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Simona BUCA

LIMBA ENGLEZ

2012

Introduction

The English for Economic & Industrial Engineering II is a course of English for Specific
Purposes conceived for students at the Faculty of Economic and Industrial Engineering in the
second year of study. The content and aims of the course are determined by the needs of a
specific group of students doing a Bachelor of Science Degree that interweaves engineering and
economics.
The course provides a complete study of technical texts and writing matters and it covers a range
of subjects to do with economics and engineering and scientific writing. The course is focused on
specialist terminology and scientific writing skills that enable students to work and produce
writings in English-speaking environments.
The course uses contexts, texts, situations from students subject area. It also uses authentic
materials and makes the tasks as authentic as possible. The main purpose of the course is to teach
and use English in a practical way that brings the real world in the lecture room so that students
should be motivated to study individually and to further develop their knowledge of English.
Students are actively involved in the course completion as they have to find their own texts in
their subject area and to draw a personal dictionary with all the technical words in the field of
economics and engineering.
Course objectives

Identifying and implementing the specialist vocabulary in the field of


economic engineering;
Producing scientific writings;
Understanding industry and economic-specific terminology in English
Implementing syntax notions to be applied in various communication
contexts (written or oral)

Competencies acquired
Students will be able to:
Make the difference between sentences, clauses and phrases in various
communication situations;
Producing scientific writings;
Adjust the terminology learnt in Romanian to an English-speaking
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environment;

Initiating and developing various situations of communication

Study resources
Students need to have access to specialist dictionaries, terminologies and
glossaries. Similarly, students need to have access to specialist journals, either
printed or electronic, which is essential in order to develop the vocabulary specific
to their field of study.
Course Structure
The course of English for Economic & Industrial Engineering has 2 modules
that are structured into four learning units. Each unit, at its turn, comprises the
objectives, theoretical aspects regarding the theme of the specific learning unit,
examples and self-assessment tests of English abilities.
A unit of applications at the end of each module is designed to assess students'
knowledge of English grammar and vocabulary. The applications are compulsory
in order to take the English exam. At a date established together with the lecturer,
students have to upload the practical applications on the e-learning platform .
Duration of self study
Each learning units (both theoretical issues and practical tasks) requires 2-3 hours
of self study provided students feel they need to improve their knowledge of the
language specific to economics and engineering.
Assessment
At the end of the semester, each student is assessed and obtains a mark that is
made up of:
a test that comprises grammar and vocabulary exercises extracted from
students subject area - 60% of the total mark;
the applications uploaded on the on the e-learning platform - 20% of the
total mark

Module 1: Research and Development

Contents
Introduction

Competencies
U1. Research and Development - Language study

3
4

U2. Sentences, Clauses and Phrases - Grammar study


U3. Quality Assurance - Language study

16
24

U4. Clauses and Phrases II - Grammar study

33

Introduction
Module 1 introduces students to research and development vocabulary as well as
to R&D practices with complex specific terminology to be learnt. Quality
assurance and safety at work are also important subject areas to be acquired in
order for students to function in English -speaking working environments.
It also provides students with a close grammar study of sentences and clauses in
English.

Competencies
To cover knowledge related to R&D and quality assurance;
To be aware of word importance: research, development, quality, safety at
work
To improve their engineering-oriented vocabulary in English (mechanisms);
To identify and form clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison, time,
contrast
To practically apply the knowledge acquired by individual study

Learning Unit M1.U1. Research and Development


- Language study Contents
M1.U1.1.

Introduction

M1.U1.2.

Objectives of the learning unit

M1.U1.3
M1.U1.4

Research and Development presentation


Language study

5
9

M1.U1.4.1.
M1.U1.4.1.1.
M1.U1.5.
M1.U1.5.1

Increase your vocabulary


Vocabulary related to research and development
Careers in Engineering
Jobs

9
9
11
11

M1.U1.5.2
M1.U1.6

Company structure
Assessment Test

13
13

M1.U1.1. Introduction
"When asked why we must write, most scientists and engineers think first of the need
to communicate. Communication is so important in science and engineering that it is
easy to forget our other reasons for writing. We write as part of our day-to-day work:
to help us to observe, to remember, to think, to plan and to organize, as well as to
communicate. Above all, writing helps us to think and to express our thoughts and
anyone who write badly is handicapped both when working alone and in dealing with
others. (Barrass R, 2003:1)
Terms are essential to produce accurate scientific writings. Therefore, terminology
management provides the tools required to structure and organize scientific writings.
Terms reflect the conceptual structure of a discipline and, therefore, they represent
the fundament of specialized communication. Terminology allows specialists not only
to structure their thoughts but also to exchange information in a particular field, in
more languages and to organize information by the intermediary of specialized texts.
Whereas the structure of the thought and the conceptualization represent the cognitive
dimension of terminology, the knowledge transfer represents its communicative
dimension. Terminology is the basis for communication among specialists. (Maria
Teresa Cabre, 1998:90)
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M1.U1.2. Objectives of the learning unit

To cover students knowledge related to R&D practices;


To make students aware of word importance: research and development

To introduce students to companies structure and functions


To practically apply the knowledge acquired by individual study

The average length of the first learning unit is 2 hours.

M1.U1.3. Research and Development presentation


The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial
significance apart from its conventional coupling of scientific research and technological
development. As this process is usually associated with innovation as well, the synonym (R+D+I)
can also be applicable.
In general, R&D activities are conducted by specialized units or centers belonging to companies,
universities and state agencies. In the context of commerce, "research and development"
normally refers to future-oriented, longer-term activities in science or technology, using similar
techniques to scientific research without predetermined outcomes and with broad forecasts of
commercial yield.
Statistics on organisations devoted to "R&D" may express the state of an industry, the degree of
competition or the lure of progress. Some common measures include: budgets, numbers of
patents or on rates of peer-reviewed publications.
Bank ratios are one of the best measures, because they are continuously maintained, public and
reflect risk.
In the U.S., a typical ratio of research and development for an industrial company is about 3.5%
of revenues. A high technology company such as a computer manufacturer might spend 7%.
Although Allergan (a biotech company) tops the spending table 43.4% investment, anything over
15% is remarkable and usually gains a reputation for being a high technology company. Such
companies are often seen as poor credit risks because their spending ratios are so unusual.

Generally such firms prosper only in markets whose customers have extreme needs, such as
medicine, scientific instruments, safety-critical mechanisms (aircraft) or high technology military
armaments. The extreme needs justify the high risk of failure and consequently high gross
margins from 60% to 90% of revenues. That is, gross profits will be as much as 90% of the sales
cost, with manufacturing costing only 10% of the product price, because so many individual
projects yield no exploitable product. Most industrial companies get only 40% revenues.
Generally the largest technology companies not only have the largest technical staffs, but also
manage them most effectively.
On a technical level, high tech organizations explore ways to re-purpose and repackage advanced
technologies as a way of amortising the high overhead. They often reuse advanced manufacturing
processes, expensive safety certifications, specialized embedded software, computer-aided design
software, electronic designs and mechanical subsystems.
Research
Research is often described as an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry aimed at
discovering, interpreting, and revising facts. This intellectual investigation produces a greater
understanding of events, behaviours or theories, and makes practical applications through laws
and theories. The term research is also used to describe a collection of information about a
particular subject, and is usually associated with science and the scientific method.
The word research derives from French; its literal meaning is 'to investigate thoroughly'.
Basic research
Basic research (also called fundamental or pure research) has as its primary objective the
advancement of knowledge and the theoretical understanding of the relations among variables
(see statistics). It is exploratory and often driven by the researchers curiosity, interest, or hunch.
It is conducted without any practical end in mind, although it may have unexpected results
pointing to practical applications. The terms basic or fundamental indicate that, through
theory generation, basic research provides the foundation for further, sometimes applied research.
As there is no guarantee of short-term practical gain, researchers often find it difficult to obtain
funding for basic research. Research is a subset of invention
Examples of questions asked in basic research:
Does string theory provide physics with a grand unification theory?
Which aspects of genomes explain organismal complexity?

Applied research
Applied research is done to solve specific, practical questions; its primary aim is not to gain
knowledge for its own sake. It can be exploratory, but is usually descriptive. It is almost always
done on the basis of basic research. Applied research can be carried out by academic or industrial
institutions. Often, an academic institution such as a university will have a specific applied
research program funded by an industrial partner interested in that program. Common areas of
applied research include electronics, informatics, computer science, material science, process
engineering and drug design.
Examples of question asked in applied research:
What is the most efficient and effective vaccine against influenza?
How can communication among workers in large companies be improved?
How can the Great Lakes be protected against the effects of greenhouse gas?
How can a policy on time use increase transit services to low-income neighborhoods?
There are many instances when the distinction between basic and applied research is not clear. It
is not unusual for researchers to present their project in such a light as to 'slot' it into either
applied or basic research, depending on the requirements of the funding sources. The question of
genetic codes is a good example. Unraveling it for the sake of knowledge alone would be basic
research but what, for example, if knowledge of it also has the benefit of making it possible to
alter the code so as to make a plant commercially viable? Some say that the difference between
basic and applied research lies in the time span between research and reasonably foreseeable
practical applications.
Research methods
The scope of the research process is to produce some new knowledge. This, in principle, can take
three main forms:
Exploratory research: a new problem can be structured and identified
Constructive research: a (new) solution to a problem can be develope d
Empirical research: empirical evidence on the feasibility of an existing solution to a problem can
be provided
Research methods used by scholars:
Action research
Case study
Classification
Experience and intuition
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Experiments
Eye tracking
Interviews
Map making
Mathematical models and simulations
Participant observation
Physical traces analysis
Semiotics
Statistical data analysis
Statistical surveys
Content or Textual Analysis
Research is often conducted using the hourglass model. The hourglass model starts with a broad
spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the
project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and
results.
Research process
Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may
vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most
formal research, both basic and applied:
Formation of the topic
Hypothesis
Conceptual definitions
Operational definitions
Gathering of data
Analysis of data
Conclusion, revising of hypothesis
A common misunderstanding is that by this method a hypothesis can be proven. Instead, by these
methods no hypothesis can be proven, rather a hypothesis may only be disproven. A hypothesis
can survive several rounds of scientific testing and be widely thought of as true (or better,
predictive), but this is not the same as it having been proven. It would be better to say that the
hypothesis has yet to be disproven.
A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the
prediction will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis
may no longer provide an accurate prediction. In this case a new hypothesis will arise to
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challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than
the old, will supplant it.
Publishing
Academic publishing describes a system that is necessary in order for academic scholars to peer
review the work and make it available for a wider audience. The 'system', which is probably
disorganized enough not to merit the title, varies widely by field, and is also always changing, if
often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form. In publishing,
STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and
medicine.
Most established academic fields have their own journals and other outlets for publication,
though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several
distinct fields or subfields. The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of
knowledge or research vary greatly between fields.
Academic publishing is undergoing major changes, emerging from the transition from the print to
the electronic format. Business models are different in the electronic environment. Since about
the early 1990s,, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, was very common.
Presently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access. There are
two main forms of open access: open access publishing, in which the articles or the whole journal
is freely available from the time of publication, and self-archiving, where the author makes a
copy of their own work freely available on the web.

M1.U1.4. Language study


M1.U1.4.1. Increase your vocabulary
M1.U1.4.1.1. Vocabulary related to research and development
Research and development (R and D) is the search for new and improved products and industrial
processes. Both industrial firms and governments carry out R and D. Innovations in products or
processes normally follow a path from laboratory (lab) idea, through pilot or prototype
production and manufacturing start-up, to full-scale production and market introduction. There
are two main types of research. Pure or basic research aims to clarify scientific principles without
a specific end product in view: applied research uses the findings of pure research in order to
achieve a particular commercial objective. Development describes the improvement of a product

or process by scientists in conjunction with engineers. Industry spends vast sums to develop new
products and the means to produce them cheaply, efficiently. and safely.
Research is important in many disciplines and there are different types of research with different
research professionals. The type of research reflects the environment and the objectives. In
addition, many research words have entered the general language.
Types of research
academic research, applied research, clinical research
development and evaluation research, experimental development, experimentation, innovation,
practical application, product development, pure basic research, pure research, strategic basic
research
Research professionals
analyst engineer lab technician research assistant scientist technician
General terms
breakthrough carry out feasible feasibility me-too product
patent file* a patent pipeline pilot prototype register* a patent
technical know-how (TKH)
If you want to get feedback on a product or service, you can use qualitative research. Qualitative
research uses open-ended interviewing to explore and understand the attitudes, opinions, feelings
and behavior of individuals or a group of individuals. Qualitative research has many common
uses, including:
investigating current product/service/brand positioning
identifying strengths and weaknesses
exploring alternative communication messages
understanding why customers buy and use a product or service
evaluating the impact of advertising or public relations campaigns
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Research is based around a wide range of activities - from detailed analysis to product
improvement. Results from research activities need to be scientifically measured and then
reported.
Research activities
analyze assess compile determine develop discover evaluate
experiment explore find identify improve innovate investigate
modify record search for study survey test trial
Measuring the results
constant correlation deviation distribution " frequency mean
measurement scale median mode norm random reliability
sampling standard statistics validity variable variance
Reporting the results
feedback report response

M1.U1.5. Careers in Engineering


M1.U1.5.1. Jobs in engineering
Professional engineers may work as:
Design engineers; They work as art of a team to create new products and extend the life o f old
products by updating them and finding new applications for them. Their aim is to build quality
and reliability into the design and to introduce new components and materials to make the
product cheaper, lighter, or stronger.
Installation engineers: They work on the customer's premises to install equipment produced by
their company.
Production engineers: They ensure that the production process is efficient, that materials are
handled safely and correctly, and that faults which occur in production are co rrected. The design
and development departments consult with them to ensure that any innovations proposed are
practicable and cost-effective.

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Just below the professional engineers are the technician engineers. They require a detailed
knowledge of a particular technology- electrical!, mechanical, electronic, etc. They may lead
teams of engineering technicians. Technician engineers and engineering technicians may work
as:
Test/Laboratory technicians: They test samples of the materials and of the product to en sure
quality is maintained.
Installation and service technicians: They ensure that equipment sold by the company is installed
correctly and carry out preventative maintenance and essential repairs.
Production planning and control technicians: They produce the manufacturing instructions and
organize the work of production so that it can be done as quickly, cheaply, and efficiently as
possible.
Inspection technicians: They check and ensure that incoming and outgoing components and
products meet specifications.
Debug technicians: They fault find, repair, and test equipment and so products down to
component level.
Draughtsmen/women and designers: They produce the drawings and design documents from
which the product is manufactured.
The next grade are craftsmen/women, Their work is highly skilled and practical. Craftsmen and
women may work as:
Toolmakers: They make dies and moulding tools which are used to punch and form metal
components and produce plastic components such as car bumpers.
Fitters: They assemble components into larger products.
Maintenance fitters: They repair machinery.
Welders: They do specialized joining, fabricating, and repair work.
Electricians: They wire and install electrical equipment.
Operators require fewer skills. Many operator jobs consist mainly of minding a machine,
especially now that more and more processes are automated. However, some operators may have
to check components produced by their machines to ensure they are accurate. They may require
training in the use of instruments such as micrometers, verniers, or simple 'go/no go' gauges.
s)

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M1.U1.5.1.2. Company structure


Company structure
Board

Managing
director

Development
Manager

Mechanical
Section
Leader

Electronic
Section
Leader

Manufacturing
Manager

Software
Section
Leader

Plant
Manager

Quality
Manager

Marketing
Manager

Inspection
Process and
Products

Inspection
Incoming
Goods

Field
Science
Manager

Industrial
Engineer
Manager

M1.U1.6. Assessment test

I. Use the word in brackets to form a word which fits in the sentence.
1 The scientists have presented a detailed ________ of the results. (analyze)
2 They have brought in a food ______ to help in the research. (analyze)
3 All process materials are tested using highly developed ________ techniques. (analyze)
4 The researchers have come up with an ________ idea for the use of recycled plastics.(innovate)

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5 Charles Dyson is the _______ of a vacuum cleaner which works on a new principle.(invent)
6 The advent of the ballpoint pen was a wonderful _______. (invent)
7 They employ a large team of software _____. (develop)
8 A report has been prepared on the _______ tests that have been carried out. (develop)
9 Increasing numbers of people can now work from home thanks to _______ in
telecommunications. (develop)
10 These methods of production are still at an _________ stage. (experiment)
11 The _________ is continuing work on the new drug. (experiment)
12 Many people are against animal ________. (experiment)
II. The following email has been received by the R and D department. Complete it using words
from the list.
breakthrough prototype developmental engineers
design patent innovative experiment

Dear Frank
I had a preliminary meeting with Maria Altefors regarding her (a) _______ for a new children's
pushchair. It's a simple but (b) ________ invention which will allow two children of different
ages to be transported in a single unit. She has already registered a (c) ______ and I'd like us to
develop a (d) ________. Could you arrange a meeting with the (e) _________ to discuss this?
We will have to carry out (f) __________ tests to assess safety features and (g) __________ with
different weight loads.
This could be a real (h) _________ in pushchair design!

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Regards
Ruth

III. Complete the following sentences with an appropriate verb of Research Activities You will
have to put the verb in the correct form.
1 They _________ a report on future energy requirements.
2 The temperature was measured every hour and carefully ____________.
3 Following the accident. fire experts have to __________ the cause of the fire.
4 These clothes have not worn well so we will have to try and _________ the quality.
5 Scientists continue to _________ for a cure for cancer.
6 They are trying to _______ a solution to the problem of friction.

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Learning Unit M1.U2. Sentences, Clauses, Phrases I - Grammar


study
Contents
M1.U2.1.

Introduction

16

M1.U2.2.

Objectives of the learning unit

16

M1.U2.3
M1.U2.3.1

Grammar study
Sentences, Clauses, Phrases

17
17

M1.U2.3.1.1
M1.U2.4

Clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison, time


Assessment Test

17
21

M1.U2.1. Introduction
"Scientific and technical writing should reflect the way scientists and engineers
think and work, and should therefore be in accordance with the r equirements of the
scientific method". (Barras, R, 2003:30). The author also defines the
characteristics of scientific writing which are to be remember by our students:
Explanation: Consider first the needs of your readers;
Clarity: The clear thinking that is necessary for the application of the scientific
method should be reflected in the clarity of your writing and in your illustrations;
Completeness: The treatment should be comprehensive. Every statement should be
complete. Every line of argument should be followed through to a logical
conclusion;
Impartiality: Make clear any assumptions underlying your arguments, for if these
are incorrect your conclusions may also be incorrect.
Order: Readers will find your message easier to understand if information and
ideas are presented in an appropriate order.
Accuracy: The scientific method is based on care in planning investigations, care
in observation, precision in measurement, care in recording and care in analysing
data.
Objectivity: Most people respect authority and are reluctant to accept, or even
consider, findings or opinions that conflict with existing beliefs. this may be a
problem for anyone who has something new to say.

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M1.U2.2. Objectives of the learning unit

To make the difference between sentences, clauses and phrases in various

communication situations;
To identify and form clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison,

time, contrast
To practically apply the knowledge acquired by individual study

The average length of the first learning unit is 2 hours.

M1. U2.3. Grammar study


M1. U2.3.1. Sentences, Clauses, Phrases
M1. U2.3.1.1. Clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison, time
Clauses of reason and result/cause
Clauses of reason
Introduced by as/because/since:
We camped there as/because/since it was too dark to go on. As/Because/Since it was too dark to
go on, we camped there.
'in view of the fact that' can be expressed by as/since/seeing that,
but not because:
As/Since/Seeing that you are here, you may as well give me a hand. As/Since/Seeing that Tom
knows French, he 'd better do the talking.
Where as/since/seeing that refers to a statement previously made or understood, it is replaceable
by if:
As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like Bill, why did you invite him?
Note the use of if so:
I hope Bill won't come. ~ If so (= If you hope he won't come), why did you invite him?

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Clauses of result/cause are introduced by because or as:


The fuse blew because we had overloaded the circuit.
He was angry because we were late.
As it froze hard that night there was ice everywhere next day.
As the soup was very salty we were thirsty afterwards.
These combinations could also be expressed by two main clauses joined
by so:
It was too dark to go on, so we camped there.
You are here, so you may as well give me a hand.
It froze hard that night, so there was ice everywhere next day.
therefore can also be used, but is normal only in fairly formal sentences:
The Finnish delegate has not yet arrived. We are therefore postponing/We have therefore decided
to postpone/Therefore we are postponing the meeting. (Notice possible positions of therefore.)
Clauses of result with such/so . . . that
such is an adjective and is used before an adjective + noun:
They had such a fierce dog that no one dared to go near their house. He spoke for such a long
time that people began to fall asleep.
so is an adverb and is used before adverbs and with adjectives which
are not followed by their nouns:
The snow fell so fast that our footsteps were soon covered up. His speech went on for so long that
people began to fall asleep. Their dog was so fierce that no one dared come near it.
But such is never used before much and many, so so is used even when much and many are
followed by nouns:
There was so much dust that we couldn 't see what was happening. So many people complained
that they took the programme off.
Note that such '+ a + adjective + noun is replaceable by so + adjective + a + noun, so that
'such a good man' is replaceable by 'so good a man'. This is only possible when a noun is
preceded by a/an. It is not a very usual form but may be met in literature. Sometimes for
emphasis so is placed at the beginning of the sentence. It is then followed by the inverted form of
the verb
So terrible was the storm that whole roofs were ripped off.

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Clauses of concession
These are introduced by although, though, even though, even if, no matter, however and
sometimes by whatever, as is also possible, but only in the adjective + as + be construction.
Although/Though/Even though/Even if you don 't like him you can still be polite.
No matter what you do, don't touch this switch.
However rich people are, they always seem anxious to make more money.
However carefully you drive, you will probably have an accident eventually.
Whatever you do, don't tell him that I told you this.
Patient as he was, he had no intention of waiting for three hours.
(though he was patient)
may + infinitive can be used in hypothetical cases:
However frightened you may be yourself, you must remain
outwardly calm.
may can also imply I accept the fact that':
But he's your brother! He may be my brother but I don't trust him!
But may used in this way is part of another main clause, not a clause of concession.
should + infinitive can be used after even if just as it can after if a conditional sentences, to
express the idea that the action expressed t the infinitive is not very likely to take place:
Even if he should find out he won't do anything about it.
Clauses of comparison
Comparisons with adjectives and finite verbs
It 's darker today than it was yesterday.
He doesn 't pay as much tax as we do/as us.
He spends more than he earns.
Note that + adjective, a colloquial form:
Will if cost 100? - No, it wont cost as much as all that. It wont
be (all} that expensive. (It won't be as expensive as that.)
that + adjective is sometimes used colloquially to mean very.
Comparisons with adverbs and finite verbs
He didn 't play as well as we expected/as well as you (did).
He sings more loudly than anyone I've ever heard/than anyone else (does).
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You work harder than he does/than him/than I did at your age.


Comparisons with adjectives and infinitives or gerunds
Often either can be used, but the infinitive is more usual f or a particular action, and gerunds are
more usual for general statements
It 's sometimes as cheap to buy a new one as (it is) (to) repair the
old one.
Buying a new one is sometimes as cheap as repairing the old one.
He found that lying on the beach was just as boring as sitting in
his office or
He found lying on the beach just as boring as sitting etc. (The
infinitive would be less usual here.)
He thinks it (is) safer to drive himself than (to) let me drive.
He thinks that driving himself is safer than letting me drive.
It will soon be more difficult to get a visa than it is now.
Getting a visa will soon be more difficult than it is now.
Time clauses
These are introduced by conjunctions of time such as:
after

immediately

till/until

as
no sooner . . . than
when
as soon as
since
whenever before
the sooner
while
hardly . . . when
They can also be introduced by the minute, the moment.
For examples with when, as, while,
Remember that we do not use a future form, or a conditional tense, in a time clause.
Each of the following future forms becomes a present tense when we put it in a time clause.
Future simple:
You 'II be back soon. I'll stay till then. = I'll stay till you get back.
be going to:
The parachutist is going to jump. Soon after he jumps his parachute will open.
The present continuous, used as a future form, and the future continuous:
He's arriving/He 'II be arriving at six but
When he arrives he'll tell us all about the match.
Before he arrives I'll give the children their tea.
20

But the continuous tense can, of course, be used in time clauses when it indicates a con tinuous
action:
Peter and John will be playing/are playing / are going to play tennis
tonight.
While they are playing (during this time) we 'II go to the
beach.
The future perfect changes to the present perfect, and the future perfect continuous changes t o the
present perfect continuous:
Ill have finished in the bathroom in a few minutes.
The moment/As soon as I have finished I 'II give you a call.
A conditional tense changes to a past tense:
We knew that he would arrive/would be arriving about six.
We knew that till he arrived nothing would be done.
But when when introduces a noun clause it can be followed by a future or conditional tense:
He said, 'When will the train get in?'
He asked when the train would get in.

M1.U1.6. Assessment test

I. Choose items from (i) and from (ii) to complete these sentences in an appropriate way. Note
the punctuation at the ends of the sentences and phrases already given. (A 6' B)

When
Though
At that time
Before
Then
By contrast
Then nevertheless

the acting was superb


he was working as a librarian
I was still late for work
we met each other
he began his story
the snow began to fall
Cuba has increased production by 35%

21

1 The world output of sugar has been in slow decline since 1984. By c ontrast, Cuba has increased
production by 35%.
2 Redford published his first novel in 1968.
3 The story told in the film was predictable,
4 He was working in the garden
5 We had lived in the same block of flats for 5 years
6 I got up very early.
7 He waited until the audience was silent.
II: Underline the correct alternative. (A, B dr C)
1 Some of his photographs had won prizes in competitions. So that / Consequently, he thought of
himself as a professional photographer.
2 She listened while / at the same time Ray read to her in a low voice.
3 The graphics in that new computer game I bought are quite good. Even so, / Even though, I
soon got bored with playing it.
4 Mr Townsend was on holiday so / in consequence he wasn't considered.
5 He was refused entry to the country. Though / Instead he was forced to return to Spain.
6 I understand your point of view. However, / Although I don't agree with it.
7 Even so, / Even though I knew the house was empty, I rang the doorbell.
8 It was the best race seen in the stadium before that/since Howe beat Razak in 1989.
9 John had lived in the village for 20 years. Even though / nevertheless the locals still considered
him an outsider.
10 The car skidded to a halt as / meanwhile we were approaching the bridge.
11 He has lived next door to us for years, yet / however we hardly ever see him.
12 They met for tea at a cafe in New Street and afterwards / since they went shopping.
13 I walked up the stairs cautiously. Even so / Even though I nearly fell twice.
14 We all sat there gloomily, meanwhile / while Stuart smiled to himself.
15 I first saw Sam Moroney in Manchester. After / After that, I didn't miss any of his British
concerts.
III. Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets.
1. They introduce a computer-guided robots because they wanted to increase efficiency.
(in order to).
2. Close the valve. That way the system won't overheat. (so that)
22

3. Scientists are carrying out research. They want to find a cure for AIDS. (so as to)
4. Circuit breakers have been installed because they don't want the system to overload. (so
that
... not)
5. The system is sealed. They want to stop water and dust getting in. (in order to)
6. He is taking anti-malarial drugs. He doesn't want to get malaria, (so that)

23

Learning Unit M1.U3. Quality Assurance - Language study


Contents
M1.U3.1.
M1.U3.2.

Introduction
Objectives of the learning unit

24
25

M1.U3.3

Quality Assurance

25

M1.U3.4
M1.U3.4.1.

Language study
Increase your vocabulary

28
28

M1.U3.4.1.1.
M1.U3.4.1.2.
M1.U3.5

Vocabulary related to quality


Safety at work
Assessment Test

28
29
30

M1.U3.1. Introduction
An important aspect of terminology management when it comes to put at users
disposal a terminology database is organizing the database so that is should be
user-friendly, that it is complete, attractive, cohesive. It is essential to always keep
in mind the target group the database addresses, in my case students who have to
improve their English in order to be able to function in an English-working
environment. It calls for a double effort from both teachers and students: on the
one hand, structuring the terminology database for students to learn the specialized
language in their field of study and, on the other hand, linking the terminology
database to documentation and context-oriented database for students to learn to
convey and handle specialized information.
Before structuring the terminology and document database it is essential to focus,
on the one hand, on theoretical aspects related to the knowledge structure of a
particular subject field, which represents the knowledge structure of a terminology
database and, on the other hand, on practical aspects related to the structure of a
terminology database with the particular goal of acquiring specialist languages.

24

M1.U3.2. Objectives of the learning unit

To help students improve their engineering-oriented vocabulary in English

(quality, mechanisms);
To provide students with specific items of information related to safety at

work and rules to follow


To practically apply the knowledge acquired by individual study

The average length of the first learning unit is 2 hours.

M1. U3.3. Quality Assurance


Quality is defined as the extent to which the customer expectations are fu lfilled or exceeded: the
quality requirement is determined by the customer. With his demands and expectations, he deter mines what quality is - in both products and service. Because competition leads to increased
customer expectations, quality remains a dynamic quantity. Quality is defined through product
and service-related factors which are susceptible to quantitative or qualitative analysis. The
preconditions (or achieving high quality are:
Quality policies: The company commitment to quality as a top-priority business objective,
Leadership: Employee-motivation measures Quality assurance.
Quality-assurance system
All elements in a quality-assurance program and all quality-assurance procedures must be
systematically planned. The individual assignments and the areas of competence and
responsibility are to be defined in writing (Quality-Assurance Handbook). Quality-assurance
systems are also described in international standards, such as DIN ISO 9001 - 9004.
Increased requirements for defect-free products (target of zero defects) and economic
considerations (defect prevention in place of sorting and reworking, or scrapping) make it
imperative that preventative quality-assurance procedures be applied. These serve the following
objectives:

25

- To develop products that are insensitive to production fluctuations.


- To establish production processes to ensure that quality requirements are main tained within the
specified limits.
- To apply methods which identify the sources of defects at an early stage, and c an be applied to
rectify the production process in good time.
Three types of audit are employed in the periodic monitoring of all elements in a quality assurance system:
System audit: Evaluation of the effectiveness of the quality-assurance system concentrating on
its comprehensiveness and on the practical application of the in dividual elements.
- Process audit: Evaluation of the effectiveness of the elements in the quality-assurance program,
confirmation of quality capability, of adherence to and suitability of particular procedures, and
the determination of specific measures for improvement.
- Product audit: Evaluation of the effectiveness of quality-assurance elements performed by
examining the final products or their components.
Quality assurance in development
At the outset, each of the new products which is to fulfil the customer's quality and reliability
demands is assigned a project specifications manual.
As early as the definition phase, its contents are to serve as the basis for the plan ning of all
sample and endurance testing required to verify the product's operation and reliability.
Quality evaluation
At the conclusion of specific development stages, all the available data regarding quality and
reliability are subjected to a quality evaluation procedure, leading to initiation of the required
corrective measures. Responsible for the quality evaluation are staff members from development,
preproduction and quality control; these, in turn, receive support from specialists from the
specific departments.
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
This cost-reduction and risk-prevention procedure is suitable for investigating the types of defects
which can occur in system components and their effects on the sys tem.
Quality assurance and suppliers
This aspect must extend beyond the delivery inspection: it must comprise an entire system. This
system must ensure that the components acquired from subcontractors contribute to the reliable
fulfilment of the Technical Specifications defined for the final product.
26

It is imperative that the subcontractor's quality capability be supported by modern, preventive


techniques of assuring quality (e.g., SPC statistical process control, or FMEA). All individual
requirements for the product must be specified in a cl ear and unambiguous manner in order to
allow the subcontractor to achieve and competently evaluate comprehensive compliance with the
quality requirements for the product. These guidelines generally are in the form of drawings,
order specifications, standards, formulas, etc.
For example, the initial sample inspection can be performed by the subcontractor who
manufactures the product. This inspection must be reproduced by the purchaser when the product
is received (with particular emphasis on the interrelationships involving manufacturing processes
and the final product), and confirmed by means of a delivery inspection.
The subcontractor's final or shipping inspection can take the place of the pur chaser's delivery
inspection in those cases where the subcontractor possesses special knowledge and/or the
technical equipment necessary (or carrying out specific kinds of testing. The subcontrac tor
confirms the appropriate product quality examinations in quality-test certificates in accordance
with DIN 55 350, or material test certificates according to DIN 50 049. The test results must be
forwarded to the purchaser.
Quality assurance in the preproduction phase
The conditions for supplying reliable quality are established in the production:
planning phase. Compliance with the following conditions is required:
- Planning of the production process and material flow.
- Planning of requirements for production material.
- Selection and acquisition of suitable production methods and production equip ment, as well as
the requisite test stands (e.g., for SPC).
- Examination of production procedures, production equipment and machines to determine
equipment and process capability.
- Documentation of the production procedure in the production plan.
- Determination of the necessary level of employee qualification.
- Preparation of technical drawings and parts lists.
The Process FMEA provides a means of anticipating potential faults in the pro duction process
and of evaluating their effects on the quality of the attribute or the product. The Process FMEA is
employed to discover the sources of defects, and to avoid the defects or minimize their effects.
This makes it possible to initiate the necessary production and monitoring procedures required
for defect avoidance.

27

Inspection planning comprises the following points:


- Analysis of the operations to be evaluated.
- Determination of the test criteria.
- Selection of suitable means and methods for testing.
- Determination of the test content and frequency.
- Documentation of the test procedure in the inspection plan.
- Planning for compiling and recording of data on quality (e.g., in quality -control cards for SPC).
- Planning for monitoring of test equipment.
- Planning for quality-data documentation.
The specified inspection criteria must always include all essential characteristics of the finished
products.
Suitable means for compilation and interpretation of the inspection results are to be specified for
evaluating the quality of products and their components, and for controlling production
processes. Test results are to be processed in such a manner as to be suitable for application in
open-loop and closed-loop process-control systems, fault analysis and fault rectification.

M1. U3.4. Language study


M1. U3.4.1. Increase your vocabulary
M1. U3.4.1.1. Vocabulary related to quality
Quality means meeting the minimum set of requirements in a product's specification and then
being delighted that the customer's expectations have been met and exceeded. Therefore, the goal
of a business should be to find out customer needs and then fine tune the process to ensure that
they are met.
Quality improvement concepts have developed over several decades. They began simply as a
method for detecting defective products by inspection at the end of the production line. In recent
years the emphasis has changed from inspection to prevention. Today sampling methods monitor
processes and keep them under control. The ultimate aim, of course, is zero defects.
In recent years different approaches to quality improvement have been developed. The overall
aim is to prevent defects through:
continuous process improvement
customer focus
28

Defect prevention
error failure inspect prevent
process control repair rework scrap
Continuous process improvement
add value analysis * cause/effect analysis check commitment
control define facilitate monitor prioritize
inventory control system failure analysis variability
Customer focus
accurate comply with needs rectify

M1. U3.4.1.2. Safety at work


Accident investigation (company document on safety)
Whenever an accident occurs that results in an injury (medical case), damage of equipment and
material, or both, prompt accident investigation by the immediate manager is re quired. A written
preliminary investigation will be completed by the end of the particular shift or business day on
which the accident occurred.
In no event should there be a delay of more than 24 hours. Failure to comply with this
requirement may subject the immediate manager to disciplinary action up to and including
discharge.
Without adequate accident investigation data the Company may be subjected to costs, claims, and
legal action for which it has no defence.
As a minimum, the preliminary accident investigation report will include the following:
1. Name, occupation, and sex of injured worker.
2. Place and date/time of accident.
3. Description of how the accident happened.
4. Immediate causes of the accident - unsafe acts and unsafe
conditions.
5. Contributing causes - manager safety performance, level of worker
29

training, inadequate job procedure, poor protective maintenance, etc.


6. Witness(es) - name and department.
7. Corrective action taken - when.
The employee who was injured and any employee(s) who witnessed the incident should be
separately interviewed as soon as possible. A copy of the report must be submitted to the
Manager - Human Resources for review. Another copy of the report is to be retained for a period
of not less than the injured employee's length of employment plus five (5) years.

M1.U1.5. Assessment test

I. Study the company document on safety on chapter M1. U3.4.1.2., and then answer these
questions.
Who is this document for?
a machine operatives
b managers
c all employees
d injured employees
Who wrote this document?
a trade union representative
b technician
c manager d medical staff
What is the writer's intention?
a to prevent accidents
b to ensure speedy help for injured employees
c to protect the company
d to warn about dangers

II. Choose the correct word in the following sentences.


1 We must check/control the temperature regularly to make sure it doesn't rise.

30

2 To compare the number of defects over the last ten years, i t would be best to use a Pareto/bar
chart.
3 We try to detect/define faulty products before they are sent to our customers.
4 But it's a better idea to protect/prevent faulty products in the first place.
5 Making sure that materials are stored correctly is part of process/inventory control.
6 We're sending our engineer who will repair/remake the faulty motor.
7 We have had problems with the electronic equipment due to power errors/failures.
8 This process is very inefficient because of the volume of s crap/error left over.
9 Here is a list of things we could do to improve quality, and now we must define/prioritize them.
10 Improving the design quality of these cars will add value/variability.
III. Here is a memo from the head of quality control to th e managing director. Complete it with
words from the box.
improvement sampling defects zero prevent analysis monitor
continuous cause/effect defective Pareto
MEMO
From Sue Braun
To Alois Vicent
Re Quality control
As you know we recently carried out a (a)..analysis of the bottle manufacturing
plant. Our aim was quality (b).. and to reduce the number of (c) ___________

31

products. As you can see from the attached (d). chart, raw materials and system failures
are the areas we must improve on.
We will introduce new systems to change our (e).. methods and (f) ..aw
materials more carefully. We carried out a system failure (g)..and we are now repairing
the moulding machine. This will (h) _________ future
failures and reduce (i) _________. With
(j) ____________ process improvement, our aim is (k).defects

32

Learning Unit M1.U4. Sentences, Clauses, Phrases II - Grammar study


M1.U4.1.

Introduction

33

M1.U4.2.

Objectives of the learning unit

33

M1.U4.3
M1.U4.4

Grammar study
Sentences, Clauses, Phrases II

34
34

M1.U4.4.1
M1.U4.4.2

Cause and effect


Cause verbs and their collocations

34
36

M1.U4.4.3
M1.U4.5

Contrasting Ideas
Assessment Test

37
38

M1.U4.1. Introduction
An essay in science and engineering is a vehicle for conveying information and
ideas: it is a short written account of a well-defined subject. It is clear and
decisive, systematic and comprehensive, with the parts signposted by carefully
chosen headings. Practice in essay writing will help you to develop your ability to
organize your thoughts and present them in English that will be understood by the
reader you have in mind. Students will find that they learn about their subject at
each stage of their writing: from gathering information and ideas; from selecting
and arranging their material; from writing; from revising; and, if necessary, from
rewriting. However, an essay is not only an exercise in thinking and writing for
students, but also a vehicle in which any writer's thoughts are assembled and
organized and conveyed to the reader in a clear, concise and interesting way."
(Barrass, 2003:50)
M1.U4.2. Objectives of the learning unit

To make the difference between sentences, clauses and phrases in various


communication situations;
To identify and form clauses cause and effect
To contrast ideas and compare situations
To practically apply the knowledge acquired by individual study

33

The average length of the first learning unit is 2 hours.

M1. U4.3. Grammar study


M1. U4.4. Sentences, Clauses, Phrases II
M1. U4.4.1 Cause and effect
Sample sentences
We are going to convert the assembly line because we believe it will improve overall
effectiveness.
Due to the frequent faults in finished products, we are going to install new machinery.
As a result of the high cost of local raw materials, we are going to start importing from China.
Plastics are a versatile family of materials; therefore they are suitable for a wide range of
packaging applications.
Since PET (polyethylene terephthalate) is a clear, tough polymer. it is ideal for use in soft drink
bottles.
Form
1 Causes of cause:
Here a subordinating conjunction links the effect and the cause:
The automotive industry uses plastics because they are durable, resistant to corrosion and
lightweight
Here are the other main subordinating conjunctions:
as since

34

2 Phrases of cause:
Here an adverb phrase introduces the cause:
Polystyrene manufacturers phased out the use of chlorofluorocarbo ns (CFCs) in the late 1980s
because of concerns about the ozone layer.
Other expressions with a similar meaning are:
as a consequence of due to on account of owing to

3 Sentence connectors of cause:


accordingly as a consequence/result because of this - consequently
hence (formal) so that's why (informal) that's (the reason) therefore
thus (formal)
Uses
Look at the following dialogue which demonstrates the use of expressions of cause and effect:
A: Why are we reviewing our quality control practices?
B: Because management is thinking of introducing a zero defect production initiative.
So we are starting a project group to look at current practices in production.
A: So, that's why everyone has been called to the meeting.
B: Exactly. We've scheduled a preliminary meeting on account of this new initiative.
B: But I thought productivity levels had increased.
A: Yes, but because of this it seems that the reject rate

35

M1. U4.4.2. Cause verbs and their collocations


The differences between these verbs are best learnt by observing their typical collocations.
Cause usually collocates with negative results and situations.
The new computer system has caused us a lot of problems.
His stomach cancer was caused by exposure to atomic radiation

cause

Sadness/unhappiness
(a lot of) trouble/problems
an illness (e.g. pneumonia)

a disaster/an accident
Produce is more neutral, and deals with more concrete results. It is used in formal contexts.
Scientists can produce statistics and figures that can prove almost anything.
In law light conditions, a fast film will produce the best photographs.
a report
produce
statistics/figures
good results/evidence
While cause usually collocates with negative situations, give can be used for positive or negative
ones. Give is less formal than cause.
Our dog has given us a lot of pleasure over the years.
This car is giving me so much trouble, Im going to get rid of it.
(a lot of) pleasure/happiness
give
a reason/motivation for something
(a lot of) trouble
good results
Generate is often used in contexts where people are forced to do more than usual, and in
computer contexts. It sometimes has a rather negative feel. It is used in formal contexts.
Its going to be difficult to generate sufficient interest in the project.
The government will have to generate the extra funds somehow or other.
generate

Revenue/income/money
Complaints/extra work/controversy
Graphics/documents

Interest/enthusiasm/publicity
General comment:
Cause and give are often used for things happening without people doing anyth ing:
36

The hurricane caused terrible damage.


Produce and generate usually suggest some sort of intervention by people:
His presentation generated a lot of interest in the project.

Other cause verbs:


The news provoked a feeling of despair in everyone.
The events in the north precipitated/ sparked off a political crisis. [quickly/suddenly caused]
The invention of the car has brought about great changes in our lives. [gradually produced]
Your action has resulted
M1.U4.4.3. Contrasting ideas
Example
Although email is a very convenient form of personal communication, most people have never
sent one. But the number of users is increasing very quickly. Despite improvements in telecoms
networks, connection speeds are often very slow; however ADSL promises fa ster connections.
B Form
1. Clauses of contrast
The main conjunctions of contrast are:
although - but - even though though - whereas while
Notice the difference in use between but and the others:
Videoconferencing is very convenient, but (it) is not as personal as face-to-face contact.
Although videoconferencing is very convenient, it is not as personal as face -to-face contact.
2. Phrases of contrast
The main words to introduce a phrase of contrast are:
despite - in spite of
37

Despite improved security, hackers can still access many networks.


Hackers can still access many networks despite improved security.
3. Sentence connectors of contrast
The main sentence connectors are:
all the same (informal) - but - even so - however - nevertheless - still - yet
You can download Google from many sites worldwide. However, some are faster than others.

M1.U4.5. Assessment test

I. The following sentences contain a mistake. Find the mistake and correct it.
1 Owing a danger of falling objects, workers must wear a hard hat.
2 The driver wasn't badly injured in the accident on account from the airbag.
3 The car is cheap but reliable and that's the result for its popularity.
4 The manufacture of paper uses bleach and other chemicals. Consequently of this, the waste
must be treated before it can be disposed of.
5 Due to oil is used in the manufacture of so many useful substances, it is a valuable raw
material.
6 Optical fibers carry more information more quickly th an copper wires, since copper wires are
being replaced by optical fibers.
II. Here is part of a dialogue between an architect and someone who is interested in a local
housing development. Fill in the blanks with words from the box.

38

result because (2) why


consequence due account
consequently reason so
A: So, these are the finished plans for the housing development. The site was previously used by
heavy industry and (a) ________ of this we will have to remove a thick layer of soil - As a (b)
________ of this, costs will be higher than expected. As far as building design is concerned, the
houses will all have a regular shape as you can see here on the plan on (c) ________ of cost
considerations.
B: Why does that affect cost?
A: If you measure the surface area of the walls, you'll see that buildings with an irregular
shape have a greater surface area. As a (d) ________ , more materials will be
required and, (e) ________ , it will cost more.
B: I see. Now what about the foundations?
A: Well, the soil is very stable. (f) ________ shallow concrete foundations will be sufficient. The
walls will be wooden frame walls. That's the (g) ________ the houses can be erected very
quickly. The external wall cladding will also be made of wood.
B: But won't the wind and rain damage the wood?
A: That's (h) ________ we will use pre-treated wood. As for the roofs - well,
(i) ________ to local planning regulations, the roofs will have to be made of blue slate. It's the
traditional stone from this area and (j) ________ of this we have to
use it.
III. Complete the following sentences by choosing a suitable ending:
accidents sometimes occur
those are a mixture of polyester and wool
39

people in developing countries often have to drink polluted water


there are places in the country where it doesn't work
careful packing
he washed it.
1 The contents of the crate were broken despite ...
2 Although the care label said the coat should be dry-cleaned, ...
3 These carpets are 100% wool whereas ...
4 Mobile phone coverage is fairly extensive; however,...
5 In spite of strict safety regulations,...
6 While we enjoy clean piped drinking water,...

IV. Complete the following text by using one of these words:


whereas however but despite while
The first cantilever bridges were built in China and Tibet (a)________they were made of timber
and could not carry heavy loads. (b__________ once cheap, reliable steel became available in the
1870s, it was possible to build long spans capable of carrying rail traffic.
(c)________ the first modern cantilever bridge was built in Germany, the Forth Railway
Bridge in Scotland held the record for the longest for over 30 years. The Forth Railway Bridge is
made of huge steel tubes, (d)_________the Oostcrschelde Bridge in Holland is made of pre stressed concrete. Some bridges look a little confusing in design. (e)_______ having cable
stays, Lake Maracaibo Bridge in Venezuela is a cantilever type bridge.

Applications
I. Find words which have opposite meanings to those below:
often
unusual
maximum
fixed
to allow
40

II. Find a specialist text (company/R&D centre presentation, journal article) and
rewrite it by using words of research and development from the text Research
and Development and from the chapter M1.U1.4.1.1.
III. Complete the blanks in the following text.
The head of an engineering company in the UK is the____________ or the
Chief Executive Officer (CEO). If it is an American subsidiary, the head may
be known as the Vice President. Unless the person at the top is the Chairman
of the company, or the owner, he or she will be responsible to a
_____________or, in the case of a US subsidiary, the President. In turn. the
Chairman or President is responsible to the company shareholders.
The managers of the various departments which are vital to a company report
directly to the Managing Director. These managers may be referred to as the
Management Team. They are required to advise the Director on the
consequences of any decision made by the Board in terms of costs,
personnel, materials, time, plant, etc. They also have to brief the Director on
any matterswhich should be taken to the Board for decision.
The______________, with the support of the Mechanical, Electronic, and
_________Sections, is responsible for the introduction of new products. The
____________decides how the new products will be produced. The
_____________and Industrial Engineer Manager report to this member of
the Management Team.
The __________ensures that the products are fault-free and that the
components and materials used in their manufacture meet company
standards. The________handles market research, promotion, and sales. The
Field Service Manager is responsible for the installation and maintenance of
the company's products wherever required.
IV. List some of the potential dangers in your laboratory, workshop, or place of
work. How is the risk of these hazards reduced?
V. Study the safety instructions from a workshop below, and then answer these
questions.
a Who are the instructions for?
41

b Who wrote them?


c What was the writer's purpose?

Wear protective clothing at all times.

Always wear eye protection when operating lathes, cutters, and grinders

and ensure the guard is in place.


Keep your workplace tidy.

The areas between benches and around machines must be kept clear.
Tools should be put away when not in use and any breakages and losses

reported.
Machines should be cleaned after use.

VI. Make up 5 Clauses of reason,


5 Clauses of result,
5 Clauses of concession,
5 Clauses of comparison,
5 Clauses of time
5 Clauses of contrast
within complex sentences by using research & development and qualityrelated vocabulary.

42

Module 2: Logistics and Finance

Contents
Introduction
Competencies

43
43

U1. Machines and Process Capability - Language study


U2. Prepositions- Grammar study

44
52

U3. Finance - Language study


U4. Run-on sentences- Grammar study

69
76

Introduction
Module 2 introduces students to new concepts related to logistics and finance .
Students get familiar with new terminology on machines and process capability as
well as on other concepts used in economic engineering. Similarly, Module 2
provides students with a close grammar study of prepositions. In addition,
introduces students to structural flaws that can plague English sentence:

Competencies

To produce correct scientific writings;


To become aware of word importance: vocabulary related to logistics;
To introduce students to finance-oriented terminology;
To use proper prepositions in various contexts of communication;
To identify run-on sentences;
To practically apply the knowledge acquired by individual study.

43

Learning Unit M2.U1. Machines and Process Capability- Language


study
Contents
M2.U1.1.

Introduction

44

M2.U1.2.

Objectives of the learning unit

45

M2.U1.3
M2.U1.4

Production Management
Language study

46
48

M2.U1.4.1.
M2.U1.4.1.1.
M2.U1.4.1.2.
M2.U1.5

Increase your vocabulary


Logistics
Mechanisms
Assessment Test

48
48
49
50

M2.U1.1. Introduction
An important aspect of terminology management when it comes to put at users
disposal a terminology database is organizing the database so that is should be
user-friendly, that it is complete, attractive, cohesive. It is essential to always keep
in mind the target group the database addresses, i.e. students who have to improve
their English in order to be able to function in an English-working environment. It
calls for a double effort from both teachers and students: on the one hand,
structuring the terminology database for students to learn the specialized language
in their field of study and, on the other hand, linking the terminology database to
documentation and context-oriented database for students to learn to convey and
handle specialized information.
Before structuring the terminology and document database it is essential to focus,
on the one hand, on theoretical aspects related to the knowledge structure of a
particular subject field, which represents the knowledge structure of a terminology
database and, on the other hand, on practical aspects related to the structure of a
terminology database with the particular goal of acquiring specialist languages.
Concept, terminological unit and context are essential elements when dealing with
the knowledge structure of a subject field that is to be acquired and used by
students, academic staff or professionals.

44

M2.U1.2. Objectives of the learning unit

To encourage students to produce correct scientific writings;

To make students aware of word importance: vocabulary related to


logistics, mechanisms;

To practically apply the knowledge acquired by individual study

The average length of the first learning unit is 2 hours.

M2.U1.3. Machines and Process Capability


Machine capability
The evaluation of machine capability is to confirm performance potential in the following two
areas:
- The machine under examination must operate with verifiable consistency. When indicated, this
consistency is to be defined with the aid of statistical quantities, e.g., as a normal (Gaussian)
distribution factor with mean value x and mean square deviation s.
- The machine must be able to maintaining production within specified tolerances. This can only
be confirmed using the quantification of consistency indicated above.
Testing of machine capability is restricted to a limited period, and to the investigation of the
equipment-related effects on the production process. However, it should be noted that equipmentrelated and non-equipment-related factors (e.g., effects of material or procedures) cannot usually
be separated completely. Individual tests are designed to determine whether:
- unusual process results are recognised.
- mean values and scatter range remain stable within the test series (the verification limits of
statistical process control are employed for this examination).
If no unusual process results are present, and the mean and the scatter range are stable, then the
process is considered to be fully controlled: the suitability of the equipment is then described
using the familiar statistical parameters dn and Cmk. The value for Cm only reflects the scatter
range for the machine; it is calculated with the following equation:

45

Cn,=(OCW-t/GW)/(6 A)
On the other hand. the value for Co* reflects not only the machine's scatter range. but also the
position of the mean within the tolerance range. It is essential that it be calculated for the
production machinery on which adjustments are either imprecise or impossible. It is calculated as
follows:
Cn*=(?-C/Gty/(3 ft) or c^=(OGW-.-(V(3 ft)
with the lesser value being valid. The definitions are:
x
Total mean value UGW Lower tolerance-range limit OGW Uppertolerance-range limit 6
Estimated process scatter range
Bosch only designates production equipment as capable of ensuring that manufacture will result
in the required product attributes when Cmh is at least 1.67.
Unusual process results, or an instable mean or scatter range indicate that the process is not fully
controlled. This means that non-random influences (interference factors) are affecting the
process. These must be rectified either through removal or compensation; after this the
equipment's performance potential is tested again.
If the result of the machine-capability test is positive, it is followed by an examination of the
process capability. This is intended to ensure that the production process is capable of
consistently meeting the quality requirements placed upon it.
The examination of process capability extends over a longer period of time. All changes in the
process (e.g.. different material, tooling changes or modification of methods) are reflected in the
examination procedure, where they are considered in determining the extent and frequency of
sample testing.
Once compiled, the data are subjected to a statistical analysis comparable to that employed for
determining equipment performance potentials. Particular attention is devoted to ascertaining
whether the process mean and process control are stable, i.e.. whether the process is fully
controlled. If the process is fully controlled. then the process performance potential is confirmed
using the familiar statistical values Cp and Cpk. These values are calculated in the same manner
as Cm and Cmk;
the values for .v and d must be derived from the p rocess examination.
If the process is not fully controlled, then Cp and Cpk are not to be calculated. In this case the
causes of the instability in the process must be dealt with through removal or compensation. The
examination of process performance potential is then repeated.
Bosch designates a process as ensuring the required product attributes only in cases where Cpk is
at least 1.33.

46

Machinery and processes must be tested before SPC is applied. However, both investigations are
also important for processes which are not controlled by SPC, as the required potential must be
confirmed for each type of process.
Statistical Process Control (SPC)
SPC is a process-control system intended to assist in the prevention of errors and their associated
costs. SPC is employed in production, being applied for attributes which are vital to operation.
Test equipment
The test equipment must be able to demonstrate whether the test attributes of the finished product
conform to the prescribed specifications. Test equipment must be monitored, calibrated and
maintained. Measuring error is to be considered when using test equipment. It must be minimal
relative to the tolerance range for the attribute being tested. With test equipment, attention is to be
paid to;
- Determining the measurements to be performed, the required precision and the suitable test
equipment.
- Ensuring that the test equipment meets precision requirements, i.e., the measuring error is
generally not to exceed 10 % of the tolerance range.
- All test equipment and gauges used for product quality-assurance are to be
Production process affected by:
specified in an inspection plan: they must be labelled, and are to be calibrated and adjusted at
prescribed intervals.
- Calibration procedures must be specified. These must comprise individual data on the type
of unit, its identification. application area and calibration intervals. and are also to include the
steps to be taken in case of unsatisfactory results.
- Test devices are to be provided with labels indicating their calibration status.
- Calibration records (histories) are to be maintained.
- The appropriate environmental conditions for calibrating, testing and measurement must be
maintained.
- Test equipment is to be carefully stored and protected against contamination in order to
maintain consistent levels of precision and suitability for use.
- The test equipment and the software are to be protected against any influences which might
invalidate their calibration.

47

Test-equipment monitoring -Scope and procedures


Satisfactory arrangements for monitoring test equipment embrace all measuring devices
employed in development, production, assembly and in customer service. This category includes
callipers unit standards, instruments, recording devices, and special test equipment along with its
ancillary computer software. In addition, the equipment, mounts and clamps, and instruments
employed for process control are also monitored.
Procedures which extend to include the equipment and the abilities of the operator are employed
in evaluating whether a test process is controlled. Measurement deviations are compared with the
quality specifications. Appropriate corrective measures are to be initiated when the requirements
for precision and function in test equipment are no longer satisfied.
Calibration requirements and measuring devices
German legal requirements on weights and measures stipulate that calibration of measuring
devices which are for use in "business transactions" be officially certified in those cases where
the results of their measurements are employed to determine the price of goods or energy. This
category includes equipment for measuring length, surface area. volume and mass, and thermal
and electrical energy. If these conditions apply, then the calibration of the measuring devices in
question must be officially-certified. Continuing compliance must then be monitored by an
official or an officially approved agency.
M2.U1.4. Language study
M2.U1.4.1. Increase your vocabulary
M2.U1.4.1.1. Logistics
Logistics describes the organized movement of physical materials in a factory. It is usually
subdivided into materials management, which is control of the efficient and effective flow of
materials in the factory, from the arrival of raw materia ls to the packaging of the product; and
distribution management, which includes the storage of goods and their transportation to
distributors and consumers.
At the same time, efficient logistics needs efficient documentation flow for the goods from
storage to destination. The process of distribution involves different means of transportation and
requires secure packaging.

48

Documentation
bill of lading delivery note envelope packing list picking list
Goods
cargo consignment freight shipment
Storage
depot distribution centre forklift truck pallet warehouse
Packaging
carton crate pack package
Distribution
carriage carrier channel deliver - delivery dispatch export forward
haul import in transit lading load shipper unload
Means of transportation
air freight lorry ship tanker truck van

M2.U1.4.1.2. Mechanisms
Mechanisms are an important part of everyday life. They allow us to do simple things like switch
on lights, turn taps, and open doors. They also make it possible to use escalators and lifts, travel
in cars, and fly from continent to continent.
Mechanisms play a vital role in industry. While many industrial processes have electronic control
systems, it is still mechanisms that deliver the power to do the work. They provide the forces to
press steel sheets into car body panels, to lift large components from place to place, to force
plastic through dies to make pipes.
AII mechanisms involve some kind of motion. The four basic kinds of motion a re:
Rotary: Wheels, gears, and rollers involve rotary movement.
Oscillating: The pendulum of a clock oscillates-it swings backwards and forwards.
Linear: The linear movement of a paper trimmer is used to cut the edge of the paper.
Reciprocating: The piston in a combustion engine reciprocates.

49

Many mechanisms involve changing one kind of motion in to another type. For example, the
reciprocating motion of a piston is changed into a rotary motion by the crankshaft, while a cam
converts the rotary motion of the engine into the reciprocating motion required to operate the
valves.

M2.U1.5 Assessment Test

I. Find a word or phrase related to logistics (chapter M2.U1.4.1.1.) which means:


1 a contract with a shipper to transport goods.
2 the control of flow of materials and goods within the factory.
3 to bring goods in from another country.
4 a place where large quantities of materials. equipment or goods are stored until they are
needed.
5 goods packed together and wrapped up ready for transportation.
6 goods carried on a plane, ship or truck.
7 the system of distribution of goods from producer to customer.
8 in the process of being transported.
9 to put goods onto a ship. lorry or plane.
10 the cost of moving goods from one place to another.
II. Here is an email from Woodman Ltd., a manufacturing company, to a customer. Fill in
the blanks with words from the box.

50

dispatched warehouse shipped delivery carrier


packing list crate delivery note consignment
Ref: MS423
Dear Clive
We have just (a) _________ the (b) _______ of goods, order no. MS423, to
you. We have used our usual (c) ________, MJ Irving. The chairs have been packed in a wooden
(d) _______ and marked WD MS Belfast. I am attaching the
(e) _________; the (f) __________ is enclosed with the goods.
The crate should be (g) ________ to Ireland on Thursday and Irving has promised
(h) _________ to your (i) ___________ in Belfast on Friday morning.
Regards
Barry
III. Read the text on chapter M2.U1.4.1.2. to find the answers to these questions.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

What does a cam do?


What does oscillating mean?
How are plastic pipes formed?
What simple mechanisms in the home are mentioned directly or indirectly?
What is the function of a crankshaft?
Give an example of a device which can produce a linear movement.
How are car body panels formed?
What do mechanisms provide in industry?

51

Learning Unit M2.U2. Prepositions - Grammar study


Contents
M2.U2.1.
M2.U2.2.

Introduction
Objectives of the learning unit

52
53

M2.U2.3

Grammar study

54

M2.U2.3.1
M2.U2.3.2.

Prepositions
Adjectives with prepositions/Verbs with prepositions

54
64

M2.U2.3.2.1
M2.U2.3.2.2
M2.U2.4

Prepositions used with adjectives and participles


Verbs and prepositions
Assessment Test

64
65
67

M2.U1.1. Introduction
Terminological units, which take different forms, structure the specialized text
and, in combination with general language units, shape the technical or scientific
discourse. Recognizing terminological units in specialized documentation is
important in an ESP course because the student becomes aware of the specialized
vocabulary in his/her field of study; moreover, this may stand for a starting point
for further documentation and specialized debates.
1) Single-Word and Multiword Terms
2) Set Phrases
3) Collocations
4) Standard texts
5) Abbreviated forms of terms
A term or terminology unit in a specialized language is distinguished from a word
in general language by its single-meaning relationship with the specialized
concept that it designates and by the stability of the relationship between form and
content in texts dealing with this concept (called lexicalization). The status of the
term is revealed by its frequency of use and its relatively fixed contextual
surroundings (its co-occurrents), and by typographical enhancements (italics,
boldface print, quotation marks, etc.). A final indicator is its rather limited set of
morphological and lexical structures: noun (simple, derived, or compound), verb,
adjective, noun phrase, verb phrase, or adjective phrase. (Handbook of
Terminology, 2001:19)

52

M2.U1.2. Objectives of the learning unit

To help students produce correct scientific writings;


To help students use
proper prepositions in various contexts of

communication;
To practically apply the knowledge acquired by individual study.

The average length of the first learning unit is 2 hours.

M2.U2.3. Grammar study


M2.U2.3.1. Prepositions
Introduction
Prepositions are words normally placed before nouns or pronou ns.
Prepositions can also be followed by verbs but, except after but and except, the verb must be in
the gerund form:
He is talking of emigrating.
They succeeded in escaping.
The student has two main problems with prepositions. He has to know (a) whether in any
construction a preposition is required or not, and (b) which preposition to use when one is
required. The first problem can be especially troublesome to a European student, who may find
that a certain construction in his own language requires a prep osition, whereas a similar one in
English does not. and vice versa: e.g. in most European languages purpose is expressed by a
preposition + infinitive; in English it is expressed by the infinitive only:
I came here to study.
The student should note also that many words used mainly as prepositions can also be used as
conjunctions and adverbs. Where this is the case it will be pointed out in the following
paragraphs.
Alternative position of prepositions

53

Prepositions normally precede nouns or pronouns. In two constructions, however, it is possible in


informal English to move the preposition to the end of the sentence:
In questions beginning with a preposition + whom/which/what/ whose/where:
To whom were you talking? (formal)
Who were you talking to? (informal)
In which drawer does he keep it? (formal)
Which drawer does he keep it in? (informal) It used to be thought ungrammatical to end a
sentence with a preposition, but it is now accepted as a colloquial form.
Similarly in relative clauses, a preposition placed before whom/which can be moved to the end of
the clause. The relative pronoun is then often omitted:
the people with whom 1 was travelling (formal)
the people I was travelling with (informal)
the company from which I hire my TV set (formal)
the company I hire my TV set from (informal)

Time and date: at, on, by, before, in


at. on
at a time:
at dawn at six at midnight at 4.30
at an age:
at sixteen/at the age of sixteen She got married at seventeen.
on a day/date:
on Monday on 4 June on Christmas Day
Exceptions at night at Christmas, at Easter (the period, not the day only)
on the morning/aftemoon/evening/night of a certain date:
We arrived on the morning of the sixth. It is also, of course, possible to say:
this/next Monday etc., any Monday, one Monday
by, before
by a time/date/period = at that time or before/not later than that date
It often implies "before that time/date':
The train starts at 6.10, so you had better be at the station by 6.00. by + a time expression is often
used with a perfect tense, particularly the future perfect:
By the end of July I'll have read all those books.
before can be preposition, conjunction or adverb:
54

Before signing this . . . (preposition)


Before you sign this . . . (conjunction)
I've seen him somewhere before, (adverb)
on time, in time, in good time
on time = at the time arranged, not before, not after:
The 8.15 train started on time. (It started at 8.15.)
in time/in time for + noun = not late; in good time (for) = with a comfortable margin:
Passengers should be in time for their train.
I arrived at the concert hall in good time (for the concert). (Perhaps the concert began at 7.30
and I arrived at 7.15.)
on arrival, on arriving, on reaching, on getting to
on arrival/on arriving, he . . . = when he arrives/arrived, he . . .
on can also be used similarly with the gerund of certain other verbs
(chiefly verbs of information):
On checking, she found that some of the party didn 't know the way.
On hearing/Hearing that the plane had been diverted, they left the airport.
The on in the last sentence could be omitted.
at the beginning/end, in the beginning/end, at first/at last
at the beginning (of/at the end (of) = literally at the beginning/end:
At the beginning of a book there is often a table o f contents.
At the end there may be an index.
In the beginning/at first = in the early stages. It implies that lab an there was a change:
In the beginning/At first we used hand tools. Later we had machines
In the end/at last = eventually/after some time:
At first he opposed the marriage, but in the end he gave his consent
Time: from, since, for, during
from, since and for
from is normally used with to or till/until:
55

Most people work from nine to five. from can also be used of place:
Where do you come from?
since is used for time, never for place, and means from that time to the time referred to'. It is
often used with a present perfect or past perfect tense.
He has been here since Monday, (from Monday till now)
He wondered where Ann was. He had not seen her since their quarrel.
since can also be an adverb:
He left school in 1983. I haven't seen him since.
since can also be a conjunction of time:
He has worked for us ever since he left school.
If is two years since I last saw Tom =
/ last saw Tom two years ago/I haven't seen Tom for two years. (For since with other types of
clause, see 338.)
for is used of a period of time: for six years, for two months, for ever:
Bake it for two hours.
He travelled in the desert for six months.
for + a period of time can be used with a present perfect tense or past perfect tense for an action
which extends up to the time of speaking:
He has worked here for a year. (He began working here a year ago
and still works here.)
for used in this way is replaceable by since with the point in time when the action began:
He has worked here since this time last year.
during and for
during is used with known periods of time, i.e. periods known by name, such as Christmas,
Easter or periods which have been already defined:
during the Middle Ages during 1941
during the summer (of that year)
during his childhood
during my holidays
The action can either last the whole period or occur at some time within the period:
It rained all Monday but stopped raining during the night, (at some
point of time)
He was ill for a week, and during that week he ate nothing.
56

for (indicating purpose) may be used before known periods:


I went there/I hired a car/I rented a house for my holidays/for the summer.
for has various other uses:
He asked for 5. I paid 1 for it.
I bought one for Tom.
Time: to, till/until, after, afterwards (adverb)
to and till/until
to can be used of time and place; till/until of time only.
We can use from ... to or from . . . till/until:
They worked from five to ten/from five till ten. (at five to ten would
mean 'at 9.55'.)
But if we have no from we use till/until, not to:
Let's start now and work till dark. (to would not be possible here.)
till/until is often used with a negative verb to emphasise lateness:
We didn 't get home till 2 a.m.
He usually pays me on Friday but last week he didn t pay me till the
following Monday.
till/until is very often used as a conjunction of time:
Hell stay here till it stops raining.
Go on till you come to the level crossing.
But note that if 'you come to is omitted, the till must be replaced to by:
Go on to the level crossing.
after and afterwards (adverb)
after (preposition) must be followed by a noun, pronoun or gerund:
Don 't bathe immediately after a meal/after eating.
Don't have a meal and bathe immediately after it.
If we do not wish to use a noun/pronoun or gerund, we cannot use after, but must use afterwards
(= after that) or then:
Don't have a meal and bathe immediately afterwards.
57

They bathed and afterwards played games/played games afterwards or


They bathed and then played games.
afterwards can be used at either end of the clause and can be modified by soon, immediately, not
long etc.:
Soon afterwards we got a letter.
We got a letter not long afterwards.
after can also be used as a conjunction:
After he had tuned the piano it sounded quite different.
Travel and movement: from, to, at, in, by, on, into, onto, 1 off, out, out of
We travel from our starting place to our destination:
They flew/drove/cycled/walked from Paris to Rome. When are you coming back to England?
We also send/post letters etc. to people and places. (But see note on home below.)
arrive at/in, get to, reach (without preposition)
We arrive in a town or country, at or in a vill age, at any other
destination:
They arrived in Spain/in Madrid.
I arrived at the hotel/at the airport/at the bridge/at the crossroads.
get to can be used with any destination, and so can reach:
He got to the station just m time for his train.
I want to get to Berlin before dark.
They reached the top of the mountain before sunrise.
get in (in = adverb) can mean "arrive at a destination'. It is chiefly used of trains:
What time does the train get in? (reach the terminus/our station)
Note also get there/back (there, back are adverbs).
Home
We can use a verb of motion etc. + home without a preposition:
It took us an hour to get home.
They went home by bus.
But if home is immediately preceded by a word or phrase a preposition is necessary:
She returned to her parents' home.
We can be/live/stay/work etc. at home, at + . . . + home or in + . . . + home. But in cannot be
followed directly by home:
58

You can do this sort of work at home or at/in your own home.
Transport: by, on, get in/into/on/onto/off/out of
We can travel by car (but in the/my/Tom's car), by bus/train/ plane/helicopter/hovercraft etc. and
by sea/air. We can also travel by a certain route, or by a certain place (though via is more usual):
We went by the M4. We went via Reading.
We can walk or go on foot.
We can cycle or go on a bicycle or by bicycle.
We can ride or go on horseback.
We get into a public or private vehicle, or get in (adverb).
We get on/onto a public vehicle, or get on (adverb).
But we go on board a boat (= embark).
We get on/onto a horse/camel/bicycle.
We get out of a public or private vehicle, or get out (adverb).
We get off a public vehicle, a horse, bicycle, etc., or get off (adverb).
get in/into/out/out of can also be used of buildings, institutions and countries inst ead of
go/come/return etc. when there is some difficulty in entering or leaving, in and out here are used
as adverbs.
I've lost my keys! How are we going to get into the flat/ to get in? (adverb)
The house is on fire! We had better get out! (adverb)
Its difficult to get into a university nowadays.
Giving directions: at, into, to etc. (prepositions), along, on (prepositions and adverbs) and till
(conjunction):
Go along the Strand till you see the Savoy on your right.
The bus stop is just round the comer.
Turn right/left at the Post Office/at the second traffic lights.
Go on (adverb) past the post office.
Turn right/left into Fleet Street.
Take the first/second etc. turning on/to the right or on/to your right.
Go on (adverb) to the end of the road. (till could not be used here.)
You will find the bank on your left halfway down the street.
When you come out of the station you will find the bank opposite
you/in front of you.
Get out (of the bus) at the tube station and walk on (adverb) till you
59

come to a pub.
Get off (the bus) and walk back (adverb) till you come to some
traffic lights.
Be careful not to confuse to and till
at, in; in, into; on, onto
at and in
at
We can be at home, at work, at the office, at school, at university, at an address, at a certain
point e.g. at the bridge, at the crossroads, at the bus-stop.
in
We can be in a country, a town, a village, a square, a street, a room, a forest, a wood, a field, a
desert or any place which has boundaries or is enclosed.
But a small area such as a square, a street, a room, a field might be used with at when we mean
"at this point' rather than 'inside'.
We can be in or at a building, in means inside only; at could mean
inside or in the grounds or just outside. If someone is 'at the station' he
could be in the street outside, or in the ticket office/waiting room/ restaurant or on the platform.
We can be in or at the sea, a river, lake, swimming pool etc.
in here means actually in the water:
The children are swimming in the river.
at the sea/river/lake etc. means 'near/beside the sea'. But at sea means 'on a ship'.
in and into
in as shown above normally indicates position.
T
into indicates movement, entrance:
They climbed into the lorry.
I poured the beer into a tankard.
Thieves broke into my house/My house was broken into.
With the verb put, however, either in or into can be used:
He put his hands in/info his pockets.
in can also be an adverb:
Come in = Enter. Get in (into the car).
on and onto
on can be used for both position and movement:
He was sitting on his case.
60

Snow fell on the hills.


His name is on the door.
He went on board ship.
onto can be used (chiefly of people and animals) when there is movem ent involving a change of
level:
People climbed onto their roofs.
We lifted him onto the table.
The cat jumped onto the mantelpiece.
on can also be an adverb:
Go on. Come on.
above, over, under, below, beneath etc.
above and over
above (preposition and adverb) and over (preposition) can both mean "higher than' and
sometimes either can be used:
The helicopter hovered above/over us.
Flags waved above/over our heads.
But over can also mean 'covering', 'on the other side of, 'across' and 'from one side to the other':
We put a rug over him.
He lives over the mountains.
There is a bridge over the river.
all over + noun/pronoun can mean 'in every part of:
He has friends all over the world.
above can have none of these meanings.
over can mean 'more than' or "higher than'.
above can mean 'higher than' only.
Both can mean 'higher in rank'. But He is over me would normally mean
'He is my immediate superior', 'He supervises my work', above would
not necessarily have this meaning.
If we have a bridge over a river, above the bridge means 'upstream.
over can be used with meals/food/drink:
They had a chat over a cup of tea. (while drinking tea)
In the combination take + a time expression + over + noun/pronoun,
over can mean 'to do/finish' etc.:
He doesn't take long over lunch/to eat his lunch. He took ages over the job. (He took ages to
finish it.)
61

above can also be an adjective or adverb meaning 'earlier' (in a book, article etc.):
the above address (the previously mentioned address)
see B above (the previously mentioned section B)
below and under
below (preposition and adverb) and under (preposition) can both mean 'lower than' and
sometimes either can be used. But under can indicate contact:
She put the letter under her pillow.
The ice crackled under his feet.
With below there is usually a space between the two surfaces:
They live below us. (We live on the fourth floor and they live on
the third.)
Similarly: We live above them. (See above.)
below and under can mean junior in rank'. But He is under me implies that I am his immediate
superior, below does not necessarily have this meaning.
(Both over and under can be used as adverbs, but with a change of meaning.)
beneath can sometimes be used instead of under, but it is safer to
keep it for abstract meanings:
He would think it beneath him to tell a lie. (unworthy of him) She married beneath her. (into a
lower social class)
beside, between, behind, in front of, opposite
Imagine a theatre with rows of seats: A, B, C etc.. Row A being
nearest the stage.
Stage
Row A Tom Ann Bill
Row B Mary Bob Jane
This means that:
Tom is beside Ann; Mary is beside Bob etc.
;
Ann is between Tom and Bill; Bob is between Mary and Jane.
Mary is behind Tom; Tom is in front of Mary.
But if Tom and Mary are having a meal and Tom is sitting at one side of the table and Mary at
the other, we do not use in front of, but say:
Tom is sitting opposite Mary or Tom is facing Mary.
But He stood in front of me could mean either "He stood with his back tg roe* or 'He faced me'

62

People living on one side of a street will talk of the houses on the other side as the houses
opposite (us) rather than the houses in front of us.
With other things, however, these restrictions do not apply:
She put the plate on the table in front of him.
She sat with a book in front of her.
Where's the bank? - There it is, just in front of you!
There's a car-park in front of/at the back of the hotel.
Don't confuse beside with besides.
beside = at the side of:
We camped beside a lake.
besides (preposition) = in addition to/as well as:
/ do all the cooking and besides that I help Tom.
Besides doing the cooking I help Tom.
besides (adverb) means (a) 'in addition to that/as well as that':
/ do the cooking and help Tom besides
and (b) "in any case/anyway':
We can't afford oysters. Besides, Tom doesn 't like them.
between and among
between normally relates a person/thing to two other people/things, but it can be used of more
when we have a definite number in mind:
Luxembourg lies between Belgium, Germany and France.
among relates a person/thing to more than two others; normally we have no definite number in
mind:
He was happy to be among friends again.
a village among the hills
with could also be used instead of among in the la st sentence above. Also, of course, with a
singular object:
He was with a friend. Examples of other uses:
He cut it with a knife.
Don't touch it with bare hands.
The mountains were covered with snow.
I have no money with me/on me.
He fought/quarrelled with everyone.
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In descriptions:
the girl with red hair
the boy with his hands in his pockets
the man with his back to the camera/with his feet on his desk
but and except (prepositions)
These have the same meaning and are interchangeable.
but is more usual when the preposition + object is placed immediately
after nobody/none/nothing/nowhere etc:
Nobody but Tom knew the way.
Nothing but the best is sold in our shops.
except is more usual when the preposition phrase comes later in the sentence:
Nobody knew the way except Tom
and after all/everybody/everyone/everything/everywhere etc.
but is more emphatic than except after anybody/anything/ anywhere etc.:
You can park anywhere but/except here. (You can't park here.)
but and except take the bare infinitive.
M2.U2.3.2. Adjectives with prepositions/Verbs with prepositions
M2.U2.3.2.1. Prepositions used with adjectives and participles
Certain adjectives and past participles used as adjectives can be
followed by a preposition + noun/gerund
Usually particular adjectives and participles require particular
prepositions. Some of these are given below; others can be found by
consulting a good dictionary, which after any adjective will give the
prepositons that can be used with it.
Absorbed in

Involved in

According to

Keen on

Accustomed to

Liable for/to

Afraid of

Nervous of

Anxious for/about

Owing to

Ashamed of

Pleased with

Aware of

Prepared for

64

Bad at/for

Proud of

Capable of

Ready for

Confident of

Responsible for/to

Due to/for

Scared of

Exposed to

Sorry for/about

Fit for

Successful in

Fond of

Suspicious of

Frightened of/at

Terrified of

Good at/for

Tired of

Interested in

Used to

He was absorbed in his book.


She is afraid/frightened/scared of the dark.
According to Tom it's 2.30. (Tom says it's 2.30.)
He is bad/good at chess, (a bad/good player)
Running is bad/good for you. (unhealthy/healthy)
They are very keen on golf.
Drivers exceeding the speed limit are liable to a fine.
The management is not responsible for articles left in customers' cars.
I'm sorry for your husband. (I pity him.)
I'm sorry for forgetting the tickets.
I'm sorry about the tickets.

M2.U2.3.2.2. Verbs and prepositions


There are a great number of verbs which can be followed by prepositions and some of these are
listed below. More can be found in any good dictionary.
Accuse sb of

Insist on

Apologise (to sb) for

Live on (food/money)

Apply to sb/for sth

Long for

Ask for/about

Object to

Attend to

Occur to

Beg for

Persist in

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Believe in

Prefer sb.sth to sb/sth

Beware of

Prepare for

Blame sb for

Punish sb for

Charge sb with

Quarrel with sb about

Compare sth with

Refer to

Comply with

Rely on

Conform to

Remind sb of

Consist of

Resort to

Deal in

Succeed in

Depend on

Suspect sb of

Dream of

Think of/about

Fight with sb for

Wait for

Fine sb for

Warn sb of/about

Hope for

Wish for

Do you believe in ghosts?


They were charged with receiving stolen goods.
You haven't complied with the regulations.
For a week she lived on bananas and milk.
It never occurred to me to insure the house.
They persisted in defying the law.
When arguments failed he resort to threats.
feel like + noun/pronoun = feel inclined to have something:
Do you feel like a drink/a meal/a, rest?
feel like + gerund = feel inclined to do something:
I don't feel like walking there.
Passive verbs can of course be followed by by + agent; but they can also be followed by other
prepositions:
The referee was booed by the crowd.
The referee was booed for his decision/for awarding a penalty.

66

M2.U2.4 Assessment Test

I Five of the following sentences contain mistakes. Find the mistakes and correct them.
1 The interim report was completed lo the end of last month.
2 These products have been on the market since nearly ten years.
3 The meeting has been arranged for 1611' April at 10 a.m.
4 The results will be evaluated after the tests have been completed.
5 We intend to continue production during the new machinery is installed.
6 The road will be closed from 7 p.m and 7 a.m.
7 The jacquard loom for weaving cloth was created at 1801.
8 During Ihe 19111 and 2U11' centuries. great advances were made in treating illnesses.
II Complete the following telephone conversation by adding the correct prepositions of time. If
no preposition is required, leave the space blank.
ERIK: I was wondering if we could arrange a meeting (a) ________ next week?
MIRJAM; Yes, of course! I'm going to Washington (b) ________ Friday evening so can we
arrange something (c) ________ that?
ERIK: Eh, Yes. I'm pretty busy (d) ________ the beginning (e) ________ the
week but perhaps we could meet some time (f) _______ Wednesday?
MIRJAM: Could we meet (g) ________ the morning (h) ________ 9.30?

67

ERIK: That's fine. I should have received the test results we've been wa iting for
(i) _______ then.
MIRJAM: I'm looking forward to seeing the latest results. 1 haven't heard anything (j) ________
we spoke (k) ________ last month.

III. Complete the following texts using the correct preposition.


You may have to use some prepositions more than once.
between from on along
above through to
Signals pass (a) _________ a telephone (b) _________ the local exchange
(c) _________ copper cables. Most exchanges are linked by optical fiber cables
(d) _________ which the signals travel as pulses of laser light. Microwave beams sent (e)
_________ dishes (f) _________ tall towers. link some signals. International calls go (g) ______
undersea optical fiber cables or via satellites high (h) _________ the Earth.

around at of from to
Refrigerators keep food (a) _________ a temperature (b) _________ about 50C - They work by
evaporation. When a liquid changes (c) _________ a vapor, it takes heat(d) _________ its
surroundings. In a fridge, the cooling process is done by a refr igerant which circulates (e)
_________ a system (f) _________ sealed pipes.

68

Learning Unit M2.U3. Finance - Language study


Contents
M2.U3.1.
M2.U3.2.

Introduction
Objectives of the learning unit

69
69

M2.U3.3

Finance

70

M2.U3.4
M2.U3.4.1.

Language study
Increase your vocabulary

72
72

M2.U3.4.1.1.
M2.U3.5

Economy and finance


Assessment Test

72
74

M2.U3.1. Introduction
The concept, together with the terminological unit and the context, represents the
knowledge structure of a particular subject field. Terms do not exist in isolation
but in a particular structure and are always linked to concepts taken from the
specialized reality. The concepts hold a very important role in the process of term
formation, and more than that, in the formation process of terminological units.
Concepts represent the basis of terminology. Forming term is not an arbitrary
process like that of word formation, but is a fully responsible process that
facilitates communication and transmission of knowledge.
Concepts make up the fields of knowledge and establish various relations among
them in order to give coherence to a particular field and in order for specialists to
establish relations among them. This means that indeed terminology is the
structure of specialist knowledge in a certain field (Maria Teresa Cabre, 1998).
M2.U3.2. Objectives of the learning unit
To increase students vocabulary by exposing them to authentic texts;
To translate the Romanian vocabulary learnt at specialist subjects into
English;
To introduce students to economy and finance-oriented terminology;
To practically apply the knowledge acquired by individual study.

69

The average length of the first learning unit is 2 hours.

M2.U3.3. Finance
Finance (From Wikipedia)
The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interrelated.
Banks are the main facilitators of funding through the provision of credit, although private
equity, mutual funds, hedge funds, , and other organizations have become important. Financial
assets, known as investments, are financially managed with careful attention to financial risk
management to control financial risk. Financial instruments allow many forms of securized assets
to be traded on securities exchanges such as stock exchanges, including debt such as bonds as
well as equity in publicly-traded corporations.
The main techniques and sectors of the financial industry
An entity whose income exceeds its expenditure can lend or invest the excess income. On the
other hand, an entity whose income is less than its expenditure can raise capital by borrowing or
selling equity claims, decreasing its expenses, or increasing its income. The lender can find a
borrower, a financial intermediary such as a bank, or buy notes or bonds in the bond market. The
lender receives interest, the borrower pays a higher interest than the lender receives, and the
financial intermediary pockets the difference.
A bank aggregates the activities of many borrowers and lenders. A bank accepts deposits from
lenders, on which it pays the interest. The bank then lends these deposits to borrowers. Banks
allow borrowers and lenders, of different sizes, to coordinate their activity. Banks are thus
compensators of money flows in space.
A specific example of corporate finance is the sale of stock by a company to institutional
investors like investment banks, who in turn generally sell it to the public. The stock gives
whoever owns it part ownership in that company. If you buy one share of XYZ Inc, and they
have 100 shares outstanding (held by investors), you are 1/100 owner of that company. Of
course, in return for the stock, the company receives cash, which it uses to expand its business in
a process called "equity financing". Equity financing mixed with the sale of bonds (or any other
debt financing) is called the company's capital structure.

70

Finance is used by individuals (personal finance), by governments (public finance), by businesses


(corporate finance), as well as by a wide variety of organizations including schools and non -profit
organizations. In general, the goals of each of the above activities are achieved through the use of
appropriate financial instruments, with consideration to their institutional setting.
Finance is one of the most important aspects of business management. Without proper financial
planning a new enterprise is unlikely to be successful. Managing money (a liquid asset) is
essential to ensure a secure future, both for the individual and an organization.
Personal finance
Questions in personal finance revolve around
How much money will be needed by an individual (or by a family) at various points in the
future?
Where will this money come from (e.g. savings or borrowing)?
How can people protect themselves against unforeseen events in their lives, and risk in financial
markets?
How can family assets be best transferred across generations (bequests and inheritance)?
How do taxes (tax subsidies or penalties) affect personal financial decisions?
How does credit affect an individual's financial standing?
How can one plan for a secure financial future in an environment of economic instability?
Personal financial decisions may involve paying for education, financing durable goods such as
real estate and cars, buying insurance, e.g. health and property insurance, investing and saving for
retirement.
Personal financial decisions may also involve paying for a loan.
Corporate finance
Managerial or corporate finance is the task of providing the funds for a corporation's activities.
For small business, this is referred to as SME finance. It generally involves balancing risk and
profitability, while attempting to maximize an entity's wealth and the value of its stock.
Long term funds are provided by ownership equity and long-term credit, often in the form of
bonds. The balance between these forms the company's capital structure. Short-term funding or
working capital is mostly provided by banks extending a line of credit.
Another business decision concerning finance is investment, or fund management. An investment
is an acquisition of an asset in the hope that it will maintain or increase its value. In investment
management in choosing a portfolio one has to decide what, how much and when to invest.
To do this, a company must:

71

Identify relevant objectives and constraints: institution or individual goals, time horizon, risk
aversion and tax considerations;
Identify the appropriate strategy: active v. passive hedging strategy
Measure the portfolio performance
Financial management is duplicate with the financial function of the Accounting profession.
However, financial accounting is more concerned with the reporting of historical financial
information, while the financial decision is directed toward the future of the firm.
M2.U3.4. Language study
M2.U3.4.1. Increase your vocabulary
M2.U3.4.1.1. Economy and finance
International aid, debt and development
Collocations
In a public question-and-answer session on the Internet in 1999, Clare Short, the Minister
responsible for Britain's international development policies and activities, gave this answer to a
question from someone in Harare, Zimbabwe.
Question: Are the UK and Europe tired of trying to encourage real and lasting development
projects in Africa?
Answer: It may surprise you to learn that there are many encouraging signs in Africa. Over the
last three years, 31 African countries achieved economic growth of more than 3% per year.
Foreign direct investment, although still too small, has been rising. Africa's share in world trade
has shown signs of recovering from its long decline. Some countries, such as Mozambique,
Cote d'Ivoire, Uganda and Mauritius, have done much better than this.
But some 250 million people in Africa still live in deep poverty* and we must do better. With
other development agencies we are committed to supporting those African governments which
are following policies to reduce poverty and improve access to better health, education and
clean water.
More collocations
Development grants are often given to poor regions. [money to help economic development]
Sustainable development is the most important goal for most countries.
[development that does not destroy the economy/the environment, etc.]

72

Debt collocations:
to repay
to cancel
to ease
burden
to alleviate
to incur
debtor countries

Economic difficulties and negative practices


If an economy is badly affected by war, we may refer to it as a war-torn economy. Economies in
a bad state are often referred to as ailing economies.
Devaluation/revaluation of the currency may be necessary. [reduction/increase in value against
other currencies]
Economies may go into recession and not come out of / emerge from recession for several
years. A country may suffer from a slump in prices for its goods [serious fall/collapse in prices].
Fiscal measures [measures concerning taxes, etc.] may be used to boost the economy [give the
economy a lift] when it is in recession.
Cash, cheques and cards
I was broke/skint at the end of last month. [had no money left; broke = informal, skint =
very informal]
I'm rolling in it this month; I got a cheque for 3,000 for some work I did. [informal: have
a lot of money]
It's difficult to make ends meet sometimes with three children and only one parent
working. [to survive financially]
Things are a bit tight at the moment, [informal: my finances are not good]
I was strapped for cash and had to borrow money from my parents. [informal: needed
cash and had very little]
She gave me a cheque for what she owed me but it bounced. [the bank refused to pay it]
Who shall I make this cheque out to? [What name shall I put on it?]
Shall we put/stick this meal on my credit card? Then we can forget it. (informal)
Could you charge it to my credit card please? (formal)
73

The APR for this credit card is 23%, that's two per cent lower than my other card. [annual
percentage rate of interest]
My card expires 05/04. [is not valid after]
Credit card fraud has increased in recent years. [illegal use of someone's card or account]
A: Is this a credit card or a charge card? [card where you must pay back the whole debt
each month] B: Actually it's neither. It's a store card. [credit card issued by a store/shop for
that store]

M2.U3.5 Assessment Test

I. Fill the gaps in these sentences using collocations from chapter M2.U3.4.1.1
1. Development is important, but it should be ...................... development, not the kind
that destroys the environment and social structure.
2. The government is ........................... a policy of giving aid only where it is used to
..poverty.
3. There have been some.......................... signs that development aid is working in
many countries.
4. Millions of people still live in ........................ poverty. (Give two answers.)
5. The economy has ............................ from its decline and is now doing well.
6. The struggle to ............................ economic growth in developing countries is a
constant one.
7. It is important to encourage .......................... development projects, not just short-term
ones.
8. The goal should be to improve......................... to better health and education for the
poor.

II. Complete these sentences using vocabulary from chapter M2.U3.4.1.1


1. This is a credit card. If you want one that you have to pa y off each month, then you
should get yourself .....................................................................
2. She never used her card on 4th September. But someone did and bought hundreds of

74

pounds of goods. It was a case of ........................ .............................................


3. I haven't got enough cash to pay for this meal, but they take credit cards; shall I
just.
4. You'll take a cheque, will you? Good. Who should I ......................................................?
5. He wrote me a cheque, but he hd no money in his account so.............................................
6. I'm sorry, I can't lend you anything at all. I'm absolutely .................................................
(Give two answers).
7. I couldn't really afford it as I was a bit ............................................................................. .
I have to be very careful how I spend my money; right now things are a

75

Learning Unit M2.U4. Run-on sentences

M2.U4.1.
M2.U4.2.

Introduction
Objectives of the learning unit

76
76

M2.U4.3

Grammar study

77

M2.U4.3.1
M2.U4.3.1.1

Scientific writing
Run-on sentences

77
77

M2.U4.4.

Assessment Test

80

M2.U1.1. Introduction
Context plays an important role in terminology management: contexts are
important when aiming at identifying the knowledge structure of a subject field;
likewise, contexts are essential elements in a course designed for acquiring and
using specialist languages on account of the fact that the context can clarify the use
and the meaning of specific terminological units and the context can introduce the
learner of a specialist
language to scientific discourses containing the
terminological units studied.
Robert Dubuc and Andy Lauriston (1997:81) define the role contexts play as
follows:
The context thus plays a double role: it first provides living proof that the term is
used in the field of reference and then allows a conceptual content to be associated
with the term being studied. The second role is the more important. It makes it
possible to determine the specific relation between a term and its subject field
through concept identification.
Therefore it is in the context that we recognize the specificity of a term, its weight
in a particular subject field. Similarly, it is in the context that we associate the term
to its concept through conceptual analysis of the context, especially when using at
least two languages, and a bilingual terminology is to be dealt with.
M2.U1.2. Objectives of the learning unit

To produce correct scientific writings;


To identify run-on sentences;
76

To form correct sentences

To practically apply the knowledge acquired by individual study.

The average length of the first learning unit is 2 hours.

M2.U4.3. Grammar study


M2.U4.3.1. Scientific writing
M2.U4.3.1.1 Run-on sentences

A run-on sentence has at least two parts, either one of which can stand by itself (in other words,
two independent clauses), but the two parts have been incorrectly together ins tead of being
properly connected.
It is important to realize that the length of a sentence really has nothing to do with whether a
sentence is a run-on or not; being a run-on is a structural flaw that can plague even a very short
sentence:
The sun is high, put on some sunblock.
When two independent clauses are connected by only a comma, they constitute a run-on sentence
that is called a comma-splice. The example just above (about the sunscreen) is a comma -splice.
When you use a comma to connect two independent clauses, it must be accompanied by a little
conjunction (and, but, for, nor, yet, or, so).
The sun is high, so put on some sunscreen.
Run-on sentences happen typically under the following circumstances*:
a. When an independent clause gives an order or directive based on what was said
in the prior independent clause:
This next chapter has a lot of difficult information in it, you should start studying
right away.
(We could put a period where that comma is and start a new sentence. A semicolon
might also work there.)

77

b. When two independent clauses are connected by a transitional expression


(conjunctive adverb) such as however, moreover, nevertheless.
Mr. Nguyen has sent his four children to ivy-league colleges, however, he has
sacrificed his health working day and night in that dusty bakery.
(Again, where that first comma appears, we could have used either a period and
started a new sentence or a semicolon.)
c. When the second of two independent clauses contains a pronoun that connects
it to the first independent clause.
This computer doesn't make sense to me, it came without a manual.
(Although these two clauses are quite brief, and the ideas are closely related, this is
a run-on sentence. We need a period where that comma now stands.)
Most of those computers in the Learning Assistance Center are broken already, this
proves my point about American computer manufacturers.
Again, two nicely related clauses, incorrectly connected a run-on. Use a period to
cure this sentence.
Look at the following sentence.
I saw a teacher who cares.
The author may have wanted to write
I saw a teacher. Who cares?
Using periods (and other forms of punctuation) and knowing when to end a sentence are very
important. If we don't end a sentence appropriately, the intended meaning can be changed, or it
can be misunderstood. Sometimes the meaning is simply incomprehensible.
The first thing we need to do is identify when a sentence is a run -on. A run-on (or run-on
sentence) is a sentence that has two sentences (or complete ideas) incorrectly combined into one.
It is all right to combine two sentences into one, but we must follow some rules.

Example of sentence fragment:


I want.
Is it a complete idea? No.
This sentence requires a direct object. (This sentence is called a sentence fragment).

78

Example of run-on sentence:


I write a composition you repair a device.
Is it a complete idea? It is two complete ideas.
This example is a run-on sentence: Two complete sentences (ideas) incorrectly combined. This
sentence lacks signal words which tell the reader when to stop or pause. A part of a sentence that
can be a sentence by itself is called an independent clause. This last example has TWO
independent clauses.
In conclusions,
If we put two sentences (or independent clauses) together without a sufficient amount of signals
(commas, semicolons, or connecting words), we have created a run -on.
How do we fix run-ons?
There are four common ways to fix a run-on.
1. Write the two independent clauses as separate sentences using periods.
I loved working in England I found London very interesting. incorrect
I loved working in England. I found London very interesting. correct
2. Use a semicolon to separate the two independent clauses.
I loved working in England I found London very interesting. incorrect
I loved working in England; I found London very interesting. correct
3. Use a comma and any one of the following connecting words : for (=because), and, nor, but, or,
yet, so (=as a result)
I loved working in England I found London very interesting. incorrect
I loved working in England and I found London very interesting. correct
4. Use a semicolon and one of the following words: therefore, thus, however, consequently,
furthermore, also, nevertheless,
If you use any of these connecting words, a comma must follow it.

79

I loved working in England I found London very interesting. incorrect


I loved working in England; furthermore, I found London very interesting. correct
Remember: When using semicolons, the two independent clauses must share a related or
common idea. We cannot write the following sentence.
My partner works in an office; I am working on the computer.
These two clauses are completely unrelated.

M2.U4.4 Assessment Test

After each sentence, select the option which best describes that sentence.
1. Although he had been an often decorated soldier during World War II and had fought many
battles for the losing cause of liberalism in Congress.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Run-on: put a comma after World War II.
C. Run-on: put a semicolon after World War II.
D. Fragment: put a comma after Congress and finish the sentence.
2. This is going to be the most difficult exam of your college career, you had better start studying
for it immediately.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: put a comma after immediately and finish the sentence.
C. Run-on: replace that comma with a semicolon.
3. Knowing better than anyone else how the state legislature had ignored the needs of the
community college system and created a crisis characterized by an uneducated workforce that
had no place to go for proper training and realizing that someone had to do something about the
situation or the state would begin to lose jobs to states in the American south that were more
aggressive in providing and publicizing excellence in education, Representat ive Fuentes began to
lay plans for an education bill that took into consideration the needs of the state's community
colleges and the students who attended them.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. This sentence is too long; it must be a run-on.
C. Even though this sentence is very long, it is actually a fragment.
4. Coach Espinoza really wants this job with Notre Dame University, she is very excited about
returning to the college she graduated from.

80

A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.


B. Fragment: put a comma after from and finish the sentence.
C. Run-on: change that comma to a period and start a new sentence.
5. Right after the Christmas holidays and during those three weeks before class begins i n
January.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: put a comma after January and finish the sentence.
C. Run-on: put a comma after holidays.
6. She ran.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: the sentence is too short and needs more details to be a complete thought.
7. Perplexed by the rising rates of inflation and alarmed by the decline in major construction
projects.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Run-on: put a comma after inflation.
C. Fragment: put a comma after projects and finish the sentence.
8. Anabel realizes what she is doing, I think, but she doing it anyway.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: we're missing part of a verb.
C. Run-on: change the comma after doing to a semicolon.
9. Professor Pepin spends a lot of time translating medieval texts on ancient medicine, however,
he also stays informed about the latest developments in modern asthma tr eatments.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: although this is a long sentence, it's missing part of a verb.
C. Run-on: remove the verb from the second independent clause.
D. Run-on: change the comma after medicine to a semicolon.
10. If we're ever going to get out of here in time, we're going to have to re -write all these papers,
set up the desks, and clean the chalkboards; stack those books in the corner and clean up the mess
around the wastebasket; notify security about the broken window, the thermostat that Raoul
messed up, and the desk that was stolen before we even got here.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Run-on: the sentence should be broken into three smaller sentences.
C. Fragment: although the sentence is very long, it's missing a verb string.
D. Run-on: change those two semicolons to commas.

81

Applications

I. Find synonyms for the following terms:


procedure
capability
test
compliance
II. Define the following terms:
monitor
calibrate
III. What is the global financial system (GFS)?
IV. What are the main activities of the following institutions?
The International Monetary Fund
The World Bank
The World Trade Organization
V. Print out useful pages related to the field of financial industry and look up for
specialist terms (at least 30)
VI. Fill in the blanks using the words in the box below
about

after

away

back
over

by
for
in
together up

into

off

on

1. We had some problems when we checked the hotel. They had reserved
the room under the wrong name.
2. My book club meets regularly to discuss selected novels. In fact, we are getting
..next week to talk about a really unique mystery novel called Illusion.
3. Mrs. Jones's husband passed last Friday. We are going to attend his
funeral next week.
4. In the dream, my wallet turned a butterfly and flew away. Isn't that
symbolic. I think I'd better stop spending so much money.
5. Before the plane took , the flight attendant told everyone to fasten
their seat belts and put their chairs in an upright position.
82

6. Don't forget to put your gloves ... It is cold outside!


7. The police chased the robber down the street and through the park but they
couldn't catch him. He got ..by jumping on the back of a passing truck.
8. Fred told us to keep ... He said the dog was very aggressive and that it
might even be rabid.
9. I am looking an apartment near the beach. I would like a studio or a one
bedroom with a view of the ocean.
10. I can't believe how much John takes his father. They look and act exactly the
same.
11. I can mail the letter for you. I go the post office on my way to work.
12. If you watch your money, stay in hostels, make your own food, and plan
carefully, you can get .there on less than $30.00 a day.
13. If you don't understand the word "superstitious," look it in the
dictionary.
14. For legal reasons, our lawyer wants to go .the papers thoroughly
before we sign them.
15. Popular protest and extensive media coverage finally helped bring
.change in the country's environmental policies.
16. Mr. Octavio checked our names the list one by one as we entered
the room.
17. I can't hear what they are saying on TV. Can you please turn it ?
18. This radio station is based in Chicago, which is 60 miles from here. That is
why the broadcast doesn't come .clearly.
19. This is the most intensive language course I have ever taken. I have to study
four hours per night just to keep with the pace of the class.
20. I think the experiment supports my theory, but I need to go the
results a couple of times to make sure that no mistakes were made while
collecting the data.
VII. Choose the correct preposition:
1. Jane is arriving .January 26 .2 o'clock the afternoon.
2. It snows here every year .December. We always go outside and play
in the snow ..Christmas day.
3. Michael is leaving .Friday .noon.
4. Frankie started working for her law firm 1995.
83

5. Franklin began working on the project ..yesterday.


6. Normally, .New Year's Eve, it's tradition to kiss the one you love
..midnight.
7 Don't be ridiculous; there were no telephones .the seventeenth
century! The telephone was invented .the 1870s.
8. The plane leaves ..tomorrow morning .8:00 AM.
9. The hills here are covered with wildflowers early spring.
10. We met at the restaurant ..6:30 and stayed 10:30.
VIII. In the exercise below, identify whether each of the highlighted word groups
is a sentence (S), fragment (F), or run-on (RO). Note that a run-on is a specific
grammatical term referring not to a long sentence, but to a group of words
containing two or more independent clauses that are incorrectly joined.
(http://www.writing.eng.vt.edu/index.html)
1. Although the shock sphere is still strong at the end of the fireball's life,
the sphere is no longer strong enough to heat the air to incandescence.
2. At that point the shock sphere is no longer strong enough to heat the air
to incandescence, however, the sphere is still very strong.
3. At the end of the fireball's life, the shock sphere no longer being strong
enough to heat the air to incandescence.
4. The plant shutdown was more than just another company having to close
its doors, Bolens was a way of life for hundreds of families in the small
town where the company was located.
5. Both designs produce the same three pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur
dioxides, and hydrocarbons) in roughly the same proportions, therefore,
both designs have similar effects on the environment.
6. An oval shape is necessary in the die cavity, otherwise, the flow of metal
from the hammering would be restricted.
II. Each of the following may have one of the following errors: faulty parallelism,
unclear pronoun reference, or misplaced modifier
1. Although design flaws in the Titanic were realized soon after its sinking
in 1912, the reasons for the severe damage inflicted by the iceberg
remained a mystery until its discovery in 1985.
2. Once the earthquake has subsided, you are not yet out of danger. Often
84

the electricity has gone out and it is dark. However, striking a match or
any open flame may cause a gas explosion.
3. At this time, the Department of Energy is only considering Yucca
Mountain as a possible storage site for nuclear waste. For that reason, this
report will not consider other sites.
4. Scientists have problems assuring that the viral vectors apply themselves
to the correct cells. When implanted, they tend to migrate throughout the
body and miss targeted cells more often than not.
5. Reductions of up to 80 percent in heat and mass transfer coefficients were
measured due to outgassing.
6. The objectives of the Viking mission were to obtain high-resolution
images of the Martian surface, characterize the structure and composition
of the atmosphere and surface, and to search for evidence of life.
III. Each of the following paragraphs has four mistakes in grammar, punctuation,
or usage. Possible mistakes are as follows: run-on, fragment, subject-verb
disagreement, wrong word, missing comma, undesired comma, colon error,
unclear pronoun reference, and possessive error. In order of mistakes through
the paragraph, click on the word(s) or punctuation that causes the mistake.
1. A greenhouse is a glass building used to grow plants. A greenhouse has
transparent glass that allows the sunlight to pass through, but does not allow the
heat inside to escape. The same affect occurs on the earth. The suns radiation
passes through the atmosphere to heat the earth's surface. When heated, the
earth's surface produces infrared radiation, which has a longer wavelength than
that of sunlight. This infrared radiation rises into the atmosphere where gases,
such as carbon dioxide, prevents the infrared radiation from escaping into space.
The concentrations of these gases which are called greenhouse gases, control how
much infrared radiation escapes. The retained radiation heats the earth's
atmosphere, thus keeping the planet warm.
2. During the last century, the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased
substantially [Holman, 1985]. Scientists believe that further increases could cause
excess warming of the earth's climate. Moreover, many scientists believe this
warming could produce side effects. For example, the changing of the earth's
wind patterns. These wind patterns control the amount of rain received in a
85

particular area. If the greenhouse gases warm the earth's climate too much, areas
that now receive plenty of rainfall could become deserts, moreover, some
scientists speculate that additional increases in warming could cause another
effect, a rise in the ocean levels ["Greenhouse," 1990]. How would this rise
occur? An increase in global temperature would melt the polar ice caps, thus
emptying more water into the oceans. They also predict that this ocean rise,
which may be as high as 1 meter could flood port cities and coastal lands.

References
Alexander, L.G. Right Word Wrong Word. London: Longman, 1998;
Barrass, Robert. Scientists Must Write. London: Routledge, 2002;
Brieger, Nick; Pohl, Alison. Technical English. Vocabulary and Grammar. Oxford: Summertown
Publishing Limited, 2004;
Cabre, Maria Teresa (1998). La Terminology. Thorie, mthode et applications. Ottawa: Les
Presses de lUniversit dOttawa;
Dictionar tehnic englez-roman. Bucuresti: Editura Tehnica, 1997;
Dubuc, Robert, Lauriston Andy (1997). Terms and Contexts. In Handbook of Terminology
Management, Vol. II. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 80
87.
Glendinning, E, Glendinning, N. English for Electrical and Mechanical Engineering. Oxford
University Press, 1996;
Leech, G., Svartvik, J. A Communicative Grammar of English. Essex: Longman, 1993;
Levitchi, Leon, Preda, Ioan. Gramatica Limbii Engleze. Bucureti: Editura tiinific, 1967;
McCarthy, Michael; ODell, Felicity. English Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge: University Press,
2002;
Raymond, Murphy. Advanced Grammar in Use. Cambridge: University Press, 2002;
Thomson, A.J; Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1997;
Vaughan, J (General Editor). General Engineering. London: Prentice Hall International, 1992;

86

Table of Contents
Introduction

..

Competencies ..
Research and Development .
Module 1
Introduction ..
Competencies

1
1
3
3
3

Learning Unit 1. Research and Development - Language study 4


M1.U1.1. Introduction.. 4
M1.U1.2.Objectives of the learning unit .
M1.U1.3. Research and Development presentation..
M1.U1.4. Language study
M1.U1.4.1. Increase your vocabulary ..
M1.U1.4.1.1. Vocabulary related to research and development
M1.U1.5.Careers in Engineering
M1.U1.5.1. Jobs
M1.U1.5.2. Company structure.
M1.U1.6. Assessment Test

5
5
9
9
9
11
11
13
13

Learning Unit 2. Sentences, Clauses, Phrases - Grammar study...


M1.U2.1. Introduction ..
M1.U2.2.Objectives of the learning unit...
M1.U2.3.Grammar study.
M1.U2.3.1. Sentences, Clauses, Phrases.
M1.U2.3.1.1.Clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison, time.
M1.U2.4. Assessment Test ..
Learning Unit 3. Quality Assurance - Language study
M1.U3.1. Introduction .
M1.U3.2.Objectives of the learning unit..
M1.U3.3.Quality Assurance.
M1.U3.4.Language study.
M1.U3.4.1.Increase your vocabulary
M1.U3.4.1.1.Vocabulary related to quality..
M1.U3.4.1.2. Safety at work.
M1.U3.5. Assessment Test.
Learning Unit 4. Sentences, Clauses, Phrases - Grammar study...
M1.U4.1. Introduction...

16
16
16
17
17
17
21
24
24
25
25
28
28
28
29
30
33
33

87

Applications
Module 2

M1.U4.2. Objectives of the learning unit.

33

M1.U4.3. Grammar study


M1.U4.4. Sentences, Clauses, Phrases II.

34
34

M1.U4.4.1 .Cause and effect


M1.U4.4.2. Cause verbs and their collocations

34
36

M1.U4.4.3. Contrasting Ideas .


M1.U4.5. Assessment Test.

37
38

..
Logistics and Finance.

40
43

Introduction..
Competencies

43
43
Learning Unit 1. Machines and Process Capability - Language 44
study.
M2.U1.1. Introduction.. 44
M2.U1.2. Objectives of the learning unit
45
M2.U1.3. Machines and process capability
46
M2.U1.4. Language study..
48
M2.U1.4.1. Increase your vocabulary. 48
M2.U1.4.1.1. Logistics.
M2.U1.4.1.2. Mechanisms ..
M2.U1.5. Assessment Test
Learning Unit 2. Prepositions Grammar study.
M2.U2.1. Introduction.
M2.U2.2. Objectives of the learning unit
M2.U2.3. Grammar study
M2.U2.3.1. Prepositions..
M2.U2.3.2. Adjectives with prepositions/Verbs with prepositions
M2.U2.3.2.1. Prepositions used with adjectives and participles..
M2.U2.3.2.2.Verbs and prepositions
M2.U2.4. Assessment Test .
Learning Unit 3. Finance - Language study
M2.U3.1. Introduction..
M2.U3.2. Objectives of the learning unit.
M2.U3.3. Finance.
M2.U3.4. Language study.
M2.U3.4.1. Increase your vocabulary.
88

48
49
50
52
52
53
54
54
64
64
65
67
69
69
69
70
72
72

M2.U3.4.1.1.Economy and finance.

72

M2.U3.5. Assessment Test 74


Learning Unit 4. Run-on sentences - Grammar study 76

Applications
References

M2.U4.1. Introduction..
M2.U4.2. Objectives of the learning unit.

76
76

M2.U4.3.Grammar study.
M2.U4.3.1. Scientific writing..

77
77

M2.U4.3.1.1.Run-on sentences
M2.U4.4. Assessment Test .

77
80

..
..

82
86

89