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Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an

active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People
actively construct or create their own subjective representations of object reality. New
information is linked to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective.
According to the principles of Jerome Bruner, instruction must be
concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able
to learn (readiness). Secondly, the instruction must be structured so that it can be
easily grasped by the student (spiral organization). Thirdly, the instruction should be
designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the
information given).
As according to the principles of Genetic Epistemology by Jean
Piaget, children will provide different explanations of reality at different stages of
cognitive development. Secondly, cognitive development is facilitated by providing
activities or situations that engage learners and require adaptation (i.e., assimilation,
accommodation and equilibrium).Thirdly, learning materials and activities should
involve the appropriate level of motor or mental operations for a child of given age;
avoid asking students to perform tasks that are beyond their current cognitive
capabilities. Last but not least, use teaching methods that actively involve students
and present challenges.
Implication of constructivism theory in teaching and learning, one of
the principles had stated that as teacher plays an important role as adviser, facilitator
and planner, while pupils will play the main role in learning process. The most
suitable method for teaching-learning is to use the cooperative and collaborative
model. As a good and excellent teacher, we should apply these concept in out lesson
plan and daily teaching so that pupils learn efficiently. Teaching by using the
traditional method and technique such as lecturing, demonstrating and rote learning
are no longer suitable to expand knowledge. Hence, I will choose the suitable and
effective teaching method wisely according to constructivism level of my pupils.
As an attentive teacher, I should analyse the cognitive development of
pupils based on their progress in work and drills. As different pupils have different
previous knowledge and awareness. In addition, I as a teacher should assist my
pupils to use their acquired knowledge to relate and apply to the learning of new

knowledge. Moreover, teacher can foster intrinsic motivation for pupils to learn on
their own initiative.
As a responsible teacher, I have to differentiate traditional evaluation
is not suitable to be used. The format and instruments of evaluation used for
knowledge acquisition must be constructed by teacher and pupils together. I will
encourage my pupils to use their critical and creative thinking skills to solve problems
and metacognitive skill, especially reflective thinking, to control, assess and make
reflection on the result and achievement.
The principles of constructivism, increasingly influential in the
organisation of classrooms and curricula in schools, can be applied to learning in
museums. The principles appeal to our modern views of learning and knowledge but
conflict with traditional museum practices. We need to reflect on our practice in order
to apply these ideas to our work.
The main keywords of constructivism is learning as experience,
activity and dialogical process; Problem Based Learning (PBL); Vyggotskys Zone of
Proximal Development (ZPD); scaffolding; inquiry and discovery learning. As a future
teacher, I will take note that this is the key of applying in teaching in order to improve
my pupils successfully.