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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Title:! Redefining!the!Teaching!of!Musical!Performance! ! Author
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Title:! Redefining!the!Teaching!of!Musical!Performance! ! Author
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Title:! Redefining!the!Teaching!of!Musical!Performance!
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Author (
s) :! Gary!E.!McPherson !
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Source :!
McPherson,!G.!E
.!(1995,! Summer).! Redefining!the!teaching!

of!musical!performance.! The!Quarterly ,! 6 (2),!p p .! 56E 64.!(Reprinted!

with!permission!in! Visions!of!Research!in!Music!Education,!16 (6),! Autumn ,!2010). ! Retrieved!from! http://www Busr.rider.edu/~vrme/ !

Visions! of! Research! in! Music! Education! is! a! fully! refereed! critical! journal! appearing! exclusively!on!the!Internet.!Its!publication!is!offered!as!a!public!service!to!the!profession! by!the!New! Jersey!Music!Educators!Association,!the!state!affiliate!of!MENC:!The!National! Association! for!Music! Educ ation.!The! publication! of!VRME!is!made! possible! through! the! facilities! of!Westminster! Choir! College! of! Rider! University! Princeton,!New! Jersey.! Frank! Abrahams!is!the!senior!editor.!Jason!D.!Vodicka!is!editor!of!the!Quarterly!historical!reprint! series.! Chad! Keilman! is! the! production! coordinator.! The! Quarterly! Journal! of! Music! Teaching! and! Learning! is! reprinted!with! permission! of!Richard ! Colwell,!who!was! senior! consulting!editor!of!the!original!series . !

Redefining The Teaching Of Musical Perfortllance

By Gary E. McPherson

University of New South Wales

T wo questions of vital importance to all

instrumental teaching are: What skills

are necessary for suc-

cess on a musical instrument?" and "What is the most effi- cient means of acquiring these skills?" Underlying these ba- sic questions is the issue of what we hope to achieve as teachers. Is executant ability to reproduce music our only goal, or should we also be concerned with creative as- pects of performance, includ- ing improvisation? These questions lead to the notion of what a 'balanced' approach to the teaching of musical performance really implies. In this article I plan to con- sider how recent research and developments in teaching are redefining the way in which many musicians are ap- proaching the way they teach instruments to children. The aim will be to propose a struc- ture that can help clarify some important outcomes for teach- ing. In so doing, I will can- vass the view that the goals

associated with teaching a musical instrument should encompass more than the rehearsal- performance routine that too often limits what is covered in school instrumental music

programs. This view is spurred on by developments leading to the release of the National Standards for Arts Education in the United States, as well as attempts across many countries to provide for a more developmental and student centered approach for learning music. At a fundamental level, music educators are grappling with the task of redefining their teaching to take into consideration the broadly- based nature of music edu- cation as it is currently be- ing advocated around the world. In Great Britain and Australia, for example, an integrated approach involv- ing listening/appraising, im- provising/composing, and the performance of reper-

toire drawn from a wide variety of musical styles and genres form the basis of what is now at the core of school music programs. Likewise, in the United States, educators are reexamining past prac- tices, and considering ways in which the per- formance component can be integrated with other areas of the music curriculum, as well as how and in what ways, skills developed

In Great Britain and Australia

, an integrated ap- proach involving listening/ a pprais- ing, improvising/ composing, and the performance of repertoire dra vvn from a vvide variety of musical styles and genres form the basis of vvhat is

rro w at the core school music programs.

of

Dr. Gal]! E. McPherson is coordinator for music education at the Uniuersity of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. He is pres- ently National President of the Australian Societyfor Music Education and Co-Editorfor Research Studies in Music Education. His research interests are instrumental pedagogy, giftedness in music, and music creativity.

56

The Quarterly Journal of Music

Teaching and Learning

t h rough t h e pe rf o r m a nce of mus i c r e l ate to m u sic a l g r owth ac r o s s t he d is c ip line. Clarif y ing Different A s pect s of Mu s ic a l Performance Fo r m an y s tude nt s, l earnin g a n i n s t rum e nt me ans stu dying t he bo dy o f e x isting r ep e r - t o ire writt e n f o r the instru m e n t. Teach ers u se a v is ual o rie nt a tio n t o int ro d uce a n ew wo rk w hi c h i s perfo r m e d b y s ight a n d r e - h ea r s ed du r in g nume r o u s p rac t i c e ses s i o n s in p re par a ti on for a c on c er t or forma l mu s ic e x - am in at i on . I n t he cas e of the h i g hest le v e l s o f ex p e rt p erfo rm ance , fa m i l i a r it y w ith th e n ota - t i o n , resu lt ing fr o m m ul t i p l e r e h ea rsal s , e n - ab l es th e p e rf o rm e r t o i nt e r n a li ze th e mu s i c , and to b e a b l e to p erfor m it f r o m me m o r y w ithout th e a id of the mu s i ca l n o tation. The e ss e n ce of this appr oac h to m us i ca l p e r f o rm an ce i s a v i s u a l o ri e n tat i o n wh e r e th e m u s ic i a n l ea rn s t o p erf o rm b y re a di n g a n d s t u d y in g th e m usica l n o t at i o n ( se e F i gu r e 1 ) . Pro f i cie n cy o n a m u s i ca l i n s t ru m en t , t h e r e - f o r e, i s t yp i ca ll y ga uge d b y t h e cap ac it y o f th e m u si c i a n t o r e - creat e a n acc u r a te r e pr e -

sent a ti o n o f a m usi c a l com p os i tio n w hich h as b ee n l ear ned fr om the pri nte d sc o r e . In co ntra s t to t he v i s u a l orient a ti o n o f m o s t t radi t i o n a l ins tru m e nt a l p r og r am s , t h e r e a r e tho se s tude nt s w h o l e ar n a nd b eco me s kille d on a n i n st rument with o ut the n e e d t o read mu s i c a l no tation . E ve ry y ear a l a rg e n umber o f s tud e nts co m m e n ce play i ng an i nstr umen t a n d l ea rn to pe r f o rm mus i c b y imit a ting r e - co r d in gs o r li v e pe r fo rm a nce s a nd a ur a l l y r epr o d u c i ng th e exis t i n g l iter a t ure w ith w hi ch the y ar e fami li ar . As t heir ins tr ume n t a l t ec hn ique de ve l o p s , m a n y of t hese per form - e r s ex t e nd th e i r s k i l l s by emb e ll i s h in g w ork s l e a rn e d a u r all y and c reat ing t h e ir ow n mu s i c thr o u gh i m pro v i sati o n. This aur a l / c rea tive ori e n t a tio n of le a rni n g a nd perf orm i ng music

i s d e pic te d in Fi gur e 2 .

Wh il e it is tru e t h a t man y pr of ess i o n a l pe r- f o rm e r s o f traditi o n a l s t y l es of mu s i c r a re l y n e e d to pe rform m us i c b y ear or b y i m p r o - v i s in g , and th at ma n y p opula r musicia n s work s u c c e s s f ull y i n t he i r i di o m w i t h o ut th e n ee d to dev e l op l i t e r ac y, co n t e m po r a r y

Figure 1 : Model of V i s u a l Orientat io n for Musi c al Performance Learning

Vo l u m e V I , N umber 2

S i g ht-R ea d

,

Perfo rm Reh ea r s ed

M usi c

Pl ay From Mem o r y

57

Figure 2: Mod el of Au r a l / Creati ve Orient a ti o n fo r Musi ca l Performanc e a nd Le arning

Play by Ear

Improvise

met hods o f i ns t r ume n t a l tea c h ing ( F ro set h , 1 984 ; G r un ow, 1 988 ; K o hu t , 198 5 ; S c h le u t e r , 1 98 4 ; Su zu k i, 1 98 3 ) a d voca te a l e arn i n g se - quence i n vo l v i n g a n o r ie n t at i o n t o w a r d a u r a l a nd crea t i v e f o r m s of pe r fo rm a nce in th e v er y be g i n nin g s t ag es. Thi s a ppr o a c h l e a d s to s t u dent s ' r ea din ess f o r a b s orb i n g n o t a ti o n , and a ba l a n ce b e t w e e n v i s u a l , aura l and c r e - a t i v e form s of pe rf o r ma n c e for a ll sub se qu e nt stag e s of d ev e l opm e n t . The b a si s f or thi s v iew is t h at l e a rnin g a n instru ment is mo st efficient w h e n th e s o und is emphasiz ed b e -

fore the si gn , a nd th a t a n ab ility to 'thin k

so und ' i s ess e nti a l in a ll hig h e r form s of mu - s i cal per f orm a n c e . It a l s o r e flects th e ad va n ce s made i n r e c ent y ea r s as a n o utc o me o f r e - searc h ( G o rd o n , 1 98 9; P ri es t , 19 8 9 ; S c h l eut e r , 1 98 4 ; S wa n w i c k a n d Til l m a n , 1986 ) . Th ese help c larif y h ow s t u d e n t s l e a rn visual , a ur a l

a nd c r ea ti v e s k ill s , a n d d ev e l o p thei r p o t e n t i a l t o pe r f 0 1 111 in a nu mbe r o f w a y s.

in

B a s ed o n th e

d i scus s i o n t o th i s p o in t , I

wo u ld a r g u e th a t the r e a r e at leas t f i v e d i st i n ct

t y pe s o f m us i ca l p e rf o r m a n ce t ha t c an b e id e n - tified a nd w hi c h a r e i mp o r t a nt in th e de ve l o p - ment o f an in s t ru m e nt a li s t (s e e Figure 3 ) .

Th e f o l l o w i ng d e f i n i t i o n s hel p c lar i f y e ach of t h e se st y l es o f p e r fo r mance :

S ight-reading: u s in g m u si c a l n o t at io n t o p e r f o rm e x i s tin g m u s i c f o r th e fi r s t t i me t h a t h as n o t been pr ev i o u s l y a u di a te d . P e rforming Rehear s ed Music: r epr o du c - in g e x isti n g l iter a tur e f r o m n o t a ti o n that h a s bee n pre v ious l y r e h e a r s e d a nd l e arned o ve r m ultip l e practice s es s i o n s . Playing From M e mory: r e prod u ci ng au - r a lly on a musi ca l in s trum e nt an e xis ting pi e ce o f music l ea r n e d fr o m mus i c al nota- ti o n. T he perfor man ce s h o ul d a tt e mpt to pr o vide a faithful repr o du c ti o n of t he musi cal n o t a tion at the same pit c h le v e l as nota t ed by t h e co mpose r. Playing b y Ear: r e p r o du c in g a ura ll y o n a m u s i c a l i nstrum e nt a n e x i s tin g p i ec e o f mu s i c l ea rn e d using a n a ur a l o ri e nt a ti o n (s uch as b y s i n g in g or imit a t in g a li ve o r r ec orded m o d e l ) . The r e pr o du c t i o n c an b e a t the same p i t c h l e v e l as the o r i g i na l o r t r a n s p o s ed t o an o t h er pit c h le ve l . Improvising: per form i ng s p o n t an e o usl y o n a m us ic a l in st rum e n t c r ea ti ve l y for mul a ted m a t e r i a l . The impr o v i sa ti o n c a n co mplemen t

58

Th e Q ua r t e r l y J o urna l of Mus ic T eac h ing and L earnin g

Figure 3: Defining Five Aspects of Mu s ical Performance

/---

//"\

Sight - Read

Visual Orientation

Creative Orientation

Improvis e

Perform Rehearsed Music,

••

••

----------~~--.~--

_

<,<,

Pla y b y Ea r

Aural Orientation

Pla y From Memory ///

/

/

e x i s ti n g musi ca l c r it e ri a o r c o n s traint s, o r be fr e e ly c o ns tru c t e d ac c o rd in g t o the m us ici an ' s ow n c h os e n fr a m e w o rk . T he N eed for a More ' Balanced ' Appro a ch to Teaching and Learning a Musical In- s trument M ost d isc u s s i o ns c o n ce rni n g m u s i ca l p er - f o rm a n c e i n W e s te r n s o c i et i es h av e t e n d e d to

f oc u s o n the a bi li t y o f a n i n s tr um e nt a li s t t o r e - c r e a t e a pr e - exi st i n g mu s i ca l compos i t io n . Du r in g t h e la s t c e n t ur y thi s n o ti o n o f pe r f o r - m a n c e h as i n flu e n c e d t h e w a y i n whi c h mu - sica l in s tru m en ts ha v e be en t a u g ht. F o r e x -

a mple , in 1 9 39 W h e e l w ri g ht

cia n s hip ' i n t er ms of a n ab i li t y t o s i g h t - re a d m u s i c . U nf o r t u n a tel y , th i s co n c e pt of m u s ic - ma ki n g w it h i t s e m ph as i s on n o ta t i on a n d re ad i n g mu s ic st i ll pe rv ad e s m ost instr u - m e n ta l t ea c hi n g. A ll t o o o ft e n the r ea din g o f n o ta t i o n b ec o m e s t h e si n e qua non o f i n s tru - me nt a l t each in g ( Pr i es t , 1 9 8 9), d u e p a rt l y t o th e fa c t t h a t m a n y t e ac he r s th e m s e l v es ar e un a ble t o p erf orm aur a l l y an d cre ati v e l y, let a l o ne h e l p th e ir s t u d e nt s a cqu ir e t h e se s k ill s. H ow e ve r , a m o r e e nl ig h ten e d view i s b ecom -

i n g evid e n t in t h e l it er atu r e , o n e w h i ch rec og -

d e f i n e d ' mus i -

V o lu m e V I , Number 2

n i z es t h e imp or t a n c e o f l i t er ac y , b ut w h i ch a l s o a ck no wle dg e s th e pla ce o f o th er a b iliti e s . T h i s c o n ce p t o f l e a r nin g to per f o r m in vo lv es th e d e ve l o p m e n t o f a r a n g e of o t he r sk il l s , suc h as dev e l op in g a ca paci ty to pe rfor m f r o m m e m o r y , by ear a nd b y imp r ov i s in g. T his i de a is n o t n e w . Dur in g th e e ig h- t ee nth an d nin e t e en t h ce n t u rie s , in s t ru men - t a li s t s l ea r ne d t o pe r f o rm b o th b y r e p r o du c - i n g a n d i nv e n ti n g , t h e l a ner bei n g " a d ire ct r es u l t o f a n e ve r - w i d e nin g pr o ces s o f l e a rn - ing" ( G e llr ich , 1 99 2; p . 28 8 ) . In ea rl y le ss o n s t h e re w as a n e m p ha s i s o n i m i t a t io n b y ea r a n d o n i m p r o v i sa ti o n . In l a t e r s t ag es o f d e - ve l o pm e n t bot h th e c r ea t io n a n d r ep ro d u ct i o n of m u s i c w e r e e n c o ur age d . U nf o rtu n a t e l y , t h i s a pp r o a c h w a s r e p lac ed in t h e l a te 1 800s b y a n e xc l usi ve e m p h a s is on r e p r odu c t ive l e a r n in g acco r di n g to pr esc r ib e d c u r ri c ul a , a s e v i den c ed in a sp e c ia l i s t an of i n t er pret at i on ( G ell r ic h & S undin , 1 9 93 ; p . 1 4 2 ) . In a co m p ell i n g art i c l e t h e Br itish m usi c p s y ch ol o g i st M a i n wa ri ng (1 9 4 1 ) st a t es tha t:

Tr u e m u s i ca l ex e c u t a n t a b i l i t y d e m a n d s , f i r st l y , t h e a b ili t y t o p r o du c e i mm ed i a te l y and s p o nt aneous l y t h e m e n ta l l y im ag i n e d so und , w h e t h e r thi s b e r e ca l l e d , s p o nt a n eo u s l y co n -

5 9

All too often the reading of notation becomes the sine qua non

of instrumental teaching

, due partly to the fact that many

teachers thernselves are unable to perform aurally and cre- atively, let alone help their students acquire these skills.

ceived, or stimulated by the visible symbol. If on to this is grafted requisite and adequate knowledge and experience, and if there should develop with this experience a love of music, then the basis of musicianship has been well and truly laid. If to this equipment there be added a gift of a musically creative imagination, the gulf between the executant musician and the composer is bridged, and the further conception of musicianship be- comes a matter of degree (p. 214).

Mainwaring (1941) was convinced that an ability to play music without the aid of nota- tion was at the heart of the musical experi- ence, and that playing music by ear was "more genuinely a criterion of real musician- ship than is a highly developed executant skill dependent on the mechanised reproduc- tion of a complex series of manipulatory pro- cesses" (p. 210). Mainwaring (1941) was quick to point out, however, that true musical ability involves a range of skills. He criticized instrumentalists who were able to perform by ear, but unable to read musical notation nor demonstrate knowledge of the most elementary facets of musical theory. Likewise, he condemned in- strumentalists who are completely dependent upon notation or mechanized recall, and therefore unable to express a single original thought (p. 205). This view is supported in research by McPherson (1995) who worked with high school students, most of whom had been ex- posed to a traditional, visually-oriented ap- proach to learning a musical instrument. Re- sults show the extent to which this type of training often fails to develop the important capacity to 'think in sound', which is essen- tial to all musical performance and , as Mainwaring (941) suggests, is the most im- portant ingredient to a concept of musician- ship. Using a sample of high school subjects in Years 7 to 12, most of whom had been learning their instrument for more than two

years, McPherson found distinct differences between students of varying ability as they demonstrated their ability to perform in each of the five ways identified here. For ex- ample, content analysis of reflective com- ments by students as they memorized music from notation reveal less able students rely on strategies that are independent of their instrument and which demonstrate a lack of ability to audiate from musical notation. In contrast, the best students reported strategies which infer a greater capacity to 'think in sound' and how this would be represented on their instrument (McPherson, in press). Additional results concern the activities which may enrich learning throughout the critical beginning and developing stages of musical growth. Consistent with a number of commonly held beliefs about those activities which enhance musical development, McPherson (1993) found that variables asso- ciated with an ability to 'think in sound', such as: reports of frequency of singing, mental rehearsal, and composing, were sig- nificantly correlated with the skills of playing by ear and improvising. In stark contrast, variables associated with the length of time the students had been studying their instru- ments and attending private lesson were sig- nificantly correlated with an ability to per- form a repertoire of rehearsed music. McPherson argues that aural skills may not develop efficiently unless teaching practice makes a productive use of strategies specifi- cally designed to develop an ability to think and comprehend music inwardly, and con- cludes that learning to play music by ear and by improvising are an important means by which this can be achieved. This assertion has parallels to other litera- ture. For example, recent studies show that even after many years of training, entering students at major tertiary institutions lack the ability to transfer what they hear in their

60

The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning

·

th e key

to succ e s s in mu s i c al performan c e i s the degr e e t o

v

v hi c h mu s ici a ns l ea rn t o co o rdin a te b o th e a r and hand , and t o

p

e rf o rm o n th e ir in s trumen t s th e a uditor y ima g e s fo rm e d in

their mind s .

m i n ds i n t o th e s y m b o l s r e quir e d t o ex pres s t h e se id e as in m usi c al n o t ation ( D a v idson , S c r ip p & W e l s h , 1 98 8 ; Davi d so n & S c r i p p , 1 989) . D av id s o n a nd S c r ip p ( 1 989 ) e x p res s thi s as f o ll o ws:

I n th e face o f a s e v e r e l ac k o f i n t e g r a t i o n of m u s i ca l per ce pt i on a nd repr ese n t ati o n , per - fo r m a nce b eco m e s e n t irel y d e pe n d e nt o n m e m o r y w h e th e r i n th e fin g e r s, in th e e a r o r in v e r b a l d e s c r iptio n s . Rep e r to i re a c qu isiti on o n th e instr u m e nt b e co me s t h e o nl y m o del o f mu s i ca l k n o w l e d ge . D i s pl a y i n g a l ac k o f i n terna l i s ati o n , m u s i ca l de ve i o pmen t fa i l s t o in c l ud e a r an ge o f i nt e g r a t ed kno w l e d g e . Th e r e m e m b e r e d sou nd o f k n o w n tun e s o r

nor m a l nota t i o nal im age s d o n o t m at c h . W i t h o u t th e ir in s tru me n t s , s t u de nt s a r e un a bl e t o r e l a t e th eir i m ag e o f t h e so n g t o i t s n o t at ed

f orm

ca l s kill s f a il s to i nf o rm a m o r e ac ti ve l y co n -

s tru c t e d s e n s e o f m u s i c im ag e ry , m em o r iz ed or n o t C p. 7 6- 77 ) .

a l a c k o f c o - o rdinati o n a m ong mu s i-

T h es e r es ult s a r e r einf o rced by Sl obo da 's ( 1 99 3 ) comm e nt s a b ou t m u si c i a n s wh o ma y b e a b le to pe r f o rm a pi e c e ' t e c h ni ca l l y', w i t h - out be in g a bl e t o ' un d e r s t a n d ' it mu s i c a ll y . I mp orta n tl y, thi s re sea r c h e r h a s a lso f o u nd th a t dur in g th e i ni t i a l s t ag es of tra ini n g , bett e r st ud e n t s spe n d l e s s t im e d u r i n g t he ir p r ac ti c e t h a n t hei r l ess a ble p e e r s o n f o r ma l t a s k -o ri e n te d p r a c ti c e ( s ee a l so , Mc Ph e r s o n , 1 993 ) . B e t ter s tud ent s are m or e likel y t o re - p o rt fre e l y e xpl o r in g t h e m u si ca l m ed i um a s th e y pr a c ti c e, s u c h a s im pr o v i s in g and 'm ess i n g - a b o u t ' . Acti v i ties whi c h S l o b o da ( 1 993) d e s c rib es a s im po r t a nt t o the d eve l o p - m e n t o f th e ' e xpr e s si v e ' d im en s io ns of musi- c a l a bilit y ; fu rth er :

O n e m a y s u pp os e t h a t , b y a n d l a r ge , f o rm a l task - o r i e nt ed pr a cti ce e nco u r ages th e dev e l - o p m e nt of t ec hn i ca l r a the r th a n expr e ss i v e s kill s, w h e r ea s e x pl o r a t o r y and i m pr ov i s a t or y a cti viti es en co u r a ge t h e indi v id ual's e x pres- s i v e de v e l o p me n t. S u c c e s s f u l m u s i c i a n s a r e th os e w h o h a v e b e e n a b l e t o ac hi ev e a p r op e r b a l an ce b e t ween t h ese t w o t y pes o f a c ti v i t y ( S l ob o d a , 1 9 93; p . Ill ) .

Fi n a ll y , a fi nd i n g w h i c h a l e r t s us t o t h e

d a n ge r s o f a n ex c lusive emp h a s i s on t h e r e -

h e a r s a l- p e r f orm a n c e r e g i m e s o c har a c t e r i s ti c of m a n y i ns tru me n tal p r o gram s, is ev i d e n c e

b y S lob o d a (19 93) tha t if a ch i ev e m en t i s e m -

ph a s i z ed t oo ear l y , t h en i n tri n s i c m o ti va ti on

will b e i n hibi t ed . " I n s i mp l e t er m s , chi l d r e n

b

ec o m e s o c on ce r n e d a bo ut wha t ot h e r s m a y

b

e t hin k in g of t h e ir p e rfo rm a nce

th a t t he y

h

a ve lit t l e a tten ti o n le f t t o all ow the p o tenti a l

o

f t he mu s i c t o e ng a g e th eir a es theti c a nd

em o t i o n a l s e ns i b i lit ie s d e e pl y . A l l m u s i c b e -

c omes a s o ur ce o f a n x i e t y" ( S l o bo d a , 1 993 ;

p . 111 ) . B ased o n th ese s tudi e s it c a n be p r o pos ed th at t h e k ey t o s u c c e s s in mu s i c a l p e r fo r - m an c e i s t he d e gre e to w h i c h mus i cia n s l ea r n to coo r d ina t e b o t h ear a n d h a n d , a n d

t o p e rf o rm o n t h e i r i n st rumen t s t h e a u d it or y i m a g es fo r med in thei r m inds. T his i s t he

th r e a d w hi c h bi n ds e a c h o f t h e f i v e s k ill s t o-

p l a ces the c o n c ept o f a ' b a l a nc ed '

app r oach t o instrument a l le arning a n d p er -

g e the r and

f or ma n ce int o pe r s pe c t i v e. I n dee d , th e re a r e

th o s e w h o ass e rt t hat t e a c he r s m ay b e

gross l y u n d er e s ti m a ti n g t h e va l u e of l ea r ni n g t o p l a y b y e a r a n d i m p r ovi se ( P ri e st , 1 98 5 , 1 9 8 9 , 1 993 ), a n d t hat these s k i l l s m ay be

m o r e r ec e pt i ve t o tr ai ni n g

s i g ht -re ad i n g ( L u ce, 1 9 5 8, 19 6 5 ; M cP h e rs on ,

th a n th e s ki ll o f

1 993 ) . Pr i e s t b e l i ev e s t ha t te a c h ing w h i c h

a l l o w s f or expos ur e an d tr a i ni ng i n au r a l a n d

cr ea t i v e ac ti v i tie s l eads t o in c r e a s e d e n j o y -

m e n t a n d fu lfi l l m e n t , t o a be t t e r s t and a r d

mu s i ci an s - in c l ud ing a n a bil i t y to s i g h t -re ad,

an d to a hi g her l ev el o f p erf or ma nc e.

M c P h e r so n ( 1 994 ) m a int ai ns th a t th er e c o ul d

w e l l be a n i mp o rtan t l i n k b e tw e e n t h e le v el

of s ki ll a c q u i r e d in per f o r m i n g b y e a r a nd b y

i mp rovi s in g a n d c a rr yov e r o f par t i ci p a t io n a s

a m usici an into a d ult li f e (see a l s o, L aw ren c e

& D ac hin ge r , 1 967) I t c o ul d be th at m a n y of

our f in e s t s tud ents b e com e bore d wi t h play-

in g t heir i n s t r um e nt , beca u s e t h ey go t h r o u g h

of

1 am n o t su g g es tin g

th a t t h er e sh o u l d

n o t be l es s o ns in

w hi c h s tud e nt s wo rk pred o minantl y f rom n o tati o n . I w ould

pr op o se , h o w · e ver th a t on e of th e gr e at es t c hall e ng e s fac in g in s trum e nt a l t ea ch e r s is th e n ee d t o r e think s t y l es of te ac hin g

th a t h a v e do minat e d in s tru c ti o n d urin g t h e

p a s t 10 0 y e ars.

th e ir en ti r e t ra in i n g ha v in g n e v e r pl a ye d w ith -

o u t mu s i ca l n o ta t i on ( S c h e n ck , 1 9 8 9) . Implications and Conclusions In this ar ti c l e I hav e a r g u ed t ha t g rowth in music a l per for m anc e ca n occ ur in a t lea s t fiv e di sti n ct w a ys. On a s m a l l er s cale , t h e f i ve s k ill s i d e n t ifi e d m ay b e used t o de ve l op t ea ch in g st r a te gi es a nd a s se ssm en t t e ch - niq u e s a pp ro pr i at e for a ll le ve l s of t e a c hing . Fo r e xam p le , l e a rning cyc le s co u ld b e de - v i s ed w hich e nc o urag e a nd encap s ulate a ll f a c et s o f m us ical p e rfo rma n c e a nd a vari e ty

o f mu s i c a l ex per i e n c e s. T h e r e a l r ea d y ex is t s

a n um ber of pu b l ica t i ons wh i c h inco rp o r a t e f ea tu r es of thi s appr o a c h to p e rforming a nd

l e a rni ng (s ee, for ex am p l e , Fr o s et h , 198 4 ;

G o rd o n , 1 9 89 ; Grunow , 198 8 ; Kohut , 1 9 85 ;

Li s k , 1 987 ; P ra tt , 1990 ; Pr eston , 1 994 ; P r i es t ,

1 98 9 ; Sc hen c k , 1 989; S c hle u t e r , 1 984) . In ad-

d i t ion , K ra tus ' (1 9 9 1 )

S t ag es o f Im pro vis a t io n ,

an d Pr i e st 's ( 1 9 8 9) Pe dago gi ca l M ode l of I n - strumenta l T eaching are amo n g the mos t in -

n o vati ve and u s e fu l r ece nt add i ti o n s to th e l i te ra tu r e .

O f co ur s e , ma n y o f th e p o in t s m a de h e r e

f or m pa rt of existi n g ed uc at iona l phi lo so - phie s. Th e S u z uki a ppr o a c h , f o r e xa mp l e , stre s se s th e i m p orta n c e o f r o te te ac h in g in t h e earl y sta ge s o f dev e l o pm e nt a nd t h e in - t rod u ctio n of mus i c a l n o t a t i o n o nl y a f t e r the c hild h as r each e d a d eg ree of instrument a l

prof i c i e ncy ( H e rm a nn , 1 9 81; La n d e rs, 1 98 0) . In G ordo n 's ( 1 98 9) sys te m ch i ld r en learn to

a udi a t e a nd p e rf or m b o th ' t o n a l ' a nd ' rh y thm ' p a t tern s bef o re l ea r nin g t o d i s tingu i s h th es e p a t t ern s i n n o ta t i o n. Gru n o w ' s (19 8 8) prac t i-

ca

m e nt a l tea c hing i s b a se d o n th e r ea l izati o n

t ha t i n o rd e r to m otivate b e g innin g i nstr u -

m e n t a l i s t s d u ring the e a rl y pr e -not a t i on a l s t a ge s o f d eve lo pme n t , pe rf orm a n ce b y e a r a nd b y imp rov i s in g p l ay an impo r t a nt r o l e.

l a pp lica t i o n of th is app r o ac h f or i n s tru -

M a n y p ro m i nen t mu s i c ian s ar e no w co n -

v i n c ed t ha t the s e s t y le s o f perf or m a n c e c a n make a po siti ve imp a c t o n t h e d e ve l o p m ent o f

m u s ic al l i te r a cy , ot he r p erf o rm a nc e ski lls , and cr ea tiv e musi ci an s hip ( e. g. , Fr ose th , 1 98 5 ;

R ege l s ki , 19 75) . As a lread y e x p l a i n ed , the y

m ay b e an es se n ti a l ingr e dient f o r su c cess.

I n as s e r tin g th is v i e w , I a m no t s u gg es ti n g th a t th e r e sh o u l d n o t be l e sson s i n w hich

s tu d ent s w o rk pr e d o m i n a ntl y f ro m no t a t io n.

I w o ul d prop os e, h o wev e r th a t one o f th e

gr ea te st c hall e n ge s fa cin g i nst rum en ta l te ach - er s is th e ne e d to r e think s t y l e s o f t eac hin g t ha t have d o m i nat e d i ns t r uct io n du r in g th e

p as t 1 00 y ear s . T hi s do es not mea n that we

m u s t n o t e n c o ura g e y ou ng mu s icia ns to r e a d and t o b e com e m u s i c a ll y lit erat e . R a ther , w e

s h oul d ac kn ow l e dge t h at m u s i c i s ess en t i a ll y an a ura l e xp e rien ce , a n d the b e s t mu s ic e d u-

c a tio n i n v ol v e s a br o ad r a ng e of p e r f o r-

m a nce a c tiv i ti e s . Ea ch o f the s e act t o en -

a bl e, st r eng t he n , and fa ci l i t at e th e dev el op -

m e nt o f a w i d e v ari e t y o f m u s i c a l sk i lls and

u nd er st a n din gs . Ove r r e ce n t y ea r s , t h e d e vel o pm e nt of Na - t i on al S t an d ards an d Curric u lu ms i n m an y

co unt ri es h as se en music e du ca tors r e defin - i ng th eir cr a ft , a n d e x pl or i n g a l ter n a tiv e w a y s of devel o p i n g a n d s us t aining mus i c a l g r owt h du r i n g th e scho ol yea r s . The terms ' p la y fr o m

m e mor y ', ' p l ay b y e ar ' and ' i mpro v i s e ' ar e

appe a ring in sy l l abi a cr o s s m a ny n atio n s , a nd

th e re i s a g r ow i n g r e a li zatio n o f t h e va lu e o f

l ear nin g to p e rform i n a wi de va rie ty of s t y l e s a nd u s in g m o r e t h a n ju s t a r e- c reativ e approa c h. I n th i s r e ga r d , w e ca n l earn a gr e a t d ea l fr o m n on -W es te r n s o c ieti e s wh e re im p ro v i sa ti o n a nd p l ay in g b y ea r ar e imp o r- t a nt co m p o n e nt s of mu s i c -ma k i n g (Ca mpb e l l , 1 99 0; Ne tt l e , 1974 ) .

Of c o urs e , w he n l e ar ning a m usi cal in stru -

m e nt th e re ar e man y o t h e r sk ill s whi c h a m u-

62

The Q ua rte rly J o ur nal o f M us ic Te ach in g a n d Le a rni ng

s i ci a n wi ll n ee d t o d e v e l op . It c o uld be a r- gu e d t h at an a b i li ty to p l ay ' express i ve l y ' and ' m u s ic a l ly ' i s also of v i ta l im p o r ta n ce. An

a b i l i t y t o p l ay ex pr es s i ve l y a n d m usi ca l l y i s a n esse n ti a l co m p o n e n t o f a l l f i v e m e t h o d s o f m usical p e r f o rm a nce , h oweve r n o t j u s t th e r e produ c ti o n o f music fr o m n o tation. Li ke G e llrich ( 99 2) , I would a rg u e that pr a c t i ce i n c reati n g m u s i c help s t o i m p r o ve i n t erpre - t a ti o n , a nd in s t r ument a li s t s w h o a r e t au g h t t o i m pr o v i se are ge ner a ll y more ca p a b l e o f e x - press i n g t hemse l v e s b eca u se the ir pla y i ng h as m or e ' li fe ' . I n p er f o r m a n ce s i t ua t i o n s t h ey a r e mo r e ca p able of ge ttin g t hr o u gh p ass ages w h i c h t h e y h av e n o t comp l e t e l y mas ter e d , a nd co n s equ e n tl y b e tt e r a bl e to r ec over from mistakes o r me mo ry lap s es . In summ a r y, I have ar g u e d that mu si c t e ac her s m us t rec ogniz e t h at the t rad i ti o n a l

v i ew

h av e som e d raw back s , part i c u l a rl y w h e n we

of mu s i c as a s p ec i a l i ze d c r a ft d oes

a ll ow ma n ip ul a t i v e and tec h n i ca l s k i ll s t o d omi n ate over i n t e ll e c tu al growt h a cross the

d i sc ip li n e . W h a t w e a r e see in g

ri c ulum s a r o und the wor l d i s a br oad e n i n g o f t hi s co n c e p t i o n t o in c lu d e m o r e em p h as i s o n a u ral and creat i ve form s of e x pressi o n s a nd where learni ng to play a mu s ical instru m e nt i n v olves l ea r n i ng to cr ea t e mu s ic as we ll as r e pr o d u ce it.

in m any cu r -

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CRME

Coun c i l f o r R es e a r c h in M u s ic E du c a tion

Articles of Interest

No. 12 6 , F a ll 1995

Contents

P rim a r y a nd Hi g h e r- O rd e r F a c t o r s in a S ca l e A sse ss in g Con ce rt B a n d P e r fo rm a n c e

- Ma r ti n J. B er g ee

1

A n Hi s t o r i c a l Pe r s p e c t i v e o n R e se a r c h Cy c l es i n M u s i c Com put e r- Ba se d T e ch n o log y

- W illiam , L. B erz an d j udith Bow ma n

15

E t hi ca l I s s u e s i n Q u a l i t a t i v e R e se a r c h Me t h o do lo g y

- Li o r a B re sl er

A C o n t i nu o u s R esp o ns e As se s s m ent o f Chil d re n's Musi c C o gni t i o n

- G reg or y F . D e N ar do an d Vi nce nt J. K an t o rs l ei

29

4 2

Th e Bu ll e t in o f t h e C ou nci l fo r R e se ar c h in Mu si c E d uc a t i o n i s p ubli s h e d qu a rterl y b y th e Co u n c il f o r R e se a r c h in M u s i c E du cat i o n , Sc h oo l o f M u s i c , U n i v e r s it y of I l li n o is a t U r ba n a - Cha mp a i g n , 1 1 4 Wes t e v a d a S tr e e t , U r b an a , I l l in o i s 6 1 80 1.

64

The Q ua r ter l y J o u r na l of Mus ic T ea chi n g a nd L e arni n g