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1.

PREZENT SIMPLU
I.

S + Vb1 [Af.]

ex. : My sister listens to music every day.


OBS!!
La persoana a III-a singulat verbele primesc terminatia -s sau -es.
Verbele terminate in -sh, -ch, -x, -o primesc terminatie -es.
ex. :
- wash she washes
- catch she catches
- fix she fixes
- go she goes
- kiss she kisses
Daca verbul se termina in -y, precedat de o consoana, la pers. a III-a sg. -y devine -i si
primeste terminatia -es.
Ex. : cry he cries
Daca -y ul este precedat de o vocala atunci verbul primeste terminatia -s, verbul nesuferin nicio
modificare.

II.

S + dont/doesnt + Vbinfinitiv [Neg.]

ex. : My sister doesnt listen to music every day.

III.

Do/Does + S + Vbinfinitiv? [Inter.]

REGULI
1. Actiune obisnuita in prezent. Se foloseste cu adverbe ca : usually, sometimes, from time
to time, every day
Ex. : My father usually reads the newspaperat breckfast.
2. Adevaruri generale.
Ex. : Flies are insects.
3. Actiuni ce se petrec in momentul vorbirii.
a. Cu verbe ce nu accepta in mod normal un timp continuu (love, like, understand,
know, mean, etc.)
Ex. : I undrestand your problem.
b. In comentariu sportiv.
Ex. : DR takes the vball and scores.
c. In indicatii scenice.
Ex. : The boy stands up and says : Shut up!
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4. Se foloseste in instructiuni.
Ex. : To turn on the TV push the button.
5. Poate exprima actiuni trecute.
a. In titluri de ziare.
Ex. : Plane crashes al Balotesti.
b. In povestire.
Ex. : The woman opens the door, sees the mare and screams.
6. Poate exprima actiuni viitoare
a. Cand este vorba de itinerarii; orare oficiale sua program personal bine stabilit.
Ex. : I have toring classes every Monday at 6.
b. In conditionala de tip I
Prop. principala
IF
Prop. secundara
Will + Vbinfinitiv
IF
Prezent simplu
Ex. : I will be verry sad if you di this again.
c. In subordonate de timp.
Prop. principala
When (As soon as)
Prop. secundara
Will + Vbinfinitiv
When (As soon as)
Prezent simplu
Ex. : She will give you a call when she has time.

2. PREZENT CONTINUU
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I.

S + be (prezent) + Vb + ing [Af.]

ex. : My mother is watching TV.

II.

S + be + not + Vb + ing [Neg.]

ex. : You are not listening to me.

III.

Do/Does + S + Vbinfinitiv? [Inter.]

REGULI
1. Exprima actiuni ce se petrec in momentul vorbirii.
Se foloseste cu adverbe ca : now, at the moment
Ex. : My brother is playing football at the moment.
2. Actiuni simultane in prezent.
Ex. : Father is dagging in the garden while mother is cooking in the kitchen.
3. Actini temporale
Ex. : I usually go to school in the morning but todey im going in the afternoon.
4. Actiuni repetate ce devin enervante d.p.d.v. al vorbitorului.
Se foloseste cu adverbe ca : always, forever, constantly, continually
Ex. : He is always talking about football.
5. Planuri personale pentru viitorul apropiat.
Ex. : Next year we are visiting Paris.

VERBE CE NU ACCEPTA IN MOD NORMAL TIMP


CONTINUU
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I.
SMELL :

Verbe de simt : smell, teste, feel, hear, look, sound, see, appear, etc.
Im smelling a parfum. (=a mirosi)
The parfum smells nice. (=a avea miros)

TASTE : My mother is tasting the soup. (=a gusta)


The soup tastes salty. (=a avea gust)
FEEL : Im feeling better today. (actiune temporara)
Im hearing from Tom today. (=a afla vesti)
Im hearing voices. (=actiune iesita din comun)
LOOK : Im looking at you. (=a se uita)
He looks sad. (=pare)
Hes looking pale today. (=act. temporara)
SOUND : nu primeste -ing!!!
SEE : I see your friend at the table. (=a vedea)
Im seeing Tom at 10. (= a se intalni)
My fiend is seeing thing. (=a avea vedenii)
APPEAR : She appears to be a good girl. (=a parea)
The boy is appearing in the doorway. (=a aparea)
II.

Verbe de cunoastere : know, imagine, hope, think, consider, expect, etc.

THINK : Im thinking at you. (=a se gandi)


I think i can do this. (=a crede)
CONSIDER : I consider you offer to be interesting. (=a considera)
Im considering to by a new car. (=a lua in considerare)
EXPECT : I expect the son will cam soon. (= ma astept ; a se astepta)
Im expenting some friends. (=a astepta)
She is expecting a baby. (=a fi insarcinata)
III.

Verbe de atitudine : love, like, hate, want, wish, prefer, loath, (a uri mai puternic
decat hate), mind.

Doar MIND : I dont mind yor visit. (=a deranja)


My sister is minding my cat today. (=a avea grija de...)
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IV.

Verbe ce arata posesia sau existenta : be, have, belog to, hold, consiste of/in,
own, etc.

BELONG TO, CONSIST OF/IN, OWN nu primesc -ing !!!


BE : He is a boy. (=a fi)
He is being impolite. (=actiune temporara)
HAVE : I have a big house. (=a avea)
Im having my house painted. (=a vopsi; have someting done constructie
cauzativa)
Im having the show. (=a face ceva)
HOLD : Im holding a book. (= a tine in mana)
This bottle holds three liters.(=incap, contine,...)
V.

Alte verbe : remember, forget, realise, recognise, notice nici unul nu primeste ing

OBS!! Desi regula spune ca numai anumite verbe primesc -ing, daca vorbitorul doreste sa
exprime o actiune temporala sau iesita din comun poate folosi un timp continuu.

3. PAST SIMPLE
I.

S + Vb2 [Af.]

ex. : Bob came home late yesterday.


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II.

S + didnt + Vbinfinitiv [Neg.]

ex. : Shie didnt like the flowers.

III.

Did + S + Vbinfinitiv? [Inter.]

ex. : Did she tell you the news?

REGULI
1. Exprima actiuni incepute si terminate in trecut, al caror timp este specificat (yesterday;
last week, last month,etc.; a few days ago; in to 2000,; etc.)
Ex. : Sushan and Tom met in 2001.
2. Actiune inceputa si terminata in timp (nu este specificat , dar este subinteles ca fiind
trecut).
Ex. : They met college.
3. Actiuni obisnuite in trecut exprimate prin :
- would arata comportamentul caracteristic al unei persoane in trecut.
- used to actiuni uzuale in trecut care azi nu mai au loc.
Ex. : Jane would sing in the shower.
She used to visit us every Sunday.
4. Actiuni temporare al caror inceput si sfarsit este delimitat.
Ex. : I read Ion yesterday from 3 to 4.

4. PAST CONTINOUS
IV.

S + was/were + Vb + ing [Af.]

ex. : I was watching TV.


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V.

S + wasnt/werent + Vb + ing [Neg.]

ex. : She wasnt reading.

VI.

Was/Were + S + Vb + ing? [Inter.]

ex. : Were you reading?

REGULI
1. Actiune aflata in desfasurare la un anumit moment din trecut .
Ex. : Last night I was watching TV.
2. Actiune aflata in desfasurare pe fondul careia o alta mai importanta are loc.
Ex. : She was crossing the street when saw Ben.
3. Actiuni simultane in trecut.
Ex. : He was singing and she eas reading.
4. Planuri personale pentru vitorul apropiat vazut din trecut.
Ex. : She couldnt came at the party because she was leaving the next morning.
5. Actiuni repetate ce deveneau enervante in trecut.
Ex. : My brother was always playing on the computer.

5. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE


I.

S + have/has + Vb3 [Af.]

ex.: They visited us.


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II.

S + havent/hasnt + Vb3 [Neg.]

ex. : You havent listened to me.

III.

Have/Has + S + Vb3 ? [Inter.]

ex. : Has she told you the news?

REGULI
1. Actiuni incepute in trecut ce se pot continua in prezent sau ale caror consecinte se vad
in prezent.
Ex. : Jane has cut her hair.
2. Este cerut de adverbe ce se refera la o perioada de timp nedeterminata : today; this
month/week/morning; all day, all night/year, etc.
Ex. : She has worked a lot this week.
I phoned you this morning. (perioada de timp s-a terminat)
I have phoned you this morning. (perioada de timp nu s-a terminat; este inca dimineata)
3. Se foloseste cand timpul unei actiuni nu este specificat.
Ex. : I have met Tom.
4. Exprima actiuni ce s-au terminat recent; se foloseste cu adverbe ca : just, lately,
recently, up to now, so far, etc.
Ex. : We have just ordered coffe.
5. Se foloseste cu adverbe : ever, never, always, since, for, allready, how long, etc.
Ex. : I havent seen hom for two years.
6. Exprima un viitor anterior in conditionala si in temporala.
Ex. : The children will eat the cake after she has baked it.
I will give you a call if I have finished my work.

6. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS


I.

S + have/has + been + Vb + ing [Af.]

ex.: They have been playing football all day.


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II.

S + havent/hasnt + been + Vb + ing [Neg.]

ex. : They havent been watching TV.

III.

Have/Has + S + been + Vb + ing ? [Inter.]

ex. : Has she been listening to music?

REGULI
1. Accentueaza ideea de continuitate a unei actiuni trecute in prezent.
Ex. : Mother has watered the flowers. (tocmai a terminat actiunea)
Mother has been eatering the flowers. (actiunea continua)
!!! Se foloseste prezent perfect continuu cand actiunea este aparent continua.
Ex. : I have been drinking tea since five oclock.
!!! Se foloseste prezent perfect simplu cand se specifica numarul de actiuni facute sau de cate
ori a fost facuta o actiune.
Ex. : I have drink three cups of tea since five oclock.

7. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE


I.

S + had + Vb3 [Af.]

ex.: Jane had called me.


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II.

S + hadnt + Vb3 [Neg.]

ex. : Jane hadnt called me.

III.

Had + S + Vb3 ? [Inter.]

ex. : Had Jane called me?

REGULI
1. Exprima o actiune inceputa si terminata in trecut inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute sau
inaintea unui moment din trecut.
Ex. : When I came home she had already left.
2. Este cerut de adverbe ca :
a.
- no sooner...........than
- hardly.................when
- barley.................than
de abia ce......
- scareely...............than
Ex. : I have hardly opened the door when my phone started to ring.
b. Never, ever, before, since before, for, already, till, untill.
Ex. : We had known each other since before college.

8. PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS


I.

S + had + been + Vb + ing [Af.]

ex.: They had been playing cards all afternoon.

II.

S + hadnt + been + Vb + ing [Neg.]


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ex. : She hadnt been listening to me.

III.

Had + S + been + Vb + ing ? [Inter.]

ex. : Had she been watching TV?

REGULI
1. Accentueaza ideea de continuitate a unei actiuni trecute inaintea unui anumit moment
din trecut.
Ex. : My father had been traing to start the car before the mechanic arrived.
2. Este cerut de adverbe ca : never, ever, before, since before, since, for, until, till,
already, etc.

9. FUTURE SIMPLE
I.

S + will/shall + Vbinfinitiv [Af.]

ex.: Father will call you tomorow.

II.

S + wont/shant + Vbinfinitiv [Neg.]


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ex. : They wont listen to you.

III.

Will/Shall + S + Vbinfinitiv ? [Inter.]

ex. : Will you come with me?

REGULI
1. Exprima asteptari, presupuneri, predictii sau pareri legate de viitor.
Ex. : Dont worry she will come tomorrow.
2. Se foloseste de adverbe de timp ca : soon, tomorrow, next week/month, in a weeks
time, etc.
Ex. : Ill visit you next month.
3. Actiuni obisnuite in trecut.
Ex. : Students will always come to this school.
4. Apare conditionala de tip I.
Ex. : Ban will call you if he finds your book.
5. Decizii luate pe moment.
Ex. : I like bouth t-shirts but Ill buy the red one.

MODALITATI DE UTILIZARE ALE LUI


I.
WILL
1. Invitatii
Ex. : Will you come with me to the party?
2. Cereri
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Ex. : Will you give me that book?


3. Face tag questionpentru imperativ
Ex. : Shut up, will you!
4. Presupuneri
Ex. : He left home an hour ago, he will be at the aeroport by new.
II.

SHALL
1. Propuneri
Ex. : Shall I help you with this?
2. Apare in sugestiile facute cu lets
Ex. : Lets have a drink, shall we?
3. Este folosit pentru a accentua ideea de hotarare, de determinare.
Ex. : We shall solve this problem.
4. Apare in regulamente
Ex. : Students shall report the principal office.

10.
I.

FUTURE CONTINOUS

S + will/shall + be + Vb + ing [Af.]

ex.: Ill be watching TV tomorrow.

II.

S + wont/shant + be + Vb + ing [Neg.]

ex. : She wont be listening to you.


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III.

Will/Shall + S + be + Vb + ing ? [Inter.]

ex. : Will they be going there

REGULI
1. Exprima o actiune aflata in desfasurare la un anumit moment de viitor.
Ex. : This time tomorrow Ill be fishing.
2. Activitati viitoare ce sunt intelese ca fiind o consecinta sau ca facand parte din cursul
normal al lucrurilor.
Ex. : Dont cut the onion or youll be crying.
3. Mod politicos de a intreba despre planurile de viitor ale cuiva.
Ex. : Will you be going with us tonight?

11.

GOING TO FUTURE

S+ be + going to + Vb
ex.: Im going buy a new house.

REGULI
1. Exprima predictii legate de viitor atunci cand stim ca ceva urmeaza sa se intample sau
vedem ca se intampla.
Ex. : Im going to graduate in June.
Look at the sky its going to rain.
2. Exprima actiuni premeditate, intentii.
Ex. : Im going to kill you.

12.

IF CLAUSES

I.

Prop. principala
Will + Vbinfinitiv

IF
IF

Ex. : If I have the time Ill come.


REGULI
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Prop. secundara
Present simple

Exprima o conditie reala care are mari sanse de realizare.


II.

Prop. principala
Would + Vbinfinitiv
(conditional prezent)

IF

Prop. secundara

IF

Past simple

Ex. : If I had time I would come (=Daca as avea timp as veni).


REGULI
Exprima o conditie ireala, dar care are ceva sanse de realizare.
OBS!! Past simple din secundara este, de fapt, subjomctiv prezent, de aceea be va fi la
toate persoanele sub forma lui were.

Ex. : If she were to come I would help her.


III.

Prop. principala
Would + have + Vb3
(conditional perfect)

IF
IF

Prop. secundara
Past perfect
(had + Vb3)

Ex. : If I had had time I would have came (=Daca as fi avut timp as fi venit).
REGULI
Exprima o conditie imposibila.

OBS!! Past perfect din secundara este, de fapt, subjomctiv perfect.


IV.

CONDITIONALA MIXTA

Prop. principala
Would + Vbinfinitiv
(conditional prezent)

IF
IF

Prop. secundara
Past perfect
(had + Vb3)

Ex. : If you had listened to me you wouldnt be upset now (=daca m-ai fi ascultat nu ai fi
suparat acum.)
REGULI
Exprima un repros sau consecintele prezente ale unei actiuni trecute.

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OMITEREA LUI IF
Se face prin :
I.
Inversiune :
a. Atunci cand avem should in secundara
Ex. : If you should sit on, give him the book.
Should you sit on, give him the book.
b. Este posibil doar atunci cand avem constructia were to
Ex. : If I were to see Jhon I would tell him about you.
Were I to see Jhon I would tell him about you.
c.
Ex. : If I had know the truth I would have kill you.
Had I known the truth I would have kill you.
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II.

Prin inlocuirea lui IF cu :


a. but for
Apare la tipurile II si III si inlocuieste expresiile :
- if it were not for
- if it hadnt been for
Ex. : (II) If it were not for Jhon I wouldnt had that car.
But for Jhon I wouldnt had that car.
(III) If it hadnt been for your help I wouldnt have understood him.
But for your help I wouldnt understood him.
b. unless=if not
Ex. : I wont come to your party if you dont invite me.
I wont come to your party unless you invite me.
c. in case la orice tip (=in caz ca)
Ex. : I took my umbrela in case it rain.
d. on condition that
Ex. : She will give you the car on condition that you take care of it.

e. suppose/supposing that (=ce s-ar intampla daca)


Ex. : Suppose I lost my key would you help me find it?

f. provided, providing (that), as long as, so long as


Ex. : Ill give you the book as long as you bring it tomorrow.

FOLOSIREA LUI WILLDUPA IF


WILL se poate folosi dupa IF doar atunci cand nu este marca vootorului, ci este verb
modal si are urmatoarele sensuri :
a. Incapatanare
Ex. : If she will eat all the sweets she will get fat.
b. Dorinta de a face ceva = willingness
Ex. : If youll come this way Ill show ypu the house.

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VERBE MODALE
Caracteristigi generale :
- Nu primesc terminatia -s la persoana a III-a singular
- Nu au forma de infinitiv lung
- Nu au forma de imperativ sau gerunziu
- Sunt intotdeauna urmate de infinitivul scurt., cu exceptia lui have to, ought to
- Timpurile compuse le formeaza cu ajutorul sinonimelor pentru :
a. Can be able to
b. May be allowed to
be permitted to
be possible to
c. Must have to
be to
be obliged to
- Formele negative si interogative le formeaza singure
- Timpul trecut se poate exprima cu ajutorul infinitivului perfect (have + vb3)

CAN
Are doua forme : can (prezent) si could (trecut).
Este inlocuit de be able to atunci cand can inseamna a fi in stare.
Ex. : I can lift 50 kilos. I am able to lift 50 kilos.
- Exprima capacitatea fizica, intelectuala, morala, etc.
Ex. : You cant understand how happy I am.
- Exprima posibilitatea
Ex. : Can she be that old?
- Este folosit cu sensul de a stii
Ex. : I can swim.
- Inlocuieste uneori verbul may pentru permisiune
Ex. : Can i help you?

MAY
Are doua forme : may (prezent) si might (trecut).
Este inlocuit de be allowed to sau be permitted to cand exprima permisiunea si de
be possible that cand exprima posibilitatea.
Ex. : I may not got there. You are not allowed to go there.
She may come tomorrow. It is possible that she comes tomorrow.
-

Exprima permisiunea
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Ex. : May I go to toilette?


- Exprima posibilitate, presupunere sau concluzie logica
Ex. : She may still come.

MUST
Are o singura forma, iar pentru trecut se foloseste trecutulul lui have to
- Exprima necesitate, obligatie absoluta
Ex. : Children must obey their parents.
- Exprima posibilitate, presupunere sau concluzie logica
Ex. : She is not home, she must be alt school.

OUGHT
Are o singura forma, iar pentru trecut se foloseste infinitiv perfect.
Ex. : She ougt to have come by now.
- Exprima obligatie morala fara constrangere (=should)
Ex. : You ought to listen your father.
- Exprima probabilitate
Ex. : That ought to do. (=Probabil ca asta este de ajuns)

OBS!! Urmat de un infinitiv perfect se refera la o actiune ce nu a avut loc.

Ex. : He ought to hold you.

SHOULD
Se foloseste atunci cand se dau sau se cer sfaturi (=ought to)
Ex. : What should I do about him?
-

Should + infinitiv perfect exprima o obligatie sau o recomandare ce nu a fost


indeplinita
Ex. : You should have talked to him.
- Should + not + infinitiv perfect arata dezaprobarea fata de o actiune din trecut
Ex. : They shouldnt have bought that car.
- Exprima presupunere sau posibilitate
Ex. : She left home at ten she should be in by now.

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WILL
Are doua forme : will (prezent) si would (trecut).
- Exprima dorinta de a face ceva
Ex. : If you will tlke to me Ill help you.
- Exprima incapatanare, perseverenta
Ex. : She will always have it her way.
-

Exprima probabilitate

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