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Development of the nervous system Spinal cord 1. Phylogenetic evolution of the nervous system 2.
Development of the nervous system
Spinal cord
1. Phylogenetic evolution of the nervous system
2. Ontogenesis of the nervous system
3. Principles of neural organization
4. Histogenesis of the nervous tissue
5. Spinal cord – external structure
6. Spinal cord meninges and blood supply of the spinal cord
7. Internal structure of the spinal cord:
grey matter – nuclei and laminae
white matter – nerve fiber tracts
8. Reflex apparatus of the spinal cord
Phylogenetic evolution of the nervous system Invertebrate nervous systems – types reticular – “nerve net”

Phylogenetic evolution of the nervous system

Phylogenetic evolution of the nervous system Invertebrate nervous systems – types reticular – “nerve net” –

Invertebrate nervous systems – types

reticular – “nerve net” – hydras and jellyfish (cnidarians) ganglionic – worms, insects and mollusks

neuronal cell bodies in clusters (ganglia) anterior (head) end – primitive brain Vertebrate nervous systems
neuronal cell bodies in clusters (ganglia)
anterior (head) end – primitive brain
Vertebrate nervous systems –
lower vertebrates and mammals
tubular
– primitive brain Vertebrate nervous systems – lower vertebrates and mammals tubular Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

2

Nerve net the simplest type of nervous system lack anything that resembles a brain Prof.

Nerve net

Nerve net the simplest type of nervous system lack anything that resembles a brain Prof. Dr.

the simplest type of nervous system lack anything that resembles a brain

Nerve net the simplest type of nervous system lack anything that resembles a brain Prof. Dr.
Nerve net the simplest type of nervous system lack anything that resembles a brain Prof. Dr.

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

3

Phylogenetic evolution of the nervous system Invertebrate nervous systems – types reticular – “nerve net”

Phylogenetic evolution of the nervous system

Phylogenetic evolution of the nervous system Invertebrate nervous systems – types reticular – “nerve net” –

Invertebrate nervous systems – types

reticular – “nerve net” – hydras and jellyfish (cnidarians) ganglionic – worms, insects and mollusks

neuronal cell bodies in clusters (ganglia) anterior (head) end – primitive brain Vertebrate nervous systems
neuronal cell bodies in clusters (ganglia)
anterior (head) end – primitive brain
Vertebrate nervous systems –
lower vertebrates and mammals
tubular
– primitive brain Vertebrate nervous systems – lower vertebrates and mammals tubular Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

4

Phylogenetic evolution of the CNS primitive vertebrates – fish hindbrain – the largest region cerebellum

Phylogenetic evolution of the CNS

primitive vertebrates – fish hindbrain – the largest region cerebellum – well developed (swimming&balance)
primitive vertebrates – fish
hindbrain – the largest region
cerebellum – well developed (swimming&balance)
small midbrain (processing of visual information)
small forebrain (sense of smell, olfaction)
amphibians – frog
hindbrain – more enlarged
cerebellum – reduced in size (simple locomotion)
forebrain – still small (olfaction)
reptiles and birds
cerebellum and midbrain – enlarged
forebrain regions – more developed
mammals, incl. human
cerebellum – increased
telencephalon – cerebral cortex, cognition (speech, math, learning, memory)

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

5

Embryonic development of the nervous system anterior neuropore posterior neuropore begin – E17 embryonic origin

Embryonic development of the nervous system

Embryonic development of the nervous system anterior neuropore posterior neuropore begin – E17 embryonic origin –
Embryonic development of the nervous system anterior neuropore posterior neuropore begin – E17 embryonic origin –
anterior neuropore posterior neuropore
anterior neuropore
posterior neuropore

begin – E17 embryonic origin – ectoderm (neuroectoderm) formation of neural tube (neurulation) – neural induction (primary embryonic induction)

neural plate neural groove neural folds neural tube neural crest

transverse segmentation of neural tube

groove neural folds neural tube neural crest transverse segmentation of neural tube Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

6

Development of the brain three primary embryonic vesicles: prosencephalon (forebrain) mesencephalon (midbrain)

Development of the brain

Development of the brain three primary embryonic vesicles: prosencephalon (forebrain) mesencephalon (midbrain)

three primary embryonic vesicles:

prosencephalon (forebrain) mesencephalon (midbrain) rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

five secondary brain vesicles:

telencephalon diencephalon mesencephalon metencephalon myelencephalon

two proteins, BERT and ERNI, control brain development

metencephalon myelencephalon two proteins, BERT and ERNI, control brain development Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 7

metencephalon myelencephalon two proteins, BERT and ERNI, control brain development Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 7

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

7

Adult brain structures encephalon (brain): telencephalon (‘endbrain’) diencephalon (‘between brain’)

Adult brain structures

Adult brain structures encephalon (brain): telencephalon (‘endbrain’) diencephalon (‘between brain’)

encephalon (brain):

Adult brain structures encephalon (brain): telencephalon (‘endbrain’) diencephalon (‘between brain’)

telencephalon (‘endbrain’) diencephalon (‘between brain’) mesencephalon (midbrain) pons cerebellum medulla oblongata

spinal cord functional parts:

cerebrum brain stem cerebellum

medulla oblongata spinal cord functional parts: cerebrum brain stem cerebellum Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 8

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

8

Histogenesis of the nervous tissue undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells (stem cells) – pluripotential: germinal zone

Histogenesis of the nervous tissue

Histogenesis of the nervous tissue undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells (stem cells) – pluripotential: germinal zone

undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells (stem cells) – pluripotential:

germinal zone neuroblasts (immature neurons) apolar, bipolar and multipolar glioblasts (glial cells precursors)
germinal zone
neuroblasts (immature neurons)
apolar, bipolar and multipolar
glioblasts (glial cells precursors)
oligodendrocytes
protoplasmic astrocytes
fibrillar asrocytes
ependymal cells
microglia mesodermal origin
protoplasmic astrocytes fibrillar asrocytes ependymal cells microglia mesodermal origin Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 9

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

9

Principles of neural organization nerve cells (neurons) – at least 10 billion less than 1

Principles of neural organization

Principles of neural organization nerve cells (neurons) – at least 10 billion less than 1 mm

nerve cells (neurons) – at least 10 billion

less than 1 mm to more than 1 m in length
less than 1 mm
to more than 1 m
in length

cell body (perikaryon, soma) axon – myelinated or unmyelinated dendrites

glial cells (neuroglia):

astrocytes oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells microglia ependymal cells

(neuroglia): astrocytes oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells microglia ependymal cells Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 10

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

10

Principles of neural organization basic neuron types: (pseudo)unipolar bipolar multipolar

Principles of neural organization

Principles of neural organization basic neuron types: (pseudo)unipolar bipolar multipolar

basic neuron types:

(pseudo)unipolar bipolar multipolar

Principles of neural organization basic neuron types: (pseudo)unipolar bipolar multipolar
of neural organization basic neuron types: (pseudo)unipolar bipolar multipolar Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 11
of neural organization basic neuron types: (pseudo)unipolar bipolar multipolar Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 11

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

11

Principles of neural organization synapses – structure : synaptic end bulb (terminal bouton) presynaptic membrane

Principles of neural organization

Principles of neural organization synapses – structure : synaptic end bulb (terminal bouton) presynaptic membrane

synapses – structure:

synaptic end bulb (terminal bouton)

presynaptic membrane synaptic vesicles

(terminal bouton) presynaptic membrane synaptic vesicles C.S. Sherrington 1857–1952 synaptic cleft (20-30 nm)

C.S. Sherrington

1857–1952

membrane synaptic vesicles C.S. Sherrington 1857–1952 synaptic cleft (20-30 nm) postsynaptic membrane synapse
membrane synaptic vesicles C.S. Sherrington 1857–1952 synaptic cleft (20-30 nm) postsynaptic membrane synapse

synaptic cleft (20-30 nm) postsynaptic membrane

synapse types:

axodendritic, axosomatic, axoaxonic etc. electrical and chemical:

neurotransmitters transporters receptors

excitatory and inhibitory asymmetric (type I) and symmetric (type II)

receptors excitatory and inhibitory asymmetric (type I) and symmetric (type II) Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 12

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

12

Comparative anatomy of neural organization The principles of convergence and divergence Nervous system of a

Comparative anatomy of neural organization

Comparative anatomy of neural organization The principles of convergence and divergence Nervous system of a radial

The principles of convergence and divergence

organization The principles of convergence and divergence Nervous system of a radial vs. a primitive organism

Nervous system of a radial vs. a primitive organism with bilateral symmetry

and divergence Nervous system of a radial vs. a primitive organism with bilateral symmetry Prof. Dr.
and divergence Nervous system of a radial vs. a primitive organism with bilateral symmetry Prof. Dr.
and divergence Nervous system of a radial vs. a primitive organism with bilateral symmetry Prof. Dr.

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

13

Classification of the nervous system Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 14

Classification of the nervous system

Classification of the nervous system Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 14
Classification of the nervous system Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 14
Classification of the nervous system Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 14

Spinal cord Embryogenesis of the spinal cord origin : neuroectodermal caudal part of the neural

Spinal cord

Embryogenesis of the spinal cord

Spinal cord Embryogenesis of the spinal cord origin : neuroectodermal caudal part of the neural tube

origin: neuroectodermal caudal part of the neural tube

begin of formation: 3 rd week developmental stages: basal plate and alar plate

d week developmental stages: basal plate and alar plate neural plate neural groove neural tube nerve

neural plate neural groove neural tube nerve crest

closure of posterior neuropore: 4 th week histogenesis – zones in the wall:

marginal layer

white matter

intermediate (mantle) layer grey matter ventricular (ependymal) layer central canal

intermediate (mantle) layer grey matter ventricular (ependymal) layer central canal Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 15

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

15

Spinal cord Topographic location, size and extent topography and levels – in the vertebral canal

Spinal cord

Topographic location, size and extent

Spinal cord Topographic location, size and extent topography and levels – in the vertebral canal fetal

topography and levels – in the vertebral canal

and extent topography and levels – in the vertebral canal fetal life – the entire length

fetal life – the entire length of vertebral canal at birth – near the level L3 vertebra adult – upper of vertebral canal (L1-L2)

average length:

– 45 cm long – 42-43 cm

diameter ~ 1-1.5 cm (out of enlargements) weight ~ 35 g (2% of the CNS) shape round to oval (cylindrical)

terminal part:

conus medullaris

filum terminale internum

(cranial 15 cm)

– S2

filum terminale externum

(final 5 cm)

– Co2

cauda equina – collection of lumbar and sacral spinal nerve roots

(final 5 cm) – Co2 cauda equina – collection of lumbar and sacral spinal nerve roots

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

16

Spinal cord Macroscopic anatomy – enlargements cervical enlargement, intumescentia cervicalis: spinal segments (C4-Th1)

Spinal cord

Macroscopic anatomy – enlargements

Spinal cord Macroscopic anatomy – enlargements cervical enlargement, intumescentia cervicalis: spinal segments (C4-Th1)
Spinal cord Macroscopic anatomy – enlargements cervical enlargement, intumescentia cervicalis: spinal segments (C4-Th1)

cervical enlargement,

intumescentia cervicalis:

spinal segments (C4-Th1)

vertebral levels (C4-Th1)

provides upper limb innervation (brachial plexus)

lumbosacral enlargement,

intumescentia lumbosacralis:

spinal segments (L2-S3)

vertebral levels (Th9-Th12)

segmental innervation of lower limb (lumbosacral plexus)

(L2-S3) vertebral levels (Th9-Th12) segmental innervation of lower limb (lumbosacral plexus) Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 17

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

17

Spinal cord External surface structure Two symmetrical halves : divided by two external longitudinal grooves:

Spinal cord

External surface structure

Spinal cord External surface structure Two symmetrical halves : divided by two external longitudinal grooves: a

Two symmetrical halves:

divided by two external longitudinal grooves:

a deeper anterior median fissure a shallower posterior median sulcus (less prominent)

joined by a commissural band of nervous tissue

posterior median sulcus (less prominent) joined by a commissural band of nervous tissue Prof. Dr. Nikolai
posterior median sulcus (less prominent) joined by a commissural band of nervous tissue Prof. Dr. Nikolai

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

18

Spinal cord Anterior median fissure average depth ~ 3 mm: deeper at more caudal levels

Spinal cord

Anterior median fissure

Spinal cord Anterior median fissure average depth ~ 3 mm: deeper at more caudal levels roof:

average depth ~ 3 mm:

deeper at more caudal levels

roof:

a reticulum of pia mater

floor:

a lamina of nerve fibers, anterior white commisure

anterior spinal artery anterolateral suclus – ventral nerve root

white commisure anterior spinal artery anterolateral suclus – ventral nerve root Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 19
Spinal cord Posterior median septum average depth ~ 4-6 mm: diminishing caudally neuroglial partition: reaching

Spinal cord

Posterior median septum

Spinal cord Posterior median septum average depth ~ 4-6 mm: diminishing caudally neuroglial partition: reaching the

average depth ~ 4-6 mm:

diminishing caudally

neuroglial partition:

reaching the gray matter

posterolateral suclus –

dorsal nerve root

neuroglial partition: reaching the gray matter posterolateral suclus – dorsal nerve root Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov
neuroglial partition: reaching the gray matter posterolateral suclus – dorsal nerve root Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

20

Spinal cord

Spinal cord Segmental structure 31 segments: 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal

Segmental structure

Spinal cord Segmental structure 31 segments: 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal
Spinal cord Segmental structure 31 segments: 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal
31 segments: 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal segment ≠ vertebra:
31 segments:
8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal
segment ≠ vertebra:
5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal segment ≠ vertebra: growth of the vertebral column exceeds that

growth of the vertebral column exceeds that of the spinal cord all segments terminate above level L1/L2 cauda equina vary in diameter and length

all segments terminate above level L1/L2 cauda equina vary in diameter and length Prof. Dr. Nikolai

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

21

Spinal cord Meningeal coverings three meninges: spinal dura mater epidural and subdural spaces arachnoid mater

Spinal cord

Meningeal coverings

Spinal cord Meningeal coverings three meninges: spinal dura mater epidural and subdural spaces arachnoid mater

three meninges:

Spinal cord Meningeal coverings three meninges: spinal dura mater epidural and subdural spaces arachnoid mater

spinal dura mater

epidural and subdural spaces

arachnoid mater

subarachnoid space cerebrospinal fluid (liquor)

pia mater (leptomeninges) perivascular spaces spinal blood vessels

fluid (liquor) pia mater (leptomeninges) perivascular spaces spinal blood vessels Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 22
fluid (liquor) pia mater (leptomeninges) perivascular spaces spinal blood vessels Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 22

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

22

Spinal cord Arterial blood supply longitudinal trunk (a. vertebralis): unpaired a. spinalis anterior aa. spinales

Spinal cord

Arterial blood supply

longitudinal trunk (a. vertebralis): unpaired a. spinalis anterior aa. spinales posteriores segmental supply:
longitudinal trunk (a. vertebralis):
unpaired a. spinalis anterior
aa. spinales posteriores
segmental supply: radicular arteries
a. cervicalis ascendens
a. cervicalis profunda
a. vertebralis
aa. intercostales
posteriores
aa. lumbales

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

23

Spinal cord

Spinal cord Intrinsic blood vessels Venous drainage – 6 channels: anterior longitudinal trunks posterior longitudinal

Intrinsic blood vessels

Spinal cord Intrinsic blood vessels Venous drainage – 6 channels: anterior longitudinal trunks posterior longitudinal

Venous drainage – 6 channels:

anterior longitudinal trunks posterior longitudinal trunks internal vertebral venous plexuses
anterior longitudinal trunks
posterior longitudinal trunks
internal vertebral venous plexuses
longitudinal trunks posterior longitudinal trunks internal vertebral venous plexuses Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 24

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

24

Spinal cord Internal structure of the spinal cord grey matter, substantia grisea butterfly-like or H-shaped

Spinal cord

Internal structure of the spinal cord

Spinal cord Internal structure of the spinal cord grey matter, substantia grisea butterfly-like or H-shaped white

grey matter, substantia grisea

structure of the spinal cord grey matter, substantia grisea butterfly-like or H-shaped white matter, substantia alba

butterfly-like or H-shaped

white matter, substantia alba vary in diameter and length at different levels

or H-shaped white matter, substantia alba vary in diameter and length at different levels Prof. Dr.
or H-shaped white matter, substantia alba vary in diameter and length at different levels Prof. Dr.

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

25

Spinal cord Grey matter, substantia grisea composition: neuronal perikarya dendrites with their synapses glial

Spinal cord

Grey matter, substantia grisea

Spinal cord Grey matter, substantia grisea composition: neuronal perikarya dendrites with their synapses glial

composition:

neuronal perikarya dendrites with their synapses glial supporting cells blood vessels

anterior (ventral) column:

supporting cells blood vessels anterior (ventral) column: cornu anterius (columna anterior) posterior (dorsal) column:
supporting cells blood vessels anterior (ventral) column: cornu anterius (columna anterior) posterior (dorsal) column:

cornu anterius (columna anterior)

posterior (dorsal) column:

cornu posterius (columna posterior)

lateral column:

cornu laterale – Th1-L2; S2-S4 (columna intermedia)

central canal:

canalis centralis liquor cerebrospinalis

substantia gelatinosa centralis

grey commissure:

commissura grisea

liquor cerebrospinalis substantia gelatinosa centralis grey commissure: commissura grisea Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 26

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

26

Spinal cord

Spinal cord General structure of the grey matter posterior column (dorsal horn): apex, caput, cervix, basis

General structure of the grey matter

Spinal cord General structure of the grey matter posterior column (dorsal horn): apex, caput, cervix, basis
Spinal cord General structure of the grey matter posterior column (dorsal horn): apex, caput, cervix, basis

posterior column (dorsal horn):

apex, caput, cervix, basis

projection neurons (neurocyti funiculares) and interneurons (neurocyti interni)

lateral column (intermediolateral horn):

visceromotor neurons

parasympathetic sympathetic

anterior column (ventral horn):

motor neurons (neurocyti radiculares) large alpha motoneurons (ACh) small gamma motoneurons (ACh)

Renshaw cells (inhibitory interneurons)

(Gly)

(ACh) small gamma motoneurons (ACh) Renshaw cells (inhibitory interneurons) (Gly) Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 27

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

27

Spinal cord Grey matter – nerve cell groups dorsal horn: 4 nuclei dorsomarginal nucleus (zona

Spinal cord

Grey matter – nerve cell groups

Spinal cord Grey matter – nerve cell groups dorsal horn: 4 nuclei dorsomarginal nucleus (zona spongiosa)
dorsal horn: 4 nuclei dorsomarginal nucleus (zona spongiosa) substantia gelatinosa of Rolando nucleus proprius
dorsal horn: 4 nuclei
dorsomarginal nucleus (zona spongiosa)
substantia gelatinosa of Rolando
nucleus proprius
receive pain impulses
nucleus dorsalis (thoracicus) of Clarke-Stilling
ventral horn: 5 nuclei
medial group
ventromedial nucleus
dorsomedial nucleus

lateral horn: 2 nuclei sympathetic: intermediolateral nucleus (Th1-L2) parasympathetic: intermediomedial nucleus (S2-S4) spinal reticular nucleus

lateral group

ventrolateral nucleus central nucleus dorsolateral nucleus

nucleus lateral group ventrolateral nucleus central nucleus dorsolateral nucleus Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 28

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

28

Spinal cord Grey matter – laminar architecture 10 distinct cellular laminae of Rexed: I-VI: dorsal

Spinal cord

Grey matter – laminar architecture

Spinal cord Grey matter – laminar architecture 10 distinct cellular laminae of Rexed: I-VI: dorsal horn
Spinal cord Grey matter – laminar architecture 10 distinct cellular laminae of Rexed: I-VI: dorsal horn

10 distinct cellular laminae of Rexed:

I-VI: dorsal horn VII: intermediate zone and lateral horn VIII-IX: ventral horn X: central canal + substantia gelatinosa (of Rolando)

horn VIII-IX: ventral horn X: central canal + substantia gelatinosa (of Rolando) Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

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Spinal cord

Spinal cord Grey matter – functional organization different sensations – different neurons (the law of Bell

Grey matter – functional organization

Spinal cord Grey matter – functional organization different sensations – different neurons (the law of Bell

different sensations – different neurons (the law of Bell and Magendie) the theory of nerve components:

law of Bell and Magendie) the theory of nerve components: dorsal horn mediates sensation general somatic

dorsal horn mediates sensation

general somatic afferents general visceral afferents (GVA)

ventral horn mediates motor function

general somatic efferents (GSE) for the ventral roots

intermediate horn

receives GVA axons originates GVE axons

the perikarya in various nuclei

differ in size, shape and connections

nuclear groups in grey columns

vary in longitudinal extent

nuclear groups in grey columns vary in longitudinal extent Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov Longitudinal extent of

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

Longitudinal extent of the nuclei

30

Spinal cord

Spinal cord Functional organization dorsal horn axons segregates into: lateral bundle medial bundle each dorsal root

Functional organization

Spinal cord Functional organization dorsal horn axons segregates into: lateral bundle medial bundle each dorsal root

dorsal horn axons segregates into:

lateral bundle medial bundle each dorsal root axon trifurcates into:

horizontal branches ascending branches descending branches

branches ascending branches descending branches lateral division of the dorsal roots consists of small

lateral division of the dorsal roots

consists of small unmyelynated C fibers mediate pain and temperature sensation terminate in nuclei of the dorsal horn

medial division of the dorsal roots

consists of larger, heavily myelynated A fibers

mediate discriminatory sensory modalities – touch, texture, form, kinesthesia ascending branches terminate on the nuclei gracilis and cuneatus

horizontal branches go to substantia gelatinosa and nucleus proprius – touch

some horizontal branches go to nucleus dorsalis of Clarke – proprioception many synapse upon GSE motoneurons to mediate monosynaptic muscle stretch reflexes

many synapse upon GSE motoneurons to mediate monosynaptic muscle stretch reflexes Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov 31

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

31

Spinal cord White matter composition composition: ■ 3 columns (funiculi) – ascending and descending tracts
Spinal cord
White matter composition
composition:
3 columns (funiculi) – ascending and descending tracts
nerve fibers
glia
blood vessels
posterior funiculus: funiculus dorsalis (posterior)
lateral funiculus: funiculus lateralis
anterior funiculus: funiculus ventralis (anterior)

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

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Spinal cord Dorsal column tracts Ascending pathways: 1. Fasciculus gracilis (of Goll) 2. Fasciculus cuneatus

Spinal cord

Dorsal column tracts

Spinal cord Dorsal column tracts Ascending pathways: 1. Fasciculus gracilis (of Goll) 2. Fasciculus cuneatus (of

Ascending pathways:

1. Fasciculus gracilis (of Goll) 2. Fasciculus cuneatus (of Burdach)

gracilis (of Goll) 2. Fasciculus cuneatus (of Burdach) Descending pathways: 1. Fasciculus interfascicularis, s.

Descending pathways:

1. Fasciculus interfascicularis, s. semilunaris (of Schultze) = Interfascicular fasciculus 2. Fasciculus septomarginalis (of Flechsig)

Spinal cord Fasciculus gracilis 1. gracile fascicle , synonym: Goll’s column medial part of the

Spinal cord

Fasciculus gracilis

Spinal cord Fasciculus gracilis 1. gracile fascicle , synonym: Goll’s column medial part of the posterior

1. gracile fascicle, synonym: Goll’s column

medial part of the posterior funiculus

Goll’s column medial part of the posterior funiculus present at all spinal levels terminates somatotopically

present at all spinal levels

terminates somatotopically upon the nucleus gracilis

subserves superficial sensitivity (discriminative modalities) and deep sensitivity (kinesthesia) from the lower part of the trunk and from the leg

interruption of this tract causes

loss of position sense resulting in posterior column ‘sensory ataxia’

this tract causes loss of position sense resulting in posterior column ‘sensory ataxia’ Prof. Dr. Nikolai
this tract causes loss of position sense resulting in posterior column ‘sensory ataxia’ Prof. Dr. Nikolai

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

34

Fasciculus cuneatus 2. cuneate fascicle , synonym : Burdach’s column lateral part of the posterior

Fasciculus cuneatus

Fasciculus cuneatus 2. cuneate fascicle , synonym : Burdach’s column lateral part of the posterior funiculus
Fasciculus cuneatus 2. cuneate fascicle , synonym : Burdach’s column lateral part of the posterior funiculus

2. cuneate fascicle, synonym: Burdach’s column

lateral part of the posterior funiculus

Burdach’s column lateral part of the posterior funiculus first appear at about Th6 contains long ascending

first appear at about Th6

contains long ascending branches of the upper six thoracic and all cervical dorsal roots

deep sensitivity (proprioception) from the upper part of the trunk and from the arm

superficial sensitivity – touch, pressure and vibration

interruption of this tract causes

loss of position sense resulting in ‘sensory ataxia’

interruption of this tract causes loss of position sense resulting in ‘sensory ataxia’ Prof. Dr. Nikolai

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

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Spinal cord Posterior funiculus Descending tracts: 1. Interfascicular fascilulus, semilunar tract (comma tract of

Spinal cord

Posterior funiculus

Spinal cord Posterior funiculus Descending tracts: 1. Interfascicular fascilulus, semilunar tract (comma tract of

Descending tracts:

1. Interfascicular fascilulus, semilunar tract (comma tract of Schultze)

in the medial part of

the cuneate tract extending through cervical and upper thoracic levels

2. Septomarginal tract (oval field of Flechsig)

levels 2. Septomarginal tract (oval field of Flechsig) bordering the posterior median septum in lower thoracic

bordering the posterior median septum in lower thoracic segments propriospinal fibers

Intersegmental tracts:

Posterior intersegmental tract

Spinal cord Lateral funiculus Ascending tracts: 1. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (of Flechsig) 2. Ventral spinocerebellar

Spinal cord

Lateral funiculus

Ascending tracts: 1. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (of Flechsig) 2. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (of Gowers) 3.
Ascending tracts:
1. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (of Flechsig)
2. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (of Gowers)
3. Lateral spinothalamic tract (of Edinger)
4. Spinotectal tract
5. Spino-olivary tract
6. Spinoreticular fibers
7. Dorsolateral tract (of Lissauer)
Spinoreticular fibers 7. Dorsolateral tract (of Lissauer) Descending tracts: 1. Lateral corticospinal tract 2.

Descending tracts:

1. Lateral corticospinal tract

2. Rubrospinal tract

3. Tectospinal tract

4. Lateral reticulospinal tract

5. Olivospinal tract (of Helweg) – only in animals

Intersegmental tracts:

1.

Lateral intersegmental tract

tract (of Helweg) – only in animals Intersegmental tracts: 1. Lateral intersegmental tract Prof. Dr. Nikolai

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

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Spinal cord Anterior funiculus Ascending tracts: 1. Anterior spinothalamic tract Descending tracts: 1. 2. 3.

Spinal cord

Anterior funiculus

Ascending tracts: 1. Anterior spinothalamic tract Descending tracts: 1. 2. 3. 4. Anterior corticospinal tract
Ascending tracts:
1. Anterior spinothalamic tract
Descending tracts:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Anterior corticospinal tract (bundle of Türk)
Reticulospinal tract
Vestibulospinal tract (medial and lateral)
Medial longitudinal fasciculus
tract (medial and lateral) Medial longitudinal fasciculus 5. Interstitiospinal tract 6. Solitariospinal tract (of

5. Interstitiospinal tract

6. Solitariospinal tract (of Cajal)

Intersegmental tracts:

1. Anterior intersegmental tract

Spinal cord Functional topography of pathways Posterior (dorsal funiculi) columns: proprioception (position sense)

Spinal cord

Functional topography of pathways

Spinal cord Functional topography of pathways Posterior (dorsal funiculi) columns: proprioception (position sense)
Posterior (dorsal funiculi) columns: proprioception (position sense) vibratory sense discriminative touch
Posterior (dorsal funiculi) columns:
proprioception (position sense)
vibratory sense
discriminative touch

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

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Spinal cord

Spinal cord Reflex arcs of the spinal cord reflex arc – the neural pathway that mediates

Reflex arcs of the spinal cord

Spinal cord Reflex arcs of the spinal cord reflex arc – the neural pathway that mediates

reflex arc – the neural pathway that mediates a reflex action

autonomic reflex arc (affecting inner organs) somatic reflex arc (affecting muscles) ‘Final common path(way)’ (of
autonomic reflex arc (affecting inner organs)
somatic reflex arc (affecting muscles)
‘Final common path(way)’ (of Sherrington)
muscles) ‘Final common path(way)’ (of Sherrington) two types of reflex arcs: monosynaptic vs. polysynaptic

two types of reflex arcs:

monosynaptic vs. polysynaptic reflex arcs

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov

40

Spinal cord Patellar Reflex Testing Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov Thank you… 41

Spinal cord

Patellar Reflex Testing

Spinal cord Patellar Reflex Testing Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov Thank you… 41
Spinal cord Patellar Reflex Testing Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov Thank you… 41
Spinal cord Patellar Reflex Testing Prof. Dr. Nikolai Lazarov Thank you… 41