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Standard Components

LECTURE FIVE
¾ Threaded holes
¾ Nuts and Bolts
Standard Components ¾ Gears Read Chapter 10

¾ Helical Springs

Standard Fits

How to draw a screw? Threaded Hole

Standard Format

The above depiction is almost like a pictorial drawing.


For an engineering drawing, this is not needed.

Internal Threads Dimensions

Thread
Length
Hidden
Lines Hole Depth

1
Mating Parts Standard Fits

¾ These are parts that are supposed to ¾ Clearance Fits


fit together in an assembly ¾ Interference Fits
¾ The degree of fit is important ¾ Transition Fits
– Loose fit
– Snug fit
– No fit or interference

Clearance Fit Transition Fit

Maximum
Minimum Hole Shaft

Minimum Shaft
Maximum Maximum
Shaft Shaft

Identify the type of Fit


Interference Fit

Shaft Shaft Shaft

50.100 50.000 49.950


50.080 49.900 49.900
Hole Hole Hole

Minimum Interference Transition Clearance


Shaft
50.050 50.050 50.050
50.000 49.950 50.000

2
Table of Tolerances Example
Columns
from
Table A.2

A Clearance Fit (H8/f7) A Transition Fit (H8/j5)


+39
+39
+0
+0 Hole Hole
+6
Shaft
-30
-60
Shaft -5

SHAFT SHAFT

HOLE HOLE

Interference Fit (H7/p6)


+42 Basic Hole System
+26
Shaft
+25
+0 Hole ¾ The smallest hole diameter is the
basic diameter from which the
tolerance limits are applied
¾ This is widely used in the industry
SHAFT because standard drills, reamers, etc
are designed to give standard hole
sizes

HOLE

3
Basic Shaft System Basic Shaft System
69
¾ The largest diameter of the shaft is 30 Hole
used as the basic dimension from 0 Shaft
which the tolerance limits are applied 30

¾ This system is used only in those


applications where shafts come in SHAFT
standard sizes

HOLE

Definitions Fundamental Deviation

¾ Deviation : Difference from the Basic Size Hole


Tolerance
¾ Upper Deviation : Difference between the Zone
maximum permissible size and the basic size Fundamental Deviation
¾ Lower Deviation : Difference between the Basic Size
minimum permissible size and the basic size
¾ Fundamental Deviation : The distance from Fundamental Deviation

the basic size to the closest end of the Shaft


tolerance zone Tolerance
Zone

Fundamental Deviation Fundamental Deviation


Tolerance
¾ The fundamental deviation is A Grade
z
designated by a letter
¾ Upper case for holes
¾ Lower case for shafts H
Basic Size
¾ H (or h) corresponds to a h
fundamental deviation of ZERO
a Z

4
Fundamental Deviation Tolerance Value
¾ Tolerance is the difference between the
maximum and minimum permissible sizes
¾ The tolerance value depends on
– Tolerance Grade
– Basic Size
¾ AS1654 specifies 18 tolerance grades
– (01, 0, 1, 2, … , 16)
– 01 corresponds to the tightest tolerance
¾ Table A-1 gives some common grades

Tolerance grade according to the Tolerance grade according to the


manufacturing process manufacturing process

6 Grinding
7 High quality turning
8 Centre lathe turning
9 Horizontal or Vertical Boring
10 Milling; rolling; extrusion
11 Drilling; rough turning
12 Tube drawing
16 Sand casting; flame cutting

Tolerance grade according to the


manufacturing process
HOLE BASIS

5
Specification of a fit Selected Clearance Fits
¾ The specification is made as ¾ Loose Fit
– the basic size – H11c11 or C11h11
– the fundamental deviation of the hole ¾ Free running
– the hole tolerance grade – H9d9 or D9h9
– the fundamental deviation of the shaft ¾ Close running
– the shaft tolerance grade – H8f7 or F8h7
¾ Examples ¾ Sliding fit (not meant to be running)
– Basic Hole System : φ20H8f7 – H7g6 or G7h6
– Basic Shaft System : φ20F8h7

Selected Transition Fits Selected Interference Fits

¾ Snug fit but easy assembly ¾ Rigid but no power transmission


– H7h6 – H7p6 or P7h6
¾ Accurate location with small ¾ Medium drive for ordinary steel parts
interference – H7s6 or S7h6
– H7k6 or K7h6 ¾ High interference
¾ Use when larger interference is – H7u6 or U7h6
permissible – Force fit is not recommended
– H7n6 or N7h6

Example Example
Question : Hole basis system. 96-mm diameter. Specify
Question : Hole basis system. 38-mm diameter. Specify tolerances tolerances for shaft and hole for a medium drive fit
for shaft and hole for a close running fit
¾ Use H7s6
¾ Table A-2
¾ Use H8f7
– H7 : [0 35] (given in mms)
¾ Table A-2 for d=40 mm (note that Table A-2 gives the tolerance
range in mms) – s6 : [ 79 101]

– Hole tolerance range (H8) = [0 39] (given in mms) ¾ Applying to a basic size of 96 mm
– Shaft tolerance range (f7) = [25 50] – Hole diameter range = [96.000 96.035]
¾ Applying to a basic size of 38 mm dmin = 96 + 0
– Hole diameter range = [38.000 38.039] dmax = 96 + 0.035
dmin = 38 + 0 – Shaft diameter range = [96.079 96.101]
dmax = 38 + 0.039 dmax = 96 + 0.079
– Shaft diameter range = [37.950 37.975]
dmin = 96 + 0.101
dmax = 38 - 0.025
¾ Minimum Interference = 96.079 - 96.035 = 0.044 mm
dmin = 38 - 0.050
¾ Maximum Interference = 96.101 - 96.000 = 0.101 mm

6
Shrink Fit Example
Question : Suppose the “hole” in the previous example is a ring of 10
mm thickness. We will heat the ring to fit onto the shaft. To what
temperature should we heat it to give a radial clearance of 0.5 mm in
the worst case combination? The thermal expansion coefficient for
steel is 1.17 x 10-5 oC-1
What would be the stress in the ring?
What would be the pressure on the shaft after the fit?