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L1 / E

A
Use
apparatus
skilfully and
safely

i) Apparatus and
materials are handled
correctly and safely and
manipulative techniques
are used in an
appropriate and safe
manner.

L4L4

B
Produce and
record reliable
and valid
results

Personal safety
precautions considered
Some care taken to
follow safety
procedures.

L3 / C
Some elements of risk involved
in using equipment and
chemicals is considered
Investigation carried out safely
with effort given to appropriate
use of techniques

Appropriate techniques
attempted.

i) Measurements and
observations are made
with precision and
recorded in a structured
manner; variables are
identified and the validity
and reliability of results
are justified.

Student follows
teacher's plan
Independent and
Dependent variables
identified.
Appropriate equipment
is used to make
measurements over an
inappropriate range
Most measurements
are performed with
accuracy but the
methods used to
acquire these are not
justified e.g. measure at
eye level

L4/5
L4/5

An appropriate number
repeats are planned for
but not completed
A table of results is built
but has errors on
decimal places and/or
units and is
disorganised

L5 / A
Full risk assessment in using equipment
and chemicals is considered and safety
precautions are prepared before
investigation
Investigation carried out with safety as a
priority.
All manipulative techniques used with
skill

Student follows teacher's plan


and makes attempts to enhance
the plan with their own ideas
based on their experience and
research.

Student generates a plan with their own


ideas based on their experience and
research. Controls and/or placebos are
considered and the use of blind and
double blind trials are evaluated.

Appropriately precise equipment


is used to make measurements
over an appropriate range

Appropriately precise equipment is


justified in its use and is used to make
measurements over an appropriate
range

All measurements are performed


with accuracy and the methods
used to acquire these are
justified e.g. measure at eye
level
An appropriate number repeats
are planned for and completed

A detailed, neat and complete table of


results is built
Student conducts research into
published data to support their
conclusions and therefore enhance the
validity of their findings (all references
annotated correctly)

A detailed, neat and complete


table of results is built but has
errors on decimal places and/or
units

Student refers to published data


to support their conclusions and
therefore enhance the validity of
their findings

L4/5
L4

ii) Possible systematic


errors and random errors
in generating results are
identified and explained.

Student identifies a
possible confounding
variable and describes
how it's effect can be
reduced

All possible 'confounding'


variables are identified and
efforts described to reduce their
effects (Random errors)

Systematic errors (e.g. zero error) are


identified and how these can be reduced
considered

C
Present and
analyse data

i) Use appropriate
methods to analyse
results, present data and
identify trends, patterns
and/or observations.

Inappropriate or
incomplete graph drawn

Appropriate (bar chart for


categoric data, histogram, line
graph for continuous data) and
complete graph (SLAPU'd)
drawn

Student makes use of: descriptive


statistics (mean, mode and median,
error bars, standard deviation
identification of outliers and range)

L4
L3

Student makes use of:


descriptive statistics
e.g. mean
Student identifies
relationships in graphic
representation to
identify patterns and
relationships (eg
correlation and cause)

Basic subtraction mathematical


operations are used to support
observations

Mathematical operations are used to


support observations e.g. % change and
% difference

Student uses the


observed data to
support their statements
ii) Any apparent
anomalies and
inconsistencies are
described, the
methodology is evaluated
and suggestions are

Validity, Accuracy,
Precision, Reliability
(VAPR) are not fully
evaluated or are
incomplete/confused.

Student attempts to evaluate the


validity of inferences made from
data in terms of the methods,
techniques and processes
(Validity, Accuracy, Precision,
Reliability - VAPR) used to

Student fully evaluates the validity of


inferences made from data in terms of
the methods, techniques and processes
(Validity, Accuracy, Precision, Reliability
- VAPR) used to collect and analyse the
data, recognising any systematic or

made to improve or
further the work of the
investigation.
L4
L4/5

collect and analyse the data


Student identifies
outliers and/or
anomalies but is unable
to explain why they
occur or how to improve
the technique to reduce
them next time

Student attempts to explain why


there is a lot of variability in their
repeated measurements
AND/OR identifies and attempts
to explain outliers and anomalies
in their measurements in an
effort to reduce their effects in
the future

random errors present or conflicting


evidence.
Student explains why there is a lot of
variability in their repeated
measurements and explains outliers
and anomalies in their measurements in
an effort to reduce their effects in the
future
Student suggests extensions to the
current investigation to acquire more
data in similar contexts to support their
conclusions e.g. effect of caffeine on the
number of leg twitches in brine shrimp

Create a full write-up using the resources you have been given. Include:
introduction and science,
[Theory upon which the investigation is based]
hypothesis,
[A testable statement]
equipment,
[A full list with justification for use]
plan,
[Step by step guide based on CORMS]
safety,
[All equipment, techniques and chemicals are analysed for risk]
table of results,
[neat, organised and with appropriate dps]
graph (table and graph should be hand-drawn and uploaded into your GDrive
folder - Embed OR create a link to them in your write-up doc),
[SLAPU, line drawn with ruler dot-to-dot]
analysis,
[A written description of the data showing findings and comparisons between
treatments]
discussion,
[An explanation for the findings in the analysis based on theory]
conclusion,

[A summative statement of the findings in relation to the hypothesis]


evaluation,
[A review of the Validity, Accuracy, Precision and Reliability of the techniques and plan
used]
references/bibliography
[laid out as per the research requirements]
Self Assessment
[Each section scored with a justification]
Peer Assessment
[Each section scored with a justification]
Use the rubric to remind yourself of what needs to be included.
Self assess yourself against the rubric and include the score at the end of your writeup.
Use the commenting features to identify your point allocation. Ask to share in a partner to
allow them to peer assess.

Investigating the effect of temperature and alcohol on the membrane


permeability of beetroot cells
Introduction:
This experiment is aimed to investigate the effect of temperature on the permeability of the cell membrane in
plant cells. (As the cell membrane in the plant cell roughly mimics those of the animal cell, we can also use
this experiment to investigate how temperature and alcohol concentration affects our cell membrane. However,
this statement would not be 100% accurate as the plant cell also has a cellulose cell wall covering its cell
membrane which would mean that the temperature and the alcohol would have to break the cell wall first
before reaching the cell membrane which differs to our animal cells as we do not have a cellulose cell wall
protecting our plasma membrane.)
We are using Beet Root cells as out plant cells due to the fact that the beet root cells contain betalain
pigments, which give it its colouring. Therefore, as the membrane becomes more permeable, the Betalain
pigment, found in the vacuole, would escape the cell and enter the solution, and as they are water soluble and
would dissolve in the water, we can then measure how concentrated the solution is, of the colour red, and
come to the conclusion of whether one solution is more of the colour red than the other and therefore,
whether one solution has more Betalain pigments in them than the other.
As you cut the beet root, or when the membrane of the beet root is damaged, the Betalain pigment, from
inside the cell, would escape the cell as there are spaces between the membrane that the pigment can move
through. Also, this can also be considered to be a form of diffusion as there is a higher concentration of
Betalain pigment in the cell and a lower concentration of pigment in the solution (so the other side of the
membrane). This means that the pigment would move down the concentration gradient, from inside the cell to
the outside of the cell, to reach equilibrium. However, the permeability of the membrane also plays a huge part
in diffusion as the pigment might try to reach equilibrium, but wouldnt be able to do so if the membrane isnt as
permeable and the pigments would not be able to move out in enough time as we have a time limit.
Membranes are made up of 2 main molecules, lipids and proteins. As you increase the temperature of the
solution that has the beet root immersed in it, you are supplying more heat energy to the lipids in the cell
membrane. As you supply more heat energy, the phospholipids gain more kinetic energy and they vibrate
more rapidly. As they vibrate more, the particles from inside of the cell membrane is able to move out through
the spaces. Also, as you supply more heat, the proteins get denatured due to the heat. This will then cause the
cell membranes to break apart as there are integral proteins that are submersed in between the phospholipid
bilayer. As the protein denatures, it is easier for the pigments to escape the cell membrane. As you measure
how concentrated a solution is, you can measure the level of disruption caused by that particular temperature.
There were no ethical issues when conducting this experiment as it was based only on plants and no animals
or humans were harmed during the process of the experiment.
Hypothesis
The higher the temperature of the solution, the more concentrated the solution would be after the experiment
(i.e. it would be a more deeper colour). This means that the membrane would be more permeable in a higher
temperature. Also, the higher the concentration of alcohol used in the solution, the more concentrated the
solution would be after the experiment (it would be a more deeper colour). This means that the membrane
would be disrupted, which means that more pigment would escape and make the solution more concentrated.

Equipment

Colorimeter - For this experiment, we will be using the Colorimeter to determine the colour concentration of
substances. The more concentrated a substance is, the deeper the colour of the substance is like, and the
Colorimeter measures the depth of colour in the substance, and therefore, gives us a measure of the
concentration of the substance. The colorimeter has a light source in it, that can shine the colour red, green
and blue. By using the absorbance calculator in the colorimeter, you can measure how much of light goes
through the solution. According to Beer-Lamberts law, it states that the absorption of light through the medium
is directly proportional to the concentration of colour in that substance. The more light is transmitted, the less
light is absorbed. The more coloured a solution is, the lesser the light would be transmitted through the
solution and the more the light would be absorbed. We used the colorimeter as there would have been no
other device that can accurately measure how concentrated a solution is of the particular colour. (In this case,
it would be the red colour of the Betalain Pigment)
Cuvette - We had placed the solution from the test tubes into the cuvettes. The cuvette was then put into the
colorimeter and we had measured the light absorbance of the solution. The cuvette was appropriate because it
was a part of the colorimeter and had fit perfectly into the colorimeter and also because it was transparent,
which allowed light through it. Also, ensure that, when placing the cuvette, the side that does not have any
marks in it and is a plain empty side is placed directly infront of the light source to allow the light source to
penetrate as efficiently as possible.
Cork borer - This equipment was used to bore the beet root into identical cylinders. Even though they all had
different lengths, the width of the beet root would have been the same and therefore, the validity of the
experiment, by making sure the surface area of the beet roots were as similar as possible, would have been
secured. This, therefore, would have made our results reliable as one of the variables was kept the same. The
borer was also used to speed up the process of the experiment, rather than cutting the beet root with a knife
and having to make sure that they are the same width, which would have been extremely time consuming.
Measuring cylinder - We had used a 25 ml Measuring cylinder when measuring the volume of water to be
poured into the test tube. We had used a 25 ml Measuring cylinder as we were measuring 15 ml of liquid.
Using the appropriate measuring cylinder (not a bigger or a smaller one) was to ensure that, when measuring
the solution to be poured into the test tube, it was as accurate and as precise as possible and to prevent any
reading errors that could occur with a larger measuring cylinder (such as a 50ml measuring cylinder) as the
scales would usually be bigger on a larger measuring cylinder.
Knife A knife was used to cut the beetroot cylinders into small disc shapes. This is to increase the surface
area of the beet root, to ensure that diffusion occurs at its maximum possible rate. We could have left the beet
root as a cylinder but it would take a long time for diffusion to occur thoroughly and we didn't have a very long
time to complete this experiment. Even though diffusion probably didn't occur thoroughly in this experiment
either, it had a faster rate than if we were to have left it in its cylindrical shape. Besides this, as we cut the beet
root into discs, there was a large part of the beetroot that was exposed to the solution and therefore the
temperature, and therefore the effect of temperature on the cell membranes of plant cells can be thoroughly
explored. However, because we used a knife to cut the beet root into discs, the precision and the accuracy of
the length of the beet root was compromised, therefore affecting the reliability of our results. This is because
when we cut the beet root with the knife, even though they look similar in length, the length isn't the same and
this means that each disc has a different volume, and different surface area, and therefore the surface area to
volume ratio is different for each beet root disc, and this affects the rate of diffusion.
To improve the precision and accuracy of the discs, we could use an equipment like a Mandoline, which would
cut the beet root to the same length and therefore, improving the reliability of our experiment.
Test tube We used a test tube for the experiment instead of using any other type of apparatus because the it
is crucial that the surface area of the apparatus also stays the same as this could also affect the rate of
diffusion. It is also easier as we can put the test tubes in a test tube rack and place them in the water bath.
Mounted needle It was very important for us to use the mounted needle to make sure that the beet root discs

aren't touching each other. This was done by mounting the beet root onto the needle of the mounted needle,
and making sure there was spaces between the beet root discs. This is to ensure that the surface area is
maintained , instead of decreasing it if the discs were to touch each other. The higher the surface area, the
higher the rate of diffusion as more of the cells are exposed to the solution, and thus the temperature.

Test Tube rack - The rack is used when the test tubes are placed onto the test tube rack and is placed in the
water bath. This is to prevent from carelessly placing the test tubes in the water bath or prevents us from
holding the test tubes in the water bath for a very long time. Also, it prevents the test tubes from touching the
bottom of the water bath, which is a piece of metal and it gets hot easily and might break the test tubes or
affect the temperature of the solution in the test tubes by making them higher, and therefore, affecting the
reliability of our results.
Thermometer- The thermometer was used to measure the temperature of the solution in the test tubes. The
thermometer was used because even though we had set the water baths to specific temperatures, we had
placed the test tube rack into the water baths at a different time and this affected the rate that the water got
heated up at. Ideally, we had wanted the temperatures for our solutions to increase by 10 degree celcius, with
10 to 50 degree celcius. However, as some test tubes didnt heat up to the temperatures we wanted them to
be at, due to time constraints, we had measured the temperature of the solution in the test tubes instead.
However, the test tubes that had heated up to the temperature we wanted them to be at, we had also
measured their temperature before inserting the beetroots, to ensure that we are inserting them at the correct
temperature and if it wasnt at the right temperature, to see the effect of the temperature on the cell membrane
at that particular temperature.
Eye goggles - This is used to protect our eyes during the experiment and is used as a safety measure to
ensure no liquid enters our eyes or as we are cutting the beet root, it might be squishy and the liquid might
splash into our eyes.
Plan
1.
Cut your beetroot in half and peel away the skin. using the cork borer, remove 3 cylinders of
beet roots.
2.
Using a ruler and scalpel, slice the cylinder into 2 mm thick discs.
3.
Place the slices into a beaker of cold water until needed. It was placed into cold water as the
coldness of the water reduces the kinetic energy of the particles in the cell and outside of the cell, and
thus decreases the rate of diffusion and prevent them from already diffusing the pigments out as we
havent started testing them with our experimented temperature yet. Also, it could be to prevent the
beet root discs from wilting, if left out in the open, which might affect the rate of diffusion as the more
wilted the disc is, the lesser the rate of diffusion as the fact that it has wilted could mean that the
membranes have already been disrupted, and therefore the actual effect of the temperatures on the
cell membranes are not accurate.
4.
Prepare 3 test tubes with the same volume of water to ensure that the experiment was
repeated, to improve the reliability of the experiment.
5.
Place test-tubes containing the same volume of water of 15 ml into each of the available water
baths. Leave for as long as needed to raise the temperature of the solution to your desired
temperature. However, be aware of the time. Ensure that the same volume of water is poured into the
test tube, to ensure that the validity of the experiment is insured as if the volume of water is increased,
the surface area of the cell membrane is exposed to a larger volume of water, and that increases the
rate of diffusion. The opposite would occur with a decreased amount of water, as if the water was too
little, then the surface of the cell membrane wouldnt be exposed to much water.
6.
Put 5 discs on a mounted needle/pin and rinse until water runs clear. Rinse the beet root to
ensure that there arent any excess pigment on it that may cause an incorrect reading of the
absorbance level in the colorimeter for the results. This is because the excess pigment would have
resulted from the cutting of the beetroot instead of the diffusion process itself and this would have

affected the reliability of our results.


7.
Place the mounted beetroot in a test tube. Make a note of the temperature of the solution in the
test tube.
8.
Place the test tube into a test tube rack and place the test tube rack into the water baths for 10
minutes. You keep it in for 10 minutes to allow diffusion to happen.
9.
Remove the test tube after 10 minutes and leave to stand for 5 minutes. This is to allow the
temperature of the solution to cool down and as the temperature cools down, the rate of diffusion slows
down as well.
10.
After 5 minutes, remove the beetroot from the test tube and measure the amount of light that
the coloured water absorbs using the cuvettes and a colorimeter.
11.
Repeat steps 1-9 with the other temperatures of water baths.
Safety
Make sure you wear safety goggles during the experiment to prevent any liquids splashing into your eyes.
Also, make sure that, when using the cork borer, you cut away from your hands. Also, make sure that
precaution is taken when using the scalpel and ensure that you use it safe enough to not cut yourself. When
handling liquid with temperatures, take precaution needed (such as using tongs) to prevent scalding of hands.
Also, when handling liquid, ensure that the liquid doesnt spill anywhere that might cause someone to trip and
fall.
When handling the water bath, make sure that you do not place your hand inside to ensure that scalding does
not occur, in case the temperature of the water is hot. Also, when placing the beet root on the mounted needle,
ensure that the needle is not facing your hand and it is facing away. Also, be careful of your fingers when
mounting the beet root onto the needle and try to keep them as far away from the needle as possible.
Also, make sure that you wear gloves when handling the beet root, as the pigment would stain your fingers
strongly.
Table of Results

Graph

From the graph, that as the temperature increased, the absorbance of light in the colorimeter had also
increased. This is because we can see that as the it progresses in the X-Axis, the values in the Y Axis also
increase. However, this is not in a constant rate as the points are not in a straight line. from the values of 50
degree celcius to 58 degree celcius, there is a massive jump in the absorbance value. And this means that the
solution at 58 degree celcius is more concentrated in colour than the 50 degree celcius. However, this is
massively contrasting to the values from 42 degree celcius to the 50 degree celcius and the values from 50
degree celcius to 58 degree celcius. We, however, do not have an experimented temperature between 8

degree celcius and 40 degree celcius so we do not know if it is an actual straight line and if the value is rising
at a constant rate.
I had also used error bars in my graph, which shows the smallest result and the highest result of that particular
temperature. However, as we have only plotted the averages of the values that we got from the experiments,
the error bars tell us that the actual value of the result could be in between this bar and indicate the varibility of
the data. They offer a standard deviation and it shows how accurate our data is. The smaller the error bars
are, the more reliableour data are. Also, if the error bars do not overlap, that would mean that the data is
statistically significant. However, if the error bars do overlap, that could mean that the absorbance values could
possibly mean that the data is not statistically significant and there could be an error when performing the
experiment and you cannot possibly tell that the actual value of the absorbance at that particular temperature,
as the fact that the error bars overlap mean that the actual absorbance value of that temperature could be in
between the overlap. Also, the wider the range of the error bars, the more the data is not precise because
there is a larger gap between the highest value and the lowest value and the actual value could be anywhere
between it.
Discussion
From the results, the temperature increased, the absorbance of the light in the solution had also increased.
This means that there are more pigments in the solution, which is why the value of absorbance is high. The
higher the temperature gets, the more kinetic energy is supplied to the particles in the membrane and this
makes them vibrate more. As the particles vibrate more, they move and this means that there is space in
between the particles (the phospholipid bilayer and the proteins), and this allows the pigments to leak out and
enter the solution. As the pigment is insoluble in lipids, as it comes out and enters the solution, it dissolves in
the solution, colouring it. This is because the pigment is polar and can be broken apart in the water due to the
dipole nature of water. Also, as the temperature gets higher, the proteins get denatured and this allows the
pigments to also move between the proteins and through the now disrupted membrane and enter the solution
through diffusion. Diffusion occurs as the solution in the test tube contains a low concentration of Betalain
pigments and the inside of the cell membrane contains a high concentration of Betalain Pigment cells and in
order to reach equilibrium, the Betalain pigments moves out and enters the solution. Also, as the temperature
increased, the pigments would also get more kinetic energy supplied from the heat energy and this means that
the pigments would also move faster and thus, enter the solution more quickly. As the membranes get
disrupted, that is why the cell isnt turgid anymore as the water from the cells isnt applying pressure on the
wall of the cell anymore and instead has entered the solution and is why the plant looks flaccid and soft
instead.
If the temperature is too cold, the cytoplasm in the cell would have frozen and as they freeze, the space
between the water molecules would have expanded and the cells would burst, thus allowing the pigments to
escape. However, we did not experiment with a solution that had a temperature that was cold enough for that
to occur.
In the results, we can see that there is a big jump at 50 degree celcius to 58 degree celcius. This was at a
point where the jump was between 0.344 and 1.018. As the error bars dont overlap, we could assume that the
phospholipids gain more energy and move faster and the proteins get denatured at a much faster and more
significant rate that it the constant gradient is very steep, which suggests that the rate of damage was fast.
Conclusion
As conclusion, we can see the absorbance of colour increase as the temperature increased. This tells us that
the higher the temperature, the more disrupted the membranes get and the more denatured the proteins get,
and therefore, the more the pigment was able to leak out. This is due to the fact that as temperatures increase,
the particles gain more kinetic energy and they vibrate faster and therefore, create spaces between the
phospholipids, which allows the pigments to move out. It is also because the proteins get denatured at a
higher temperature, which also allows the pigments to move out as there is now space between the integral
proteins and the phospholipids.
Evaluation

Even though the results had correlated with other beetroot experiments that I had researched, we had
committed an error during the experiment that could have affected our experiment strongly. As we were cutting
the beetroot cylinders into small discs, we did not use a proper device, like a mandoline, to cut the discs.
Instead, we had used a knife to cut the beet root and despite most of them being of similar length, they were
not the same length and therefore, the accuracy and the precision was affected, which, in turn, had affected
the reliability and the validity of our results. This was because the larger the disc, the larger the volume, the
smaller the surface area to volume ratio, and therefore, the rate of diffusion would decrease.
A possible systematic error that could have occurred is if we hadnt calibrated the colorimeter before using it.
To calibrate the colorimeter, we had poured some distilled water into the cuvette and placed it in the
colorimeter and pressed the calibrate button, where the absorbance would be written as 0.00. If we hadnt
calibrated the colorimeter, the value that we would have seen during the experiment would have been false
and inaccurate and thus, affect the reliability and the validity of our results.
There were a lot of variability between our repeated measurements as not all of the water in the specific test
tubes had risen up to the temperature we had predicted them to be at as, due to time constraints, we had only
measured the temperature of one test tube and assumed that it had the same temperature as the other test
tubes. However, by taking the time to measure all 3 of the test tubes could also cause some variability in our
results as when we are measuring the temperature of water in one test tube, the temperature of the other test
tubes could have risen or dropped, which means that they arent the same temperatures as when they were
measured.
In our experiment, we had to make sure that we kept the surface area of the beet root the same (as the
smaller the surface area to volume ratio, the quicker the rate of diffusion), the type of beet root (as different
beet roots might have a different effect to temperature, especially if theyre from different countries) and the
time in which the beet root was left out for (if the beet root was left out longer, due to diffusion and evaporation
or even the temperature of the room, the beet roots themselves would have wilted. This would mean that the
membranes have been disrupted and the water, including the pigment, has escaped from the cell, which gives
it its wilting effect.) Also, the number of beet root discs that are placed on each needle has to also be the same
as the more discs there are, the greater the rate of diffusion, which would make the colour of the solution more
concentrated and affect the validity and reliability of our results. Besides that, the amount of time that we leave
the beet roots in the test tube for, has to also remain the same as the longer the beetroot discs are exposed to
the temperature, the more the rate of diffusion occurs as the more the membrane gets affected.
Unfortunately, as mentioned above, in this experiment, we had not experimented with any values between 42
degree celcius and 8 degree celcius. Ideally, we would have liked to measure temperatures that have a 10
degree celcius interval to see the effect of the temperature on the cell membrane in a gradual affect. However,
the fact that we were unable to do so, due to the water bath not heating up to the right temperatures, would
affect our results in the sense that we do not know if there are any significant changes between the values and
affects the reliability of our results as we do not have another result to coordinate with the conclusion. Also,
due to the fact that we did not have enough time to let the temperature of the solution to increase to the
temperature we wanted them to be at, we had a massive gap between 8 degree celcius and 42 degree celcius
but only had an 8 degree celcius difference between the other results. This would affect the validity of our
results as we did not measure the effect that the other temperatures had on the cell membrane and instead,
experimented on values that are very close to each other and that increase but only by a small amount and
there is no significant change, which we would have predicted to happen.
According to http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical-biology/investigating-effect-temperature-plant-cellmembranes , they also had results that were similar to us, although they had experimented with temperature
values that are different but still similar to our experimented temperatures. They had also measured their
values as a transmission value, instead of absorbance values. This would mean that they were measuring the
amount of light that went through the solution, instead of the value of absorbance of the solution. The higher
the absorbance value, the lesser the transmission value. This is because as the solution is more concentrated,

the more light is absorbed through it and the higher the absorbance value. This also means that the more
concentrated a solution is, lesser light is transmitted through the solution, which is why the value is low.
Therefore, their results still correlate with my results as we can see that the higher the temperature, the lesser
the transmission value. This would mean that the absorbance is high due to the fact that the solution is more
concentrated due to the fact that membranes were disrupted at a high rate.
As an extension, we could have experimented with values that were close to 0 degree celcius or even below it.
Theoretically, as the temperature becomes very low, the cytoplasm, which is mainly made up of water, would
freeze and in the process, the water molecules would get further away from each other as they form a lattice,
which would mean that it expands and becomes less dense. As the cytoplasm expands, the cells would burst
open as the cytoplasm applies pressure onto the cell membrane and therefore, the cell membrane is disrupted
and the pigment leaks out. Therefore, as the temperature goes really low, the solution becomes more
concentrated as the membranes are more disrupted.

Reference/Bibliography
http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical-biology/investigating-effect-temperature-plant-cell-membranes
http://egret.psychol.cam.ac.uk/statistics/local_copies_of_sources_Cardinal_and_Aitken_ANOVA/errorbars.htm

Rubric rating submitted on: Tue Nov 04 2014 03:36:49 GMT-0500 (EST) by mmullan.ep@alice-smith.edu.my

A
Use apparatus skilfully and
safely
i) Apparatus and materials
are handled correctly and
safely and manipulative
techniques are used in an
appropriate and safe
manner
Your score: 4

A
Use apparatus skilfully and
safely

Personal safety precautions


considered

Some elements of risk


involved in using equipment
and chemicals is
considered

Full risk assessment in


using equipment and
chemicals is considered
and safety precautions are
prepared before
investigation

Some care taken to follow


safety procedures.
Appropriate techniques
attempted.

Personal safety precautions


considered
Investigation carried out
safely with effort given to
appropriate use of
techniques

A brief comment on the


ethical issues involved in
the context of the
investigation

Most of the ethical issues


involved in the context of
the investigation are
considered and evaluated

ii) The practical work is


carried out in an organised,
methodical and safe
manner, with due
consideration of the wellbeing of living organisms
and the environment.
Your score: 0
B
Produce and record reliable
and valid results

Investigation carried out


with safety as a priority.
All manipulative techniques
used with skill
Full consideration of the
ethical issues involved in
the techniques with regards
to humans and animals.
E.g. treatment of daphnia in
caffeine investigation OR
the social, moral and
economic implications of
using the antimicrobial
properties of plants

Student follows teacher's


plan
Independent and

Student follows teacher's


plan and makes attempts to
enhance the plan with their
own ideas based on their

Student generates a plan


with their own ideas based
on their experience and
research. Controls and/or

i) Measurements and
observations are made with
precision and recorded in a
structured manner;
variables are identified and
the validity and reliability of
results are justified.
Your score: 4.5

Dependent variables
identified.
Appropriate equipment is
used to make
measurements over an
inappropriate range
Most measurements are
performed with accuracy
but the methods used to
acquire these are not
justified e.g. measure at
eye level
An appropriate number
repeats are planned for but
not completed
A table of results is built but
has errors on decimal
places and/or units and is
disorganised

experience and research.


Independent and
Dependent variables
identified.
Appropriately precise
equipment is used to make
measurements over an
appropriate range
All measurements are
performed with accuracy
and the methods used to
acquire these are justified
e.g. measure at eye level
An appropriate number
repeats are planned for and
completed
A detailed, neat and
complete table of results is
built but has errors on
decimal places and/or units

Student refers to published


data to support their
conclusions and therefore
enhance the validity of their
findings

B
Produce and record reliable
and valid results

Student identifies a possible


confounding variable and
describes how it's effect can
be reduced

ii) Possible systematic


errors and random errors in
generating results are
identified and explained.
Your score: 5

All possible 'confounding'


variables are identified and
efforts described to reduce
their effects (Random
errors)

placebos are considered


and the use of blind and
double blind trials are
evaluated.
Independent and
Dependent variables
identified.
Appropriately precise
equipment is justified in its
use and is used to make
measurements over an
appropriate range
All measurements are
performed with accuracy
and the methods used to
acquire these are justified
e.g. measure at eye level
An appropriate number
repeats are planned for and
completed
A detailed, neat and
complete table of results is
built
Student conducts research
into published data to
support their conclusions
and therefore enhance the
validity of their findings (all
references annotated
correctly)
All possible 'confounding'
variables are identified and
efforts described to reduce
their effects (Random
errors)
Systematic errors (e.g. zero
error) are identified and
how these can be reduced
considered

C
Present and analyse data

Inappropriate or incomplete
graph drawn

i) Use appropriate methods


to analyse results, present
data and identify trends,
patterns and/or
observations.
Your score: 3

Student makes use of:


descriptive statistics e.g.
mean
Student identifies
relationships in graphic
representation to identify

Appropriate (bar chart for


categoric data, histogram,
line graph for continuous
data) and complete graph
(SLAPU'd) drawn
Student makes use of:
descriptive statistics e.g.
mean

Appropriate and complete


graph drawn
Student makes use of:
descriptive statistics (mean,
mode and median, error
bars, standard deviation
identification of outliers and
range)

patterns and relationships


(eg correlation and cause)
Student uses the observed
data to support their
statements

C
Present and analyse data
ii) Any apparent anomalies
and inconsistencies are
described, the methodology
is evaluated and
suggestions are made to
improve or further the work
of the investigation.
Your score: 4

Validity, Accuracy,
Precision, Reliability
(VAPR) are not fully
evaluated or are
incomplete/confused.
Student identifies outliers
and/or anomalies but is
unable to explain why they
occur or how to improve the
technique to reduce them
next time

Student identifies
relationships in graphic
representation to identify
patterns and relationships
(eg correlation and cause)

Student identifies
relationships in graphic
representation to identify
patterns and relationships
(eg correlation and cause)

Basic subtraction
mathematical operations
are used to support
observations

Mathematical operations
are used to support
observations e.g. % change
and % difference

Student attempts to
evaluate the validity of
inferences made from data
in terms of the methods,
techniques and processes
(Validity, Accuracy,
Precision, Reliability VAPR) used to collect and
analyse the data

Student fully evaluates the


validity of inferences made
from data in terms of the
methods, techniques and
processes (Validity,
Accuracy, Precision,
Reliability - VAPR) used to
collect and analyse the
data, recognising any
systematic or random errors
present or conflicting
evidence.

Student attempts to explain


why there is a lot of
variability in their repeated
measurements AND/OR
identifies and attempts to
explain outliers and
anomalies in their
measurements in an effort
to reduce their effects in the
future

Student explains why there


is a lot of variability in their
repeated measurements
and explains outliers and
anomalies in their
measurements in an effort
to reduce their effects in the
future
Student suggests
extensions to the current
investigation to acquire
more data in similar
contexts to support their
conclusions e.g. effect of
caffeine on the number of
leg twitches in brine shrimp

Self-assessment
Your score: 5

Basic points

Some points are thoroughly


evaluated and relate to the
rubric

Thorough consideration of
why the point has been
awarded or not

Peer-assessment
Your score: 5

Basic points

Some points are thoroughly


evaluated and relate to the
rubric

Thorough consideration of
why the point has been
awarded or not

Comments:
20.5/25
Excellent work Sanngeeta. Your theory and research are very good. The thoroughness of the planning is
awesome and you evaluate well.
You have to focus on the analysis. What is the point of all the great preparation if you don't analyse properly.
No maths...no differences...George pointed it out too ;-P
Analysing graphs WILL come up in your exam...I suggest to fix this.
Cheers, Mullan