
labas
fine
saf
he saw
as
what
lam
he blamed
ma
I
capital, money
zad
he added
daz
he passed
za
'
he came
t
a
crown
mat
he died
nam
he dreamt
Ia
no
wai
da
one who gave birth to a baby
wad
river
rab
it (m) was ruined
gab
he became grey-haired
dab
it (m) melted
bat
he spent the night
ban
it (m) appeared
4.2
/ q
,
x
,
,
h
,
, r / - This group does not exist in English.
1) Of this group, /r/ is a flap, i.e. a sound that is produced by the
very rapid vibration of the tip of the tongue (apex) ; it is very often
equal to a single vibration of a trill, e.g. /zra/ 'he ran', /rab/
'it (m) was ruined'.
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 Moroccan Arabic 15 Phonology 2) / x , y , q , , e

Moroccan Arabic
15
Phonology
2)
/
x
,
y
,
q
,
, e / are all back consonants known as gutterals.
Their
place of articulation is back velar, uvular and pharyngeal.
/
x , Y / are back velars, /q/ is uvular and / 12 , e / are pharyngeal.
3) /x/ is a voiceless back velar fricative.
Its place of articula-
tion
is back velar. To pronounce /x/, produce /k/, then move the dorsum
(back of the tongue) back and produce a fricative; this produces /x/.
This
will sound somewhat like the "ch" of German doch, lachen, and nach,
e. g.
xa I [xaI ]
maternal uncle
Ixdma [a Ix dm)
work
4) /y/ is a voiced back velar fricative.
It has the same place and
manner of articulation as /x/. Try to produce /g/, then move the dorsum
of
your tongue back and produce a fricative. Let us call /Y/ the
"gargling" sound.
5) /q/ is a voiceless uvular stop that is produced by the tongue
dorsum (back), forming a stop against the uvula. Notice that /q/ is
further
back than /k/ and should not be used as a substitute either for
/k/
or for /g/, for that is where we get some of the funniest minimal
pairs, e.g.
qib [qaib]
heart
kMb [kaib]
dog
I qiaw i [a I qaI wI]
the testicles
I k iaw i [a I ka IawI] the kidneys
qw:ad [qawwad]
pimp
gw:ad
[gawwad]
-guide
4.3 Pronunciation Drill 2. : / q , x , y I
aqlbi
oh my heart
akibi
oh my dog
Iki1awi
the kidneys
Ig91aw i
proper. name (m)
gw:ad
guide
xa
I
a
maternal aunt
katYi i
it is boiling
Ixdma
the work
Yal
i
expensive (m)
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 Moroccan Arabic 16 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 16 Phonology xima a tent lYla high cost

Moroccan Arabic
16
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
16
Phonology
xima
a tent
lYla
high cost
ximtha
her tent
Ya I y a
it (f) is expensive
xa i ya
it (f) is empty
kami
finished
i
xari i
abroad, outside
ma
ka n i
my place
magana
watch
i
xa I
the maternal uncle
xaltu
his maternal aunt
qu I
say!
Sul
say!
Yu l
ogre
qruda
monkeys
Yr
i
b
strange
bYa
he wanted
b
qa
he remained
b' yit i
you (s) wanted
bqiti
you (s) remained
bkit i
you (s) cried
rab
it (m) is ruined
I i a
x
wilderness
i ra
he ran
Ixala
the maternal aunt
kayiri
he runs
kayrfdha
he carries it (f)
Iqhwa
coffee
I
Yaba
forest
Ixdma
work
Irla
high cost
I
qam i is
the shirt
I
qayd
the administrator
IbYrrir
Moroccan pancakes
I
xat m
-
the ring
I
xizana
the library
Ixima
the tent
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 Moroccan Arabic 17 Phonology l yd a the lunch q1lub hearts Iqani he met

Moroccan Arabic
17
Phonology
l
yd a
the lunch
q1lub
hearts
Iqani
he met me
rqiq
.thin (m)
qa I ha
he said it (f)
qab i na
he met us
kayqab i ha
he takes care of her
I
kra
the rent
1 kuka
Coca Cola
4.4
/h/ is a voiceless pharyngeal fricative.
Pharyngeal sounds are
produced by a constriction of the root of the tongue against the pharynx.
This
is not an easy sound. It is advisable to practice pronouncing /h/
by producing a vigorous constriction of the pharynx slightly below and
behind the extreme edge of the velum. This can be achieved by drawing
the
body of the tongue back toward the posterior wall of the pharynx
with
considerable force. Try this and it should produce /h/. Let us
call
this sound the "panting" sound.
4.5
Pronunciation Drill 3.
/I/
hala
condition
kayhaw I
he is trying
I a h
he threw away
I a bu
he threw it (m) away
Iamd
praising (m)
ai
my condition
haw
I
he tried
ih
lib
the milk
h
na
we
I
hsab
arithmetic
h
anut
shop
halawat
pastry, cookies , cakes
I
I
wa
candy
wahd
one (m)
h
lib
milk (m)
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 Moroccan Arabic 18 Phonology 4.6 /C/ is a voiced pharyngeal fricative. If you try

Moroccan Arabic
18
Phonology
4.6
/C/
is a voiced pharyngeal fricative. If you try to pronounce the
English vowel "a" as in "fat" with your tongue pressed down, you will
hear
/t/, which we will call the "bleating" sound.
4.7
Pronunciation Drill 4.
ealhigh
(m)
cad
yet, just
kayeawd
he repeats, he narrates
resrin
twenty
cazib
excellent
eaIya
high (f)
kaytibn i
I like it (m)
beid
far (m)
eliha
on it (f)
el
ihum
on them (m)
cguza
old woman
I
Cgayz
the old people
viuz
old man
i
eiuza
the old woman
zCma
that is to say
imic
together
bat
he sold
4.8
Pronunciation Drill S. : / x ,
,
q
,
h
,
c
/
t
al ihigh (m)
ya
I
i
expensive (m)
xa
I
i
my maternal uncle
hail
my condition
hadi
this (f)
Yad
i
he is going
xa
1 u
his maternal uncle
qaltha
she said it (f)
ihri
ra
Moroccan soup
qa
I
u
they said
qruda
monkeys
gil
llittle
h
a nut
shop
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 Moroccan Arabic 19 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 19 Phonology I mayari ba x I ah

Moroccan Arabic
19
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
19
Phonology
I
mayari ba
x
I
ah
a
hwant
hdaha
cbid
I aIam
I Yaba
Ixima
Im'ila
I
bh ima
mnaha
eahdna
ea
I
ya
'faIya
xalya
ha'i
la
ha
hiya
ha
hna
xda
Yda
hda
bda
hda
Moroccans
he
ruined it (m)
shops
near
her
slaves
the
world
the
forest
the
tent
living.
the
beast of burden
with
her
he
promised us
high
(f)
expensive (f)
empty
(f)
excellent (f)
here
she is
here
we are
he
took
lunch
near
he
began
to
present
S. Emphasis, Labialization, and Tenseness
5.1 Emphasis
Emphatic articulation refers to the pressing of the blade of the
tongue
against the palate in the formation of some consonant sounds ; the
articulation is then velarized or alveolarized rather than dental, or
pharyngealized rather than velar.
As
mentioned in 3.1 c , the domain of emphasis (that of flatness or
velarization) is the syllable. We called / t d s z I.
/ a "primary
emphatic" set, the occurrence of which causes other non-emphatic
consonants to become emphatic. This latter set is here termed the
"secondary emphatic" set, e.g. /db/ 'to hit' has /d/ as a primary
emphatic phoneme and / C/ as a secondary one. It is worth mentioning
here
that the transcription of this word without marking /r/ as emphatic
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 Moroccan Arabic 20 Phonology is also acceptable. It is hard and almost impossible to

Moroccan Arabic
20
Phonology
is
also acceptable. It is hard and almost impossible to pronounce
emphatic /c/ and non-emphatic /r/ next to it.
Thus, /db/ - /drb/ 'to
hit' and, similarly, /t b1./ - /t bi/ 'drum (musical instrument)' are
acceptable variants in terms of transcription. Variant transcriptions
may
occur throughout the Units of this book for words where / t d s z /
occur as secondary emphatics. Thus /ras/ - /ras/ 'head' - when Moroccan
Arabic is written in Arabic script, this alternation will show up as
alternate spelling with either of two different letters either (y.'for
/s/
or upOfor /s/.
Notice that in pronouncing a plain non-emphatic consonant the position
of
the tip of the tongue is dental for, let us say, /t/ and the back of
the
tongue is depressed, whereas in pronouncing its emphatic counterpart
/t/, the tip of the tongue is. touching the alveolar ridge and the back
of
the tongue is raised up toward the velum.
Also, note that in the
case
of the pronunciation of an emphatic consonant, the lip muscles
are
somewhat extended forward whereas they are relaxed when pronouncing
a
plain consonant. See Figures 3 and 4 for /t/ and /t/ and Figures 5
and
6 for /s/ and /s/.
5.2 Pronunciation Drill 6. (Emphatic Consonants)
(In the environment of emphatic consonants, /a / is pronounced as in
English "father" and /i / is pronounced as the vowel of English
'mate" without the glide.)
rab [rab]
it (m) is ruined
ratb [ab]
it (m) is curdled
ra
kb
he is mounted
'a
qb
he controlled
rbab
rebec, a string instrument
r
bat i
native (m) of Rabat
tab
he repented
tab
it (m) is cooked
dar
he did
dar
house
sif
[sif]
sword
sif
[sef]
summer
maza 1
not yet
mazar
he did not visit
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 Moroccan Arabic 21 Phonology wI :a or wz:ahi of course, by God nam he

Moroccan Arabic
21
Phonology
wI
:a
or
wz:ahi
of course, by God
nam
he dreamt
nad
he got up
ban]1 i
it (m) appeared to me
barnka
bank (<cFrench)
fasi
native of Fez
fad
i
unoccupied
kaysumu
they fast
siny:a
tray
sir
go!
sib
find!
sag
he drove
zrabi
rugs
z
i na
ornament
zuQ*
blonds
kra
he rented
q
ra
he studied
darha
he did it (f)
darha
her house
kar
i
he rented
qa
r
i
educated
5.3
Labialization (as mentioned in 3.1 e) is a feature of / b m f k q x
Y
/ and is manifested as simultaneous lip-rounding when producing any
of
these consonants. Thus /3> is pronounced as bw or bw
and /'k/ is
pronounced kw or kw . Notice that / b m T
/ can vary with
bw , mw
fw
, or bu , mu , fu . Notice the distinction in meaning for
instance between labialized /z/ and its non-labialized counterpart /x/
in
such words as /xra/ 'feces' and /2a/ 'other (f)', /Ixra/ 'the feces'
and
/Ixra/ 'the other one (f)'.
5.4
Pronunciation Drill 7. (Labialized Consonants)
In
the environment of labialized consonants:
a -
[a] and is pronounced as in English "father"
i e--- {e] and as the vowel in English "made" without the glide
u
-- [0] and ranges between the vowels of English "door" and "soul"
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 Moroccan Arabic 22 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 22 Phonology byd buyd malf -mwaif Ifad -Ifwad

Moroccan Arabic
22
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
22
Phonology
byd
buyd
malf
-mwaif
Ifad -Ifwad
kbar
kbar
xa
krasa
Yrab
Yr
i
b
'nt
qn
ut
qndi I
enad
I
hi:
hi
white (p)
to
be accustomed
internal body organs
big (p)
other (fs)
chairs
crow
strange
corner
corners
oil
lamp
oil
lamps
open!
solution
5.5
A tense (also fortis)consonant in general has twice the duration of
its
lax (also lenis) counterpart. Also remember that the intensity and
aspiration which are characteristic of the tense consonants give them a
syllabic quality.
(See 3.1 f above.)
5.6
Pronunciation Drill 8. (Tense Consonants)
kayt bu
kayhb:u
t
:aman
tm:a
timid
t:Imid
d:a
bra
bC:a
he
is crawling
he
loves him
the
price
there
pupil
the
pupil
house
the
house
to
the house
letter
outside
6.
Moroccan Arabic Vowels
To
produce a vowel sound, the tongue is arched High, Mid or Low in
the
mouth. The arching of the tongue is either toward the FRONT of the
palate or the BACK. Thus, we describe the vowels in terms of these
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 Moroccan Arabic 23 Phonology five parameters. We now can say that /1/ is a

Moroccan Arabic
23
Phonology
five parameters. We now can say that /1/ is a high front vowel.
The position of the lips, whether spread as in /ia/ or rounded as in
/u,o/, is important in describing vowel sounds.
Vowels are all voiced; that is, vowels are produced with vibrations
of the vocal cords.
Front
Central
Back
High
i
u
Mid
Low
a
Table 2. - Moroccan Arabic Vowels
6.1
Vowel Allophones (or positional vowel variants occurring in specific
environments)
The following table shows the Moroccan Arabic vowel allophones .
Notice the modification of the parameters High, Mid and Low. Also
note that Central or Centralized vowels are shorter in duration than
the front or back ones.11T-7
Front
Central Shorter
Back
High
i
u
Low High
I
v=YI I
High Mid
e
o
Mid
a
Low Mid
High Low
a
Low
a
a
Table 3. - Moroccan Arabic Vowel Allophones
has the following allophones:
as in English ' fat', occurs in the environment of non-emphatic
consonants;
6.2
/a/
/a/
[a]
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 Moroccan Arabic 24 Phonology [a] a little further back than the "a" of English

Moroccan Arabic
24
Phonology
[a]
a little further back than the "a" of English 'father' , occurs in
the
environment of emphatic sonsonants ;
[]
(centralized pronunciation of [a]) occurs word finally in the
environment of non-emphatic consonants. Notice [] is shorter
than
[a];
[z]
(centralized pronunciation of [a]) occurs word finally in the
environment of emphatic consonants. Notice [] is shorter than
[a].
6.3 Pronunciation Drill 9.
/a/
a
/ a
dar
[dar]
he did
dar
[dat]
house
fat
[fat]
he passed
tar
[tar]
it flew
fatr
[fata]
he is not fasting
tab
[tab]
he repented
tab
[tab]
it is cooked
yad
i
['&dI]
he is going
Ya
I[Yar]
hole
sab
[ab]
he grew old
b
iawat
[b rawat ]
letters
[
ai
Ia
[)a]
no
bra
[bra]
letter
sab
:a
[sab :a]
youth (f)
tal:a
[Ial:a]
madam, lady
ybra
[ybr&]
needle
Hia
[I11]
if
t
a
[ita]
cover
9um: h a
[ 9ummah). her mother
d:aha
[d:ahi]
he took it (f) away
haz:a
[ha :a]
pilgrim (f)
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 Moroccan Arabic 25 Phonology 6.4 /I /i/ has the following allophones: [i] as in

Moroccan Arabic
25
Phonology
6.4
/I
/i/
has the following allophones:
[i]
as in English 'beat, occurs in the environment of non-emphatic
consonants;
[e]
as in English 'mate' , occurs in the environment of emphatic
consonants ;
[I]
as in English 'bit'; occurs word finally, in the environment of
non-emphatic consonants ;
[I]
(centralized pronunciation of {I]=[I )), occurs word finally in
the
environment of emphatic consonants. Notice [I] is shorter than
[I].
6.
5 Pronunciation Dr ill 10 . : / i/
Iii] / e]
snin
lib
zit
ki
fai
tir
sift
sif
s:
if
s
i f
s
:
i f
sif
s:
i f
ei
s
biban
[i]
/ [I]
ya
I
i
qa
i
sft
i
h3ami
nb
(
i
fd
:
i
[snin]
[Zib]
[zit]
[kifa s]
[ter]
[seft]
[sef]
[s:ef]
[sif]
[s:
if]
[
ei ]
[b
i ben]
[qadI]
[i
ftI])
[IyamI]
[ny'bI]
[fadgl]
years
pocket
oil
how?
a
bird
to
send
summer
the
summer
sword
the
sword
live!
small, little
doors
expensive
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judge

I

!

)

)

 Moroccan Arabic 26 Phonology 6.6 /u/ /u/ has the following allophones: ju] as in

Moroccan Arabic
26
Phonology
6.6
/u/
/u/
has the following allophones:
ju] as in English 'cool', occurs in the environment of non-emphatic
consonants;
[o]
between English 'door' and 'soul', occurs in the environment of
emphatic consonants and back velars;
[v]
as in English 'wool' , occurs word finally in the environment
of
non-emphatic consonants ;
[ur]
(or [UW]) , occurs -word finally in the environment of emphatic
consonants. Notice [r] is shorter than [v].
6.7
Pronunciation Drill 11.
lu/
[u]
/ [o]
dud
dur
s:uf
e'
um
Yui
hanut
c
ud
d
uI
fm
xubz
mu' tabar
kanaxud
kayaku I
quit i
Iv]_/ _t]l
dyalu
r
du
fthu
qbtu
sd:
u
bYd u
[dud]
[dot]
[s
:of,
["
um]
[Yo
1 ]
[hanut]
[tud]
[dolm]
[doef]
[xobz]
[mue
tabar]
[kanaxud]
[kayaku I]
[qu
It I]
worms
turn!
wool
swim!
ogre
shop
a
piece of wood
oppression
poverty
bread
excellent
I
am taking
he
is eating
you
(s) said
his
he
invited him
he
opened it (m)
he
caught it (m)
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 Moroccan Arabic 27 Phonology 6.8 Phonetic Schwa or Short Vowel In addition, Moroccan Arabic

Moroccan Arabic
27
Phonology
6.8
Phonetic Schwa or Short Vowel
In
addition, Moroccan Arabic has a non-phonemic (with no semantic
significance) phonetic schwa or short vowel - V [a]
This occurs
as
a transition between consonants or consonant clusters. It is
voiced in the environment of voiced consonants and voiceless in the
environment of voiceless consonants. The vocalic transition has variants
ranging from {a] or je] to [2] or [a].
[a]: [a) occur in the environment of /e/ and /h/; []) [] elsewhere.
Examples :
end i
ktb
ki:mn
x1
:a
{
ndI]
[kt b]
[kal10m]
[x0l]
I
have
he
wrote
he
spoke
he
let, left
6.9
Pronunciation Drill 12. : Phonetic Schwa
en
d na
I
hm:am
I
hmdu Ii
Ibab
fhm
bnt
I
bnt
$:
rim
fh
:mu
kayqd:
six
bITY
[candne]
[
0,n dni) ln
[*
It a ammam]
I
:ah [
a l
mdul II l th-]
[albab]
[fthm]
[bent]
f
lb
nt]
. [*iiarim]
[f
hh mu]
[kayqdd]
[s
l*x]
[b
i o]
we
have
public bath
praise
be to God
the
door
he
understood
a
girl
the
girl
the
window
he
made him understand
he
can
to
skin animals
to
be of age, be mature
7.
Phonological Structure of Words in Moroccan Arabic
If
a consonant is followed by another consonant, there is a predic-
table
transition. Transition between /C/ and /C/ is heard as vocalic
and
is represented here by a superscript schwa [0] to represent the
short
vowels [0], [e], [a] and [a] discussed in 6 above. Schwa occurs
as
the first speech sound formation in English "about" or as the last
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 Moroccan Arabic 28 Phonology speech sound formation in English "sofa". The following examples and

Moroccan Arabic
28
Phonology
speech sound formation in English "sofa". The following examples and
drills are meant to help the student master this very important feature
of Moroccan Arabic phonology, namely the pronunciation of consonant
clusters. Drills 13 and 14 include the [*] in the transcription.
Notice that [a] is voiceless in the environment of voiceless consonants
and voiced in the environment of voiced consonants.
Following are some helpful rules for the predictability of the short
vowel []:
1.
/CC:/
[CeCC]
2. /C:C/ - [CC*C]
3. /C:C:/ ---+ [aCCaCC]
4. /CC:C/ ---+ [CCC*C]
5. /C:V/ ---+ [0CCV]
6.
/CC:V/
[C0CCV]
7. /C:VC/ --+ [ CCVC]
8. [VCC] (no change) (='VC:)
/VC:/ -
9. [CVCC] (no change)
/CVC:/ --
10. /VC:V/ ---+ [VCCV] (no change) (='C:V)
Examples:
1.
sk:
Compare s:k:
2.
d:ra
3.
:q:
d:r:i
4.
kI:m
bd: I
fy:q
hm:m
bl:I
5.
b:a
r:uz
6.
Ib:ik
km:a
t:a
7.
I:j1
8.
9ab:
[
e ekk]
[*skk]
[*iiqq]
[Edd0 rr-I]
[kallm]
[badd iJ
[f
yyaq]
[h
mmam]
[*bb a]
[*rroz]
[isbbik]
[
kmmm]
[Y*tt]
[*1Iii1]
['abb]
to doubt, suspect
doubt, suspicion
corn
the crack
the boy
to speak to
to change
to wake up (someone)
to give a bath
to wet
my father
the rice
window screen
to make someone smoke
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to cover

cigarettes

 Moroccan Arabic 29 Phonology ~4oroccan Arabic 29 Phonology 9. mux : 10. 'am:a [muxx]

Moroccan Arabic
29
Phonology
~4oroccan Arabic
29
Phonology
9.
mux
:
10.
'am:a
[muxx]
[9ammi]
brain
as
for
7.1
Stress
Stress
does not produce semantic differences in Moroccan Arabic.
Primary stress may fall either on the final syllable (terminal) or on
the
second from the last (penultimate). This is predictable on the
basis
of syllable structure. Stress is terminal if the last syllable
of
the word has the structure [CVC] or [CeCC], e.g.
mski
n
frhan
mhlI
uI
samht
sawbt
sI:mt
[mask in]
[f8r-hn]
[s~raht J
E
sawlat
poor
happy
open
(m)
I forgave
I fixed (something)
I greeted
Stress
is penultimate if the last syllable of the word has the
structure [CV] or if it ends in [-C], e.g.
sI:mna
[s*1 amni]
~we greeted
nmhlula
[mahluli]
open (f)
kI:m
[ka11am]
he talked (with, to)
sabba
[sahba]
girl friend
Also
notice stress shift with the suffixation of pronominal suffixes,
e.g.
ki
ina
kIinah
ki:m
ki:mni
[ki ini]
[ki insh]
[ka iim]
[kal1amni]
we
ate
we
ate it (m)
he
talked (to)
he
talked to me
7.2
Pronunciation Drill 13. (Consonant Clusters)
:m
e[' Im]
fhm
[faham]
kI:m Ifqih [kahlam alfgih]
Iwid
Ikbir [*1wald alkbir]
as
xbar s::a ? [as xbadu Liahh]]
nhmdu
1 :ah [nahamdu 1Itlah]
to
teach
to
understand
talk
to the teacher!
the
big boy
how
are you?
fine
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 Moroccan Arabic 30 Phonology hr:ktlkum t:bla [ha rra kt a kurn att bab~] I

Moroccan
Arabic
30
Phonology
hr:ktlkum t:bla [ha rra kt a kurn att bab~] I moved the table for
'ah
1n wa sahiln [ 'ahil n w a smh 1an]
Hello
yu
sbah
l x ir [asbah a alxeifl
good morning
x
[xraz]
he went out
s
:r rn
[ssarzm]the window
s
l: m
[Sa 1lam]
to greet
d:
I asild i , mrba b ikum vndna
come in, sir, welcome.
[atfadda 1 s dI , mrh a b ikumrn ndnae]
k
I: mt hum [ kall 1amt hum]
I talked to them
mt
krfs in tmat karf s in]
messed up (mp)
If:
[jaff]
to wrap up
sq
[agq]to split
yr=
garr
toconfess
srn:
a
[s mrnM]
to name
t:a['t t a]
to cover
I:a[.lYadd ]tomorrow
t
:a
tihattVj
until
tb
:ax
Etabbax]
a cook
qd:m
[qaddamJ
to present
ad:b
[ 'addab ]
to educate, instruct
b
x
:
[
b
acxa]
to steam, burn incense
hr:
ha
Eharrarth5]
he liberated it (f) or her
qr:
a
[ gaer
r ]
he taught
g
r: u
[
]
he made him confess
h
l: u
[ha 1 1v}
he opened it (m)
0~:1U
Iha l Ia IV]
he opened for him
hd
: u
adv
his limit
ld
du
[hadd%.u.]
he ironed it (m)
hm
u
[ hammuj]
Haumou (proper name)
1m:mu
Eha,,namvU]
he gave him a bath
s
f :ha
Esa f fa hi]
she pitied him
zf
:fha
Ezaffafhae]
he wiped it Cf)
Sd_:
u
[
a
d du]
his grandfather
i
d: du
[ia d da dV]
he renewed it (m)
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 Moroccan Arabic 31 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 31 Phonology 7.3 Pronunciation zffat hd :ha hd:dha

Moroccan Arabic
31
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
31
Phonology
7.3
Pronunciation
zffat
hd
:ha
hd:dha
fat
ha
ft
:tha
hr:
u
hr:ru
sh
:a
sh
:hha
tfs:at
mhs~sa
xiz~u
xz
:z
u
htl:at
tfl:zat
dl
:aha
d
i
:
I
ha
qs:a
qssha
Drill 14. (C:
fassbb a]
(zaffafatj
haddaha]
fIhaddadhav]
ffattathaJ
jna
!a:raru]
ft
f aset
fmhaa~
Exilzzu]
Exazzazul
[ht azza]
fdal
Iaeha~J
fda! IaI he]
[qassaJ
[as asa
C:C
,
C:C: )
alum
she
wiped
her
limit
he
ironed it (f)
he
passed her
he
broke it (f) into pieces
he
made it (m) hot (for food)
he
liberated it (in)
health
he
caused her to be healthy
it
(f) got flat (e. g. tire)
having smoked hashish
carrots
it
caused it (m) to be rusty
she
protested
she
had a walk
he
let it (f) down
he
put for auction
story
he
cut it (f) (with scissors)
8.
Diphthongs
Moroccan Arabic has the following diphthongs : aw , ay , l y , 1iw , uw
8.1
Pronunciation Drill 15. (Diphthongs)
rawd
repeat!
faw
n
to help
fayn
where?
fay
q
awake (in)
y
d: i w
they take along
k
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!
)
 Moroccan Arabic 32 Phonology 9. Interchange of Phonemes The following phonemes vary according to

Moroccan Arabic
32
Phonology
9.
Interchange of Phonemes
The
following phonemes vary according to region for different speakers
of
Moroccan Arabic:
z
-
z
,
s. s
q
- g
q
g-
yC -.iC ,
wC
-_uC .
9.1
Pronunciation Drill 16. (Interchange of Phonemes)
z
Z
zuz
zuz
two
mzw:i . mzw:ui
married (m)
$S
s
srim
- s czmwindow
sms.~sms.-ms-sms
sun
qal
gal
he said
bqra
bgra
cow
qul:i - gul:i
'ul:i
tell me!
yC
-i C initially before C or CC or C:
ybra ~ ibra
needle
yktb
iktb
.he wrote
wC
uC initially
This
variation depends on whether the preceding word
ends
in a consonant or a vowel. /w/ occurs after a vowel
and
/u/ occurs after a consonant.
w
alh d u i r i n
twenty one
xmsa wei r i n
twenty five
(here:
u - w 'and')
10.
General Pronunciation Drills
Following are four pronunciation drills. Students are advised to
master these drills before beginning the units of this book.
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 Moroccan Arabic 33 Phonology ~4oroccan Arabic 33 Phonology 10.1 Pronunciation Drill 17. (General) fd:it

Moroccan Arabic
33
Phonology
~4oroccan Arabic
33
Phonology
10.1
Pronunciation Drill 17.
(General)
fd:it
kayd:iha
Ixudera
eawn:i
.
lahha
(lah:a -
Ihrira
s:iny:a
I
maYari ba
maYr
i
b
i
mia
fayn
Ibnat ?
ha
huma Ibnat
awd
dak s:i
ia
, asidi
iwa
, bawdu.
in
rapid speech)
abadan
safi
iwa
[:a yhn:ik
bs:iama as i.d i
I
finish
He
is taking it along (f).
vegetables
Help
me!
He
threw it (f).
Moroccan soup
the
tray
Moroccans
Moroccan (m)
he
went
Where are the girls?
Here
are the girls.
Repeat that thing.
No, sir.
Well, repeat it!
Never!
Finished, all right.
Well, goodbye.
Goodbye, sir.
door
to
manage
bank (cFrench)
he
passed
apples
three
the
price
material
lump
(of sugar) , adobe brick
length
road
the
road
he
did
the
house
watermelon
10.2
Pronunciation Drill 18.
(General)
bab
db:
r-
banka
fat
t:
f:ah
t
iata
t:aman
tub
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tub

q

q

 Moroccan Arabic 34 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 34 Phonology d: Ca corn mn i n

Moroccan Arabic
34
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
34
Phonology
d:
Ca
corn
mn
i n
where from?
t
m: a
there
hma
r
donkey
hmr
red
s:
i f
the sword
s:
i f
summer
sb:h2
to glorify God
s
b:h
to say good morning to
s:aIam
peace
s:ala
prayers
s
r
i f
a noble man
s:rif
the noble man
[basir
man's name
tms:
a
walk!
zrban
in a hurry
z:rby :a
the carpet
mazal
not yet
zar
he visited
h
z:u
carry it (m)!
xiz:u
carrot
z ra
he ran
a ar
neighbor
ari
my neighbor
a
r
i
he is running
S:a
r
the neighbor
S:r
i
running
Ia
no
i
ta
if.
I
:
i
which
wi
:ahi
of course, by God
tat
:a
madam, lady
nhd
to shout
n:har
day
nud
get up!
n
:as
people
rig
to return
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 Moroccan Arabic 353 Phonology r:zu' returning rail a man r :as the head darha

Moroccan Arabic
353
Phonology
r:zu'
returning
rail
a man
r
:as
the head
darha
he did it (f)
darha
her house
r
:a il1
the man
i
am
I
a
pregnant
kaml
complete
eaml
he is doing
al
i
high
xa
Ii
my paternal uncle
Yal iexpensive
hal1i
my situation
had
i
this (f)
qad ijudge
Yadi
he is going
xawi
It (m) is empty.
cl
:it i
you (s) raised
xl
:iti
you (s) left
hi
:iti
you (s) opened
Yl
:it i
you (s) boiled
bx:r
to steam, burn incense
ded:
u
against him
rah
he went
wk:1
to feed
bq:aI
grocer
wY: I
to deepen
fh:am
coal merchant
f
hm
understanding
fIam
coal
fh:mu .
Make him understand.
twe:r -He got stuck.
b:ah'
his father
Sa
I
f
to be accustomed to
Tad
internal organs of the body
kba rbig (p)
hak:a
thus
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 Moroccan Arabic 36 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 36 Phonology Rrab ~nt 'gntar g a r

Moroccan Arabic
36
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
36
Phonology
Rrab
~nt
'gntar
g
a
r
: u
'Rrasa
~Yr ib
hi:
qridi 1
qrnad!
other (f)
crow
Open!
corner
cantor
cigarettes
chairs
strange
solution
oil
lamp
oil
lamps
10.3 Pronunciation Drill 19.
(General)
Iwid mrid
bnt kb ira
mra
mzyana
d
:
r:
i
f r h
a n
I
n
a l
h r
a y
h~md gis ti s:Ilya Ikbira
hada
rai I mzyan
was
hada ra~i mzyan ?
hmrd
tndu dar mzyana
was
had s: i dya lk ?
suft
u I bart2
masuftus lbart2
sir
xdm
sir
t qd i Iaia r:as k t
fayn
d:rari ?
d:
rar i f lmdrasa
fayn
Ibnt ?
ha
hiya lIbnt
yal:ah nmsiw nsrbu Ii kas
datay imit.
I
a , s u krn as id i , ba ra ka 1 ahu
matmsis tnt5
mamsas Ilmdiasa lyum
*The
boy is sick.
a big girl
a nice lady
The
boy is happy.
The
red bag is empty.
Ahmed sat on the big chair.
How much are the tomatoes?
This
is a nice man.
Is
this a nice man?
Ahmed has a nice house.
Is
this thing here yours?
I
saw him yesterday.
I
did not see him yesterday.
Go
and work!
Go
do something for yourself!
Where are the kids?
The
kids are at school.
Where is the girl?
Here is the girl.
Let us go and have tea
together.
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f ik. No, thank you, sir.

D

H

!

 Moroccan Arabic 37 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 37 Phonology d:ariza Irayriby:a Iu'a sahia hada laxr

Moroccan Arabic
37
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
37
Phonology
d:ariza Irayriby:a Iu'a sahia
hada
laxr t :mrin , wsaf 1
Moroccan Arabic is an easy
This
is the end language.
of
the drill and that is it.
10.4 Pronunciation Drill 20.
(General)
lahin
wa sahin
'as
xbarkum asidi ?
labas lhmdu Iii:ah
lal
:a fatma as xbark ?
labas
asidi, lI:ah
yzv lf ik I balaka
mnslxir
mnslxir
fayn
iasi ?
mnawsi
I
d:ar
sl:ml
i tblmwval in d:ar
b
1:Y'l: ah s l aink
fayn
smntlIi as i d i , was katc r'f
I
lam i ea ?
Hello.
How
are you, sir?
Fine, thanks.
How
are you, Madam Fatma?
Fine, sir, thank you.
(May God bless you)
Good
evening.
Good
evening. (response)
Where are you going?
I
am going home.
Greet
the family for me.
I
will.
Please, do you know where
the
University is?
There
it is (the University).
It
is that big building.
Please, do you know of a
nearby drugstore?
No
, there is not one here.
You
have to go to the city.
How
are you, Mr . Ahmed?
Yes, thanks.
Please, how can I get to
Meknes (from here) ?
[ iam i ca t m: a
q
ud : ark
dik
limiuara Ikbira
srnl~i
asi di , was katerf si
farinasyan qr ib ?
la
asidi , iakayns fhad l huma.
xs
:k tth bt I:mad ina
si
hind nta bixir ?
ntan
asidi bixir I Isndu Ii I:ah.
mnn:a
?
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 Moroccan Arabic 38 Phonology Moroccan Arabic 38 Phonology tK It mehad s:ari"ht t:a t

Moroccan Arabic
38
Phonology
Moroccan Arabic
38
Phonology
tK It mehad s:ari"ht t:a t wsl
'ah in wa sahiln"
'shin wa sahin asidi
s:aIarnu 'a i kum"
wacaI ikum 1s:alain
ga xbarkwn
1labas baraka l:ahu f ik asidi"
was t byi tmi mtznaya I d: a daba ?
ya 1: ah asidi , xI : ina mnn had
s:da'
Go up this avenue until you
reach the railway station
and take the train.
Hello.
Response to "Hello"T. (to a
man)
Hello, Hi.
Hi. (Response)
How are you?
Fine, thanks, sir.
Would you like to go home
with me now?
Yes, I will go with you.
All right, let us go and
forget about this headache.
*** *** ***
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 PART TWO BASIC UNITS UNITS 1 - 10 Generated on 2013-10-09 17:01 GMT /

PART TWO
BASIC UNITS
UNITS 1 - 10
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 40 Moroccan Arabic Unit 1 40 Unit 2~ UNIT CUE I.1 Text bit Cm)

40
Moroccan Arabic
Unit 1
40
Unit 2~
UNIT CUE
I.1 Text
bit
Cm)
ibit
bit
kbir
ibit kbir
kbir (in)
room
the
room
a
big room
1b
roomn is big.
big
a
bay
the
boy
a
sick bay
The
boy is sick."
sick
wid
Cma)
iwid
uid
=id
iwid
'id
Sw1dJ
[Leiwed]
='id Cm)
bnt Cf)
That
bnt kbira
lbnt kbira
(baitj)
a girl
the
girl
a
big girl
The
girl is big."
kbira (fT)bi
big
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 Moroccan Arabic 41 unit 3 Moroccan ~abic 41 Unit 1 mra (f) 1mra mra

Moroccan Arabic
41
unit
3
Moroccan ~abic
41
Unit 1
mra
(f)
1mra
mra
mrida
1mra ida
a
woman
the
woman
a
sick woman
The
woman is sick.
Uri
a
(f)
sick
*
*
*
1.2
Gramatical Notes
1. Nouns are either masculine (m) or feminine (f) in gender.
2. The definite article in Moroccan Arabic ( M.A.) is /#1-/
prefixed to nouns and adjectives.
3. A modifier agrees with the noun it modifies in gender.
; The equational sentence here has the formla:
Noun (definite) + Adjective (indefinite)
ibit kbir .
'The room is big.' (m + m)
lbnt kbira .
'The girl is big.' (f + f)
Notice the agreement in gender:
(M
+
m)
or
(f
+
f)
5.
N oun (indefinite) + Adjective (indefinite) is a phrase:
bit
kbir
'a big room'
bint kbira
' a big girl'
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 Moroccan Arabic 42 Unit 3. Moroccan Arabic 42 Unit 2. 1.3 Vocabulary (1.) Noun

Moroccan Arabic
42
Unit 3.
Moroccan Arabic
42
Unit 2.
1.3
Vocabulary
(1.) Noun (mn) indexfinite
bab
kUin:as
ktab
(2) Noun (f ) indefinite
haza
aaaj
se
Noun (mn) definite
ibab
lku2n: as
2.ktab
Noun (f~) definite.
1 aa
lm gana
door
notebook
book
thing
watch
sack
(3 ) 1difier (m)
kbir
~id
mlua
moifer
(
kbira
syira
ri da
=nYana
mhla
big
sick
nice , good
open
*
*
*
1.4
Grammatical Notes
1.
Notice that the feminine nouns and modifiers listed above end
in /-a#/
*
*
*
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 Moroccan Arabic 43 Unit I 1 .5 Drill I Form sentences using the following

Moroccan Arabic
43
Unit
I
1 .5 Drill I
Form
sentences using the following nouns and adjectives:
magana -mzana, bit - kbir z
s - syira , bab - hil
ra
- mida , wid -syir , bnt - kbira , ktab - mzyan
kun
: as kbfir
I
.6 Vocabulary
Noun
indeffinite
~'azl (mn)
nas
(mn)
d.: i (mn) (drrzJ
zib
(n).
sbitar (mn)
zrby :a (f) [zarboyy ]
zit
(f )
t:wira
(f) [taswirl]
Noun
definite
s:±'2i (%sflz3] basement
s
:rem Em] nwindow
n:as
people
d:r:i
faddrrz] boy
z:ib
pocket
l:ilnit
s
:bitar
hospital
t:bla
table
z
:rby3 a[ zzerb~]ng
z:it
oil
t:
s~iraa a picture
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 Moroccan Arabic 44 tit 1 1.7 Grammatical Note If~ a noun begins with one

Moroccan Arabic
44
tit 1
1.7
Grammatical Note
If~ a noun begins with one of the following consonants, / r r n
1
31
s s
z
z
t t
d d/,then the def'inite article /l-/
assimilates to this consonant, i. e. it becomes like it,9 e g.
sfli ,'
r=
~l,
1-sfli -p s :fli Eess±2? J
'the basement'
'the man
f'the boy t
*
*
*
1.8
Vocabulary
Modifier (Adjective ) is)
le.-an Ca7
nqi
msdud tmasdudJ
I~dif ier
frharza
'7: :Sfl
agra
msduda
~s: Xa
(Adjective ) (fs )
f[msdudli]
frs3 eJ
ha.p
tired
clean
closed
dirty
1.19
Drill
Form sentences using the following nowms and their given
modifiers.
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 45 Moroccan Arabic U nit 2 45 Unit I (1 ) foun (is) bab

45
Moroccan Arabic
U
nit 2
45
Unit I
(1 ) foun (is)
bab
bit
Tid
ktab
r=3.
dr:
i
sbiar
uld
sfli
Moifer
(ms
mhul
kbir
msdud
nqi
?ran
kbir
The
door is open.
The
room is small.
The
notebook is dirty.
The
boy is big.
The
window is closed.
The
book is good.
Thema
is sick.
The
kid is tired.
The
hospital is clean.
The
boy is bappy.
The
basement is big.
*
*
*
(2) }Noun (is)
dar
Z'by: a
bat
a
rasa [mdras ]
tswira
but
is
ksbira
msdbuda
fr~aa
The
house i s open.
The
tug is small.
The
sack is dirty.
The
girl is big.
The
school is closed.
The
picture is mic e.
The
Woa is sick.
The
chair is clewn.
The
girl is happy.
**
*
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 Moroccan Arabic 46 Unit 1 Moroccan Arabic 46 Unit 1 IJ.O Drill 3 a.

Moroccan Arabic
46
Unit
1
Moroccan Arabic
46
Unit 1
IJ.O Drill 3
a.
Translate the foallowing s antences .
b.
Fora similar sentences.
Ibab th2u1
lbit
si
S:Tm
usdud
?:S.1 grid
s;
bitar nqi.
Iwid
frhmi
s:;ili
kbir
d:
a miula
Z
:rby: a srza
lbnt
kbira
1mdrasa -msduda
1='a mrida
B:ly7a nqy~a
lbnt
frb.aa
Z:
it g:
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 Moroccan Arabic 47 Unit 2 MorocCan Arabic 47 Unit 2 UNIT TWO 11.1 Review-Drill

Moroccan Arabic
47
Unit
2
MorocCan Arabic
47
Unit 2
UNIT TWO
11.1 Review-Drill 1
Was
r :azl frhan
y:i
, r: azl fan
I
s the manhappy?
Yes, the man is happy.
interrogative particle of
the
"dot Will" type
was
7:
ih
N
o t i c e
/w a i /
i s
f o l l o w e d
b
y
a
d
e f inF
o
i
i a
u s i n
n
n w r
your
sentences.
yes
Lite
noun hare.
using
the following, and translate
1.
3.
5.
7.
9.
U.
13.
15.
17.
19.
21.
23.
25.
27.
mass
mblu.a
-
mzya
sbita -nqi
slya
- nqy a
znsa
- kbira
'iya
- rri'a
bit-
.
wid
- kbir
ktab -
a
ink
a- rri'Ta
tyw.'a - soya
3~sa
- msduda
2.
4 0.
6.
8.
10.
12.
16.
18.
20.
22.
4.
26.
28.
dr:
i -t:
bab - m4lu1
afli
no kbir
kun
s - kbir
bnt
- mzyaa
ad-
m ula
tqwia - kbir'a
-
msdud
'by sa - mayaa
zit
- nqysa
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wid -fran

=

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Ioroccan Arabic

48

Unit 2

Moroccan Arabic

29. zit - E

x

30. ktab -mzyan

11.2 Word Study Lists

(1)} Nouns

Singul~ar(s)

bib (in)

bit (mn)

inagana .(Ii

vid Cm)

bnit Cf)

ba a (±f)

rail (fa)

tbla (f )

tsirra (f)

ktab (Cm)

r1

()

dr" i (m).

Zib (an)

Plural (p )

.g~at (f)

m gi CM)

wlad

bnat

in'sesz

tbaljl

tsar~

ktab

Ilyat

zabi

g7alat

drari

door

zbiy sat

root

oteb ooak

f

Vat Ch

boy

girl

sack

taig

(p.alac=

clothes)

window

table

house

picture

book

chair

carpet, rcag

lady

kid

(boy)

pocket

48 unit 2 Open Access / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#oa
48
unit 2
Open Access / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#oa
 Moroccan Arabic 49 Unit 2 l4oroccan Arabic 49 Unit 2 sbi tar (mn) Tmd

Moroccan Arabic
49
Unit 2
l4oroccan Arabic
49
Unit 2
sbi
tar (mn)
Tmd
rasa (f)
3,
rsi
m)
=ibza .(f)
sbab (in)
iy:a
(f)
sfli
(in)
zit
(f )
xiibz (at)
?:bat (mn)
Las
(in)
Plural . (p )
sbitarat
a.dari s
2.yali
xiibzat
nas
(in)
ho
spital
school
chair
nigb
t
a
loaf of bread .
People
mornin g
even in
in
seinet
oil
bread
Rabat
Fez
(2) )bdifiers (Adjectives and/or participles)
-l"ul
insdud
kbfr
ziqi
fs
iblula
msduda
kbira
ins:aa
yain
insdudin
On&
kbr
fly"
m
lulat
insdudat
'rs3xt
arat
ziqy:at
good, nice
oper
closed, locked
big
dirty
littl,
-l
clew
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 Moroccan Arabic so Unit 2 ms ifsMPf =rid =rids urad mradat sick, ill ma:

Moroccan Arabic
so
Unit 2
ms
ifsMPf
=rid
=rids
urad
mradat
sick, ill
ma: s
a na
'7y: enin ry aat
tired
-fbn
frhana
frh~in
frbziat
happy
r ai
"aaya
ca1yin
ealyat
hii
2.
* Nouns are singular (s) or plural (p) in number. N otice that
plurals are not }redictable in the case of nwuns (see 11 .2
above, Also see P lurals. B roken Plural and Sound Plurals
in the "Glossary of Tecbnical T erms") .
2. The feminine singular of a modifier ends in /-a#/.
3. The masculine plural (up) of a modifier is achieved by adding
/-in#/ to its (us) form, =nless the (ms) has the form CC iC,
in Which case, the plural is CC aC (C = Consonant) , e. g.
ms
uhilmbulin
open
kbir
ibar
big
id
u'a4il
4.
Thie (fp) of a modifier is achieved by adding /-t$/ to its
(fs) form except in the case of/aajectives of the CCiC type
which form their (fp) by adding /-.at#/ to (uip), e. g.
uymzy
aza
zann
mynt
good, nice
kbir
kbira
£iar
kbarat
big
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 4oroccan Arabic 51 U nit 2 Note the change of final /-i#/ of (ms)

4oroccan Arabic
51
U
nit 2
Note
the change of final /-i#/ of (ms) modifier to f/-y-/ and /-ys-/
in
the following examples:
nqi
n
s a
nqy sin
nqy: at
clear
11.14
Drill 2
Form
sentences .
1. dx ari - f'rY ani n
2. bnat - frb aat
3j. but i- 4ba.i
5. ians - iw xin
6. s :am m indidin
7.
toa
- inzyanin
8. Iasai
9. ~'yalat - mriat
10.
ktub
myanin
11. Ibali -nqy: in
12. biban - ulin
13. y - f:xin
1I.
aa - T
*
*
fi
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 Moroccan Arabi c 52 Unit 2 Moroccan Arabic 52 Unit 2 11.5 Text iwid

Moroccan Arabi c
52
Unit 2
Moroccan Arabic
52
Unit 2
11.5
Text
iwid
lkbir fan
lbnt lkbfra friaa
Iwlad lkbar fxhaia
lbnat lkbarat frhanat
[
d a2 kbir Parham ] The big boy is happy.
C
aibant Glkbirmfr2~
The big girl is happy.
r
aL~a-d lkaear i~rbzin ] The big boys are happy.
[albt
Gabarat f rna3 The big girls are happy.
*
*
*
11.6
Irriaa3
Was 2.wid lkbir frb~an?
y
:ih , Iwid. lkbir frran
Is
the big boy happy?
Yes, the big boy is happy.
Form siola~r questions and answers using the following. Translate
your
sentences.
1.
2.
3.
1
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
bnt
kbira
-
ilya
- m
.
-
t a lys. -
tbali
-
b
-
bit
-
m lul
-
wiad
-
o a
-
qbi az'at -
drari
-
$t;
-
at
-$
t
aw
-
,a'-
frbana
nqy:a
maduda
myanin
may:
flin
min
-
yauin
Swyszin
myanin
ai
*
r
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 53 Moroccan Arabic Unit 2 53 Unit 2 11.7 Text 1 } r:aZ3. fd:a

53
Moroccan Arabic
Unit 2
53
Unit 2
11.7
Text
1 } r:aZ3. fd:a
d: r: i fimdrasa
.
.
1.
sa flbit
dab s1 I:bJa
Eai fddar ]
~ dd"?=i folmd&rasa]
L~xn9k- ?lbit]
The man is in the house.
The boy is at school.
The sack is in the room.
The book is on the table.
f.-A
f
13.m 'a
in
on
(preposition)
(preposition)
*
* *
11.8
Text
ha r: al
ha lktabh.
ha a
ha nta .
ha nti .
halma .
ha atty
ha
Here is the man.
Here are the books.
Here I am.
Here you (ins) are.
Here you (es) are.
Here we are.
Here you (p) are.
here is, here are (presentational
particle)
*
* *
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 Moroccan Arabic 54 Unit 2 MO'OcC~ ArS.bic 34 Unit 2 II. 9" Drill 1L

Moroccan Arabic
54
Unit
2
MO'OcC~ ArS.bic
34
Unit 2
II.
9" Drill 1L
;:azl f4:a
The
man is in the house.
The
book is on the table.
F
orm similar sentences.
1.
2.
3.
1
5.
6.
7-
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
l3
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Jb
a bit
dr;i
m asa
=sxa
bit
taw