FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
STRUCTURES PRACTICAL
STRUCTURAL MECHANICS LABORATORY
SUBMITTED BY:
GROUP 4
1.
2.
3.
4.
TABLE OFCONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
12
THEORY
DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS 4
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
2122
CONCLUSION
23
REFERENCES
24
1020
69
INTRODUCTION
A torsion bar is a flexible spring that can be moved about its axis via twisting. Torsion bars are
designed and based on the amount of torque used in the twisting of the spring, the angle of the
twist, the overall dimensions of the torsion bar and what materials the torsion bar is made from.
The most common place to find a torsion bar is in the suspension of a car or truck, in machines
used for production or in other precision devices. The flexibility of the spring is the main reason
that a torsion bar is used. If a more rigid structure were used such as steel rod were used too
much load bearing pressure would be placed on the both the wheels and the under body of the
vehicle.
A torsion bar works by resisting the torque placed on it. When one end of the torsion bar is
affixed to an object that cannot be moved, the other end of the bar is twisted, thus causing torque
to build up. When this happens, the torsion bar is resistant to the torque and will quickly go
back to its starting position once the torque is removed. In general, the object that cannot be
moved is usually a frame. If there is not any force applied to the torsion bar, it will stay at the
same position until force is applied.
An example the other end of the bar will be contacted to a control arm. The control arm moves in
a fixed manner on the frame and this creates the twisting movement on the bar. This, in turn,
supplies the torque needed to make a spring.
In workshops and factories, a turning force is always applied to transmit energy by rotation. This
turning force is applied either to the rim of a pulley, keyed to the shaft or at any other suitable
point at some distance from the axis of the shaft. The product of this turning force and the
distance between the point of application of the force and the axis of the shaft is known as
torque, turning moment or twisting moment. And the shaft is said to be subjected to torsion. Due
to this torque, every crosssection of the shaft is subjected to some shear stress.
The following assumptions are made while finding out shear stress in a circular shaft subjected
to torsion:
1. The material of the shaft is uniform throughout.
2. The twist along the shaft is uniform
3. Normal crosssections of the shaft, which were plane and circular before the twist, remain
plane and circular even after the twist.
4. All diameters of the normal crosssection, which were straight before the twist, remain
straight with their magnitude unchanged, after the twist.
A little consideration will show that the above assumptions are justified, if the torque applied is
small and the angle of twist is also small.
THEORY
Torque is defined as a moment that acts about a members longitudinal axis. A member that has
torque applied to it such that it deforms along its longitudinal axis is said to be under torsion. The
torsion presents itself as shear strain, , which is equal to the angle of twist along the
longitudinal axis denoted by the symbol, . For a diagram of this relationship, see Figure 1.
Because this experiment uses cylindrical specimens, the theory discussed will pertain only to
members of circular crosssection.
 DIAMETER
L
Figure 1
From the principle of torque applied on circular shaft, the following formula can be derived:
= (TL) / (GJ)
Where,
T: Torque
L: Length of rod = 450 mm
G: Modulus of rigidity of material
J: Polar moment area = (d4)/32 (d : diameter of rod)
: Angle of twist (radian)
APPARATUS USED:
5m measuring tape, loads of 1N to 40 N, load hanger, micrometer screw gauge, open end and
ring spanners and test specimens rod (Aluminium alloy rod, Steel rod and Nylon rod)
DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS
A base frame has a clamp at one end and a ball bearing in a housing (Plummer block) at the
other. A short shaft in the bearing has three jaw chuck facing the clamp and torsion head (Pulley
& Hanger) at the outward side. A hanger cord is wound round the torsion head with an effective
diameter of 74mm. Specimens in the form of length of rod are gripped by the fixed clamp and
the rotating chuck 450 mm away. Two arc shaped scale of degrees (Angle Indicators) are
mounted on a base which can be moved along the length of the test specimen (rod). A pointer on
a spring steel strip registers the rotation of the test specimen when a load is applied to the hanger
cord.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
1. Check zero error in micrometer screw gauge
2. Determine the mean diameter of the test specimens using the micrometer screw gauge
and record. Calculate the polar moment of inertia of the section and record.
3. Place the Aluminium rod in the torsion machine and tighten the clamp and the chuck.
4. Set the distance between the scales and the fixed clamp to 200mm and 400mm
respectively.
5. Secure the two angle indicators and pointers, on the set distances using the setscrews
provided.
6. With only the load hanger on the torsion head, set the pointer on the zero degree
point on the scales.
7. Add a load of 5N and record the angle of twist of the specimen. Ensure that the cord is
wound turn, clockwise round the pulley.
8. Increase the load up to 40N in increments of 5N and each time record the angle of
twist.
9. Remove the loads and note whether full elastic recovery has occurred.
10. The values are recorded in a tabular form.
11. Steps 1 to 9 are repeated for the steel rod and the nylon rod.
NB: The load used for the nylon specimen is 1N to 5N in increments of 1N
1
4.87
4.77
6.51
2
4.87
4.77
6.51
3
4.86
4.77
6.51
4
4.87
4.76
6.51
5
4.87
4.77
6.51
Mean diameter/mm
4.92
4.82
6.56
Load (N)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Twist of rod /
Over 400mm
Over 200 mm
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.5
6.0
3.0
7.5
4.5
11.0
6.0
14.0
8.0
16.0
9.0
19.0
10.5
22.0
12.0
/r = (/180) x /

Load (N)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Torque N/mm
0
185
370
555
740
925
1110
1295
1480
Load (N)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Twist of rod /
Over 400mm
Over 200 mm
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.5
1.5
1.0
2.5
1.5
3.5
2.0
4.0
2.5
6.0
3.0
6.5
3.5
7.0
4.0
/r = (/180) x /

Load (N)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Torque/ Nmm
0
185
370
555
740
925
1110
1295
1480
Load (N)
0
1
2
3
4
5
/r = (/180) x /

Load (N)
0
1
2
3
4
5
Twist of rod /r
Over 400mm
Over 200 mm
0.000
0.000
0.262
0.148
0.576
0.305
0.864
0.454
1.117
0.593
1.396
0.750
Torque N/mm
0
37
74
111
148
185
Test specimens
Mean diameter/mm
J/ (mm4)
Aluminium alloy
4.92
57.53
Steel rod
4.82
53.00
Nylon rod
6.56
181.81
A Graph of angle of Twist of Aluminium rod /r over a distance of 400mm from the clamp
against Torque/ Nmm is plotted
0.4
0.38
0.35
0.33
0.3
0.28
0.25
0.24
Angle of twist/r
0.2
0.19
0.15
0.13
0.11
0.1
0.05
0.04
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Torque /Nmm
10
Calculation of the Values of Modulus of Rigidity of the Aluminium Alloy specimen, G/ Nmm2
Using the graph,
(X2, Y2) > (1295, 0.332)
(X1, Y1) > (0, 0)
M = (0.332 0) / (1295  0)
= 2.486 x 104
= (TL) / (GJ)
Where
= Y axis
T= X axis
L/ (GJ) =gradient of plotted line,M
11
A Graph of angle of Twist of Aluminium rod /r over a distance of 200mm from the clamp
against Torque/ Nmm is plotted
0.21
0.2
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.14
Torque /Nmm
0.11
0.1
0.08
0.05
0.05
0.03
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Twist of rod/r
12
Where
= Y axis
T= X axis
13
A Graph of angle of Twist of Steel rod /r over a distance of 400mm from clamp against
Torque/ Nmm is plotted
0.12
0.12
0.11
0.11
0.1
0.08
0.07
Torque /Nmm
0.06
0.06
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Twist of rod/r
14
Where
= Y axis
T= X axis
15
A Graph of angle of Twist Nylon rod /r over a distance of 400mm from the clamp against
Torque/ Nmm is plotted
1.4
1.4
1.2
1.12
1
0.86
Torque /Nmm
0.8
0.6
0.58
0.4
0.2
0.06
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Twist of rod/r
16
Where
= Y axis
T= X axis
17
A Graph of angle of Twist of Nylon rod /r over a distance of 200mm from the clamp
against Torque/ Nmm is plotted
0.7
0.6
0.59
0.5
0.45
Torque N/mm
0.4
0.31
0.3
0.2
0.15
0.1
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Twist of rod/r
18
Where
= Y axis
T= X axis
19
Test specimens
Values of modulus
of Rigidity of
materials, G/ Nmm2
over 400 mm
Values of modulus
of Rigidity of
materials, G/ Nmm2
over 200 mm
Overall
G
Aluminium alloy
27968.20
24603.31
26285.75
Steel rod
91591.87
91591.87
Nylon rod
271.62
275.01
273.31
20
DISCUSSION
a. To what extent does the experiment verify the torque / twist formula?
From the data that we got, the graphs plotted show that the angle of twist against torque is
increasing linearly for all types of specimens, and it is directly proportional as mentioned in
theory.
From the formula given:
T
= TL / GJ
Where,
= angle of twist (radians),
T = torque,
L = length of the shaft,
G = modulus of rigidity (constant)
Angle of twist is directly proportional to torque in theory. It can be concluded that the
experiment does fulfill the torque/twist formula in theory.
b. Were all the graphs (angle of twist against torque) linear, thus exhibiting purely
elastic behavior?
Yes, all the graphs are linear, thus exhibiting purely elastic behavior. A relation is derived
between the angle of twist of a circular shaft and the torque exerted on the shaft.
The entire shaft will be assumed to remain elastic. But in the elastic range the yield is not
exceeded anywhere in the shaft, Hookes Law is applied as the yield stress of the material
does not exceed the point obtained by plotted against T will result a straight line. The slope
of this line represents the quantity L/GJ, from which the modulus of rigidity G may be
computed.
21
Test specimens
Aluminium alloy
Steel rod
Nylon rod
Overall G/ Nmm2
26285.75
91591.87
273.31
27
79.2
4.1
There are many of reasons why we got the different value compared to the theoretical value.
Firstly, it depends on the temperature of the specimen while the experiment has been
conducted. It may also have an error in taking diameter of the typical torsion of barstest
specimen. Besides, specimen malformation may probably occur.
Secondly, environmental factor plays an important role in order to get the best result in this
experiment. In this case, we did this experiment at room temperature. This temperature may
yield different result compared with the theoretical value. Other than that, air resistance also
affected our result. Although this is only a small factor, it would give .There were some errors
occurred during the experiment was carried out. Below were the errors that occurred:
a) When reading the value, there were some parallax error and the apparatus also have
zero error.
b) Old material such as rusty steel maybe causing reasonable error.
NB: After removing all the loads from the hanger when conducting the experiment on the
Nylon rod, the pointer on the rotation scale did not return to zero reading. This indicates that
the Nylon rod had already exceeded its elastic limit when the 5N load was applied.
22
CONCLUSION
After analyzing the data and discussion about the experimental result, we can conclude that
there are relationship between torque and angle of twist and obey the equation below: = TL / GJ
This equation is a convenient method to determine the modulus of rigidity (G) of any
materials. From the experiment value of G for specimens;
23
REFERENCES
TEXTBOOK
R.S.KURMI, S.CHAND
Strength of materials (Mechanics of solids)
Er. R.K.Rajput
5th Edition 2010
Reprint 2011
Websites
Theoretical values
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torsion_%28mechanics%29
www.attension.com/encyclopedia/torsion+bar+experiment
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/cavendish_experiment
http://www.ehow.com/howdoes_5459141_torsionbarworks.html
http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/virtual_lab/chalktalks/theory/1.shtl
http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/virtual_lab/chalktalks/theory/2.shtl16
http://www.google.mu/search?
q=Experiment+of+torsion+of+bars&hl=en&biw=1376&bih=610&prmd=i
mvns&source=lnms&tbm=isch&ei=TtnATsDjEMT44QTc67GEBA&sa=X&oi=
mode_link&ct=mode&cd=2&
24
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