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# During the first grading, I learned about force, motion, and work.

I learned that
these three have a relationship with each other. When force is applied, there is motion;
when force is applied and there is a change in direction, there is work. We discussed the
Three Law of Motion according to Newton. The first Law states that an object at rest
stays at rest until an outside force causes it to move . The second Law states that the
force needed to move the object is directly proportional to the mass of an object. Finally,
the third Law states that for every action, there is an equal reaction. So when a fly hits a
moving car, the car and fly's impact is equal.
We discussed matter and its form and phases, the physical and chemical
changes that occur in an object. I learned that there are 4 forms of matter: solid, where
the molecules are compressed, liquid where the molecules are a little loose, gas where
the molecules are free and far from each other, finally, plasma where objects are
charged(ions). I also learned that there are two kinds of earthquake. The tectonic and
volcanic earhquake. Tectonic Earthquake is produced by the movement of the Earth's
crust while the Volcanic Earthquake is produced when a volcano erupts as stated in its
name.
During the third quarter of this school year, we discussed the subatomic particles
of an atom, charges, the periodic table of elements, the different models of an atom
made by the scientists, periodic trends, and isotopes. I learned that the subatomic
particles of an atom are electron, proton, and neutron and the differnces in size between
these three. The proton and neutron is closely similar in size while the electron is the
smallest. I learned that the loss or gain of electron determines the charge of the object.
When two objects have the same charge, they repel each other. But when they have
opposite charges, the attract each other. There are several models of an atom that
illustrates the positions of the subatomic particles. Democritus said that the atom is just a
circle. Then J.J. Thomson introduced the Plum Pudding model where he compared the
atom and a pudding. He described the raisins as the electron and the whole pudding as
the proton. Earnest Rutherford performed the gold foil experiment and explained that the
alpha particles passed through but some were deflected when they hit a spot. Bohr's
model is presently used in illustrating an atom where the nucleus contains the proton
and neutron and the electrons are contained in the orbits. The periodic table of elements
arranged the elements into increasing atomic number or number of protons and periodic
trends. According to the periodic trends, the metallic property, atomic radius and
reactivity increases as we go forom top to bottom and decreases as we go across the
table. the electronegativity , non -metallic properties, andionization energy increases as
we go across the table and decreases from top to bottom. I can apply these learnings
when using the periodic table of elements, determining the periodic trends of elements,
and illustrating the atom.
Taxonomy is a branch of science concerned with the groupings and naming
organisms. Taxonomist are the scientist or researchers involved with taxonomy. I learned
that the 7 level taxa was introduced by Carolus Linnaeus, a Swedish Botanist. The 7
level taxa is composed of Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Specie.
There are six kingdoms: Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Animalia, Eubacteria, and
Archaebacteria. Organisms obtain their scientific names using their genus and specie
name. They are also classified by their physical characteristics and behaviour. We also
discussed the transfer of energy between organisms in an ecosystem. The energy
pyramid shows the amount of energy per trophic level.