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# Page

01

Edition
Checking No
Effective Date
Amendment
Date

01/12/2007

Department
:
Engineering

Dept.

of

Civil

1.0 OBJECTIVE
1.1

## To examine a statically determinate frame and to analyze the frame using

simple pin joint theory.

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

## The application the engineering knowledge in practical application

To enhance technical competency in structural engineering through
laboratory application.
To communicate effectively in group
To identify problem, solving and finding out appropriate solution through
laboratory application

3.0 THEORY
A truss is a structure composed of slender member joined together at their end
points to form one or more triangles . The joint connections are considered as
pinned joint without friction.
In order to determine the forces developed in the individual members at a truss, the
following assumptions should be make:
1. The members are connected to each other at their ends by frictionless pins,
that is only a force and no moment can be transferred from one member to
another.
2. External loads are applied to the truss only at its joints.
One of the methods to calculate the forces in the member of a truss is using
Method of Joint.

Page

02

Edition
Checking No
Effective Date
Amendment
Date

Department
:
Engineering

Dept.

of

Civil

01/12/2007

## DETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS

Method Of Joints
- Suitable to use in calculating all of the member forces for a truss.
- This method entails the use of a free body diagram of joints with the equilibrium
equations Fx = 0 and Fy = 0.
- Calculation only can be started for joint where the numbers of unknowns are
two or less.
4.0

PROCEDURES
1. Unscrew the thumwheel on the redundant member. Note that it is
effectively no longer part of the structure as the idealised diagram illustrates.
2. Apply the pre-load of 100N downward, re-zero the load cell and carefully
apply a load of 250N and check that the frame is stable and secure.
3. Return the load to zero (leaving the 100N preload), recheck and re-zero the
digital indicator. Never apply loads greater than those specified
on the
equipment.
4. Apply load in the increment shown in Table 1 recordding the strain readings
and the digital indicator readings. Complete Table 2 by subtracing the initial

Page

03

Edition
Checking No
Effective Date
Amendment
Date

Department
:
Engineering

Dept.

of

Civil

01/12/2007

5.0 RESULT
1. Tables
(N)

1

Digital
indicator
(mm)

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
50
100
150
200
250

(N)

0
50
100
150
200
250

0
0
0
0
0
0

## Table 2: True Strain Reading for Experiment 1

2. Graphs
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Choose a member (except member 6), and on the same axis plot a
graph of Recorded Strain against Load (N) and True Strain
On another graph, do the same for a different member (non member
6).
Plot a separate graph of deflection (mm) against Load (N).

Page

04

Edition
Checking No
Effective Date
Amendment
Date

Department
:
Engineering

Dept.

of

Civil

01/12/2007

## DETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS

Using the Youngs Modulus relationship, calculate the equivalent
member force. complete the experimental force inTable 3. (ignore member 6 at
this stage)
E = /
Where;
E = Youngs Modulus (Nm-2) =
Stress in the member (Nm-2) =
Displayed strain
and = F/A
where,
F = Force in member (N)
A = cross section area of the member (m2)
Rod diameter = ---------------- mm and Esteel = 2.10x105 N/mm2

Member

Experimental Force
(N)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

## Table 3: Measured and Theoretical Force in the Cantilever Truss

Calculate the theoretical force using method of joint and write it down in
Table
3 above

Page

05

Edition
Checking No
Effective Date
Amendment
Date

Department
:
Engineering

Dept.

of

Civil

01/12/2007

## DETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS

6.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
1. Compare the experimental and theoritical result.
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2. From your result and the theoritical member force, identify which
members are in compression and which member are in tension. Explain your
choice.
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3. Observe the reading of member 5. Explain why the readings is almost
zero.
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Page

06

Edition
Checking No
Effective Date
Amendment
Date

Department
:
Engineering

Dept.

of

Civil

01/12/2007

## 4. Are the strain gauges are an effective tranducersfor measurement forces

in the framework.
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5. Does the framework comply with pin joint theory even though the joint are
not truly pin joint?.
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