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Large-scale integrating project (IP) proposal ICT Call 5

FP7-ICT-2007-5

Title: Internet of Things for All Acronym: IoT4All

Title: Internet of Things for All Acronym: IoT4All Date of preparation : 26.10.2009 www.iot4all.com Participant

Date of preparation: 26.10.2009

www.iot4all.com

Participant no.

Participant organisation name

Part.

Country

short

name

1 (Coordinator)

Atos Origin Sociedad Anonima Española

Atos

Spain

Origin

2

TXT e-Solutions

TXT

Italy

3

Centro Ricerche FIAT ScpA

CRF

Italy

4

DIAKINISIS S.A

DIAKIN

Greece

5

Fundación Instituto Gerontológico Matia-INGEMA

INGEMA

Spain

6

CAEN RFID srl

CAEN

Italy

7

Telit Wireless Solutions Ltd

Telit

Israel

8

Informatica per il Sistema degli Enti Locali s.p.a

Insiel

Italy

9

Research and Education Laboratory in Information Technologies

AIT

Greece

10

LISSI/SCTIC

LISSI

France

11

Evidian

Evidian

France

12

Kinamik Data Integrity, S.L.

Kinamik

Spain

13

Institute of Communication and Computer Systems/National Technical University of Athens

ICCS/NTU

Greece

A

14

Forschungszentrum Informatik an der Universität Karlsruhe

FZI

Germany

15

Athens University of Economics and Business

AUEB

Greece

16

Sigs Datacom GmbH

SIGS

Germany

17

Fundacion Esade

Esade

Spain

18

BMT Group Ltd.

BMT

United Kingdom

Work programme topics addressed Objective ICT-2007.1.3: Internet of Things and Enterprise environments

Name of the Coordinating Person:

Santi Ristol

E-mail:

santi.ristol@atosorigin.com

Fax:

+34 934860736

Proposal Part B: page 1 of 203

Santi Ristol E-mail: santi.ristol@atosorigin.com Fax: +34 934860736 Proposal Part B: page 1 of 203

Proposal Abstract

Internet of Things is a perspective of the global Future Internet where physical things are enabled to share their Real World knowledge with virtual things living in the Digital World to enable novel Internet based applications in the Socio-economic World.

The IoT4All (Internet of Things for All) IP vision is to go beyond the interoperability among real, digital and socio-economic worlds, where just exchanges of data could occur, but to achieve by 2020 a sympathetic and osmotic IoT Space, where these 3 worlds influence, participate and in some cases cum-penetrate each other. This future IoT Space will finally unleash the potential of the IoT foundational technologies (microsystems, nanotechnologies, wireless sensors, network infrastructure, objects identification, energy saving and harvesting, communication frequencies and protocols) in the meantime developed in different domains, making IoT a resource for all, citizens and companies, governments and enterprises, representing therefore a revolutionary boast towards the society of the future.

The IoT4All mission and main innovation is to study, model and develop the mutual relations among real, digital and socio-economic worlds through an open architecture which will enable novel IoT- driven business applications for the benefits of European citizens and enterprises. As already mentioned above, our concept of the IoT is based on 3 Worlds:

1. A Real World where we imagine a physical heterogeneous, interoperable and evolutionary world of inter-connected computers, inter-connected mobiles, inter-connected people, inter- connected sensors/actuators and inter-connected objects.

2. A Digital World where Services are provided & consumed, Events generated & filtered, Actuations inferred & controlled, Knowledge generated & transmitted, Reasoning implemented & explained, by means of an open, secure and privacy-preserving IT infrastructure, enabling the interoperability of Enterprise Collaboration Platforms, Enterprise Applications Clouds, Distributed Manufacturing Facilities and Global Service Delivery Platforms.

3. A Socio-Economic World, not confined to the business-oriented Manufacturing and Product + Service life-cycle, but extended to citizen’s wellbeing and Quality of Life, where the IoT revolution will stimulate the birth of novel business, social and knowledge software applications. In the Business field, making things protagonist of the decisional processes together with humans and computers, beyond collaboration and co-operation; in the Social field, making things able to find friends in both the human and smart objects constituency, to exchange information with them, to arrange dates and meetings, beyond human-oriented social networks, wikis and chats; in the Knowledge field, making things able to share experiences and to become context-aware and intelligent, beyond traditional document management systems and search engines.

The IoT4All IP will be run for 42 months by a consortium of 18 beneficiaries led by ATOS Origin Spain.

Proposal Part B: page 2 of 203

IP will be run for 42 months by a consortium of 18 beneficiaries led by ATOS

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Table of Contents

PROPOSAL ABSTRACT

2

SECTION 1: SCIENTIFIC AND/OR TECHNICAL QUALITY, RELEVANT TO THE TOPICS ADDRESSED BY THE CALL

5

1.1 CONCEPT AND OBJECTIVES

5

1.1.1 Background & Motivation

5

1.1.2 Vision & Mission & Concept

7

1.1.3 The scientific and technological objectives & expected results

9

1.1.4 Relation to the call objectives

15

1.2 PROGRESS BEYOND THE STATE OF THE ART

19

1.2.1 Future Internet and the IoT

19

1.2.2 RFID and WSAN in the IoT

22

1.2.3 Trust, privacy & security in the IOT

25

1.2.4 Real World Technologies for the IoT

28

1.2.5 Distributed Intelligence and Smart Objects

29

1.2.6 Smart Spaces and User Interaction in the IOT

32

1.2.7 Real World Management & Governance

33

1.2.8 Socio-economics, Business models & value proposition for the IoT

33

1.2.9 Event Driven Platforms in the IoT

35

1.2.10 Service & Cloud Platforms for the IoT

38

1.2.11 Service Front-end & Collaboration Platforms for the IoT

41

1.2.12 Semantic Reasoning in the IoT

43

1.3 S/T METHODOLOGY AND ASSOCIATED WORK PLAN

45

1.3.1 Introduction to the IoT4All Architecture

45

1.3.2 Description of the overall strategy of the work plan

62

1.3.3 Work package and deliverable time schedule - Gantt chart

68

1.3.4 Detailed work description broken into WPs

70

1.3.5 Summary of staff effort

137

1.3.6 Graphical presentation of the components showing their interdependencies

139

1.3.7 Risk Management

139

SECTION 2: IMPLEMENTATION

140

2.1.

MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE AND PROCEDURES

140

2.1.1. Organization structure and decision making mechanism

140

2.1.2. Management bodies

141

2.1.3. Decision procedures and conflict resolution

143

2.1.4. Management of knowledge, intellectual property and innovation related activities

144

2.1.5. Tools and services for management assistance

144

2.1.6. Management processes and management handbook

145

2.1.7. Reporting, Monitoring, Reviewing: towards EC

146

2.2.

INDIVIDUAL PARTICIPANTS

152

2.2.1. Atos Origin

152

2.2.2. TXT e-Solutions – ITALY

153

2.2.3. Centro Ricerche FIAT

154

2.2.4. Diakinisis

155

2.2.5.

Ingema

156

2.2.6. CAEN RFID Company Profile

157

 

2.2.7. Telit

158

2.2.8. Insiel

159

2.2.9.

AIT

160

2.2.10. LiSSi Laboratory

161

2.2.11. EVIDIAN

162

2.2.12. Kinamik Data Integrity

163

2.2.13. Institute of Communication and Computer Systems/National Technical University of Athens

(ICCS/NTUA)

164

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Communication and Computer Systems/National Technical University of Athens (ICCS/NTUA) 164 Proposal Part B: page 3 of

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2.2.14. FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM INFORMATIK AN DER UNIVERSITÄT KARLSRUHE (FZI)

165

2.2.15. AUEB-ELTRUN

166

2.2.16. SIGS DATACOM GMBH

167

2.2.17. ESADE

168

2.2.18. BMT

169

2.3.

CONSORTIUM AS A WHOLE

170

2.3.1.

Consortium composition leading criteria

170

2.3.1.

Partner descriptions and roles

171

2.3.2.

Subcontracting

176

2.3.3.

Other counties

177

2.4.

RESOURCES TO BE COMMITTED

177

2.4.1. Allocation over project activities

177

2.4.2. Allocation over cost categories

178

SECTION 3: IMPACT

181

3.1

EXPECTED IMPACT

181

3.1.1

NEW CLASSES OF APPLICATIONS OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS

184

3.1.2

A GENERIC AND OPEN ARCHITECTURE

186

3.1.3

NEW BUSINESS MODELS

188

3.1.4

USE CASES IN SPECIFIC ECONOMIC SECTORS

190

3.1.5

SUSTAINABLE LOGISTICS

191

3.2

DISSEMINATION, EXPLOITATION OF PROJECT RESULTS, AND MANAGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

192

3.2.1. Creating long term value and exploiting the results of IOT4ALL

192

3.2.2. Contribution and use of standards

194

3.2.3. Dissemination Activities

195

3.2.4. Managing of knowledge and intellectual property rights

198

SECTION 4: ETHICAL ISSUES

201

ANNEX A: LETTER OF SUPPORT OF ETSI TO THE IOT4ALL

203

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4: ETHICAL ISSUES 201 ANNEX A: LETTER OF SUPPORT OF ETSI TO THE IOT4ALL 203 Proposal

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Section 1: Scientific and/or technical quality, relevant to the topics addressed by the call

1.1Concept and objectives

1.1.1 Background & Motivation

There have been several definitions for Internet of Things (IoT) in the recent literature. For instance:

A physical world where everyday objects, rooms and machines are connected to one another and to the larger digital world;

Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within social, environmental, and user contexts;

A vision of the Future Internet where connecting physical things, from banknotes to bicycles, through a network will let them take an active part in the Internet, exchanging information about themselves and their surroundings;

A global network infrastructure, linking physical and virtual objects through the exploitation of data capture and communications capabilities. This infrastructure includes existing and evolving Internet and network developments. It will offer specific object-identification, sensor and connection capability as the basis for the development of independent federated services and applications.

These will be characterized by a high degree of autonomous data capture, event transfer, network connectivity and interoperability; or the most recent definition chosen for the CERP IoT Cluster of Research Projects on the Internet of Things:

Internet of Things is an integrated part of Future Internet and is defined as a dynamic global network infrastructure with self configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” having identities, physical attributes, virtual personalities and using intelligent interfaces are seamlessly integrated into the information network.

The definition we would like to propose in this project tries to make a synthesis of them and to comply on the one side on the Future Internet movement, on the other side with the ICT WP2009- 2010 objective 1.3:

Internet of Things is a perspective of the global Future Internet where physical things are enabled to share their Real World knowledge with virtual things living in the Digital World to enable novel Internet based applications in the Socio-economic World.

Our IoT4All definition is therefore originally characterized by a twofold motivation:

i. IoT is a perspective of Future Internet (FI) and not an integrated part of it. This means that IoT is the FI and grows and develops together with it, with an original viewpoint which sees everything as a Thing (and not in parallel with it). Most of IoT technologies are the FI technologies and will be developed inside in cooperation with the FI movements, i.e. in European RTD together with the more than 90 projects belonging to the FI Assembly. Our assumption is that it does not make any sense to develop a specific IoT network infrastructure (see objective 1.1 in current and previous ICT workprogramme), a specific IoT federation of service platforms (see objective 1.2), a specific IoT Smart Space for users interaction (see user-centric research in several objectives), a specific IoT Contents & Knowledge Management System (see objective 1.5 and 4.3 in current and previous ICT workprogramme), which then would need to be integrated in the FI. Instead, FI research in IoT has a twofold perspective:

a. In close connection with other research communities, including the ETPs (European Technology Platforms EpoSS NESSI NEM ISI eMobility Manufuture) and the European

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(European Technology Platforms EpoSS NESSI NEM ISI eMobility Manufuture) and the European Proposal Part B: page

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Economic Recovery Plan PPPs (Public Private Partnerships Factories of the Future, Energy Efficient Buildings, Green Cars), to provide requirements for their research challenges, to verify & validate their outcomes in FI IoT scenarios;

b. To develop in IoT research just those specific technologies, protocols, tools which are not foreseen in the research agendas of the other FI communities, but which are essential for the development of IoT in Europe.

The main IoT4All message is: “A single IoT IP is not able to design and develop all technologies which are necessary to build a global IoT-specific network infrastructure. We must be humble and not unrealistically ambitious, if we want to have the European IoT really in place in 10 years time, together with the Future Internet.”

ii. The IoT essential value lies in the way it will revolutionize the life of all European citizens and not in its physical network infrastructure (which will be the FI one and not an independent one, as said above). Is the current Internet a real revolution for all of us (researchers, workers, managers, citizens, patients, disabled, …), because it is made of a network of computers exchanging TCP/IP packets? Moreover, seamless integration is not enough, not even transparent interoperability (much more correct indeed). On the one side, trillions of things require autonomy, flexibility and adaptability and not “integration” which simply destroys heterogeneity by law; on the other side not even interoperability is enough, as smart entities are influencing each other when interact and never remain the same (Heraclitus “you cannot step twice into the same water”). Hence, the key research topics of IoT4All will be:

a. An osmosis-like multi-layered architecture which will allow a continuous interaction and mutual influence between real, digital and socio-economic worlds;

b. A special attention to the final users of the technology, as current Internet history shows that it was not the best designed systems by researchers and engineers which encountered the best success among people and which made the Internet really grow and revolutionize our lives.

The main IoT4All message is: “The success of a brand new set of technologies, like IoT in the FI, is not just in its clean design and development, but mostly in its capability to improve our lives and to have a real socio-economic impact ”

As a consequence of our IoT definition, we could make some statements:

a) Firstly, the architectural model of the IoT is not just confined to the Real World of sensor networks, smart objects and connecting things, but it embraces also the Digital World of events, services, actions and controls (virtual things) and the Socio-economic World of work, entertainment and public utility services. This holistic view (everything is a thing) justifies the assertion that IoT is a perspective of the FI and not just a part of it: human beings, computers, objects, sensors, services, events are things and the main challenge is to discover how this new world of things will influence and affect our daily social life and business.

b) Secondly, each World has a native population of entities (physical/virtual objects, middleware/protocol tools, socio/economic bodies) who live in a certain intra-world environmental natural space under certain defined rules, policies and conventions: smart spaces for Real World interaction (humans objects devices), software platforms for Digital World integration (F-O-T federated open trusted platforms), social/business workflows for Socio-economic World co-operation (next generation IoT-based enterprise and social applications).

c) A third important aspect of such a vision, with considerable implications to the architectural vision, is the presence of an IoT inter-World *ware system (a middleware, an upperware and

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is the presence of an IoT inter-World *ware system (a middleware, an upperware and Proposal Part

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a crossware) which is not just defining the interoperability of the three Worlds (i.e. exchange of information and use of the information exchanged), but also is able to model and implement the relations and mutual interactions among them, like a semi-permeable membrane supports continuous osmotic exchanges between liquids. Keywords in this respect are: data, information, knowledge and experience: how do they flow through the membrane and influence our society.

1.1.2 Vision & Mission & Concept

The IoT4All vision is to go beyond the interoperability among real, digital and socio-economic worlds, where just exchanges of data could occur, but to achieve by 2020 a sympathetic and osmotic IoT Space, where these 3 worlds influence, participate and in some cases cum-penetrate each other. This future IoT Space will finally unleash the potential of the IoT foundational technologies (microsystems, nanotechnologies, wireless sensors, network infrastructure, objects identification, energy saving and harvesting, communication frequencies and protocols) in the meantime developed in different domains, making IoT a resource for all, citizens and companies, governments and enterprises, representing therefore a revolutionary boast towards the society of the future. Moreover, the IoT4All mission stems upon two main assumptions:

Research about innovative IoT foundational technologies is so complex and multidisciplinary which cannot be performed seriously and with success in just one single IP. It is however a reasonable and feasible objective of a single IP like IoT4All to specify the requirements for FI technologies, to develop the architecture and the tools to make such research outcomes directly and easily adopted and taken up by the Society. Moreover, most of the architectures and technologies are proprietary, owned by multinational big IT companies, and therefore not suitable to be the open foundations for an IoT available for all, mostly the less advantaged citizens, enterprises and governments.

The IoT is inserted in a movement of more than 90 European projects, named Future Internet Assembly, aiming at finding new technologies and sustainable business models for the Internet of the Future. It is therefore useless and even counterproductive that all the communities of the FI will design and develop their own network infrastructure and protocols, because just one of them will become the FI and there are several projects already allocated to such a task (mostly in objective 1.1 Future Internet Architectures and Network Technologies, in call 5 Novel Internet architectures and technologies & Flexible and cognitive network management and operation frameworks and in call 4 Spectrum-efficient radio access to Future Networks & Converged infrastructures in support of Future Networks). The IoT4All will therefore use all the innovative FI technologies which will be made available by the FI projects, reserving to foundational technologies just some specific resources which will make our test-cases feasible and demonstrable.

In conclusion:

The IoT4All mission and main innovation is to study, model and develop the mutual relations among real, digital and socio-economic worlds through an open architecture which will enable novel IoT- driven business applications for the benefits of European citizens and enterprises. As already mentioned above, our concept of the IoT is based on 3 Worlds:

A Real World where we imagine a physical heterogeneous, interoperable and evolutionary world of inter-connected computers, inter-connected mobiles, inter-connected people, inter- connected sensors/actuators and inter-connected objects. In particular, among these not just intelligent products provided with advanced active identification technologies, but also self- organizing sensor networks able to maximize effectiveness by minimizing energy consumption and data storage needs, as well as smart objects and devices provided with advanced communication and reasoning capabilities (i.e. the intelligent fridge, the intelligent car, the

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and reasoning capabilities (i.e. the intelligent fridge, the intelligent car, the Proposal Part B: page 7

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intelligent home), as well as integrated working-entertainment-home environments where humans, provided with smart and wearable devices, could interact with the IoT (Ambient Intelligence). Virtual Worlds are also belonging to this space, as emotional experimental facilities characterized by shifting in time (past reconstructions, future projections) and/or extension in space of our experience. Very challenging is also the mutual influence between RW/VW whenever actions are generated in either of them and effects need to be propagated in both, like commanding a switch-on/off in a domotics VW or in a Mixed Reality Plant Supervisory Control; or reporting back in the VW a RW Machine breakdown in a shopfloor or an as-built change in a new hospital construction.

A Digital World where Services are provided & consumed, Events generated & filtered, Actuations inferred & controlled, Knowledge generated & transmitted, Reasoning implemented & explained, by means of an open, secure and privacy-preserving IT infrastructure, enabling the interoperability of Enterprise Collaboration Platforms, Enterprise Applications Clouds, Distributed Manufacturing Facilities and Global Service Delivery Platforms. Such a federated interoperability will be implemented by a next generation flexible and self-adaptive Business Process Management Systems encompassing services-events- actions life-cycle management, adhoc-mediated-planned collaboration forms, decisional- innovation-automation cross-organizational workflows, individual-team-community oriented front-ends and workspaces, deterministic-stochastic-fuzzy behaviours.

o in the Knowledge field, making for instance things able to share experiences and to become context-aware and intelligent (e.g. smart block-notes for medicine prescriptions to be able to interrupt the current TV program reminding the patient/watcher of his/her duties; intelligent printed machine maintenance manuals able to update their content/bibliography/hyperlinks by inspecting a case base of past malfunctions and diagnosis recovery actions; smart printed delivery schedule or mission navigator of a logistic operator able to change its plan according to environmental and mobility situations) beyond traditional document management systems and search engines.

A Socio-Economic World, not confined to the business-oriented Manufacturing and Product + Service life-cycle, but extended to citizen’s wellbeing and Quality of Life, where the IoT revolution will stimulate the birth of novel business, social and knowledge software applications.

o

In the Business field, making for instance things protagonist of the decisional processes together with humans and computers (e.g. smart machines concurring to decide the time for a preventive maintenance stop in a shop-floor, smart shelves concurring to decide the price-promotions policies and the re-assortment levels in a Supermarket, smart monitoring environments concurring to decide the visit schedule of a physician in a home rehabilitation program), beyond collaboration and co- operation.

o

In the Social field, making for instance things able to find friends in both the human and smart objects constituency, to exchange information with them, to arrange dates and meetings (e.g. a parcel in a warehouse supposed to be picked up yesterday and not yet considered could share its experience with other parcels in similar conditions and propose a solution to the human and computer expert; a car not feeling good with its brakes could ask other cars for past similar experience and report back to the board computer for warnings and alarms; a smart environment experimenting a fall of an ageing patient could get in touch with a specialized centre, send a short movie of the fall and synthesize a convenient voice message to re-

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centre, send a short movie of the fall and synthesize a convenient voice message to re-

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assure the unlucky elderly), beyond human-oriented social networks, wikis and chats; The “3 Worlds” Interoperability architecture will be implemented by:

A Business-IT upperware (i.e. the connection between socio-economic and digital worlds) to allow IoT- derived knowledge to influence the innovative social-knowledge-business applications;

An IT-Reality middleware (i.e. the connection between digital and real worlds) to allow relevant field events to be considered and to address commands to the relevant field actuators;

A Business-Reality crossware (i.e. the direct connection between socio-economic and real worlds) which in some cases is able to seamlessly cross the digital world and directly connect the IoT with the Enterprise Environments, i.e. to immediately report serious events to the decision makers and to instantaneously actuate urgent commands from the decision makers to the real world. A pictorial view of the 3 interconnected World is given here below:

view of the 3 interconnected World is given here below: 1.1.3 The scientific and technological objectives

1.1.3 The scientific and technological objectives & expected results

The above considerations led us identify 4 Grand Challenges for our project proposal (which will find their development in our main 4 research SubProjects):

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project proposal (which will find their development in our main 4 research SubProjects): Proposal Part B:

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The perception of the Real World is different because of two reasons: every observer has a different sensing capability (Viewpoint, sensors, elaboration, attitude, interpretation make our experience of reality personal and unique. Antoine de Saint-Exupery said “The meaning of things lies not in the things themselves, but in our attitude towards them”) and the observed reality is continuously changing and evolving (Heraclitus said “We exist in a field or continuum in which everything is constantly in flux or process, Πάντα ε). In addition, such an interaction between observer and observed is now possible not just in the Real World, but also in the Virtual World or in a mix of the two, when for instance you buy a good in Second Life and you start a set of subsequent physical-digital-economical processes. Another consideration is that in the future IoT, the boundaries between active observer and passive observed thing is blurring, where every entity could be observer and observed thing at the same time, provide-consume services, accept-generate commands, sense-actuate the environment. GC#1: Modelling, Representing & Governing the Observers, the Observed and the Communicating Things in the Real World.

Nobody could say that the reality is only one, but we could just share experiences taken from Communicating Things, compare them and extract common knowledge from them. IoT implies that information and experiences flowing between the 3 Worlds (Real-Digital-Social) middlewares are processed and transformed into services, events, actions. For doing that we need a co-operation of different digital platforms: service delivery platforms, event driven platforms, actuation control platforms, knowledge management platforms, context-driven intelligent reasoning platforms, human-things interaction platforms. All of them need to be F-O-T platforms: Federated (not just interoperable, but collaborative), Open (respecting standards and offering open interfaces) and Trusted (where security and privacy issues are managed transparently according to agreed policies) GC#2: Analyzing, Extracting & Managing Knowledge & Experiences via federated platforms in the Digital World.

Information extracted from the Real World and transformed into knowledge in the Digital World is then ready to be contextualized in innovative Socio-economic IoT-based applications, by using it for everyday life experience and/or business decisions. We identified three kinds of applications: Realtime sensing applications (e.g. monitoring, diagnosis, filtering, in several domains like plant maintenance, environmental protection, energy management, healthcare) where the major challenge is to support RT critical decisions; Distributed intelligence applications (i.e. planning, scheduling, optimization in several domains like collaborative supply chain management, transportation, logistics), where the major challenge is to solve complex problems by the coordination of several different knowledge and intelligence sources; Smart Ambient applications (i.e. human-computer multi-modal & multi-device interaction, virtual reality, location based services in several domains like e-inclusion, tourism, new product design and development), where the major challenge is to support an easy and effective interaction among things and between things and humans. GC#3: Developing highly innovative networked applications, based on the IoT experience, knowledge and context in the Socio-economic World.

Every experience modifies both the observer and the observed reality in a mutual sympathy and reciprocal influence, like a semi-permeable membrane defines the interaction among two liquids or gases. This also applies to our three worlds which are neither to be merged, seamlessly integrated together, nor totally separated and stand-alone, but they are continuously and mutually influencing each other, keeping their independence and autonomy. An example is an event generated at the Real World level and synthesized and contextualized at the Digital World level which is influencing human Socio-economic decisions or a schedule generated by a human decision maker which is able tor each the physical shop-floor of a factory through synthesis of actuations and commands. GC#4:

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the physical shop-floor of a factory through synthesis of actuations and commands. GC#4: Proposal Part B:

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Modelling and implementing the information-knowledge-decision osmotic relations among Worlds. The IoT4All Integrated Project objectives are:

i. Design, develop and prototype an open architecture based on open protocols to enable European society at ALL levels to easily adopt and deploy the new technologies at the basis of the Internet of Things. The open architecture will enable a seamless, trustworthy and pervasive infrastructure to bridge the conceptual, applicative and technological gaps between the societal, the information and the physical spaces in enterprise environments. The technical experience gained from previous FP6-FP7 RTD projects in IoT-related domains (e.g. sensor networks, ambient intelligence, product identification, intelligent objects, smart personal spaces) will drive such an activity.

ii. Identify & introduce innovative IoT Technologies into the Real World. Such technologies (in the classes of self-organizing sensors networks, distributed objects intelligence and smart interaction environments) will populate our three test environments (realtime sensing in transportation, distributed intelligence in logistics, smart ambient in assistive technologies) and innovate the Digital and the Societal worlds;

iii. Develop & integrate a federation of F-O-T platforms in the Digital World. In particular, we will consider service-oriented cloud platforms to support massive amounts of information, event-driven intelligent platforms to analyse data streams and infer relevant events, personalized and semantic service front-ends to allow human users to easily access the wealth of knowledge generated by the lower level;

iv. Design & prototype innovative business- and citizen-centric applications founded on the IoT in the Socio-economic World. In particular, we will take the existing software applications driving the 3 IoT4All scenarios and improve them in the sense of IoT. For the cars realtime remote diagnosis application we will add the dynamic and self-configuring sensors networks in a community of cars; for the supply chain management application we will add the distribution of intelligence in a heterogeneous collaborative decision making process, made of humans and smart containers, warehouses, pallets and items; for the ambient assistive living application we will add the capability of location-based and context-driven services as well as an easy and multimodal human-computer interaction;

v. Model and implement the relations and mutual interactions among the three Worlds identified in an open, standard-based *ware system. The real-digital world relations are managed by a middleware which will enable the software platforms to access the wealth of information produced by the things (services, events, actions); the digital-social world relations are managed by a upperware which will enable the three software applications to integrate the F-O-T platforms and run their business processes (e.g. diagnosis, planning, monitoring business processes); the direct social-real worlds relations are managed by a crossware which will enable the innovative software applications to interact in a safe and secure way directly with the things via commands and actions (e.g. switch on/off a sensor, configure remotely a smart container, send a warning message to a disabled or elderly under assistance);

vi. Build & deploy realistic things-centred test-cases in business- and social-oriented PPP business ecosystems. The real value of the IoT technologies and, as interpreted in IoT4All project, will be fully unleashed just when they will be able to influence and change our daily life, as citizens, employees, civil servants. Things are entering with their own identities and personalities in our life as full users of our innovative IoT-based applications. Imagine a mixed community of mechanical engineers, car drivers, maintenance operators and cars, all users of the same real-time monitoring application and collaboratively engaged to solve a diagnosis problem; or imagine a community of production managers, logistic operators, containers and parcels, all users of the same outbound inventory management and

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operators, containers and parcels, all users of the same outbound inventory management and Proposal Part B:

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distribution planning system, to find the best payloads and stock levels for an optimized service; or imagine physicians, assistance operators, caretakers, patients and smart rooms which all collaborate for a better quality of life of disabled and elderly.

vii. Measure & demonstrate tangible/intangible Benefits for the EU society sectors derived from the IoT take-up in the three above test-cases. For instance, improve the safety of our cars, diminish cars accidents and failures, offer a better information system to car drivers; eliminate out of stocks at the points of sales, reduce environmental impact of our goods distribution networks, offer more customised and fresh goods to consumers; reduce the hospitalization times and the costs for the community of not-patients assistance, improve the capability of disabled to interact with peers and the society, prolong the life expectancy of elderly.

viii. Diffuse & disseminate the project’s Outcomes to the international scientific, standards and industrial communities. Our dissemination strategy will consist of several distinct but interoperable dissemination channels. For instance, as far as the standardisation bodies are concerned, ETSI (see ANNEX A) will support our project and will be part of the Industrial Advisory Board. As far as the International scientific community, ATOS Origin, thanks to its International presence, will design and execute a detailed dissemination strategy determining the appropriate use of the various dissemination possibilities, such as flyers, the support and organization of conferences on the topics and Web-based dissemination of project results such as implemented tools and prototypes.

ix. Exploit & impact the Society by demonstrating IoT Best Practices and stimulating their adoption worldwide. We believe that anticipations of the real IoT could take place also in the presence of our beloved current Internet infrastructure, perhaps not in a full global and totally scalable manner. IoT4All will put in place several Training and Exploitation measures in order to impact the society with the outcomes of our project such as specific measures related to the exploitation of project results: While user-centric activities represent the customer perspective, takes concrete steps towards successful exploitation from the point of view of the R&D partners. There are two major factors which determine the impact and thus the exploitation potential of an IP: cost and benefit. Key to exploitation is the project visibility – making prospective users and the potential community in general aware of the project benefits. Within IoT4All we lower the cost of adopting IoT4All technologies by aligning project outcomes with relevant standardization activities.

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technologies by aligning project outcomes with relevant standardization activities. Proposal Part B: page 12 of 203

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In conclusion, we could put in the following table the S/T objectives of our project.

OBJECTIVES

M24

M36

i. Open Architecture

   

Open standards adopted

2

4

Open protocols adopted

3

5

Open Platforms integrated

5

8

ii. Real World Technologies

   

Innovative hardware technologies

1

2

Innovative communication protocols

1

2

Number of User Interaction Devices integrated

3

5

iii. Digital World Platforms

   

Number of Platforms studied for Integration

8

-

Number of Platforms integrated

-

4

Semantic Reasoning Ontologies

2

4

iv. Socio-economic World Applications

   

Innovative plug-ins for car diagnosis

1

3

Innovative plug-ins for logistics management

1

3

Innovative plug-ins for Emergency Management

1

3

Innovative plug-ins for AAL

1

3

v. *Ware System

   

Number of standards used in Middleware

2

4

Number of standards used in Upperware

2

3

Number of standards used in Crossware

3

4

vi. + vii Things-centred Test-cases

   

Number of car-diagnosis Smart Things

2

5

Number of logistics Smart Things

2

4

Number of AAL Smart Things

4

6

Number of Emergency Management Smart Things

2

4

viii Dissemination

   

IoT4All events Number of Delegates

50

200

IoT4All articles in Journals, papers in Conferences

10

100

IoT4All newsletter circulation

200

500

ix Impact

   

External Multipliers

10

40

ETP Addressed

2

4

Future Internet Working Groups

1

3

Table 1.1. S/T Objectives

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Addressed 2 4 Future Internet Working Groups 1 3 Table 1.1. S/T Objectives Proposal Part B:

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In the following table we also put the Business-Social tangible and intangible benefits derived directly from the adoption of IoT4All solutions:

 

BENEFITS

Self-repairing Car

Maximise safety, availability and reliability of vehicle, for professional or leisure usage

Minimise customer operational costs of maintenance and insurance

Minimise company costs for contractual maintenance, assistance and logistics of spare part

Sustainable Logistics

Monitoring the environmental impact of products- processes on the environment

Environmental-friendly

supply

chain

and

distribution

processes

Stimulation of greener consumer demand

 

Ambient Assistive Living

Improving quality of life of patients

 

Reduction of accidents

Improving the caretaking process

 

Homeland Security

RealTime Monitoring & Control of Devices

 

More timely Warning and Alarm Channelling

 

Distributed reasoning and decision making

 

Table 1.2. Benefits Table

Thanks to its first class constituency, the IOT4All consortium is also able to generalize the business objectives depicted above for our 4 test cases to other additional sectors and domains which are in the core industrial business and/or in the primary research priorities of our beneficiaries: Retail, Banks, Public Transportation, Manufacturing, Energy are just some examples of generalization.

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1.1.4 Relation to the call objectives

The call for Objective 1.3 bullet a) outlines four objectives of which three are relevant for IoT4All. We repeat the three relevant objectives here for convenience alongside their relationship to the project.

Component of ICT Call 5

How the proposed project contributes

Challenge 1: Pervasive and Trusted Network and Service Infrastructures

IoT4All compliance

1. Need to rethink architectures such that performance bottlenecks are overcome, a wider variety of service types can be supported, novel types of edge networks such as wireless sensor networks may be integrated, and constraints imposed by new types of media applications such as 3D virtual environments can be supported

1. The IoT4All Real World vision is that of an open federation of independent, heterogeneous platforms, one of them is the IoT. On the basis of the decennial experience in Enterprise Interoperability research (the Socio-Economic World) of some of its beneficiaries, the concept IoT4All would like to study and explore is that a close integration among them is too hard and almost impossible to achieve. We propose a workflow- and process- based smooth interoperability paradigm with the IoT4All Osmotic Middlewares as mediators in charge of hiding the heterogeneity of the Real World. Interoperable vs. integrated approach.

2. These network infrastructures need to support an Internet of dynamically combined services with

2. The IoT4All Digital World is addressing the IoServices challenge of the FI, where Global Service Delivery Platforms will play a central role. Global in the sense of ubiquitously accessible by anyone, Service Platforms in

worldwide service delivery platforms and …

3. Flexibly enable the creation of opportunities for new market entrant. The 'third party generated service' is emerging as a trend supporting the move towards user- centric services, as shown by the advances in Service-Oriented- Architectures and in service front- ends as the interface to users and communities

the sense that the unifying model will be Service-based (Things seen as Services); Delivery in a more extended sense including also design and development environments

3. The IoT4All Socio-Economic World is addressing the Business challenge of the FI, where new opportunities will be given to the most innovative service providers, those who can interpret the new exigencies of users and communities indeed. New market entrants and SMEs in particular with very specialized niche solutions will be entitled to join the big important IoT projects for enterprises and organizations, thanks to the open and federated approach, which will guarantee unprecedented levels of democracy and equal opportunities for all.

Objective 1.3: Bullet a)

IoT4All compliance

4. Architectures and technologies

4. IoT4All main objective is to develop an architecture to interoperate the 3 Worlds each characterized by its own technologies

5. Using open protocols,

6. which enable novel Internet-based applications including – but not restricted to – business/enterprise scenarios.

5. Openness and respect of open standard is at the basis of Iot4All. That’s why we also focus on beneficiaries which could be credible in this respect and in practice.

6. This is key in IoT4All. In order for IoT to be really

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this respect and in practice. 6. This is key in IoT4All. In order for IoT to

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7. They should use information generated at the periphery of the

disruptive in our society we need to develop new Smart

network from the virtual and physical worlds with aggregation of those, and allow action on the physical world.

8. Physical world event information are generated by tags, sensors, actuators and wireless devices. Related processes and applications may be object- or location-centric and cover management capabilities of various classes of events, such as real world events (sensor based), behavioural/people events, or business events.

9. For business scenarios, traceability networks correlated with logistics and order or billing flows are of particular importance

FI-based Applications. This is also the key message of the FI DG INFSO PPP task force.

7. This bi-directional mode (not just data capture, but also context capture and use of semantics) is one of the key aspects of our Osmotic Middleware. In IoT4All we decided not to address the Virtual Worlds, intended as “out-of-reality” worlds (SecondLife and the like), but the world of Virtual Organizations, Virtual Communities and Virtual Factory is in our DNA indeed.

8. Particular attention in IoT4All is given to the proper interoperability between SOA and EDA orient. This is key for any FI infrastructure and project. In IoT4All we have real fully European leaders in both SOA (ATOS NTUA) and EDA (FZI TXT). Moreover, user- and context-centric behavioral approaches are of fundamental importance in the Smart Spaces interaction (AIT LISSI) and in the Service Front Ends collaborative approaches (TXT)

10. Optimised technologies covering distribution of intelligence between the edge network and the more centralised business/process information system.

9. IoT4All Logistics scenario is in place to address traceability challenges. It is worth saying that this scenarios does not come uniquely from the RFID constituency but from one on-going Integrating Project in ICT for Transport about Smart Containers (led by INSIEL EURIDICE)and two IPs in DG TREN (led by BMT) . This will make the case even more interesting and challenging. In any case, Logistics is one of the four scenarios.

10.Proper distribution of intelligence is not achieved through merging and fusion of the different Worlds (too rigid), not even through just interoperability (where there is exchange and not sharing and cum-penetration). Osmotic membranes middlewares is IoT4All answer.

11. This includes service discovery systems as well as scalable, secure, open middleware necessary to put real world data into the context of various Internet applications with event processing, separation and filtering.

12. Of particular importance are the integration and interoperability with the mainstream business/process management platforms and tools and the necessary management of varying data ownership across the edge device/object life cycle.

11.IoT4All digital World includes several service platforms, each devoted to a specific task. Among the peculiar contributions of NTUA we have a semantic service discovery engine, while among the peculiar contributions of FZI we have a dynamic Complex Event Processing platform.

13. Architectural models enabling an open governance scheme of the Internet of Things, without centralised gatekeeper lock-in of critical business/process functionalities.

12.The attention of IoT4All to Business needs and Business Processes is total. ATOS and TXT provide commercial solutions for BP Management and have been recently involved in several research projects on BPM (e.g. COIN ECOLEAD SUPER). Regarding data ownership policies and privacy-preserving middlewares, there is also a solid competency in ATOS and TXT to this respect (e.g. TRUSTCOM MASTER GEMOM projects in DG INFSO D3 &

14. If third country partnership is felt

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MASTER GEMOM projects in DG INFSO D3 & 14. If third country partnership is felt Proposal

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relevant by proponents, priority should be for those third countries having established links with the EU in this field and providing mutual

benefits, including the U.S., Japan, Korea, China, and India.

F5)

13. Several different models will be research, and will take into account the work done until now by ONS, and other standarisation bodies, and propose either a new one or a combination of the above.

 

14.The International impact of the IoT4All project is guaranteed by ATOS Origin, while the letter of adhesion from ETSI representative Patrick Guillemin will cover the aspects regarding standardization and the relation with previous (CE-RFID GRIFS CASAGRAS) and on-going projects (RACE).

The FI Assembly

How the proposed project contributes

DG INFSO FI Task Force

IoT4All compliance

15. In the future Internet-based Society, we expect that digital services will become increasingly interlinked with physical environments of individuals, communities, and businesses

15. The IoT4All Service Platforms typologies embed digital services, real world environments, people and communities, content and knowledge in a federated interoperable environment. Moreover, the business motivation is at the basis of all our research and new business models will also be described and experimented in SMEs

16. It is our internal conviction that an European way towards the FI is possible and that such an European way, in a STEEP sense (social, technological, environmental, economical and political) needs to be implemented by SMEs which are the engine of our economy.

16. European industry and high-level research and education must play their role in preserving and strengthening our competitiveness and our shared European values such as privacy, common history, cultural diversity or social “acquis”

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European values such as privacy, common history, cultural diversity or social “acquis” Proposal Part B: page

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The CERP IoT SRA was recently officially presented in October in London. The following table shows how IoT4All complies with its technological challenges. It is worth saying that IoT4All is an open-to- collaboration project, in the sense that it is our conviction that a single IP, although important and huge, cannot cover alone all the challenges posed by the IoT. Regarding instead the definition of IoT with all its implications, IoT4All has already expressed its opinion in the previous section 1.1.

Component of CERP IoT SRA

How the proposed project contributes

Chapter 3: Technological Challenges

IoT4All compliance

1. Identification Technology

1. IoT4All WP2.1 and WP2.4

2. Internet of Things Architecture Technology

2. IoT4All A1, all WPs

3. IoT4All WP2.2

3. Communication Technology

4. In collaboration with 1.1 projects (Trilogy Eiffel Sensei

4. Network Technology

4Ward)

5. Network Discovery

5. In collaboration with 1.1 projects (Trilogy Eiffel Sensei

4Ward)

6. Software and algorithms

6. IoT4All A1 A2 A3 A4

7. Hardware

7. IoT4All WP2.1 and external collaborations

8. Data and Signal Processing Technology

8. IoT4All WP 1.2

9. Discovery and Search Engine Technologies

9. IoT4All WP 4.2

10. In collaboration with 1.1 projects (Trilogy Eiffel Sensei

10. Relationship Network Management Technologies

4Ward)

11. Power and Energy Storage Technologies

11. IoT4All WP2.1 and external collaborations

12. IoT4All WP 1.3

12. Security and Privacy Technologies

13. IOT4All WP 6.2 an external collaborations (ETSI)

13. Standardisation

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13. IOT4All WP 6.2 an external collaborations (ETSI) 13. Standardisation Proposal Part B: page 18 of

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1.2Progress beyond the state of the art As a new coined term IoT in the context of the future internet assembly and following the RWI working work, we propose to go beyond the state of the art facilitating a non existing architecture reference.

1.2.1 Future Internet and the IoT

State of the Art The IoT4All state of the art regarding the IoT architecture is strictly linked to the FIA (Future Internet Assembly) movement and its more recent achievements.

In the FIA event in Madrid (December 2008), the cross-ETP vision of the FI was presented by the director of Eurescom John Kennedy, who used the metaphor of a Greek temple to explain his vision of the FI. A Future Network Infrastructure (the floor of the temple) will provide the basis for 4 main pillars (Internet by and for People, Internet of Contents and Knowledge, Internet of Things and Internet of Services) on top of which the Future Networked Society (the roof of the temple) will be enabled by innovative, next generation applications.

will be enabled by innovative, next generation applications. More recently, the DG INFSO task force on

More recently, the DG INFSO task force on Future Internet, presented at FI Assembly in Prague (Spring 2009), elaborated a Recommendation Report on "Interdisciplinary Research Challenges relating to the Future Internet", where one of the most important concepts is represented by F-O-T Platforms (Federated Open Trusted), which are the basis on which to develop next generation, smart complex systems and applications. To position Europe as a leader in the Future Internet, we suggest that initiatives in Europe should be centred on the development of Future Internet Federated, Open, and Trusted (shortly, F-O-T) Platforms. A multitude of such F-O-T platforms could constitute the fundamental enablers and the ecosystems of the Future Internet on which existing and new “smart” applications could be built upon. Many different types of F-O-T platforms will be available, allowing specific applications to use the capabilities of one or more platforms depending on their needs 1

This statement (see picture below) specifies that the four vertical pillars and the horizontal infrastructure should be F-O-T platforms and that on top of it it is need to develop highly innovative Internet applications for a Smart European Society.

1 Recommendation Report on "Interdisciplinary Research Challenges relating to the Future Internet", DG INFSO

2009

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Research Challenges relating to the Future Internet", DG INFSO 2009 Proposal Part B: page 19 of

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FI FI FI FederatedFederated –– OpenOpen –– TrustedTrusted PlatformsPlatforms FI FI FI FI FI Smart
FI
FI
FI
FederatedFederated –– OpenOpen –– TrustedTrusted
PlatformsPlatforms
FI
FI
FI
FI
FI
Smart
Smart
Smart
Smart
Health
Health
Living
Living
Smart
Smart
Energy
Energy
Smart
Smart
Immersive
Immersive
spaces
spaces
Smart
Smart
Smart
Smart
Transport
Transport
Enterprises
Enterprises
Smart
Smart
Logistics
Logistics
Smart
Smart
? ?

Another interesting metaphor for the FI was shown by Jesus Villasante and Arian Zwegers (DG INFSO D3) during one 2008 objective 1.2 concertation meeting. The Buddhism vision of an elephant and of a set of observers who try to interpret what they are seeing, in a holistic way, but owing to their partial sensing capabilities they come to very different and divergent conclusions. So, in our case, for IoT researchers people-content-services are all real-digital-virtual things (see the CERP IoT SRA); for IoS researchers people-content-things are all services; for IoC researchers everything is finally a piece of content.

IoC researchers everything is finally a piece of content. Innovation The basic dilemma is: Temple or

Innovation The basic dilemma is: Temple or Elephant? Zeus or Buddha? Which means: is IoT an independent part of the FI (one of its 4 pillars) or is it a perspective of FI (a viewpoint to the elephant)? The consequences of such a decision are not trivial for a research project. If it is a pillar in the temple, it will share with the other pillars the foundations (i.e. the Network Infrastructure), but it will develop quite autonomously its architectures, technologies and models. An integration point is then foreseen above the pillars, at the level of the lintel of the temple, probably under the form of a generic, common, multi-platform Business Process / Workflow Management environment which will be able to feed the innovative FI smart applications in the roof with Internet by and for People, Internet of Content and Knowledge, Internet of Services and Internet of Things functionalities. If it is a viewpoint of the elephant, such an autonomy of research for IoT is impossible or counter-productive and all the

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such an autonomy of research for IoT is impossible or counter-productive and all the Proposal Part

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architectures, technologies, models would need to be shared with the other perspectives of the FI (i.e. people, content and services indeed).

IoT4All is not taking a definite position about it, but it will try to be compatible with either paradigm will finally win and be adopted for the FI. However, the reference metaphor will be the temple, but with some corrections.

For sure, we will not invade heavily the Network Infrastructure foundations, but we will provide them with IoT real-world requirements and very specific user-driven technological developments. We foresee indeed a strict liaison with D1 FI projects like 4Ward, Trilogy, Sensei, Chianti, Eiffel, Socrates (and those that will be funded in call5 1.1) and we already started such a process.

We will then climb the IoT pillar towards the roof, through Real World, Digital World and Socio- Economic World and their respective osmotic middlewares, but not in a full independent way from the other pillars. For instance, in our Digital World, we will have the presence of Smart Spaces and advanced Human-Computer Interaction facilities (Internet by and for People), the presence of Ontologies and Semantic reasoning engines (Internet of Content and Knowledge) and the presence of Service/Cloud computing platforms (Internet of Services).

We will also build the lintel through an original combination of SOA and EDA in user-driven CEP (Complex Event Processing) scenarios.

Finally, we will show at the top of the roof the socio-economic benefits for all the European society, derived from a 360° full adoption in real-life test cases of the IoT as a whole and not just of its technologies and protocols.

Our Motto is:

Wake-up from the basement’s floor!

Climb the temple’s pillar!

Reach the roof’s summit!

Climb the temple’s pillar!  Reach the roof’s summit! Impact The impact onto the European society

Impact The impact onto the European society of the IoT4All architectural choices will be evident in our 4 application cases related to “safer cars”, “sustainable logistics”, “assistive inclusion” and

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related to “safer cars”, “sustainable logistics”, “assistive inclusion” and Proposal Part B: page 21 of 203

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“environmental risk management” and a preliminary estimation of such an impact is already depicted in section 1.1. Moreover, we also aim at generalizing such results to other domains and sectors which are in the core business of our industrial partners and in the first priority agenda of our research institutes (i.e. manufacturing, retail, healthcare, transportation, energy management, etc).

1.2.2 RFID and WSAN in the IoT

IoT4All will research and provide a middleware solution for IoT, with a view to facilitating the development and integration of IoT applications. Among the key innovations of the IoT4All middleware solution, will be its ability to support the business, social and technical aspects of IoT applications in a global scale i.e. beyond monolithic scenarios and specific enterprises. Specifically, the IoT4All middleware solution will provide the means for connecting business semantics with low- level information stemming from the things, while at the same time enabling business models to drive the configuration of the underlying “things”. IoT4All will take into account existing middleware solutions for RFID and WSAN (Wireless Sensors and Actuator Networks), These solutions will be extended in order to handle additional devices comprising the IoT4All applications, as well as their business semantics/context. In the sequel we outline the state-of-the are in RFID and WSAN middleware and related tools, while also developing a vision for extending them radically in the scope of the project.

1.2.2.1 RFID Middleware Implementations and Related Tools

Several RFID middleware middleware frameworks are nowadays providing functionality for RFID data collection, filtering, event generation, as well as translation of RFID stream into their business semantics. These frameworks have been developed as part of both research initiatives and vendor products. For example, the research-oriented RFIDStack and WinRFID [RFID1], [RFID2] systems deal with the low-level tasks of capturing and filtering RFID events in a scalable fashion. In the industrial world, vendors (e.g., Oracle - Oracle Sensor Edge Server, BEA - BEA Weblogic RFID Enterprise Server [RFID3], Sun Java RFID System [RFID4], [RFID5]), have released middleware platforms, which provide RFID middleware for collecting, filtering and managing RFID data. In addition to commercial RFID middleware products, several open-source RFID frameworks have emerged, such as the RadioActive Foundation (http://www.radioactivehq.org/), Singularity (http://singularity.i-konect.com/), Mobitec (http://mobitec.ie.cuhk.edu.hk/rfid/middleware/), AspireRfid (http://wiki.aspire.ow2.org/), as well as the fosstrak project (http://www.fosstrak.org) [RFID6], which provide royalty-free implementations of RFID middleware stacks. Most of these implementations emphasize on middleware standards specified by the EPCglobal in the scope of the EPCglobal architecture [RFID7] (as outlined in Table 1.3. S/T Objectives: OSS Middleware Implementations of EPC Standards below).

   

RFID EPCglobal Standards

 

Implementatio

             

ns

ONS

EPCIS

ALE

RM

LLRP

RP

TP

Fosstrak

 

X

X

X

 

X

 

Rifidi

   

*

 

X

 

X

Singularity

 

X

X

X

     

RadioActive

X

X

X

   

X

 

Mobitec

   

X

X

   

X

Logicalloy

 

X

X

     

X

Table 1.3. S/T Objectives: OSS Middleware Implementations of EPC Standards

Along with middleware implementations several projects have also focused on the implementation of tools that facilitate RFID development, deployment and integration. For example the EU ASPIRE

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that facilitate RFID development, deployment and integration. For example the EU ASPIRE Proposal Part B: page

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Integrated Project (www.fp7-aspire.eu), deals with open-source tools for programmable RFID development and end-to-end management of the RFID infrastructure [RFID8]. Also, the Rifidi project (http://www.rifidi.org) provides an open source IDE for RFID. Rifidi lets one develop an RFID system entirely with Software Components and removes the dependency on hardware and infrastructure that RFID typically demands. Moreover, Sun’s JCAPS (Java Composite Application Platform) for RFID (https://jcaps-rfid.dev.java.net) provides tools for facilitating RFID development, though they have not achieved wide adoption.

References:

[RFID1].

UCLA WinRFID Middleware. http://www.wireless.ucla.edu/rfid/winrfid/.

[RFID2].

S. Prabhu, Xiaoyong Su, Harish Ramamurthy, Chi-Cheng Chu, Rajit Gadh, “WinRFID –A

Middleware for the enablement of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based Applications”, Invited chapter in Mobile, Wireless and Sensor Networks: Technology, Applications and Future

Directions, Rajeev Shorey, Chan Mun Choon, Ooi Wei Tsang, A. Ananda (eds.), John Wiley (to appear), available at: http://www.wireless.ucla.edu/rfid/winrfid/.

[RFID3].

BEAWebLogic RFID Enterprise Server™, “Understanding the Event, Master Data, and Data

Exchange Services”, Version 2.0, Revised: October 12, 2006.

[RFID4].

Gupta and M. Srivastava, ‘Developing Auto-ID Solutions using Sun Java System RFID

Software’, http://java.sun.com.

[RFID5].

S. Microsystems, “Java System RFID Software 3.0 Developer Guide,” www.sun.com, Feb.

2006.

[RFID6].

Christian Floerkemeier, Christof Roduner, and Matthias Lampe, ‘RFID Application

Development with the Accada Middleware Platform’, IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp.82-94, December 2007.

[RFID7].

Architecture Review Committee, “The EPCglobal Architecture Framework,” EPCglobal, July

2005, available at: http://www.epcglobalinc.org.

[RFID8].

John Soldatos, “AspireRfid Can Lower Deployment Costs”, RFID Journal, March 16th, 2009.

1.2.2.2

Middleware for Wireless Sensor Networks

The proliferation of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) has led to the emergence of middleware platforms, tools and techniques for programming and deploying WSN applications. The diversity of WSN has led to several variations in related middleware platforms. Overall, typical functionality of WSN middleware includes:

Support for services and resource abstractions, which handle internal details of the WSN.

Provision of utilities for developing, programming, deploying, maintaining, and executing/operating WSN applications. Note that some middleware platforms address only the level of the sensor network, whereas other deal also with devices and networks connected to the WSN (e.g., [WSN-11], [WSN-12]. Some middleware platforms are characterised as sensor databases, other as virtual machines, whereas there are also publish-subscribe [WSN-8], tuple-based, and agent-based approaches. Systems such as Moteview [WSN-10] and ScatterViewer [WSN-1] are examples of WSN development and monitoring systems, which however provide limited extensibility (tightly coupled approach). Other environments such as Hourglass [WSN-2], SenseWeb [WSN-3], jWebDust [WSN-9] and GSN [WSN-4], provide more complete development and/or programming environments for WSN applications. Between the bounds/extremes of high flexibility approaches and tightly coupled, there are several other approaches such as TinyDB [WSN-5], Hood [WSN-6] and SNACK [WSN-7], Kairos

[WSN-14].

The above list of WSN middleware is representative, yet not exhaustive. For a complete presentation

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list of WSN middleware is representative, yet not exhaustive. For a complete presentation Proposal Part B:

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References:

[WSN1]. The Scatterweb wireless sensor network platform, http://www.scatterweb.de. [WSN2]. J. Shneidman, P. Pietzuch, J. Ledlie, M. Roussopoulos, M. Seltzer, and M. Welsh, Hourglass:

An infrastructure for connecting sensor networks and applications, Tech. report, Harvard TR- 21-04, 2004. [WSN3]. A. Santanche, S. Nath, J. Liu, B. Priyantha, and F. Zhao, SenseWeb: Browsing the physical world in real time, Demo Abstract, ACM/IEEE IPSN06, Nashville, TN, 2006 [WSN4]. K. Aberer, M. Hauswirth, and A. Salehi, The global sensor networks middleware for efficient and flexible deployment and interconnection of sensor networks, Tech. report, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2006, Technical Report. [WSN5]. S. Madden, M. Franklin, J. Hellerstein, and W. Hong, “TinyDB: An Acquisitional Query Processing System for Sensor Networks”, Journal of ACM TODS 30 (2005), 122–173.

[WSN6]. C. Sharp, E. Brewer, and D. Culler, “Hood: A neighbourhood abstraction for sensor networks”, In the Proc. of MobiSYS’04, 2004. [WSN7]. B. Greenstein, E. Kohler, and D. Estrin, “A Sensor Network Application Construction Kit (SNACK)”, In the Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 2004), 2004, pp. 69–80. [WSN8]. E. Souto et al., Mires, “A publish/subscribe middleware for sensor networks”, In the Journal of Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 10 (2005). [WSN9]. I. Chatzigiannakis, G. Mylonas, and S. Nikoletseas, “jWebDust : A java-based generic application environment for wireless sensor networks”, In the proceedings of the first International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS ’05), 2005, pp.

376–386.

[WSN10].

Moteworks software platform, http://www.xbow.com

[WSN11].

C. Curino, M. Giani, M. Giorgetta, A. Giusti, A. Murphy, and G. Picco, TinyLIME: Bridging

Mobile and Sensor Networks through Middleware, Third IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom 2005, 2005, pp. 61–72. [WSN12]. S. Eisenman, N. Lane, E. Miluzzo, R. Peterson, G. Ahn, and A. Campbell, MetroSense project: People-centric sensing at scale, In Workshop on World-Sensor-Web (WSW 2006), Boulder, October 31, 2006. [WSN13]. Chatzigiannakis, I. Mylonas, G. Nikoletseas, S., “50 ways to build your application: A survey of middleware and systems for Wireless Sensor Networks” in the Proc. of IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA. [WSN14]. R. Gummadi, O. Gnawali, and R. Govindan, “Macro-programming wireless sensor networks using Kairos”, In the Proc. of the International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS’05), Springer, 2005, pp. 126–140.

Beyond the State of the Art IoT4ALL addresses a “things” saturated environment, along with its social and business aspects. To this end, it has to extends state-of-the-art RFID and WSN middleware platforms in order to deal:

With a wide range of sensors, devices, tags, actuators and other “things” of the IoT environments. Current platforms are usually restricted to few homogeneous sets of sensors, while IoT comprises wider range of heterogeneous devices. To this end, additional abstraction and virtualization of resources will be needed.

With business semantics associated with social and business aspects of the IoT. Current middleware platforms deal hardly with business semantics. The business semantics handled for example by RFID middleware such as AspireRfid are limited to specific business domains (such as logistics) and do not capture the people, business and societal dimensions. IOT4ALL will have to specify ontologies beyond the low-level sensor details and accordingly bridge them to the underlying sensor data and middleware.

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sensor details and accordingly bridge them to the underlying sensor data and middleware. Proposal Part B:

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1.2.3 Trust, privacy & security in the IOT

1.2.3.1 Data Integrity

State of the Art The more people who have access to a document or file, the less you can trust its integrity. Something I release as being the truth, even digitally signed with my own certificate, can be changed, re-signed, and re-released, apparently as my own faithful document.

Much is made of the use of PKI and digital signatures for increasing security. If I am in an organization and using my certificates for creating digital signatures, and one of my signatures reveals that a document has been changed, I don’t know where the document was tampered. Digital signatures work at a data group level, and are usually applied after a specific time interval from the moment of the file creation.

Time stamping services can only guarantee that a specific file has been irrefutably stamped at a specific trusted time and day. This means that an audit file cannot be time stamped before it has been finished, leaving an unsecured time gap from the moment the file has been created and it is time stamped.

Log management solutions excel in collecting events in real time, in parsing and normalizing information and analyzing the collected information for producing alerts in real time. However, this does not relate to provide integrity protection in any way.

Write-once Read Only Solutions (WORM) devices work very well avoiding that the information that has been written in them is not altered after its addition. Since they treat files as objects and they need to hash them before adding them in the system, continuously appending files such as logs must be "closed" (i.e. finished) before being processed.

One-way hashing is a technology rather than a product. It has a lower computational cost and is fast to apply. However, if the file integrity is infringed, the file as a whole has to be considered tampered.

Innovation and Impact Kinamik’s technology will apply a “digital fingerprint” in real-time, just as events are being generated and registered. This eliminates the unsecured time gap making it virtually non-existent. Furthermore, securing the file down to the event/record level means that if any tampering is detected, only the affected records should be discarded.

1.2.3.2 Access control to information

State of the Art In standardization efforts as well as in existing deployments, the focus effort is put on identification and authentication (RFID, biometry, strong authentication with digital certificates).

As a corollary function, the association of secondary authentications after the primary authentication provides the single sign-on capability.

When multi-domain is involved, it’s essentially for identity federation, with architectures and protocols like Liberty Alliance, Shibboleth, SAML 2 as the convergence standard, and WS-Federation. These standards only apply to authentication and single sign-on.

For what concerns authorization, standardization is still poor. As the most relevant element, XACML is a standard to express security policy rules, associated to SAML 2 as a mean to convey them. WS- Policy is a standard used to convey some security requirements for exchanges with the service provider, but not to describe a policy, and doesn’t provide any solution for the negotiation of the security policy of for its interpretation. Nothing exists to describe what the policy for accessing information means, what its objectives are, or how it can/must be understood by each party.

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means, what its objectives are, or how it can/must be understood by each party. Proposal Part

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Authentication and authorization: the essentials of the security mechanisms

AuthenticationAuthentication Authentication 2’ 2 Contrôle Contrôle Contrôle Service Service Service Access
AuthenticationAuthentication Authentication
2’
2
Contrôle Contrôle
Contrôle
Service Service
Service
Access D’accès
Service provider
consumer
control D’accès D’accès
provider provider
1
4
3
AuthorizationAuthorization Authorization

In the contrary of authentication, authorization is not enough standardized, not enough understood in multi-domain environments, where all domain are administered independently, and are enforcing a different security policy. As for PKI difficulties outside one unique organization, it is far from being applicable in real-life deployments.

What are the situations were the multi-domain question applies? Enterprises are continuously extending their business processes outside their traditional boundaries to conduct electronic business with partners and suppliers. However, a single organization cannot effectively manage or control a global e-business process end to end, especially when multiple organizations are involved. Even within the enterprise, different business units often manage distinct sets of users and resources. The deployment of SOA’s or the composition of Web Services are other typical scenarios:

the different services can pertain to different companies or entities, with different policies for enforcing the security of each service and the access to the requested information.

Innovation and Impact

The expected authorization behaviour in a multi-domain environment

securitysecurity domaindomain AA securitysecurity domaindomain BB TrustTrust Identity Provider SAMLSAML access
securitysecurity domaindomain AA
securitysecurity domaindomain BB
TrustTrust
Identity
Provider
SAMLSAML
access
control
Service
useruser
Providers
attributesattributes
Service
consumer
AuthenticationAuthentication
AuthorizationAuthorization

The proof of authentication of a user in a domain, as well as attributes that define his/her profile, are moved to another domain. Based on a trust relationship between domains, the second domain uses the attributes to determine the user access rights to systems and applications. This principle allows each domain to keep the responsibility for administering its users, as well as its security policy

The project will implement a complete authorization chain, applicable and specialized for securely retrieving information.

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authorization chain, applicable and specialized for securely retrieving information. Proposal Part B: page 26 of 203

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The access control chain at the core of the project

PolicyPolicy Policy administrationadministration administration pointpoint point SecuritySecurity policypolicy
PolicyPolicy Policy
administrationadministration administration
pointpoint point
SecuritySecurity
policypolicy
DecisionDecision
DecisionDecision Decision
pointspoints
points
pointspoints
SAML
2 AutZ req / resp
pointspoints
1 3 EnforcementEnforcement EnforcementEnforcement Enforcement pointspoints EnforcementEnforcement pointspoints points
1
3
EnforcementEnforcement EnforcementEnforcement Enforcement
pointspoints
EnforcementEnforcement
pointspoints
points

SAML AutN + attr

Service consumer
Service
consumer
Service provider
Service
provider

The Policy Decision Point is an authorization server. This component uses the well-established standards SAML 2 and XACML. SAML 2 is used for authentication, and to transfer requests between access control building blocks. XACML is used to express security policy statements inside SAML requests, and is at the core of the authorization server.

The Policy Administration Point is the repository of the security policy. The policy model is based on the NIST RBAC standard, extended with the new features, and improved to solve critical deployment issues. The policy server is implemented using web services and an expert system kernel, and administered using a powerful user interface, based on an efficient technology, such as AJAX.

Every component of this access control chain is interoperable with standards, and therefore can be replaced by any other conformant ad hoc module, if necessary. This approach allows to create the modularity of the components constituting the chain to control the access to information.

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modularity of the components constituting the chain to control the access to information. Proposal Part B:

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1.2.4 Real World Technologies for the IoT

State of the Art Research on IoT components and network technologies is driven by two main goals 2 : (i) increasing the degree of “embedded intelligence” to be incorporated into physical objects; (ii) allow for ubiquitous networking of embedded intelligence. Several important developments are on course that, in the long term, will make these goals achievable:

- New materials, hardware and power technologies will deliver devices (including sensors and actuators) that are as small, cost- and power-effective as required to make embedded intelligence truly pervasive and inexpensive.

- Advances in communication technologies are going to widen the protocol spectrum for both near-field and long range communications, aiming at unified seamless management of short- to wide-range protocols 3 .

- Networks will evolve into self-organizing and self-repairing architectures, allowing for secure sharing of communication resources, as well as context- and location-based interaction with sensors and actuators. While research and technological development progress steadily in each field, a reference framework is still missing where the different components and platforms are integrated to support the IoT vision of distributed and networked intelligence. Microsystems research focuses on producing smarter, cheaper and better interoperable devices 4 , whereas protocols convergence and new wireless platforms aim at supporting ubiquitous and granular device connectivity 5 . There is no doubt that parallel development and final convergence of these new technologies will make networks of intelligent objects commonplace. Nevertheless we believe that times are mature to start looking at convergence scenarios, and at how distributed intelligence will change, and be affected by, real world processes.

Innovation In our vision, even if the ultimate technology required for embedded and networked intelligence is not yet there, the main user needs for it must be there. Surely IoT will address or even induce new needs and forge new user communities, that our socio-economic research in WP3.5 will help to identify. But, for the large majority of users, the basic needs will remain the same and IoT will offer newer, easier and more effective ways to address these needs. Cars will still experience failures and

containers will still be stopped at terminals: IoT will allow cars to self-repair and containers to self- handle clearance operations. Hence IoT4All will evaluate the current status of device, communication and network technologies in terms of their applicability to real-world user scenarios, and will select and integrate key technological components into a framework aimed at embedding intelligence into objects and making them always and everywhere connected. The Figure below shows how the IoT4All Real-World physical framework will have three main levels, corresponding to three main technological elements:

- Devices and microsystems allowing cost- and energy-efficient data and event capture from Real-World things, embedded computation as well as enactment of changes. The aim of our research will be to bring intelligence as closer as possible to the things themselves, by

2 Internet of Things Strategic Research Roadmap, September 2009, CERP-IoT, EC DG INFSO-D4.

3 E.g., short/medium range: ZigBee, Bluetooth, wide range: GSM/GPRS, UMTS, WiMAX, Satellite. 4 Internet of Things in 2020 - A Roadmap For The Future, European Commission (Infso D.4, Infso G.2 in cooperation with EPOSS), 05 September, 2008.

5 Among others, the DG INFSO Integrated Project SENSEI is addressing these issues, see: “A Framework for the Management of Wireless Network Islands through Dynamic Network Reconfiguration”, www.ict-sensei.org.

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integrating low-power chips with smart energy-harvesting solutions in relation to actual demands in computing power, communication and sensing capabilities.

- Capillary networks, i.e., self-configuring networks of local devices and sensors connected and remotely controlled via M2M (Machine to Machine) gateways 6 . The aim is to add scalability to the “every thing is smart” concept by, allowing nearby objects to share their information, join computational resources and optimize their long-range communications.

- Platforms, i.e., global communication, positioning and service infrastructures allowing connectivity of devices and capillary networks with remote users and other open and trusted platforms of the Future Internet. In this field, we aim at seamless interoperability across multiple protocols and platforms to make every object, wherever positioned, able to access and provide context-based services through existing (e.g., UMTS, GNNS) and Future Internet F-O-T platforms.

(e.g., UMTS, GNNS) and Future Internet F-O-T platforms. Impact The IoT4All RW Framework will be a

Impact The IoT4All RW Framework will be a key component in all four pilot applications, that are expected to demonstrate significant socio-economic and environmental impact at the European level. Besides, our research on the RW Framework is expected to impact on the ICT industry itself and on the development of related standards. This will be pursued in two ways: (i) by providing user requirements and feed-back from pilot applications to researchers and standardization bodies, both on individual components performances and on overall framework convergence; (ii) by disseminating pilot applications concepts and reuslts since the early stages of development; this should trigger a “snowball effect”, boosting industry investments on key technologies and standards.

1.2.5 Distributed Intelligence and Smart Objects

Since the very beginning, the Internet of Things was presented by the International Telecommunication Union 7 as the shift from conventional computer networks towards a more pervasive, ubiquitous and intelligent computing and communications infrastructure, enabling things to exchange information in real time, handle requests and react intelligently to changes in the surrounding environment. In other terms, a trend of progressive distribution of autonomy and intelligence towards the edges of the network was identified as result of a close-at-hand technological revolution, pushed inevitably by technology developments:

6 M2M architecture by ETSI TC M2M ad-hoc group. 7 “UN predicts 'internet of things'”, BBC News 17 November 2005 (ref. to ITU Internet Reports 2005: “The Internet of Things”)

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News 17 November 2005 (ref. to ITU Internet Reports 2005: “The Internet of Things”) Proposal Part

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- Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) and related standards, progressing rapidly to become the universal, cost effective means for objects identification and close-range data collection.

- Advanced sensor technologies and wireless networks, providing the ability to detect and handle events in real-time like, e.g., object and environment status changes.

- Embedded intelligence, i.e., computing capabilities inserted into physical objects to give them autonomous behavior and to distribute processing power across the network.

- Miniaturization and nanotechnologies, aiming at progressive reduction in size, price and power consumption, thus increasing the number of connected objects and making the network ever more pervasive and unobtrusive. This should have changed the computing paradigm by delegating ever more intelligence to the things themselves and by supporting real-time knowledge gathering and conveyance at the point of use. Experience in both research an industrial pilots has shown that availability of physical components and infrastructures, alone, does not make networks of distributed intelligent objects happen. Smart tags pilot applications have so far been circumscribed to very specific sectors and needs like, e.g., temperature monitoring in perishable goods supply chains (like, e.g., the active RFID technology developed by CAEN in the frame of the BRIDGE integrated project 8 ). “Intelligent” devices are so far synonym of gprs-enabled sensors used, e.g., in toll collection or metering systems, to transmit data to central repositories. Examples include Advanced Metering Infrastructures (AMI) for the energy sector, currently implemented as proprietary platforms with research attempts to make them open and interoperable 9 .

Innovation Compared to state-of-the-art applications, a paradigm shift is required to achieve true Distributed Intelligence. This implies profound changes that are summarised in the Table below:

 

Current paradigm

Distributed Intelligence

Data origin

User or system generated

Thing/sensor –generated

Interaction paradigm

Organization-to-organization

Thing-to-thing

Information services

Centralized, proprietary platforms

Ad-hoc combination of local (thing- centred), proprietary and global services

Knowledge semantics

Mutually agreed with each partner or between trade community members

Globally established, for any-to-any ad hoc relationships

Event processing

Centralized at organization level

Distributed, may start at object level

Decisions making

Top-down, centralized decision making, based on periodic data revision

Event-triggered, localized and (partially) automated decisions

IoT4All has clearly the ambition to support the shift from the current approach, based on centralized platforms with remote sensors, to a world of truly intelligent, interacting and cooperating objects. The Figure below shows how this requires to work on all dimensions of the IoT hypercube, to achieve two (conceptually) sequential stages in objects’ capabilities:

(i) Making the objects smart, by enabling them to:

8 BRIDGE Integrated Project, October 2008 Newsletter.

9 See, for example, the OPEN METER project recently approved in FP7’s ENERGY theme.

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9 See, for example, the OPEN METER project recently approved in FP7’s ENERGY theme. Proposal Part

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o

Self-identify through global IDs provided by public domain services, allowing seamless and consistent linkage across multiple domain spaces; e.g., a container identified by its serial number, an EPC-compliant RFID code, the IPv6 address of the GPRS/GPS device attached to the container itself.

o

Interconnect via physical and logical links between related things; e.g., loading operation automatically links container ID with GTIN 10 number of the shipped goods.

o

Provide access to services to authorised users and systems, combining multiple information sources and different viewpoints on the same object; e.g., container positioning service is combined with GTIN information from the supplier to address local Customs request on the contained goods.

(ii) Making the objects intelligent, by enabling them to:

o

Use knowledge, structured into federated and open ontologies, to capture contextual information, mediate across user and business domains and reason on the impact of events and decisions.

o

Understand their context, in terms of status, location, interacting entities and users, relevant events; e.g., the container locates itself at the destination port, subject to certain customs procedures and under the responsibility of a given terminal operator.

o

Apply reasoning methods to interpret the context, foresee consequences and act accordingly; e.g., a container uses terminal ambient information to detect risks for its perishable content, and suggests recovery measures.

Socio- Economic Digital Dimension
Socio-
Economic
Digital
Dimension

Impact Distributed intelligence will be a key component in all four pilot applications, and will contribute to the expected socio-economic and environmental impact at the European level. Besides, our research in this specific field will contribute to and influence the ongoing efforts of ICT research and industry in some key areas: (i) agent technologies 11 ; the adoption of multi-agent systems is expected to be facilitated by the possibility to associate agents to physical smart objects; (i) new, distributed services platforms, such as EPCIS 12 , that rely on on-field services access and provisioning by smart objects.

10 Global Trade Item Number

11 Jeffrey M. Bradshaw (1997), Software Agents, The MIT Press

12 EPC Information Services (EPCIS) from GS1.

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(1997), Software Agents, The MIT Press 1 2 EPC Information Services (EPCIS) from GS1. Proposal Part

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1.2.6 Smart Spaces and User Interaction in the IOT

State of the Art

Our vision of IoT Smart Spaces originates from the Ambient Intelligence paradigm. Ambient Intelligence refers to electronic and computing environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people. In an Ambient Intelligence world, devices and services interact in a seamless fashion to create a digital ecosystem that supports people in carrying out their everyday life activities. The support is provided in a transparent and natural way, leveraging on information and knowledge that is pervasively distributed in the network connecting these devices and services. The Ambient Intelligence paradigm stems from ubiquitous computing, profiling practices and human- centric computer interaction design and is characterized by systems and technologies that are:

1)

embedded: many networked devices and services are integrated into the environment;

2)

context

aware:

these

devices

and

services

can

recognize

individual

users and their

situational context;

 

3)

personalized: the services can be tailored to users’ needs

 

4)

adaptive: the services can change in response to the context

5)

anticipatory: the services can anticipate users’ desires without conscious mediation.

Ambient intelligence is closely related to the long term vision of a Smart Space in which technologies are able to automate a platform embedding the required devices for powering context aware, personalized, adaptive and anticipatory services.

User Interaction is also a core element of a Smart Space. Parallel to the development of the Graphical User Interface technology, natural language processing, computer vision, 3-D sound, and gesture recognition have made significant progress. In addition recent interaction paradigms such as perceptual User Interface (UI), tangible UI and embodied UI open a vast world of possibilities for interaction modalities including modalities based on the manipulation of everyday physical objects such as a bottle and modalities based on the manipulation of a PDA and so on. Moreover the focus of multimodal user interfaces has been extended from purely active modalities, where the user directly and explicitly interacts with the computer, to a mixture of passive and active ones. Passive modalities involve indirect and implicit interaction, in that the computer interprets these as input user behaviour that is not explicitly or primarily directed towards it, for example by using the location of a person walking to work as a cue to update a map on that person’s smart phone. Driven by progress in machine perception and signal processing, information capture via multiple passive modalities now has a strong impact both on the modalities used for system output and on the robust interpretation of multimodal inputs.

Innovation

In a smart space devices and services shall adapt to the change in the available resources as well as to the users’ preferences and profiles over time and the physical environments. Obviously, context awareness is central to ambient intelligent media that aims at delivering applications to end-users in a dynamically optimal way, with the best quality possible. Context-awareness is usually implemented by context management and the follow-on context-based adaptation. However, existing approaches to context management: 1) are weak in supporting dynamic context capture at the deep level and in multimodal manners that ambient intelligent media needs; 2) lack effective automatic matching between context and media/service specifications; 3) lack commonality, such as a generic context model, which is needed for context remembrance across applications; 4) have no consideration for new context types, such as social context.

To support the user interaction in Smart Spaces the project will develop a model of multimodal interaction services from an Ambient Intelligence perspective. Various pure or combined interaction

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services from an Ambient Intelligence perspective. Various pure or combined interaction Proposal Part B: page 32

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modalities for physical objects and mobile setting will be considered, ranging from active (i.e., tangible objects as tools for interaction) to passive (e.g., localisation) modalities. This includes recent interaction paradigms such as augmented reality and tangible user interfaces.

We intend to leverage on the FP6 project OpenInterface (www.openinterface.org), which produced an open source platform for multimodal interaction prototyping and bridged the gap between academic and industrial research. We foresee to extend the OpenInterface platform by integrating Ambient Intelligent services that will implement dynamic selection and combination of modalities to fit and support the ongoing context of use.

Impact

Ambient Intelligence is a widely supported and shared vision of the future of computing, telecommunications and consumer electronics for the time frame 2010–2020. The key contribution of the project is to establish middleware for network aware and efficient devices and services that dynamically and adaptively reacts to multimodal context-based user interactions. These development will make significant contributions at European level competitiveness as it aims at 1) becoming a reference framework fostering standardisation and interoperability, and 2) providing a set of primitives and components that allow rapid prototyping of applications in Smart Spaces with Multimodal Interfaces, thusly reducing development costs.

1.2.7 Real World Management & Governance

We will have contacts with EPC Global that is leading the development of industry-driven standards for the Electronic Product Code™ (EPC) to support the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in today’s fast-moving, information rich, trading networks. Verisign, and ETSI.

1.2.8 Socio-economics, Business models & value proposition for the IoT

Business Model is a concept that captures how value is created and captured in an organization through a value proposition presented to customers (Chesbrough, 2006). However, academics and practitioners alike often loosely refer to it as “the way a company operates”, for example, Magretta (2002) refers to business models as “stories that explain how enterprises work”. However its first formulation can be traced back to Porter (1985).

Even if other types of business models beyond simply selling products or buying services had been present in markets since long (the razor-blade is probably the most common example). Was the introduction of IT and particularly the Internet, what opened new opportunities. The paradigmatic case has been the one of Google who managed to leverage Google’s success and profit from traffic generated by search. Google practically re-invented the field creating a lot of expectation around it. Google’s success has been more dramatic because of its ability of not only subsidizing its product, but being able to provide it for free.

This accomplishment spurred the imagination of business from all sectors resulting in new ideas and practices that had and are transforming not only entire sectors of the economy, but also our conception of value.

This is why Business models are nowadays, are also a source of competitive advantage and a way to compete in the market. Therefore, business models evolve and develop inside the firm. Chesbrough (2006) developed a framework that considers six types of business models relating them to how innovation is managed in the firm.

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six types of business models relating them to how innovation is managed in the firm. Proposal

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Business Model

Innovation Process

IP Management

Type 1

Undifferentiated

None

None

Type 2

Differentiated

Ad hoc

Reactive

Type 3

Segmented

Planned

Defensive

Type 4

Externally aware

Externally supportive

Enabling asset

Type 5

Integrated

Connected to the business model

Financial asset

Type 6

Adaptative

Identifies new business models

Strategic asset

Table 1.4. Business Models types (Chesbrough, 2006).

IC technologies played an important role in the development of Business Models because of three important reasons.

1. First, because of their capacity of lowering transaction costs, making possible aggregations that otherwise will not be feasible to address (Teece, 1986).

2. Secondly, because of its ability to organize coordination, effectively substituting layers of managerial structures and allowing the coordination of a large number of participants and contributors at a negligible cost (Shirky, 2008).

3. Thirdly, because of its capacity of transforming rival goods (goods whose stock is depleted when consumed) into non-rival. This is the case of information, books that are rival, once digitalized become non-rival because they can be reproduced at cost zero and instantly.

We have seen the impact of these three transformations in software and in the Internet, allowing new business models and shaping the industry. We argue that the same will be valid in the case of the Internet of Things.

Automatic interaction and identification of customers could allow for the development of scenarios that are simply too costly without it. Such is the case of the introduction and management of flat rates, bonus for attention in shopping malls, customized pricing and discounts, on-the-fly promotions or direct vendor intervention in price fixation.

A good example of how coordination has been substituted in the Internet, is the case of ads, where agencies have lost their privileged situation as intermediaries and click rate has substituted other indirect elements of measurement. Internet of Things can provide similar elements in the real world using, as in the virtual, the capacity of automatic identification of customers and ads.

Also the introduction of these capabilities could lead to personalized information on products and services to customers and professionals in a diversity of environments, from shopping malls to hospitals. That has the potential to change not only the interaction but also the whole supply chain and the role of the intermediaries in it.

All these opportunities, of which we have mentioned some examples, have the potential to change economic and social interactions in the real world in a similar way that we have witnessed in the virtual world because of Internet.

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world in a similar way that we have witnessed in the virtual world because of Internet.

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Exploring and assessing the potential changes, and its magnitude feasibility, while providing clues to industry participants on how to take better advantage of them are the objectives of this area of work. Objectives that will have an impact not only in terms of research in business models and service science but also have the potential to produce a significant contribution in the real world.

1.2.9 Event Driven Platforms in the IoT

State of the Art In order to capture relevant changes in a system and respond to those changes adequately, a number of formal reactive frameworks have been proposed. Work on modeling behavioral aspects of an application (using various forms of reactive rules) started in the Active Database community a long time ago. Different aspects have been studied extensively, ranging from modeling and execution of rules to discussing architectural issues [PD99]. However, what is clearly missing in this work is a clean integration of active behavior with pure deductive and temporal capabilities.

A lot of work [MZ95] [LLM98] [PKB07] [BE07] in the area of rule-based Complex Event Processing

(CEP) has been carried out, proposing various kinds of logic rule-based approaches to process complex events. As pointed out in [BE07], rules can be effectively used for describing event patterns. There exist a number of other reasons to use rules: Rules serve as an abstraction mechanism and offer a higher-level event description. Also, rules allow for an easy extraction of different views of the same reactive system. Rules are suitable to mediate between the same events differently represented in various interacting reactive systems. Finally, rules can be used for reasoning about causal relationships between events.

A big portion of related work in the area of rule-based CEP is grounded on the Rete algorithm

[For82]. Rete is an efficient pattern matching algorithm, and it has been the basis for many production rule systems (CLIPS 13 , TIBCO BusinessEvents 14 , Jess 15 , Drools 16 , BizTalk Rules Engine 17 etc.). The algorithm creates a decision tree that combines the patterns in all the rules of the knowledge base. Rete was intended to improve the speed of forward chained production rule systems at the cost of space for storing intermediate results. The left hand side of a production rule can be utilized to form a complex event pattern, in which case Rete is used for CEP. Thanks to forward chaining of rules, Rete is also event-driven (data-driven).

Complex Events are specified using event patterns. Event patterns consist of event templates and event operators [LuSc08a]. For this purpose different pattern languages were proposed in the past. The following paragraphs discuss several event pattern languages and their operators. An early active database system offering Complex Event Processing is HiPAC [McC89]. It is an object- oriented database with transaction support. HiPAC can detect events only within a single transaction. Global event detectors are proposed which detect complex events across transaction boundaries and over longer intervals, but no further details are given. The first event specification language which specified formal semantics is Snoop [CKAK94] and its successor SnoopIB. Snoop provides the well known operators And, Or, as well as Sequence. The remaining operators are: Not, Any, A, A*, P, P* and Plus. Selection and consumption of events define which occurrences participate in a complex event. Both terms are an integral part of the semantics of an event definition. Selection defines the choice of events if there are more than one event of a required type that have not yet been consumed.

13 CLIPS: http://clipsrules.sourceforge.net/

14

TIBCO

BusinessEvents:

http://www.tibco.com/software/complex-event-processing/businessevents/

businessevents.jsp

15 Jess: http://jessrules.com/

16 Drools: http://jboss.org/drools/

17 BizTalk Rules Engine: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd879260%28BTS.10%29.aspx

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Consumption is concerned with the deletion of events when they cannot be part of further complex events. Other approaches to event pattern languages include statements reminiscent of SQL. Two examples are StreamSQL [Stre04] and Continuous Computation Language CCL [Cor08]. Queries in these languages match patterns in streams instead of database tables which is the case for SQL. Queries here are long-running and produce incremental results in contrast to SQL queries. In streaming languages all operators can only be applied to bounded windows of events. Complex events have to adhere to SQL schemata which prohibits nested sets, for example, an events that includes a previously unknown number of constituents. Although the well known syntax of SQL might help with the adoption of these languages, e.g. a seamless integration of an action part seems hard to accomplish.

Innovation Event-condition-action (ECA) rules are considered as an appropriate form of reactive rules. However their use as reactive rules may be very unpredictable with respect to their intended semantics [Kif2006]. In general case, execution of an event may trigger other events, and these events may trigger even more events. There is neither guarantee that, such a chain of events will terminate, nor that states (through which a reactive system passes) are valid. Further on, two reactive rules with the same execution priority may lead the system to two different states of the whole system. The system cannot be in two states at the same time. Therefore a rule base needs to be confluent (i.e., two rules triggered in an initial state lead the system, not to two, but to a single final state, regardless of the order which any subsequent simultaneously triggered rules are selected for firing). The next issue is the rule ordering (i.e., two rules may produce different effects if the first rule is scheduled before the second and vice versa). Confluence, ordering, and similar issues have been recognised and extensively discussed in the area of Active Databases [Pat1999]. Many different policies are proposed there for solving the issues (e.g., policies for termination, priority and ordering, policies for resolving conflicts etc.). We believe that semantics of complex relationship inside of an ECA rule, and between rules, should be described formally. In this way, we would establish control mechanism in an ECA system by means of logic rather than by many policies. Instead of a policy interpreter we would use reasoners to keep control in reactive systems. Instead of logic that may be used for reasoning in some particular state, rather we propose a logic that offers reasoning over all states (which the system goes through). The purpose of such a mechanism is to control state-changing actions, keeping the system always in a consistent state. By executing a set of complex ECA rules, the system changes its states. In this transition, every state in which the system enters, needs to be a legal state. However if the inference engine, searching for a possible execution path, enters to an illegal state such a state-transition should be rolled back. In this way, automated execution of reactive systems should be also controlled in an automated manner. Therefore we see logic as a viable mechanism to implement such next generation reactive systems. Further on, our approach is completely put in a logical framework where the same formalism is used for all the three part (event, condition and action). This is very important property since we can reason not only about actions (as in [Beh2006]) or only about events (as in [Bry2007]), but about all three parts of an ECA rule as well as over the whole rule set. This will further allow for discovering new relationship between events, condition and actions. For instance, we will be able to define a composite event with respect to, not only atomic events, but atomic events and actions (e.g., eventA triggers if eventB happens just after actionC or in the middle of a complex actionD). Therefore, this approach will enable more intelligent processing of event streams, that will support detection of more complicated situations, like detection of unusual situation, or proactive alerting about “interesting” situations that will happen in the near future.

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Impact

The overall vision for event processing in IoT4ALL is very ambitious: to support more efficient management of event driven applications, by taking into account that some very strong research results (especially from Active database) are achieved and the industry already started with the adoption of event driven applications. However, in Iot4ALL we challenge several of the premises that these results are based on:

1)

ECA (event-condition-action, such as it is) model is too simple presentation of the (intelligent)

2)

event processing nature, since it does not correspond directly to the way people are reacting on events: Observe SITUATION, Orient in CONTEXT, decide about ACTIONS, Do (actions); Context plays an important role in even driven applications and the role of an efficient context

3)

detection process is inevitable for the efficient event processing; A unified mechanism for formal representing all phases in the reaction cycle is needed for

efficient event processing. All these issues are missing in the scientific literature, which ensure, if planed results are achieved, a significant impact on the research community. IoT4ALL provides excellent research solutions (methods and tools) for them, based on a novel conceptual model for events and conditions (i.e. situation and context), which is well founded in transactional logic that has a scalable implementation. In fact, we can go a step further and say that by using a richer conceptual model for describing reactions on events, we are not any more talking about simple processing of events, but rather about the management of a very valuable knowledge asset of every company (system), i.e. knowledge how to react (make decisions) in event-driven situations. Finally, we are aiming to the new generation of the event processing platforms which will not just process, but reason about event streams, which is of the paramount importance for the Internet of Things applications, since they will be not only passive processors but intelligent actors in the Future Internet. Additionally, we will consider existing and ongoing standardization efforts for rule interchange on the Web, such as the Rule Markup Language (RuleML, www/ruleml.org) and Rule Interchange Format (RIF, www.w3.org/2005/rules).

References [Ada06] Raman Adaikkalavan and Sharma Chakravarthy. SnoopIB: Interval-Based Event Specification and Detection for Active Databases . Data Knowl. Eng., 59(1):139-165, 2006. [Beh2006] Behrends E., Fritzen O., May W. Schenk F. Combining ECA Rules with Process Algebras for the Semantic Web. RuleML, 2006. [BE07] François Bry and Michael Eckert. Rule-based composite event queries: The language xchangeeq and its semantics. In RR. Springer, 2007. [Bry2007] Bry F., Eckert M. Towards Formal Foundations of Event Queries and Rules. Second Int. Workshop on Event-Driven Architecture, Processing and Systems EDA-PS, 2007. [CKAK94] S Chakravarthy, V Krishnaprasad, E Anwar, and S Kim. Composite events for active databases: Semantics, contexts and detection. In VLDB, 1994. [Cor08] Coral8 CCL Reference, Version 5.2, Online Resource

http://www.coral8.com/system/files/assets/pdf/5.2.0/Coral8CclReference.pdf

[For82] Charles L. Forgy. Rete: a fast algorithm for the many pattern/many object pattern match problem. Artifcial Intelligence, 19:17-37, 1982. [Gal02] Antony Galton and Juan Carlos Augusto. Two Approaches to Event Definition . In DEXA '02:

Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, pages 547-556, London, UK, 2002. Springer-Verlag. [Kif2006] Kifer M., Bernstein A., Lewis P. Database Systems - An Application-Oriented Approach. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., 2006.

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- An Application-Oriented Approach. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., 2006. Proposal Part B: page 37 of

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[LLM98] Georg Lausen, Bertram Ludäscher, and Wolfgang May. On active deductive databases: The statelog approach. In ILPS’97, 1998. [LuSc08a] David C. Luckham and Roy Schulte. Event Processing Glossary - Version 1.1. Online Resource. http://complexevents.com/2008/08/31/event-processing-glossary-version-11/, July 2008. Last visited: October 2009 [McC89] Dennis McCarthy and Umeshwar Dayal. The architecture of an active database management

system . In SIGMOD '89: Proceedings of the 1989 ACM SIGMOD international conference on Management of data, pages 215-224, New York, NY, USA, 1989. ACM. [MZ95] Iakovos Motakis and Carlo Zaniolo. Composite temporal events in active database rules: A logic-oriented approach. In Deductive and Object-Oriented Databases. Springer-Verlag, 1995. [Pat1999] Paton N. W., Díaz O. Active database systems. ACM Comput. Surv. ACM, 1999. [PD99] Norman W. Paton and Oscar Díaz. Active database systems. In ACM Comput. Surv. ACM,

1999.

[PKB07] A. Paschke, A. Kozlenkov, and H. Boley. A homogenous reaction rules language for complex

event processing. In International Workshop on Event Drive Architecture for Complex Event Process. ACM, 2007. [Stre04] StreamSQL Guide. Online Resource http://streambase.com/developers/ docs/latest/streamsql/index.html

1.2.10Service & Cloud Platforms for the IoT State of the Art Cloud computing has evolved from a futuristic technology into a commercially viable alternative for companies in search of a cost-effective storage and server solution. It comprises an emerging infrastructural model through which users can gain access to their applications from anywhere, through any connected device. What it aims at is allowing for the efficient and effective management of large numbers of highly virtualized resources as one single resource. In order to achieve this, numerous techniques, technologies and methods are incorporated including resource management, trust enabling, data management, among others. In the case of IoT4all, the main objective for introducing cloud computing is to enhance the IoT infrastructure with computing and storage capabilities by providing access to a cloud of resources that will facilitate the IoT framework to boost its computing and storage capacity as well as address non-functional requirements such as scalability, robustness and quality of service. As has been mentioned before, instead of developing and implementing a brand new set of and tools from scratch, IoT4All aims to focus on the convergence and improvement of existing technologies and platforms in order to provide a federated IT infrastructure that will constitute a powerful framework for IoT. In the case of Cloud platforms, rather than developing a new Cloud platform in order support the computing and storage requirements of IoT, existing platforms will be evaluated and weighed against the functional and non-functional requirements of IoT technology as a whole as well as the specific demands of the pilot applications. These platforms currently incorporate various techniques and technologies for offering dynamically scalable and often virtualised resources as a service over the Internet, including resource management, discovery and scheduling mechanisms, Service Level Agreement (SLA) management, security, data management, portals, among others. Service Level Agreements (SLA) are bilateral contracts between the consumer and the provider of a service setting out the terms and conditions the two parties have agreed upon and, optionally, specifies how the usage of the service is priced. In Cloud environments, SLA contracts comprise a powerful mechanism that Service Providers (SP) may use to offer strong Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees to potential customers and are generally considered to be one of the most vital factors for commercial Cloud applications. As a result most Cloud platforms have provision for the whole lifecycle of Service Level Agreements [BON07] [ROS09]. This includes negotiation of the agreement between the two parties [HAS07],

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[ROS09]. This includes negotiation of the agreement between the two parties [HAS07], Proposal Part B: page

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monitoring of the resources in order to ensure conformance to the terms [SAH03], evaluation of the monitoring results and corrective actions in case of violation [KAR09]. In some cases, SLAs can be used for charging customers for resource usage [HAS07] or for imposing penalties [KOS08] to the provider for not delivering the promised level of service. Thus, SLA management comprises a complex task as it needs to take into account and consequently depends on several factors such as network reliability and availability, system behaviour, external dependencies and even unexpected events. The dynamic, collaborative and complex nature of IoT poses even stricter requirements for the provision of the requested functionalities through combined services. Service discovery comprises one of the key building blocks of Cloud computing platforms. Its complexity lies on the fact that during this process not only the services that offer the requested functionalities need to be discovered, but also the underlying resources – resource discovery – on which these services are running need to be taken into account based on the agreed-upon SLA and the requested QoS. With service composition climbing high on the hierarchy of required mechanisms for facilitating the IoT requirements, service discovery needs to be built upon highly expressive service and resource querying mechanisms encapsulating and aiming at requested QoS and resource usage optimisation at the same time. Current resource discovery and management mechanisms require further advancements before being able to meet the high IoT demands. The Monitoring and Discovery Service (MDS) from Globus Toolkit [MDS09] is a set of web services for monitoring and discovering distributed resources. Nevertheless, MDS does not offer the flexibility and functionality offered by UDDI [UDDI09] for service discovery. Still, UDDI lacks the required flexibility for registering and managing stateful resources. In general, current solutions are far from being mature enough to provide the basis for the IoT due to the dynamic nature and status of resources which in these approaches are dealt with as static entities, technical constraints and geographical limitations such as autonomous, heterogeneous resources, geographical dispersion of resources, large number of users and large distributed networks, availability status of resources and different technology policies.

Innovation In IoT4All, SLAs will be used in order to establish a level of trust between the owners of the cooperating platforms by setting out the terms upon which the cooperation between the involved parties will be based. The expectations of all parties in terms of performance guarantees and implications in case of non-conformance to the agreement will be investigated and balanced in order to choose the most suitable SLA Management framework. What is more, the SLA Management mechanisms will be adapted to the special requirements of the IoT context. Both the general framework of IoT as well as the particular requirements for the pilot applications will be taken into account in order to define the QoS parameters that make sense in that particular context. Within this context, research will focus on dynamic negotiation (through re-negotiation) based on context and aiming at keeping the optimal balance between meeting the requested QoS and achieving resource usage optimisation. Moreover, QoS and QoE within the IoT will be further analysed in order to provide enriched SLA templates. Given the complexity of the IoT and the variability in the underlying resources, services, applications, systems, and things, special focus will be given on end-to-end SLA monitoring and the development of corrective mechanisms based on well-specified policies, whereas existing billing policies will be adapted in order to encompass QoS, QoE, penalties and satisfy the commercial aspects of IoT. Reputation management will also be considered as another approach for trust establishment and management. Different perspectives of reputation can be met. Sabater and Sierra [SAB05] note that reputation can only be based on what the other agents say about the agent’s behaviour, whereas Abdul-Rahman and Hailes [ABR00] mention that reputation can be viewed as an expectation about the behaviour of an agent based on information about it or observations of its past behaviour. Within this context, reputation management will be investigated at various levels within the IoT,

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this context, reputation management will be investigated at various levels within the IoT, Proposal Part B:

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including computational and data resources, services, systems and things and will form an indirect means of trust establishment and management. In order to meet the dynamic and demanding nature of continuously evolving applications, work within IoT4All will also focus on introducing innovative resource discovery and management techniques. One of the main challenges within IoT4ALL will be to treat resources as dynamic entities which are able to adapt on the applications’ requirements. Thus, based on pre-defined policies and the application-specific requirements, resources (including data, services, things) will be able to self- organise and self-manage in order to serve the demands of the application. Moreover, research on resource discovery will focus on advanced multiple resource discovery at different contexts. Resource discovery and management will be tightly bound to the objective of achieving resource utilization optimisation and meeting QoS expectations. For this reason, advanced resource monitoring techniques will be applied which will monitor resources and services. These techniques will monitor resource usage, overall function and will retrieve information on energy consumption. This information will be fed to advanced models which will describe the “behaviour” of the resources and the services and will further enhance the resource discovery and resource self-management processes.

Impact

The IoT4ALL Service and Cloud Platform is expected to offer a key set of mechanisms which will facilitate the IoT computational, communication and storage needs. By incorporating efficient SLA- driven QoS-aware service discovery, composition and management and resource utilization optimisation mechanisms and by enabling end-to-end SLA monitoring, trust aggregation and reputation management as an indirect means for trust establishment, the proposed platform aims at comprising a dynamic, scalable, robust and trusted infrastructure able to support the dynamic, collaborative and complex nature of IoT and the delivery of customisable high added value services. Given the clear focus for facilitating business solutions, provision for the whole SLA lifecycle with special focus on SLA evaluation and billing policies will further boost the adoption of IoT in the business world through a more robust trust establishment and management approach. It should be noted that the proposed platform will also facilitate the sustainability awareness perspective of the IoT4All platform, by monitoring the available resources’ energy consumption and by incorporating the latter into the multi-parametric resource usage optimisation mechanism.

References [BON07] Boniface, M. J., Phillips, S. C., Sánchez-Mácian, A., Surridge, M., Dynamic Service Provisioning Using GRIA SLAs. ICSOC Workshops 2007: 56-67. [ROS09] Rosenberg, I., Juan, A. Integrating an SLA architecture based on components, BEinGRID White Paper, 2009. [HAS07] Hasselmeyer, P., Koller, B., Kotsiopoulos, I., Kuo, D., Parkin, M., Negotiating SLAs with Dynamic Pricing Policies, Service Oriented Computing: a look at the Inside, SOC@Inside'07, 2007. [SAH03] Sahai, A. Graupner, S. Machiraju, V. van Moorsel, A., Specifying and Monitoring Guarantees in Commercial Grids through SLA, Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid, CCGrid’03: 292-299. [KAR09] Kardara, M., Konstanteli, K., Aisopos, F., Andronikou, V., & Varvarigou, T. (2009). A Subscription and Notification Mechanism for Dynamic SLA Evaluation in GRIA. E-Challenges 2009.

[KOS08] Kosinski, J., Radziszowski, D., Zielinski, K., Zielinski, S., Przybylski, G., Niedziela, P., "Definition and Evaluation of Penalty Functions in SLA Management Framework," Fourth International Conference on Networking and Services (icns 2008), pp.176-181, 2008 [MDS09] MDS, http://www.globus.org/toolkit/docs/4.0/info/key-index.html

http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/uddi-spec/doc/spec/v3/uddi-v3.0.2-

20041019.htm

[UDDI09]

UDDI,

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[ABR00] Abdul-Rahman A., Hailes., S., Supporting trust in virtual communities. In HICSS ’00:

Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Computer Society, (6): 6007, Washington, DC, USA, 2000. [SAB05] Sabater, J., Sierra, C. Review on computational trust and reputation models. Artificial Intelligence Rev., 24(1): 33–60, 2005.

1.2.11Service Front-end & Collaboration Platforms for the IoT State of the Art

According to the European Commission 18 “the software technologies that will be developed for the Future Internet put the user at the centre of attention. The projects classified in "Service Front Ends" share the aim of empowering users to do things which they can’t currently do with software technology” In FP6 the above issues have been mainly addressed by the “Collaborative Working Environments” projects, whose main goal was “to develop next generation collaborative working environments, thereby increasing creativity and boosting innovation and productivity. These environments should provide collaboration services to make possible the development of worker-centric, flexible, scalable and adaptable tools and applications. This will enable seamless and natural collaboration amongst a diversity of agents (humans, machines, etc) within distributed, knowledge-rich and virtualized working environments. Professional virtual communities and nomadic personal access to knowledge should be supported”. One of the major initiatives undertaken by CWE projects was the establishment of an “Open Collaboration Architecture” 19 (OCA) Working Group, whose mission is to define the foundational architecture to enable a world-wide interoperable collaboration infrastructure, supported by Collaboration@Rural, CoSpaces, EcoSpace, Laboranova, NEPOMUK, WearIT@Work projects.

Current FP7 Service Front Ends (SFE) projects can be classified into three major categories:

1. Creation of services by the end-user (projects “FAST” and “M:Ciudad”) - Web 2.0 is the trend in the use of internet technology that aims to facilitate creativity, information sharing, and, most notably, collaboration among users. Going beyond this, research into "Service Front Ends" aims to enable users to adapt, customise and control services according to their needs 2. Supporting users that are on the move (projects “Persist”, “OPEN”) - Users are increasingly mobile and require wire-free and nomadic access via a growing number of diversified communications devices and appliances 3. Methodology for developing user interfaces for service oriented applications (project “ServFace”) – Focusing on the software developers, the goal is to provide them with a methodology and tools to develop consistent user interfaces for applications developed in a service oriented manner.

More recently a SFE Open Alliance has been founded by a group of industries and research centers. The objective of the “Open Alliance on Service Front Ends” 20 is to set up an open global alliance aimed to effectively deliver:

a common vision on the technologies and architecture associated to Service Front Ends in the future Internet of Services

open specifications and, potentially, open source reference implementations of components in the envisioned architecture

18 http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/ssai/service-front-ends_en.html

19 http://www.oca-wg.org/

20 http://sfe.morfeo-project.org/

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Current members include large companies (Telefonica, SAP, Telecom Italia), Universities (Politecnica

de Madrid, TU Wien, etc

According to their vision, Internet users are expecting that the Web will support their daily life becoming the front-end through which they will get access and mix services (either application services, content/data delivery services) which are truly useful for them, matching their needs at any moment, in a context/knowledge-aware manner.

In their “manifesto” 21 , the SFE Open Alliance highlight the following current problems:

1. users do not have tools that facilitate the integration of available services into applications

)

and Research Centers (FhG ISST, ISTI, etc

)

that effectively support their daily processes.

2. supporting full context-awareness is still an undelivered promise.

3. users do not have tools that enable them to share the processes they have implemented with other users

4. trying to evolve towards a Service Oriented Economy will need a necessary paradigm shift from selling products to offering services.

The SFE Open Alliance thus identifies the following “principles” for future SFE projects to go beyond State of the Art:

1. End-users have to be fully empowered, so they are able to setup their own web access point to content and application services by means of picking and assembling web resources (e.g. gadgets) available on the Internet ("LEGO" philosophy).

2. Active participation in the future Internet has to be enabled by allowing the end users to create the applications as well as gadgets they want to provide. Sharing and exchanging knowledge, gadgets and applications with others is seen as an accelerator to the adoption of innovations,

3. Interaction must be seamlessly adapted and relevant to context at any time, giving the term "context" the widest possible meaning,

4. Access to sustainable business marketplace of services must be supported

5. Trust and reputation mechanism must be supported

Their vision is represented by the following picture:

Their vision is represented by the following picture: Innovation In IOT4All we will innovate SOTA in

Innovation

In IOT4All we will innovate SOTA in the following areas:

The extension of the SFE concept to the IoT: an IoT-oriented SFE needs to provide users with special services for Real World events and actions, such requirements are not taken into account while working with “classical” digital services. Current SFE solutions risk to fail making the wealth of knowledge generated by Things available for users, especially nomadic and mobile users

21 http://sfe.morfeo-project.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/sfe-open-alliance-manifesto-v2-09-05-12-final.pdf

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By enabling the concept of Thing-to-Thing collaboration, thanks to the generation of workspaces for Things and not just for human users. In fact, the IoT will pose additional challenges for Things to be enabled to work with other Things, i.e. to be able to generate their workspace, mostly made of services and not of Human-Computer Interface primitives

Such innovation will be made possible thanks to the development of an Open Collaboration Architecture, leveraging on the previous work of the OCA working group 22 , and thanks to the development of innovative IoT Open Collaboration Services, which will enable the current social- knowledge-business collaboration paradigms accessible by Things

Impact

Thanks to the new concept of SFE for Things and Thing-to-Thing collaboration, the Internet of Service will be dramatically extended and expanded by the presence of trillions of things. Humans will be able to collaborate with Smart Objects and Sensors Networks to find a solution of a diagnosis problem or to find the optimal itinerary for some perishable goods or to take the best decisions in an assistive or emergency management scenario.

Moreover, the proposed solution will enable Things to communicate and to access needed services:

for example, what services could be accessed at a certain instant by the Intelligent Car to find diagnosis hints and solutions? Or what services could be accessed by the Smart Container to report an anomaly in the itinerary or to double check some policies and rules?

For instance, services which would allow the creation and govern of a virtual community of cars (social); services which would allow the representation and sharing of multimedia material among Things (knowledge); services which would allow the set-up of a virtual organization of Things, humans, companies to face business opportunities (business).

1.2.12Semantic Reasoning in the IoT Semantic Knowledge Management using Production rules is looking for mechanisms and models to formalize and reason with domain knowledge using logic and logical inference. Production rules reasoning system makes use of an “inference engine in which the ”condition” part of the rules are unified with the facts proper to the system. The production rules paradigm conforms to the classic “if/then” rule format. If the unification is successful, the corresponding rule “fires” and new knowledge (inference) is derived by executing the operations proper to “action” part (the consequent) of the rule. It is then obvious that the inference engine plays a central role in any system that makes use of business rules according to the production rules paradigm. Moreover, we can note that – independently from the specific business rules applications – “rules” and “production rules” play a fundamental role in many other scientific/technical domains.

In these last years, we observe an explicit adhesion from researchers to the semantic web community projects (ontology research field and reasoning on the web), and the standardization efforts (R2ML, OWL). For example, interoperability is one of the primary goals of the Semantic Web research and the work on rules and on their standardization represents a key move towards the realization of that goal, eg it is used for the discovery and the composition of web services using the CLIPS rule engine. Discovery is realized through the matching between semantic search queries and OWL-S descriptions of Web services, and composition algorithm is based on the rules which are considered as composite services or template where the premise part of a rule contains a set of conditions.

22 http://www.oca-wg.org/

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But, the weak support tools for the development of rule bases requires seriously to find new ways to standardize and enhance rule languages that allows to cope with IoT semantic knowledge management and reasoning issues. For example, the lack of the notion of ‘variable’ in OWL makes it very difficult to rely on the W3C languages in their ‘native’ form to build up ‘real’ inference engines for rule processing. For practical applications, especially in the IOT industrial context, a solution to the problem of finding an efficient ‘rule engine’ for executing the so-called ‘business rules’ consists then in making use of ‘expert systems’ tools like JESS. However, the situation in the Semantic Web rule domain is still particularly moving, in spite of the emergence of several “ reasoner” like RACER, Pellet, Fact++, KAON, JENA, Hoolet and so on that, all based on the weak “inference by inheritance” reasoning paradigm, can only solve, in practice, the most common classification (“subsumption”) problems. We can also note that, in a strict W3C languages OWL, RDF(S) context, building up ‘true’ rule systems is a really complex task given that i) on the one hand, the lack of the notion of ‘variable’ in OWL makes it impossible to rely on this language in its ‘native’ form to build up ‘real’ inference engines for rule processing, and ii) on the other hand, no support for rules and rule processing has been introduced in the standard descriptions of these languages at the time of their conception. The consequence is that the whole Semantic Web rule domain seems to be in an early stage of development. Languages like the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) – all based, roughly, on extensions of the inferential properties of Horn clauses and (Unary/Binary Datalog) to deal with OWL-like data structures appear to be, for the time being, as quite limited with respect to the range of their possible applications and particularly complicated to be used in practice. In this paper we propose a rule language along with a knowledge representation model called Semantic Micro Concept, to write business rules for the management of objects in a closed and industrial environment. Our proposition is motivated by the fact that we need to recover to some issues related, for example, to the efficient handling of syntactic/semantic structures in business rules, handling properties with multiple values; interoperability between heterogeneous management systems, etc.

The first ambitious RTD objective concerns the proposition of reasoning templates that allows the existence of Intelligent and smart things with reasoning capabilities and decision making processes, which makes call to production rules in order to derive high level and complex facts or react by launching a task concerning the semantic of a particular situation. The reasoning system will makes use of semantic knowledge modelling capabilities and matching mechanisms regarding production rules and the description of IOT things. The innovation behind semantic web is the use of AI based reasoning mechanisms to support uncertainty of collected facts and to optimize the composition and matchmaking processes.

The second ambitious, RTD objective of Iot4all in the reasoning part, consists in trying to build a complex events inference framework where it is possible edit complex rules written in a (sort of controlled) business oriented natural language that can bed converted on the shelf into an executable format like that proper to R2ML, DROOLS or JESS. This is the option chosen, e.g., by Graham Witt who is actually publishing a series of articles about “A Practical Method of Developing Natural Language Rule Statements” in the “Business Rules Community” journal. It is also the option that we will propose some concrete solutions in the “NL Business Rules” domain.

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option that we will propose some concrete solutions in the “NL Business Rules” domain. Proposal Part

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1.3S/T methodology and associated work plan

1.3.1 Introduction to the IoT4All Architecture

The 4 dimensions 23 of the IoT hypercube are the Real World Dimension (RWD), the Digital World Dimension (DWD) and the Socio-Economic World Dimension (SEWD), and last but not least the sectors and targets that this hypercube is targeted to, thus the spherical dimension surrounding the hypercube is what we call the fourth dimension.

the hypercube is what we call the fourth dimension. 2 3 "An attempt at visualizing the

23 "An attempt at visualizing the Fourth Dimension: Take a point, stretch it into a line, curl it into a circle, twist it into a sphere, and punch through the sphere." — Albert Einstein

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a circle, twist it into a sphere, and punch through the sphere." — Albert Einstein Proposal

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1.3.1.1 The Real World Dimension

Motto: Every Thing is Smart

From IoT Technologies to IoT Space: the foundational technologies for the IoT (wireless sensor networks, microchips, active RFID, communication protocols) should be available for all and not the subject of self-referencing research. In the Smart Spaces, enabled by the IOT4ALL architecture and middleware’s, human users are immersed in the real & virtual world and enabled to interact with it.

real & virtual world and enabled to interact with it. The Real World Dimension exhibits a

The Real World Dimension exhibits a real heterogeneous, interoperable and evolutionary world of inter-connected computers, inter-connected mobiles, inter-connected people, inter-connected sensors/actuators and inter-connected objects with identities.

In particular, among these not just smart products/systems provided with advanced active identification technologies, but also self-organizing sensor networks able to maximize effectiveness by minimizing energy consumption and data storage needs, as well as smart objects and devices provided with advanced communication and reasoning capabilities (i.e. the intelligent fridge, the intelligent car, the intelligent home), as well as integrated working-entertainment-home environments where humans, provided with smart and wearable devices, could interact with the IoT (Ambient Intelligence).

Virtual Worlds are also belonging to this space, as emotional experimental facilities characterized by shifting in time (past reconstructions, future projections) and/or extension in space of our experience.

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(past reconstructions, future projections) and/or extension in space of our experience. Proposal Part B: page 46

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1.3.1.2 The Digital World dimension

Motto: Every Thing as a Service

From Software Platforms to Knowledge/Experience : federated, open and trusted (F-O-T) platforms are the basis for the Future Internet. In the IoT, particular importance is given to service/cloud platforms, event-driven platforms and service front-ends platforms. The IOT4ALL architecture and middleware’s will be able to transform the data and information sensed and gathered from the real world into knowledge and experience useful for all, and for the innovative socio-economic applications in particular.

Knowledge Architecture & MDW’s Events & Services FrontEnd Platform Event- driven platform Service and
Knowledge
Architecture
&
MDW’s
Events & Services
FrontEnd
Platform
Event-
driven
platform
Service
and Cloud
Platform
Digital
Dimension

The Digital World Dimension contains the two main blocks of services and events where services are established & provided, events generated & filtered, actuations inferred & controlled, knowledge generated & transmitted, Reasoning implemented & explained, by means of an open, secure and privacy-preserving IT infrastructure, enabling the interoperability of Enterprise Collaboration Platforms, Enterprise Applications Clouds, Distributed Manufacturing Facilities and Global Service Delivery Platforms. Such a federated interoperability will be implemented by a next generation flexible and self-adaptive Business Process Management Systems encompassing services-events- actions life-cycle management, adhoc-mediated-planned collaboration forms, decisional-innovation- automation cross-organizational workflows, individual-team-community oriented front-ends and workspaces, deterministic-stochastic-fuzzy behaviours.

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oriented front-ends and workspaces, deterministic-stochastic-fuzzy behaviours. Proposal Part B: page 47 of 203

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1.3.1.3 The Socio-economic World dimension

Motto: Every Thing is a User

From Innovative Applications to Democratic Governance: the IoT revolution should impact the socio-economic world; otherwise it is just a useless exercise by few experts. The major innovation in this respect is the fact that things must become protagonists of our life and in particular become users of our daily software applications. Cars could by themselves take part in the diagnosis and maintenance programs; parcels and containers could self-plan and schedule their shipment and distribution along the supply chain; home appliances in smart spaces could detect anomalous events and help physicians in the assistive and recovery tasks in the presence of elderly or disabled. The risk of such an invasion by things into our socio-economic world is some kind of anarchy. We need new business models and governance rules, which on the one side will give order to this potentially chaotic environment, on the other side will preserve the inherent democratic and participative attitude embedded in the IoT concept.

Business & Social Availability ubiquity and simplicity Energetic and economic Architecture & sustainability
Business & Social
Availability
ubiquity and
simplicity
Energetic and
economic
Architecture &
sustainability
Conceptual
Security
privacy and
Trust
Governance
Socio-
Economic

The Socio-Economic World Dimension, not confined to the business-oriented manufacturing and product + service life-cycle, but extended to citizen’s wellbeing and quality of life, where the IoT revolution will stimulate the birth of novel business, social and knowledge software applications. Next generation Enterprise Applications will have on the one side direct real time connections with the real world, assuring a prompt and adaptive reaction to events and safe and secure actuations; on the other side they will implement their workflows as loosely coupled orchestrations of services provided by F-O-T platforms. The Socio-Economic dimension will also address the challenges of provisioning, management and governance of these next generation applications, guaranteeing the proper levels of data protection, privacy and AAA security.

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applications, guaranteeing the proper levels of data protection, privacy and AAA security. Proposal Part B: page

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1.3.1.4 The Architecture & Middlewares block

Motto: Every Thing is Experience

At the center of this IoT Hypercube it is the architecture and the middleware’s that provide the glue/interoperability between the edges of the cube. Consequently, the not yet established, implemented and standardized architecture of the Internet of Things is at the heart of this project. The interoperability of the three dimensions will be guaranteed through an appropriate architecture addressing:

The IoT architecture enables that information and experiences (e.g. sensor data) are processed and transformed into services, events and actions. For doing that we need a co-operation of different digital platforms: service delivery platforms, event driven platforms, actuation control platforms, knowledge management platforms, context-driven intelligent reasoning platforms, human-things interaction platforms. All of them need to be FOT platforms: Federated (not just interoperable, but collaborative), Open (respecting standards and offering open interfaces) and Trusted (where security and privacy issues are managed transparently according to agreed policies).

In particular there is the need for a Business-IT upper-ware (i.e. the connection between socio-

economic and digital worlds) to allow IoT- derived knowledge to influence the innovative social-

knowledge-business

applications;

the innovative social- knowledge-business applications; There is the need for an IT-Reality middleware (i.e. the

There is the need for an IT-Reality middleware (i.e. the connection between digital and real worlds) to allow relevant field events to be considered and to address commands to the relevant field actuators.

And there is the need for a Business-Reality cross-ware (i.e. the direct connection between socio- economic and real worlds) which in some cases is able to seamlessly cross the digital world and directly connect the IoT with the Enterprise Environments, i.e. to immediately report serious events to the decision makers and to instantaneously actuate urgent commands from the decision makers to the real world.

Ultimately information extracted from the Real World and transformed into knowledge in the Digital World is then ready to be contextualized in innovative Socio-economic IoT-based applications, to be used for everyday life experience and/or business decisions.

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IoT-based applications, to be used for everyday life experience and/or business decisions. Proposal Part B: page

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1.3.1.5 The fourth dimension

Scenarios This spherical dimension surrounding the converging architectures is the application to real sectors and domains. For that purpose we are trying to cover a full range of applications that could potentially cover all the aspects of the business and society range of sectors. In particular, we are going to develop:

range of sectors. In particular, we are going to develop: 1) Storyboard of self-repairing car scenario

1) Storyboard of self-repairing car scenario

FIAT will apply the IoT4all architecture to the Automotive Application, enabling the collaboration between on-board systems, neighbouring objects to the vehicle and remote external services. It is based on web-services and integrates elaborated mechanisms to support recovery processes.

The flexible process management system is based on adaptive and self-healing web-service composition mechanisms, to support recovery execution when basic on-board recovery cannot proceed correctly. It is based on cause-action mechanisms, identifying faulty or degraded services, and adjusting the process execution through dynamic planning mechanisms in order to reach the repair process goals. Such flexibility allows managing many types of exceptions in processes and raises demanding research questions since web services have both permanent and transient faults.

A service-based gateway towards the electronic control units (ECU) of the car will be created, and a high-level repair management system based on processes composed of web services will be provided, coordinating the collaboration and interaction between:

On-board OEM devices, such as ECUs,

On-board specific diagnostics and maintenance systems

On-board/ off-board objects, in the neighbouring cloud to the vehicle, with different level of intelligence, sensing, memory and communication capabilities, such as infrastructure equipment (e.g. sensors embedded in the road), RFID tags (e.g. attached to the vehicle components), incoming vehicles providing additional data (related e.g. to traffic, road status, environmental conditions), professional or customer devices (e.g. PDAs, smart phones providing further data to understand context and causes)

The driver of the vehicle equipped with human-machine interface, to provide additional input and support for interaction;

External services.

Such high-level recovery processes will assist the car and the driver on the road to recover from situations which might be annoying for the driver, such as continuous alarms for minor faults while driving, or blocking the car even when failures are not critical for safety. They will provide interaction with repair shops, remote assistance, advanced diagnosis, and software upgrades.

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with repair shops, remote assistance, advanced diagnosis, and software upgrades. Proposal Part B: page 50 of

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The goal is to prevent specifying handlers for all possible exceptions in the processes, through a flexible on-board execution mechanism of such processes with a self-healing and adaptive behaviour.

The following paragraph describe the likely story of a professional user of the IoT4all industrial platform:

The Automotive application settings is the usage phase of the lifecycle of Smart Products. In this scenario, Smart vehicles are equipped with Blue&Me © , a on-board telematics platform able to interact with the driver through vocal and textual channels, with neighbouring objects and services through wireless channels and remotely with external service providers.

Michael is a deliveryman for a florist. He usually uses a brand new IVECO Daily (still under warranty). For planning and optimising his deliveries, he needs a constant availability of the vehicle and would appreciate to be warned of any incoming failure. When receiving the vehicle, Michael has asked for a constant monitoring of the vehicle status, consumption and use over the complete life of the vehicle. As a counterpart for driving data to be recorded, he has access to different services, in particular the online diagnostics and recovery. Figure 1. The IoT4all Smart Vehicle (IVECO Daily)

Today Michael begins around 9.00 his daily delivery tour of Piedmont: he is delivering in an area North-East of Turin, up to 150 kms from Turin. Entering the vehicle Michael is automatically identified: with his ID and rights, he has access to all functionalities of the vehicle, which becomes an extension of his office. As Michael turns on the key, the vehicle welcomes him and the body computer performs the usual check-up of the vehicle and components health, interacting through the vehicle wired networks with on-board electronic control unit (ECU). Major pieces of information are resident in the vehicle or available in central databases [1] : Vehicle identity (VIN), Updated structure of the vehicle (BOM), Maintenance history (planned/ unplanned interventions, components substitution, date and place…), Version of software for ECUs. Through the Blue&Me, added critical information is retrieved wirelessly: the pressure of tyres using dedicated sensors; the availability of spare wheels using embedded smart tags; the destination list from the PND; the type of goods in the vehicle. While travelling, the Blue&Me gets access to information coming from other vehicles or from the infrastructure and embedded in tags and systems along the road. In this case, an RFID located inside a road sign warns of road works for the next 500 m. The vehicle proactively initiates a recording of some driving parameters and in particular the vibrations in the engine compartment [2] . Shortly after the road works, the vehicle registers a series of error on the dashboard display and in the electric network. The Blue&Me interacts vocally with the driver to evaluate if he had noticed a problem related to the display. In fact Michael had noticed the on-going blinking of the headlights warning light. As the Blue&Me, in collaboration with the body computer do not spot any other major dysfunction, they advise Michael to go on. While Michael continues his journey, the Blue&Me interacts with the remote servers and other vehicles to understand if the problem has occurred in the same context for similar vehicles.

Smart Product (Blue&Me): ok, we see the problem: most probably a parking sensor is loose, probably caused by the vibrations and the bad road conditions. No actions should be taken for now, as it does not create any safety problem but mention the problem tonight to your fleet maintenance operator. I will do it as well on my side, so that they book one hour and check of they have a spare sensor.

[1] using the VIN. [2] and also in the trailer.

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they have a spare sensor. [ 1 ] using the VIN. [ 2 ] and also

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Michael: ok, thanks. I’ll do that.

Halfway back to Turin, around 17.00, the dashboard lights twinkle and then switch off. Michael stops at the nearest emergency area and activates the Blue&Me for diagnosis.

Smart Product (Blue&Me): we’ll try together to recover from here. But just in case I have pre- alerted the nearest workshop with your model of dashboard. They also have somebody to work on it tonight. If they stick to the official timing for maintenance it should not take more than 90 minutes for substitution.

Michael: thanks, proceed with the onboard recovery.

Smart Product (Blue&Me) (after the operations): together with the IVECO central server for remote update, we have managed to recover the lights. You can safely proceed to the workshop we had mentioned. Costs will be charged on IVECO.

Michael: super. I’ll do that.

Finally Michael arrives at the selected workshop. The Blue&Me identifies it and proactively transfers via WI-FI the ID of the vehicle, the relevant data for diagnosis, both pre- and post-failure, the history of maintenance and repair and other contextual data. Registration is reduced to handing over the keys and signing the approval for maintenance. Actually the vehicle has not yet stopped in the workshop and the staff at the garage is already, from remote, 1) analysing the diagnostics data and 2) afterwards connecting to the vehicle networks. After a long day, continuously supported by the vehicle, Michael can safely return home.

Technical challenges to be addressed Today web services for cars are in their infancy and are basically oriented to infotainment applications. Some of these services exist already, such as MapPoint .Net, which allows users to access maps in their dashboard displays. Microsoft partners are working on other possibilities, such as services that will allow users to check traffic, weather, gas prices and restaurant menus from the privacy of their own vehicles while for example in Japan, there's even demand for in-car karaoke systems. Today web services for cars are oriented to provide information to the drivers, tomorrow web services will be oriented towards the car itself and to its components, a revolutionary approach that will be undertaken step by step by this project. At the vehicle level, the main challenge is to beyond the physical networks already level (CAN-busses) and create an architecture enabling discovery of objects and services, to sustain the proactive collaboration between different level of intelligent objects, and to create, enrich and distribute knowledge between these objects.

The approach is based on the original idea of providing adaptation and self-healing mechanisms based not only on context knowledge, but also on diagnostic techniques to provide explanations of the possible causes of events, therefore giving an interpretation of the environment in which the services are being executed. This interpretation allows both an improved reaction to failures (since repairing does not only focus on the failure but on its causes and consequences) and also the possibility of adapting the service compositions by exploiting the augmented knowledge about the execution environment. The application will apply model-based distributed diagnostic algorithms for supporting diagnosis in processes where services cooperate in an open world assumption, and in which limited knowledge is available about the internal structure of external services. A model-based approach is also proposed for obtaining a lively service behaviour based on knowledge of causes of failures or possible failures in a set of cooperating services. The focus will be on establishing cooperation methods compatible with an autonomous behaviour of each service. Open source web service technology will be augmented with self-management functionality which allows the control of repair actions, adaptation actions, and testing and monitoring services. In particular, the problems posed by services being executed in micro-environments, in which computational resources can be limited, will be studied. Service execution in real time environments and web services as support for

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be studied. Service execution in real time environments and web services as support for Proposal Part

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embedded systems will be investigated, in particular in the chosen test-bed in the automotive domain. In fact, the interaction of internal devices in a car with external services in more powerful computational environments and with other service providers (e.g. for maintenance) appears

particularly promising. Research to provide self-managing services in small devices will be performed

to make the environment applicable also in composed services where services in small devices and in

traditional environments cooperate.

This application will build innovative and resilient services for the Self-Repairing Car, and in particular:

Apply methodologies to create, maintain, improve and communicate knowledge;

Aggregate, analyse, display and refine knowledge coming from different sources (things, people) and through different means (wireless/ wired, vocal/ textual…)

Fuse and resolve conflict between data coming from different internal and external sources;

Refine and adapt strategies according to the context of use;

Provide a resilient, safe and efficient services framework, also in case of network failure e.g. by distributing and sharing information between objects in the Internet of Things (smart phones, ECUs, tags, etc).

Use the IoT4all platform for discovery and integration of new objects, interaction and collaboration of different levels of intelligent objects

Scenario/prototype typology This application will provide a unique opportunity to consolidate and bring to maturity the ideas underlying cause-based service management. The application of the approach is very wide, integrating on-board systems, the cloud of objects surrounding the vehicle in the Internet of Things and web services on external servers. The achievement of the goals is enabled by expertises in multidisciplinary areas that indeed require a European dimension.

The application will need new techniques which have high impact, but high risk, since these techniques imply a complexity which needs further fundamental research (both on the modelling side and on scalability). The application will test the innovative IoT4all technologies with a wide applicability and cost effectiveness, since it will reduce both design efforts and trial-and-error repair and adaptation, while current approaches focus more on symptoms than causes.

A robust environment for adaptive web service execution, based on adaptation and self-healing

functionalities will have several important impacts in e-service technologies for the next decades. Quality of service, together with service reliability and availability (guaranteed by design for self- healability and by monitoring and recovery in case of failures) will impact significantly the use of internet and the web at various levels.

This will be demonstrated in the automotive domain in which many malfunctions of a vehicle (due to the increase of electronic and firmware on board) can be often caused by software problems and can be repaired by software actions.

Impact in either society or industry The integration of objects in the Internet of Thing inside the well-known processes of tele-diagnosis and workshop tele-support opens new areas of businesses of a magnitude still to be assessed. On an industrial perspective the impact of such a project can be very high in future reducing of more than 50% costs related to car stops and dysfunctions. They include advantages for the customer and for the company:

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car stops and dysfunctions. They include advantages for the customer and for the company: Proposal Part

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