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i Australian Steel Detailers’ Handbook AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION ACN. 000 973 839 AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION ‘A.C.N. 000 973 839 AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK Published by: AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION, Enquiries should be addressed to the publisher: Business address - Level 13, 99 Mount Street, North Sydney, NSW, 2060, Australia. Postal address - P.O. Box 6366, North Sydney, NSW, 2059, Australia. E-mail address - Website - wnmnw.aisc.comau © Copyright 1998 Australian Institute of Steel Construction All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the writen permission of the Australian institute of Steel Construction. First edition 1999 National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry: ‘Australian stee! detailer’s handbook. Isted. Bibliography, ISBN 0 909945 79 9. 1. Building, iron and steel - Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Building, Iron and stee! - Details - Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Steel, structural - Handbooks, manuals, etc. 1. Australian Institute of Steel Construction. 624.1821 Production & Artwork by Remark Pty Lid ‘8 Kuru Stroot, North Narrabeon, NSW 2101, Australia DISCLAIMER cay flr ns aon mac anda rasoate cre ken oan te acura fo metal carta ‘his Publication. Howeves, othe extent petted by tw, the Authors, Eitrs and Pubihers of tis Pubication {@) ull not beheld abl or responsible in ary way; and (©) expressly cisciaim any tabity orresponsaiy, for any loss, damage, coats and expenses inoue in connection with this Publcaion by any person whether ‘hat person ste purchaser ofthis Pubeation or not Without Imitation this includes oss, damage, costs and ‘expenses neue any person whey of parallels onary part of tis Pubcation andiess, dar-ago costs ‘and expenses Incured 25 res of the negligence ofthe Authors, Eos or Publishers. WARNING ‘This Publcation should be net used without the services of a competent professional person with expert knouledge inthe relevant fit, and under no circumstances should tis Publication be red upon to replace any of al of the knowlodgo and expatise of such a person. ‘AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK ASDH/O1—1999 / Australian Stee! Detailers’ Handbook Contents PAGE Foreword... : ov ‘Acknowledgements ceeceeeeseesseeecaee : : ceeee eee Preface ..... ees. cite - : . vit Notation ...... . cs Abbreviations. . sees cece 4. INTRODUCTION . . att 1.4 Drafting as a means of communication... . : : a 1.2 Detail drawings. ... 1.3 Project organisation .........66.s045 1.4 Function of the steel detailer .- 1.5 Other fields of activity. 2. STRUCTURAL STEEL... 2.1 Plain material ...... 2.2 Compound sections. 23 — Characteristics... ee... 2.4 Specifications. cevteeesneeee 2.5 Physical properties. ..... 26 Steel production. . 27 — Tolerances ... 3. DRAFTING EQUIPMENT AND DRAFTING PRACTICES ... 3.1 Manual drafting equipment 3.2 Computer aided drafting ....... 3.3 Drafting practices....... 3.4 General procedure. . 3.5 Approval of completed drawings .. <3 4. ARRANGEMENT AND DETAIL DRAWINGS ..... 4.1 Composition of atypical structure 42 Design loading . 4.3 Information provided by the designers 44 Drawing sheets... eee ceeeeeeeees 4.5 Holding down bott layouts ..... 4.8 General arrangement drawings 47 Delail drawings. : : 4.8 Components of stee-framed industrial buildings . . ASDH/01—1999 AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK CF FUNDAMENTALS OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING. cSt 5.1 Reactions .. 52 Shear... cee 5:3 Bending moment .......... BOLTING et 6.1 Introduction 62 — Bolttypes............ 63 Boling categories . sees seeceeeerses 6.4 Design of bolts..........+ 65 Bolt length selection. 66 Detailing . 6.7 Installation of bolts........ 6.8 Preparation of bott lists cee ceeeceeeeeteteetseeteteens cesses O12 WELDING......... . 7a 7A Introduction TH 72 Joint and weld types ...... 7.3 Bdge preparation...) : : 7.4 Reinforcement and backing 7.8 Incomplete penetration butt welds. . 7.8 Welding positions 7.7 Practical guidelines 7.8 — Welding symbols . . 7.9 Clearance for welding seve 7.10 Method of giving field instructions... . ‘STANDARDISED STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS . 81 82 83 84 85 86 a7 88 89 8.10 att Introduction . ‘Angle seat connection ‘Bearing pad connection... . Flexible end plate. . ‘Angle cleat connection... Web side plate seen Welded beam-to-column moment connection .. . ‘Bolted beam-to-column moment end plate connection cee oo BAO Splices . cet ecteeeeeeeteeeeeee ett Purlin and gitt cleats. fests ee teeta eeeeeeeeeerateresesensereneree ss 85 ‘Column base plates ..... cee ceeeeceeeteeneteeseeeeseetereeer ees B16 ASDH/01—~1999 98.4 Introduction 9.2 Shop drawings. . 93 Beam detailing practice ..... wee 0:4 Atomate systems of inguinal dimensioning. 2.5 Example of detailing a typical beam . 9.6 Example of detailing similar beams, 9.7 Detailing welded plate girders... 9.8 Erection clearances . 9.9 Fittings .... 40. COLUMNS. 10.1 Introduction 102 Column bases ... 103 Spices... 2... eee 10.4 Column schedules . 105 Column detailing practice . 106 Example of detaing a mult-storey column. 10.7 Example of detailing a portal frame column 108 Ancillary details 41. TRUSSES 14.41 Introduction... 11.2 Typesof trusses... 11.3 Chord and web sections... 11.4 Layout and scales .........-- 11.5 Symmetry and rotation. . 11.6 Dimensioning 11.7 Node points ~ 11.8 Node points — 11.9 Example of detailing a welded truss 11.10 Cambers. 12. BRACING ... 12.1 Introduction . 12.2 Bracing connections . . 123 Sottng out and detaling of bracing. 12.4 Example of detailing of floor bracing 12.5 Additional considerations. . . ASDH/01—1999 BEAMS AND GIRDERS. .... bolted construction, welded construction... ‘AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS’ HANDBOOK 84 cee <9 81 95 96 9-10 ont 104 10-1 10-2 othe 10-3 2108 10-7 10-7 10-11 141 14 Wt 12 11-2 12 43- 114 WT 11-8 124 24 124 124 124 < 124 13. PURLINS, GIRTS AND EAVES STRUTS... : 13.1. Introduction . 132 Putlins. . 18.3 Bridging systems . 13.4 Detailing purlins and bridging. . 135 Gis... 13.6 Eaves struts . 14. PORTAL FRAMES . 14.1 Introduction 14.2. Design of portal frames ... 143 Design details. ... - 144 Eaves and apex set-out . 14.5 Shop drawing........... 14.6 Pre-set of portal frames .. 15> STAIRWAYS. 161 Introduction «2... sees eeys 152 Design of stairways ........ 153 Detailing . 146. DETAILING FOR ECONOMY.................. 16.1 Introduction . : 162 Communication ...... cee 163 Economy in the use of material 1644 Rationalisation of member sizes and rept of deta. 16.5 Standardised details. .. 18.6 Accuracy in detailing . . 16.7 Fabrication 168 Botting 169 Walding. . 16.10 Transportation . . 16.11 Erection ......- 17. REFERENCES. 174 172 173 Further information. APPENDIX A Fabrication of structural steelwork APPENDIX Sample project drawings vi ‘AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS’ HANDBOOK 134 13-4 13-1 218-4 -13-3 13-3 --18-3 att Met Met 2148 214-3 N45 147 15-4 154 we St AB 16-4 2164 oe 1H = 16-41 16-2 16-2 16-2 16-3 16-4 16-8 16-6 216-7 174 a 17-2 AT2 ASDH/01—1999 FOREWORD ‘The Australian Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) is a national non-profit organisation dedicated to increasing knowledge and understanding of the use of structural steel in our society ‘Through planned research and development programmes, industry seminars and publishing technical work the Institute provides leading edge technology and best practice engineering solutions contributing to the growth of, structural steel in Australia. Steet construction industry participants who are responsible for the design, fabrication and erection of steel structures are readily able to access the resources of the institute. ‘The fabrication and erection ofa steel-framed structure requires the co-ordination of trained engineers, architeots and technicians. n the structural steel detailer’ office, the original concepts of a structure's framework (as shown on the architect's and engineer's design drawings) are interpreted and transiated into detail drawings. These construction abbreviation. ASDH/01—1999 4/8 aes are 8.a/TF aisc. Bos ar ‘CAD crw cHS Nc. craw Dia “ Commercial grade bolts snug tightened High strength structural bolts snug tightened High strength structural bolts fully tensioned bearing-type High strength structural bolts fully tensioned friction-type Australian institute of Steel Construction Basic Oxygen Steelmaking ‘Teo Section cut from Universal Bear Computer Aided Drafting Continuous Fillet Weld Circular Hollow Section ‘Computer Numeric Controlled > Complete Penetration Butt Weld ‘Teo Section cut from Universal Column Diameter ditto Design Throat Thickness (of a weld) East Equal Angle Electric Arc Fumace (Steelmaking) Flat General Purpose (weld category) Holding down Intersection Point Incomplete Penetration Butt Weld Inorganic Zinc Silicate Kilonewtons AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS’ HANDBOOK ix No NTs. oD PFO PL. FFL HS RL SECT SFL SHS SP 1B TFC UA us uc UNO we. we AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK tong North Number Not to Scale Outside Diameter Pitch Circle Diameter Parallel Flange Channel Plate Request for information Rectangular Hollow Section Reduced Level South Section Standard Floor Level ‘Square Hollow Section Set Out Point ‘Structural Purpose (weld category) Tapered Flange Beam ‘Tapered Flange Channel Unequal Angle Universal Beam Universal Column, Unless Noted Otherwise West. Welded Beam Welded Column ASDH/01—1999, 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 DRAFTING AS A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION Drafting is a method of conveying information in pictorial or graphic form. Usually it has to do with the planning or design of an object or structure, whether it be a single set-screw, a multi-storey building or any of an infinite range. of items, components, machines or structures. A drawing will not only convey accurately the appearance of the article as built, but will also give the necessary information on how itis to be but. Another means of communicating information is the spoken or written word. However, this process of information transmittal involves very lengthy descriptions and requires the continued presence of the conceiver of the project during the construction process to ensure that the Instructions have been understood correctly. It is obvious that ‘even a simple drawing will convey the required information more clearly and accurately and much more concisely than can be done by the spoken or written word and will also reduce the need for supervision. ‘The steel detaler’s function, therefore, isto serve as an intermediary between the conceiver and the executor ofthe project. Stoo! detailing is a specialist area of structural drafting. AS such, a detailer must be familar with general structural drafting practice as well as areas specitic to steel shop drawings. The detailer needs to have a clear Understanding ofthe designers intent and must commit this information to paper by graphical means. At the same time the detailer must have a knowledge of the processes involved in the construction or fabrication of the project. ‘The drawing is then both an instruction to the artisan on how the structure isto be built and a permanent record of the designer's intent. It will be evident from this simple illustration that a steel detailer's function is a very important one in the chain of ‘events from the original conception to the final completion of any item or project. it will aso be clear that the main requirements in the steel detaller's approach are clarity of presentation, accuracy, speed of work as well as patience and perserverance. . 1.2 DETAIL DRAWINGS Prior to the use of steal as.a structural material, the usual practice was to depict, say, a building or a bridge by means cof elevations, plans and cross-sections with, where necessary, enlarged details of special parts of the structure that ‘required more detaled description. Thus the elevation of a bridge would be to a scale sufficient to show, by means of suitable annotation, the sizes and shapes of the members making up the girders. Likewise, a plan of the deck ‘would indicate the layout and size of the floor beams. However, the support bearings and any special member end ‘connections would be shown to an enlarged scale, in sufficient detail to enable the ironworker, the carpenter or the blacksmith to construct these components to a reasonable degree of accuracy. However, with the advent of structural steel, prefabrication became essential, and this brought with it the need to ‘supplement the arrangement drawings with detail drawings of all individual members and components. These are known as shop detail drawings and are usually prepared by a specialist steel detailing company under sub-contfact 40 a steel fabricator for.use in its workshops. The shop detail drawings are based on the layout and arrangertient™ «drawings supplied by the owner, or the consulting engineer appointed to carry out the design, and are the means ‘of recording the information required by the workshop personnel to fabricate each and every component of the structure. Itis in the preparation of these drawings that structural steel detalers find their role and are able to play a vital part in the sequence of events that comprise the total activity of structural engineering. Examination of any steelwork detail draviing will reveal a stylised presentation, involving the use of standardised abbreviated notation and special symbols. These all form part of the graphical means of information transmittal referred to earlier and enable a large amount of complex technical data to be recorded and conveyed in a simple, concise manner. Itis the purpose ofthis Handbook to introduce the trainee steal detailer to this technical language" and to present the many techniques and conventions that are used inthe structural steelwork industry to convey the necessary information clearly and without ambiguity. ASDH/01—1999 AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK 1.3 PROJECT ORGANISATION At this point itis helpful to consider the overall management and technical organisation that is involved in a construction project and to see where the steel detailer fits Fig. 1.1 illustrates the stagas in the progress of atypical project and indicates the specialised tasks associated with each stage. it also shows the lines of communication ‘between the various parties. The chart is representative of a commercial-type building, where the owner appoints an architect and a consulting engineer and retains financial but not technical control over the planning process. For the sake of simplicity, the chart covers only those activities connected with the medium of construction under ‘consideration, ie structural steelwork, Many other aspects have to be taken into account in the broad planning of a project, such as cost limitations, location of the project, availability of materials, compliance with building >—@——|_ owner Conception of Architect reports to project Owner appoints owner on feasibility T architect and and total cost engineer 1 ARCHITECT <-D—} Owner instructs { Preliminary planning ono —@—+|_and layout drawings toproosed Detailed planning, final drawings and |+-@)—~-—— specifications T : Engineer reports ' : ‘Owner places to architect on i i contract with stuctural cost ' i ulaing CONSULTING ENGINEER |--@—' j contractor Preliminary design and i structural cost estimate i tH BUILDER Detailed design and arrangement drawings of enuages a fe, icator é Engineer and Architect, Stoetwork S provides design information to fabricator 1 “O—| FABRICATOR, 0 —_ Engage shop detailer = }|—-@)—+{__ STEEL DETAILER Fabrication of Preparation of workshop steelwork in shops. [* © arawings for steel fabrication Erection of steehwork at site COMPLETED > indicates liaison PROJECT, Fig. 1.1: Project organisation Architect involved 12 AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK ‘ASDH/01—1999 regulations, civil engineering and building work, and the provision of services (lighting, heating, air conditioning, fre protection, safety provisions, etc). All of these matters fall under the responsibilty of the architect and/or the engineer, but only where they directly affect the supporting structure do they concem the steel detailer. ‘On many projects an architect would not be involved and the consulting engineer would act directly on behalf ofthe ‘owner. Such projects include industrial buildings, power stations, steet mills, manufacturing plants, bridges, etc, ‘where the design is governed by functional rather than aesthetic and civic considerations, Fig. 1.2 iustrates the ‘organisation of such projects. It will be seen that the engineer undertakes the entire planning role on behalf of the ‘owner and issues the necessary instructions to the fabricator. In cases where the owner is a government or public body, or even a large, self-contained organisation, it may well have its own architectural and engineering staff and will consequently not need to appoint professional firms to undertake the planning and design. The fabricator will usually be a separate entity, however the overall organisational framework will be much the same. (One alternative to the project organisation shown in Figs 1.1 and 1.2 is the emerging trend where the steel detailer is engaged by the engineer. This speeds up production of the steel detail drawings and allows fabricators to tender on an accurately defined scope of work. p> —@——|___owner a Conception of Engineer reports to Project ‘owner on feasibility 7 ‘and total oost i Owner appoints i ‘engineer 2 ‘Owner instructs CONSULTING ENGINEER |=-Q— OM incor Preliminary planning and to proceed design, layout drawings and structural cost estimate Detailed design, final steelwork arrangement drawings and Engineer provides steelwork specifications design information {0 fabricator -—_—____!__ ! lo FABRICATOR +}, ——_ Engage shop detailer. + | —@)—>[ STEEL DETAILER Fabrication of Preparation of workshop steclwork in shops [* “@—J drawings for steel fabrication Erection of steelwork at site 1 COMPLETED -> indicates liaison PROJECT Fig. 1.2: Project organisation - Architect not involved ASDH/01—1999 AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS’ HANDBOOK 13 1.4 FUNCTION OF THE STEEL DETAILER ‘The role of the steel detailer will now be examined more closely. When a contract is placed with a steelwork fabricator, the sequence of events in this organisation is usually as follows: 1. The contract drawings and specifications are passed on by the management of the company to the drawing office, where the drawing office manager assesses the extent, complexity and time content of the job. On this basis the work is allocated to a section leader, a senior shop detailer who in turn must become familiar with all aspocts of the steelwork content. The section leader hands out the drawing work to a suitable number of steel detailers, including trainees. These constitute the team that will actually do the detail drawing work. 2. One ofthe first requirements is the preparation of a list of the steel materials needed for the structure to enable the contractor to place orders with steel merchants or mills. The list is compiled from the layout drawings. 3. The steel detailers proceed with the preparation of the steelwork detail drawings. These will provide an accurate tepresentation of every component of the stee! structure, including columns, beams, gders, trusses, bracings, platforms, stairways, rails, brackets, purlins, girs and the large number of smaller items that comprise a typical building or structure. As the drawings are completed they are carefully scrutinised by a checker, who is an experienced senior steel detailer allocated to this task. The importance of thorough checking cannot be over- emphasised. The correction of errors at the drafting stage is infinitely cheaper than rectifying errors during {abrication in the shop or during erection. ‘The stee! detailer's objective should be to produce drawings that will require as litte correction as possible and should never rely on the checker to pick up mistakes. The steel detailer should be critical of their own work, acting subconsciously as a checker, to ensure the drawings are ‘error-free’. The drawings are then submitted to the engineer for approval. 4, The detail drawings are sent to the fabrication shop for cutting to exact length, driling or punching the necessary holes, assembling the various parts by means of bolting or welding to make up the components or ‘sub-assemblies and application of the surface treatment ready for transport to sit. 5. The drawing office personnel also prepare the erection drawings in conjunction with the shop details. These show the arrangement or layout of the steel framework, usually in skeletal form, and comprise the plans, elevations and cross-sections that are required by the erector to assist with the assembly of the structure on. site, For easy identification of each component's position in the structure, every component is given a distinguishing mark, called an erection mark, which is shown on the detail and erection drawings and is marked {hand-marked, painted or tagged) on the steel components themselves in the fabrication shop; and 6. Alldrawings are updated to incorporate any revisions that may have occurred during the progress ofthe job and, a complete set of prints is retained for filing. These serve as a record of the work and are useful for future reference. - ‘Steps 1 to 4in the above sequence lie on what is called the ‘critical path’. This means that they are operations which, if delayed or unduly extended, will set back the completion of the whole project. The steel detailer is the main player in steps 1 to 3, and plays a key role in keoping the project on track in the early stagas of its progress. The detailer must have good visual perceptior’of the structural aspects of the project, be attentive to detall, accurate and neat in graphic presentation, and also able to work within defined and often limited time constraints. 1.5 OTHER FIELDS OF ACTIVITY ‘The previous section oultines the role of the steel detailer in a steel fabricator's drawing office. They may, however, fill a niche in another environment. For example, certain consulting engineering practices undertake steelwork detailing, either in elation to projects they are designing or on a contract basis for another organisation. The mining houses and most public utility companies have their own drawing offices and do detailing work to a greater or lesser degree. Steel detailer therefore have a wide range of specialised engineering fields open to them, in addltion to the more general run of work offered by typical fabrication companies. They can choose to work in building construction {from the lightest prefabricated building systems to power stations and multi-storey buildings), mining (both above and below grounc), materials handing, iting equipment, reticulation of services, marine and offshore structures, rail transportation, construction equipment and many other fields of activity. In the course ofthis employment the steel detaller will acquire a vast fund of knowledge extending far beyond the skis required forthe day-to-day job of preparing workshop drawings. This knowledge will relate to the specialised technology involved inthe particular industry in which they are employed and will equip them for progress up the administrative and managerial ladder. n particular, any aptitude they may have forthe calculation of structural details and connections will open the way for promotion into the field of engineering design, with allits variety and interest. 14 ‘AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK ASDH/01—1999 2. STRUCTURAL STEEL Due to the various processes involved, the shop where structural stee! is fabricated does not produce the steel. The steel is produced at steelmaking plants and steel products are subsequently manufactured at rolling mills and downstream finishing plants. The steel products are then shipped, via distribution companies (‘distributors” or “steel service centres”), to the fabrication shops in a variety of grades, shapes and forms. At this stage the steel is referred to as “stock” or “plain” material. 2.1 PLAIN MATERIAL ‘The great bulk of plain material for steel structures can be classified into the following basic groups:— 1. Universal Colurnns, (uo) 2. Universal Beams (ua) 3. Taper Flange Beams (TFB) 4. Parallel Flange Channels (PFC) 5. Taper Flange Channels (Fo) @ Structural Tees (Nor(en ‘These are made by splitting UC, UB, TFB shapes usually along the mid depth of their webs (for BT, CT sections) or by welding two plates of appropriate thickness to form a ‘Tee’. Fabricators frequently cut beam sections to form tees in their own shop or use the services of a distributor. 7. Angles " EAjor(ua) Consist of two legs, of equal (EA) or unequal (UA) lengths. The legs are set at right angles to each other. Welded Beams (WB) Consist of three plates, of varying thickness, welded together to form an I-section, There are ‘heavy duty’ standard beam sections ranging from 700 mm to 1200 mm in depth. 9. Welded Columns we) ‘Consist of three plates, of varying thickness, welded together to form an I-section. There are ‘heavy duty’ standard column sections ranging from 350 mm to 500 mm in depth. 10. Plates ~ Pu Plates range in width from 1200 mm upwards, subject to manufacturer's thickness and length limitations. 11. Flats ry ‘Are rectangular in cross-section and come in many widths and thicknesses. Flats (or Flat Bars) are limited to maximum widths of 300 mm, depending on thickness. Wider flat bars from 200 mm to 1200 mm in width may be substituted by splitting a larger size plate to suit though this alternative ‘would not have the rolled edges of a flat bar. 12, Rounds & Squares. (ROD or RD) or (SQ) ‘These bars come in many diameters/widths — check with the manufacturer. 13. Hollow Sections (CHS), (RHS) or (SHS)- ‘Are closed steel sections which are available in circular (CHS), rectangular (RHS) and square (SHS) profiles in a range of sizes, wall thicknesses and grades. tn Australia, the above forms of plain material comply with the following materials standards: AS 1163 (CHS, RHS, SHS}, AS 1594 (PL) ASINZS 3678 (PL); ASINZS 3879.1 (UC, UB, TFB, PFC, TFC, EA, UA, FL, Rod/RD, SQ and ‘generally BT and C1); AS/NZS 3679.2 (WB, WC) - see Chapter 17. ‘Acclear understanding of the various forms and shapes in which structural stee! is available is essential before the ‘steel detailer can prepare detail drawings. Fig. 2.1 shows typical cross-sections of plain material ASDH/01—1999 AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS’ HANDBOOK 24 TIIe UB TFB PFO TFC BT.CT UA we. we Plate (PL) Flat (FL) SHS RHS CHS. Fig. 2.1: Typical cross-sections of plain material Note that TFB and TFC are characterised by tapered flanges and that UC, UB and PFC shapes have parallel inner and outer flange surfaces. For details of this nature refer to the manufacturer's catalogue which lists all shapes ‘commonly used in construction, inciuding sizes, kg/metre, dimensions and properties, ‘Table 2.1 has been prepared to show the customary methods of designating individual pieces of structural shapes. ‘and plates on shop drawings, the conventional way of drawing these shapes, and the correct names of thelr ‘component parts. This system is generally accepted and used in structural drafting offices, although some minor deviations may occur ‘when the trade names of proprietary designations are substituted for some of the listed "Group Symbols”, when designating material. Table 2.1 should be studied carefully. 22 AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK ASDH/01—1999 Table 2.1 Usual method of designating and sketching structural steel shapes Group. Example of designating on Conventional way of showing on detail drawings symbols shop drawings and the identification of major parts 3 uc 1OUC158 x 2585, Length Flange us S90UB82.0 x 2982 ——— we ‘9008282 x 7325 we 4006270 x 4250 FB ‘125TFB x 1825 Designation x Length me | oawsoraee owe oa : au fi i lange BT 155BT20.2 x 3185, Length Flange Renato ce | wonooaenra Designation x Length UA 125X75xBUA x 425, Designation x Length Fillet ‘Thickness — |— Note: 1. For detalis made to a scale of 1:10 or smaller, do not show rounded of toes of angles or flanges, or interior filets between flanges and webs. Exaggerate web and flange thickness to suit. 2. On CAD generated drawings the designation may be prefixed by the group symbol e.g. UBS30%82.0. This enables a more logical fing of the sections in the data base and is being futher considered for industry standardisation. However, section designations as noted in the relevant Australian material standards (Chapter 17) should be used where possible, These are noted above. ASDH/01—1999 ‘AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK 23 Table 2.1 (continued) Group Example of designating on | Conventional way on showing on detail drawings Symbols | shop drawings and the identification of major parts RHS 180x75x5.0RHS x 2100 sa o Wit SHS T5K75x5.0SHS x 2500 oa Thickness —f-— Designation x Length | SHS Shown similery but depth and width are equal cus 88.9x4.0CHS x 270 Length a Designation x Length 8 Thickness PL 4200x10PL x 2760 _. “er Designation x Length - i | FL 1200x10FL x 2750 Length anat 4 Thickness: Designation x Length yo Can ROD 20ROD x 1850 Length . Designation x Length | Io sa 50SQ x 200 Length i Designation x Length ee oo o a4 ‘AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK ASDH/O1—1999 2.2 COMPOUND SECTIONS (Other section types which are suited to specific applications can be fabricated from plain material. Such sections are termed “compound sections or members and are made up by welding or bolting sections, plates and flats ‘together in particular combinations. Generally, welding is the more common means of connecting the components. ‘Some compound section types are shown in Fig. 2.2 though there are many possible variations in combination of plain materials. The most widely used compound section is the plate girder which is composed of three plates: ‘welded together. The ability to further customise the section can be achieved by incorporating flanges with diferent ‘widths and thickness. Box girders (or box sections) are also popular forms of compound sections. L TU! Plate Plated Crane Box Card Girder ‘Section Beam Girder Fig. 2.2: Compound sections 2.3 CHARACTERISTICS Steel, specifically structural steel, is fundamental to building, bridge and engineering construction. It is produced in wide range of shapes and grades which permit maximum flexibility of design. Itis relatively inexpensive to produce and is the strongest, most versatile and economical material available to the construction industry. Stee! is uniform in quality and dimensionally stable. By the addition of small amounts of copper or ather alloying elements, its resistance to atmospheric corrosion can be enhanced markedly. Steel also has several unique qualities which make it especially adaptable to the demanding requirements of ‘modern construction. it can be alloyed, or alloyed and heat-treated, to obtain toughness, ductility and great strength as the service demands, and yet be capable of ready fabrication with conventional shop 2.4 SPECIFICATIONS ‘Structural stee! is composed almost ently ofthe element iron. Small portions of other elements, particularly carbon ‘and manganese must also be present to provide strength and ductity. Increasing the carbon contont makes stool! ‘stronger and harder: Decreasing the carbon content makes stee! softer and more ductile, but at some sacrifice to ‘strength. The standard grades of steel used for bridges and buildings contain approximately 0.22-0.25% carbon, with small amounts of several other elements as required or permitted by the particular steel specifications. ~ ‘Al steels are manufactured to specifications which stipulate the chemical and mechanical requirements in deta ‘Standard specifications for structural stee's are established by Standards Australia committecs, made up of representatives of producers, consumers and general interest groups. These committees develop and keep up-to- {date material specications to provide and maintain relable, acceptable and practical standards. Reference to the latest Australian Standards is recommended for complete information on all structural steels. ‘The specifications for buildings, as well as most bridge specifications, recognise several grades of steel for structural purposes. Asummary of relevant Australian Standards is contained in Chapter 17. ‘Several proprietary steels, so-called because their composition and characteristics are defined by steel producers’ ‘specifications, are also available for structural purposes. Producers of these proprietary steels use rigid control of melting processes and careful selection of alloys to achieve guaranteed minimum yield stresses. The toughness, ‘weldabilty and cost-to-strength ratios compare favourably with those obtainable from standard stee!s. ‘Steelmaking is in a constant state of progress. Metallurgical research in the industry is continually developing new steels for specific purposes and improving the versatility of older steels. As time passes and these new products prove themselves, writers of Australian Standard Specifications prepare modifications to present specifications or formulate new ones to recognise technological advances. Ref. 12 should be consulted fora list and comparison of the various steel grades and products available for construction. ASDH/01—1999 ‘AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK 25 2.5 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ‘The term yield stress and tensile strength are used to describe some of the physical properties of steels and their action when subjected to externally applied forces. ‘Assume that a bar of structural steel 25mm square and any convenient length, is clamped in a testing machine designed to pull the bar apart longitudinally. If this machine Is adjusted to pull the bar, so that itis resisting a force, the bar is said to be stressed in tension. ‘The bar, loaded as described above is being pulled and therefore elongated, or strained, inital in direct proportion to the stress being resisted. As the machine load increases, the bar will be stressed and strained proportionally. Within certain limits the external forces will deform the piece of steel slightly, but on removal of such forces, the steel Will return tots original shape. This property of steo! is termed elasticity. Eventually a point is reached beyond which the elongation will continue with no corresponding increase in stress. This elongation is characteristic of ductile stoels and is termed plasticity. Fig. 2.3 is a theoretical diagram of the stress-strain relationship of Grade 300 sted! (e.g. AS/NZS 3679.1) which ‘typically exhibits elastic and plastic strain of structural steel during uniaxial stressing. ‘Strain Fig. 23: Stress-strain relationship ‘The basic properties for design of structural members have traditionally been obtained by tensile testing of steel products in the longitudinal or transverse direction to roling This test involves applying increasing stresses to a prepared test piece until destruction. The quantities generally evaluated are the onset of plastic strain (yield stress or proof stress), the greatest stress applied prior to failure (tensile strength), the extension after fracture (percentage elongation) and occasionally the reduction of cross-section area achieved at fracture. ‘Structural design codes are based either on minimum yield stress or ultimate tensile strength with percentage elongation being used to indicate ductility, or the steels ability to be formed. ‘This test is generally performed as an acceptance test on all steel products intended for structural applications. 26 AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK ASDH/01—1999 2.6 STEEL PRODUCTION 2.6.1, Steelmaking Steelmaking is a batch process partly due to a range of products being made from the one operation. Steelmaking includes the combining of carbon with iron as well as the removal of impurities and the addition of alloying elements to develop specific properties in the steel mix. There are two types of common steelmaking processes: Basic ‘Oxygen Steelmaking (BOS) and Electric Arc Furnace (EAF} After the stee! is made itis elther cast into ingots and subsequently rolled into semi-finished shapes (termed slabs, blooms, billets) or is “continuously cast” into semi-finished shapes. As this is a specialised area which is outside the scope of the Handbook, further information on steelmaking can be sourced from other references. 2.6.2. Working the Steel into a More Useful Product From the semifinished shape the see! is futher roled in stages to get to Its final more useful shape. Basically, the rolling process consists of passing the steel between two rolls revolving at the same speed but in opposite directions. The gap between the rolls is smaller than the steel being rolled, so thatthe steel is reduced in thickness and atthe same time, lengthened. Roling mils are designed for processing either fat or shaped products. Rolling Cor working steel changes the mechanical and physical properties to give the characteristics necessary in the final ‘product. Steel can be either hot or cold-rolled in its final forming operations and this choice also has a significant effect on the steets final characteristic. Fig. 2.4 shows the hot-roling operation required in many passes to produce the final shape ~ an equal angle. 2.7 TOLERANCES Mil (r roling) tolerance is a term used to describe permissible deviations from the published dimensions of, say, ‘oross-section profiles. This is due to various reasons including rot! wear, speed, adjustment and differential cooling and may cause cross-section elements to be slighter thicker than desired or they may not be square to each other. The variations are negligible in small shapes, but increase for members made up from larger shapes and must be taken into consideration in detailing and fabricating connections. Other mill tolerances permit variation in area and. ‘weight, ends out-of-square, camber and sweep (ie slightly curved in length). ‘Tolerance on the ex-mill dimensions of steel plates and section are listed in AS 1163, AS/NZS 3678, AS/NZS 3679.1, ASINZS 3679.2 and mill catalogues. A study of AS/NZS 3679.1 shows that these dimensional tolerances can be significant enough to warrant consideration in fabrication and erection ~ see Fig. 2.5. As an example, in Fig. 2.5 (a), ‘experienced fabricators are aware of the possibilty of dimensional variations, and it is normal practice to match. members at splices in such a way as to minimise the effect of these variations. = Its most important that the effect of mil tolerances be clearly understood by the steel detailer. The steel detaler ‘must know when fo take them into account, particulary in ordering material and detailing connections involving hheavy rolled shapes. One way to address the issue of mill tolerances is to indicate on the shop drawings where matching to adjacent members is required. Ths highlights to the fabricator the need to carefully select the steelwork for the mombers to ensure a close dimensional match. In addition to mil tolerances, tolerances must also be allowed for on the dimensions of fabricated and erected ‘members. These are typically given in Standards such as AS 4100. inthis instance allowances must be made for sight variations in member length, out-of-squareness, fatness, weld distottion, sweep, camber, beam levels, ‘column plumbing, etc. Varying such tolerances are not recommended as they would be inconsistent with tolerances. Used by the steel/product manufacturer and also those tolerances assumed in design. ASDH/01—1999 ‘AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK 27 | Roughing pass - 1 Intermediate pass -2 Roughing pass -2 Intermediate pass - 3 Roughing pass -8 ‘sna Finishing pass v Intermacdate pass - 1 Fig. 2.4 Progressive stages in hot rolling of steel angles. = > (@) Allow for variation in beam depth in flange splice and for off-centre of webs in web splice. (©) Any connection to column web or column flange must make allowances for out-of-square, especially end plate connections ~ allow for shimming where necessary. (c) Web side plate connection - allow for out-of-square of column flange and off-centre of beam web Fig. 2.5 Connections where allowance for milltolerance Is required 28 AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS’ HANDBOOK ASDH/01—1999, 3. DRAFTING EQUIPMENT AND DRAFTING PRACTICES Methods of detaling and the equipment required are continually changing. With the introduction of personal Computers, traditional or manual drafting and its equipment is fast becoming superseded. ‘The first part ofthis chapter deals with the traditional method of drafting as it provides the basis for computerised drafting. The second part deals with how a computer drafting office should be set up, explaining the changing duties of GAD managers, operators and others. Finally, consideration will be given to drafting practices which are similar to both manual or computerised drafting. 3.1 MANUAL DRAFTING EQUIPMENT 3.1.1 Equipment and Supplies Inthe past the vast majority of drawings made forthe fabrication of structural steel were done in ink on tracing paper or drafting fim. Today the use of pencil detaling is common in some dotailing offices. Equipment requirements and techniques described in this book are largely oriented towards ink. Some reference will be made to pencil selection for detailing ‘The equipment used by stool detailers undertaking manual drafting is similar to that found in any manual drafting office. The types of equipment include for example: drawing boards, scale rules, triangles, templates, compass, protractors, dividers, ink, pens, pencils and erasers. 3.1.2 Drafting Paper and Film [Although the steel detailer may have ltl to say about the choice of tracing media they are expected to use, they should be familiar with the characteristics of the various types they may encounter. Most pencil and ink drawings are made on tracing paper or plastic film. 3.1.3 Prints and Reproductions In previous years, after the original drawing was made it was generally reproduced in the form of a print by using: 1. coated paper ~ sensitive to light; and 2. coated paper ~ sensitive to ammonia gas. ‘Today with the introduction of AS, A2, At-and Ad size photocopiers, copying of the drawing is as simple. as photocopying an AA sheet of paper. This method of copying drawings has slowly overtaken all other method of copying due to its speed.and ease of handing. 3.1.4 Drawing Boards, T-Squares and Triangles ‘Most manual drafting rooms are furnished either with fully equipped drafting machines, drawing tables or with drawing boards and T-square. Drawing tables have wooden or metal tops, which may have a titting adjustment. ‘Sometimes, drawing tables are equipped with parallel ruling attachments which eliminate the need for a T-square, (ra drafting machine with scales which supplant both the T-square and the triangles. Drafting machines have scales positioned at 90 degrees to each other and attached to a moveable protractor head which can be rotated and locked in position to permit measuring and drawing lines at any angle. 3.1.5 Drawing Scales Due tothe size of most structural members, itis necessary to depict them on shop drawings less than fullsize, using an appropriate scale for the desired reduction. One such scale commonly used, is 1:10. At this reduction the view of an object which is actually 300 mm long will have a length of 30 mm on the drawing. All other dimensions of the object will be shown reduced in the same proportion except as discussed later in this chapter, Other scales of reduction are also used in structural stee! detail drafting. When and why each one is used will become evident in later chapters. ASDH/01—1999 AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS’ HANDBOOK a4 3.1.6 Drafting Pencils ‘The selection of pencils with the degree of hardness (grade) needed to produce satisfactory tracings and prints is