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Elton Mayo

Elton Mayo, born in 26 December 1880 at Australia was a psychologist,


sociologist and organization theorist. He also worked in the realm of social
factors and industrial relationship more on experimental rather than
theoretical.
Between the years 1927 and 1947 mayo concluded experiments at the
department of industrial research at Harvard. The program was started as a
result of investigation at the Western Electronics Hawthorne works financed
by the Rockefeller foundation to study attitude and reaction of groups under
varying conditions. The story is well known of how a study to determine the
effects of illumination on output sponsored by the National Research Council.
Briefly stated Mayos idea was that logical factors were far less important
than emotional factor in determining productive efficiency. Furthermore
among all human factors influencing employee behavior the most powerful
were emanating from the workers participation in social groups. Thus Mayo
concluded work arrangement in addition to meeting the objective
requirement of production must at the same time satisfy the employees
subjective requirement of social satisfaction at his workplace. With this new
emphasis on human relations the factory assumed a social dimension in
addition to its economic aspect. This concept was embodied in Mayos book
The Human Problems of An industrial Civilization published in 1933. The
twenty years research study that mayo and his colleagues conducted was
the most comprehensive study ever taken to evaluate the attitude and
reaction of a group worker under shop condition. He found that workers in a
factory constituted a culture of their own that could be observed and
analyzed. He found that to be effective management must recognize that the
work performed by individuals must satisfy their personal, subjective
requirement of social satisfaction and companys requirement of productive
output. Henceforth management would be based on the sociological concept
of group endeavor
As a result of Mayos work the industrial woods abound today with behavioral
scientists, personnel counselors, industrial chaplains, sensitivity trainers,
group dynamists, nondirective interviewer, roleplaying instructors and
industrial psychologist each trying to satisfy management demand for the
creation of a work situation conductive to maximum long run productivity.

James D. Mooney
James D. Mooney, engineer and corporate executive, was born in Cleveland,
Ohio on 18th February 1884. His name is seldom mentioned in text on
management. He coauthored the 1931 classic on the nature and
development of organization entitled onward organization. In 1926 Mooney
conceived the idea that the principles of organization employed by all great
leaders throughout history must surely be the same. He therefore set out on
a search of all available literature, reading sources on such leaders as
Alexander the Great, Caesar and Aristotle. What he found was that all sound
organization structures including Catholic Church are based on a system of
superior subordinate relationship arranged in a hierarchical fashion, which he
called the scalar principle. His was a precise and classic treatment of the
traditional managerial organization based on scalar process, functional
definitions of jobs and fundamental coordination. He made no mention of the
human side of the organization or its sociological aspects. His contribution
was strictly one of the tight engineering approaches to the age old problem
of harnessing human effort to achieve an object.
Subsequent writers however have freely borrowed from Mooneys analysis
and have used his concept as a framework on which to hang more
humanistic approaches to the managerial problem of organization.