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1.

0 Introduction
According to Gootman (2008), rules give students a concrete direction to ensure
that our expectation becomes a reality. The success of teaching and learning in the
classroom is closely linked to its management which is controlled by the teacher. Gootman
(2008) further noted that issues of motivation, discipline and respect are also inter-related
within the context. Based on these quotes, it is agreeable to say that a good classroom
management will not only affect the students behaviour throughout the lesson but also to
create the perfect environment that will promote effective teaching and learning outcome.
For this report, I was given the consent to observe a 30 minute video-taped English
language teacher teaching in a local primary ESL classroom. Through the observation there
many aspects were observed such as how the teacher manages the classroom, the
application of the theories, communication skills of the teacher, the resources used and
possible reasons for the actions or decisions taken by the teacher.
2.0 Theories
Firstly, I can see that teacher always allow her pupils to try and offer them a chance
think of their answer ideas during the lesson. Teacher give the pupils opportunities to learn.
The pupils then learn how to enquire and discover new information during the teaching and
learning process. Teacher also involved her pupils by practicing the oral drills among
themselves. For example, teacher asks the pupils to repeat the part of tree until he pupils
understand and remember. From the activity, pupils learn to communicate with their teacher
and also their own friends. I have read one of the theories that related with this activity. One
of the theories that can be practiced is the Congruent Communication Theory by Haim
Ginott. Teacher also implemented some of Democratic Teaching strategies where teacher
encourage her pupils to take part actively in the discussion. This is to support the teaching
and learning process.
Other theory that I can detect in her lesson is the Theory of Instructional
Management by Jacob Kounin. Teacher was giving her focus on the group work and teacher
communicate through her action besides using words. For example, from the lesson the
teacher is actively present the lesson with her actions pointing on the tree that she has
drawn on the board while saying the word that match the parts of the tree. She also ask the
pupils to say the words loud and clear according to their group. By doing these activities, the

pupils are convinced that the teacher really knows what is going on. Thus, pupils were acted
appropriately in the lesson by paying attention towards the lesson.
Communication Skills
The teacher used a variety of communication skills in the classroom. She had loud
and clear voice which able the pupils to hear what she wanted them to do. Moreover, her
choice of words is good when explaining and giving instruction as she chooses simple words
and direct to the point. This make the pupils easy to understand what she is teaching and
her instruction. Besides that, she has good non-verbal communication to make the pupils
understand her lesson. For example, she makes a big circle using her hands to indicate that
mango tree is huge when explaining about the mango tree. She also makes good eye
contact with the pupils. When she focus on or asking certain pupils, she look at the pupils
eyes to eyes. This shows that she is interested and encourages the pupils to be interested in
return.
However, the teacher was less assertive towards the pupils especially when giving
out instructions. This made the pupils pay less attention to what she says. The rules and
instructions given were less clear which made her a little bit difficult to control the class. In
whole, the teacher was able to produce an interactive climate where there were two way
communication in the classroom only that she was less assertive.
3.0 Resources
From the observation, the teacher starts off with a good set induction where she
used realia which is mango as the teaching aid to attract pupils attention and to bring the
pupils to guess the topic of the lesson. The idea of bringing the real object into class is a
great effort as it can connect the information with the real life situation and encourage the
pupils to excess their previous knowledge about the lesson. Bryan Smith also agreed with
this as he said the TESL Journal; The use of realia is common place in the ESL classroom
and is widely considered to have great value in fostering an active teaching-learning
environment. By presenting information through diverse media, realia helps to make English
language input as comprehensible as possible and to build "an associative bridge between
the classroom and the world" (Bryan Smith). Other than that, whiteboard, presentation
papers and newspaper are majorly used in the lesson. The teacher uses whiteboard and
presentation papers to draw mango tree and label the parts of the tree. What I can see is
that it is very piratical and she is able to explain to the pupils using the resources. Perhaps
by using the resources, it conveys her confident and determination about the topic she

wants to teach. Other than that, the idea of using newspaper is brilliant. Newspaper is a
motivating and meaningful authentic piece that it brings creativity and information into the
language classroom. As seen in the video, the pupils need to cut the letter in the newspaper
to form the words of the parts of the tree. This can enhance pupils creativity and enhance
their understanding in learning the topic.
4.0 Classroom Management
Classroom management involves both physical and socio-emotional aspects. Both
aspects are important to promote a good classroom for a lesson to take place. For the
observation, I focused on one main criteria, the seating arrangements of the classroom. I
can see that the tables and chairs of the pupils were being arranged in clustered
arrangement. This shows that most of the lessons were focusing on group activities. The
seating arrangements in the classroom should be arrange in good order in order to help the
teachers and the learners to move freely in the classroom during the teaching and learning
process.
On top of that, teachers should be sensitive towards their students socio-emotional
needs which can be varied from one to another. As in the lesson observed, I noticed a very
enthusiastic participation from most of the students as they were too excited answering
every question that the teacher asks. However, I also noticed some students who act as
passive passengers as the lesson proceed. For me, these are typical circumstances in any
language teaching where we will see different levels of participation from the students.
Furthermore, teacher also never forget to praise her pupils who perform and behave well in
the activities. Teacher knows how to motivate her pupils to involve in the discussion. As
quoted from Haim Ginott (2011), Praise should deal, not with the childs personality
attributes, but with his or her efforts and achievements. The praise are given based on the
pupils performances in the classroom by either give motivational words such as well done,
good job or by giving small rewards such as stars and this can be seen during the lesson as
teacher always praises the pupils such as very good and well done every time the pupils
give correct answers.

5.0 Possible reasons and comments for the actions/decisions taken by the teacher
One of the major things that I think the teacher should not do is allowing the pupils to
communicate with the teacher using Malay language. This violent the purpose of having

ESL classroom. To tackle this problem, teacher can apply the concept of rewards and
punishments in the classroom. The teacher must set the rules and enforce the
consequences without bias or discrimination. Then teacher apply the Glassers Choice
Theory. Teacher make sure pupils understand their responsibilities as a pupil in the
classroom. Teacher ensure pupils understand that they can choose their behavior, to use
English or not, and that their choice brings with it either desirable or undesirable
consequences. Teacher tell them if they use English, she will be very happy to teach and
she will be very kind to them. If they dont use English, she will be very sad to teach and she
may detain them for recess time and they will go out late.
Furthermore, the pupils also keep on making noise and screaming when the teacher
is delivering the lesson. Teacher should not ignore this problem because the pupils will think
that it is alright to make noise while she is teaching. Jacob Kounin believed that teachers
who demonstrate effective instructional behaviours usually have better-behaved students.
Testing his theories over two decades of work, he analysed thousands of hours of tapes of
classes on a variety of grade levels and in a variety of neighbourhoods and communities
Eilerman, T. (2002). Through this theory, the teacher can apply the concept of withitness,
ripple effect and overlapping in the classroom.
Withitness is when the teacher is aware of all events, activities and pupils behaviour
in the classroom and that they convey that knowledge to the pupils. Teachers who
demonstrate withitness are usually skilful at two particular instructional behaviour. It is like
the teacher has eyes at the back of heads. The teacher is able to control the class and at
the same time teach. Pupils will behave as they are aware that the teacher pay attention to
them. This concept is good and can be used by the teacher to improve her class control in
the classroom where she teaches and able to control the pupils at the same time.
The teacher could also apply the concept of ripple effect and overlapping. Ripple
effect is the effect when a teacher corrects one student who is misbehaving and the
behaviour ripples to other pupils causing them to behave in a better way. Overlapping is
what teacher does when they have to deal with two matters at the same time which is the
same idea as multitasking. A better class control can be produced by the use of ripple effect
and overlapping.
Last but not least, the teacher failed to five clear instruction to the pupils during the
game session. It causes pupils to confuse and they were unable to play the game

successfully. What I can suggest is that the instruction should be short, easy to understand
and precise. To attract the attention of pupils, teacher can try clapping her hands or knocking
on a desk then make sure that pupils understand that by doing this she want them to put
everything down, stop talking, look at you and listen. Instructions should always be followed
by demonstration. The best way to tell the pupils how to do something is to actually do it
herself. Talking for minutes can be less productive and time-wasting when a quick
demonstration can illustrate the activity not only linguistically but visually.
6.0 Conclusion
In order to build a good classroom management, it is not rely on the teacher to make it
or not. As for teachers, a good lesson not only focuses on the content of the teaching but also
on how they manage the classroom throughout the lesson. According to William Glasser once
said that, when you study great teacher, you will learn much more from their caring and hard
work than from their style.

References
Eilerman, T. (2002). The Kounin Model. Retrieved , from https://www.google.com/url?
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Ginot (2011). Congruent Communication. http://www.scoop.it/t/reflect-create-inquire-and-teachfor-the-21st-century-learner. Assessed on March 19th, 2015
Gootman (2008). Classroom Management.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classroom_management. Accessed on March 19th, 2015
Lee and Marlene Canter (1976). Assertive Discipline Theory in Classroom Management:
Approaches, Theories and Models. Managing The Primary ESL Classroom TSL3109.
Institut Pendidikan Guru.
Smith, B. (1977). Virtual Realia, The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. III, No. 7, July
1997http://iteslj.org/Articles/Smith-Realia.html
Randall, Kevin. (2004). "The theories of William Glasser." Retrieved November 26,
2007, from http://www.kevinrandell.com/docs/sci_port/ EDU4112_Glasser_essay.doc