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TeytiIe fibres;Yarn and b'zrn m anufacturing;


W eaving technology;Fabricstructure and design;SpeciaIw oven fabric production;
W eftand w arp knitting technology;Knitted fabric design;Specialknitfabric production;
Sw eaterknitting;
Dyeing,printing and finishing.

Engr.ShahAlimuzzaman BelalG ext.ATI.(U.K.)


Assistant Professor
College ofTextile Engineering and Technology
Dhaka,Bangladesh

Published by BM N3foundation
Dhaka,Bangladesh.

TABLE O FCONTENTS
Contents

Introduction to textiles
Flow chartoftextile processing

Textile fibres

Yarn and
yarn m anufaeturing

Propertiesoftextile fibres
Prim ary propertiesoftextilefibres
Secondary propertiesoftextilefibres
Classification oftextile fibres
Fibre identification
Burning test
Lightmicroscopytest
Chemicalsolubility test
Typesoffibres
Classification ofyarn
Typesofcottonyarn
Blowroom section
ProcessIayoutoftheyarn m anufacturing system
w ith a modern blowroom Iine
Carding section
Doubling and draw ing
Com bing section
SimplexorRovingfram e
Cotton spinningsystem
Spinning machine
Autoconer
Yarn conditioningand packing

Yarn num bering system


Definition
Typesofyarn count
Calculationsconcerning count
Form ulaeforcountconversion
Countcalculation and denotion forpI
y yarn
Length calculation ofacone ofsew ing thread

Fanc# Yarns
Fancyyarn
Coloureffects
Structure effects
Lustre effects

Page no.
002
003
004
004
004
006
011
O12
012
014
018
021
O21

021
024
025
028
030
030
032
034
035
36
039
040
041
041
041
044
046
O47
050
051
051
051
051
052

Fabric and
Fabric m anufacturing
W oven fabrics and
W eaving technology

Typesoffabric
Fabricclassifitationataglanee
W oven fabries
Proeessflow to manufaduringwoven fabric
W eavingpreparation
W inding
W indingprocess
Tensiondevice
Typesofpackages
Pirnwinding
W inding machine
Precisionwinding
Problem
W arp preparation
W arping
DirectorHighspeedwarping
IndirectorSectionwarping
W arping machine
SizingorSlashing
Sizing machine
Drawing-in andTying-in
Fundamentalsofweaving
W eaving principle
Basicw eavingm otions
W arp Iet-off
W arpshedding
W eftinsertionorpicking
Yarnaccumulatorsorfeeders
Beat-up
Take-up
Auxiliaryweavingmotions

Fabricwidth
W eavingmachine orLoom
Shuttleweavingmachines
Shuttlelessweaving machines

Projectileweavingmachine
Rapierweaving machine

Airjetweavingmachine
Water-jetweavingmachine
M ultiphaseweaving machine
Fabricsel
vages
GreyfabricinspectionIines

053
053
055
056
057
057
057
058
059
063
069
071
072
072
073
074
074
076
077
079
083
086
089
093
093
095
095
096
096
098
100
102
103
103
105
106
107
108
110
111
113
114
115
117

Fabric structure
and design

lntrodurtiontofabricstruetureanddesign
W oven fabricspecification
Fabricweightcalculation
Yarn consumption calculation
Partsofa complete desi
gn
Drafting
System orclassi
fication ofdrafting
Basicweavesofwovenfabric
Plain weave
M ain featuresofplainweave
Classification ofplain c10th
Derivativesofplainweave
Rib weave
M attweave
Ornam entation ofplain (10th
Twillw eave
Classification oftwillweave
Derivativesoftwillweave
Zig-zagtwillweave
Herringbonetwillweave
Diamond design
Diaperdesign
Brokentwillweave
Re-arranged twillweave
Stepped twillweave
Elongated twillweave
Com binedtwillweave
Shadedtwillweave
Advantagesand disadvantagesoftwill
Satin weave
Classificationofsatin weave
Construdion principle ofsatin weave
Derivativesofsatin weave
Crepeweaves
Corkscrew weaves
Shaded weaves
Fancy design orstructureoffabrits
Huckabackweaves
M ockIeno weaves
Honeycomb weave
Distorted thread e/ect
Cord weave
Spongeweave

118
119
121
121
123
125
129
131
134
135
135
136
137
138
141
144
146
147
153
154
159
162
165
167
168
173
175
179
183
186
187
188
189
194
195
201
202
205
205
209
211
217
220
227

Colourand weave effects


Sim ple colourand weave effects
Com pound colourand weave effects
Figuringw ith extra threads
Com pound fabrics
Tubularc10th
Double width c10th
M ulti-plyfabrics
Stitched double cloths
Classification ofdouble c10th
Selection ofsuitable stitching positions
Construction principle
Selfsti
tchdouble c10th
W added double c10th
Centre stitch double c10th
Fabric used in apparelsector
Fabric based on plain weave
Fabric based ontwillweave
Othercom mercialfabrics
Fabricconstruction orspecification

spetialfabrit produd ion

229
231
235
238
241
241
242
242
244
244
247
248
248
251
253
256
256
261
263
265
267
Braid fabrics
268
M anufacturing principle
269
End uses
270
M ulticom ponentfabrics
271
Bonded fabrics
27 1
Lam inated fabrics
272
Quilted fabrics
273
Leno orGauze fabrics
277
W eaving principle and end uses
278
Lappetand Sw ivelfabrics
280
Lappetw eaving principle
280
Featuresofsw ivelw eave
281
Denim fabrics
283
Featuresand raw m ateriaisofdenim fabric
283
W arp preparation
285
W oven pile fabrics
288
W eftpile fabrics
288
W arp pilefabrics
292
The w ire m ethod
292
The doubIe-cloth orface-to-face m ethod 295
The slacktension pile orterryw eave
305
Flocked fabrics
313
Tufling:Tufted carpet
315

Knitted fabricsand
Knitting technology

Introductionandhistoricalbackgroundofknitting
Generalterm srelated to knitting technology
M echanicalprinciplesofknittingtechnology
Basicelem entsofknitting
The need1es
The cam s
The sinkers
M ethodsofyarn feeding
M ethodsofform ingyarn into needle Ioops
Stitch form ation on bearded needles
Loop formation on Iatch needles
Knitting action ofcom pound needles
W eftknitting m achines
M ain featuresofa knitting m achine
Classification ofweftkni
tting m achines
Flatknitting m achine
Circularkni
tting m achine
Fabric m achine
Garment-length m achines

Single-jerseycircularknittingmachine

322
326
337
337
337
341
344
345
346
347
349
351
354

354
354
356
358
361
362

363

Rib circularknitting m achine


Interlock circularknitting m achine
Links-linksorPurlknitting m achine
Basicw eftknitted structures
The plain knitstructure orplain fabric
The rib structure orrib fabric
The purlknitstructure orpurlfabric
The interlockstructure orinterlock fabric
Com parison between basicstructures

369
377
380
383
383
385
389
392
394

Identificationofsingleand doublejersey

395

Basic Ioop orstitch types


The held loop
Thefloatstitch orIoop
Thetuck Ioop orstitch
The drop orpress-offstitch
Designsofw eftknitted fabrics

396
396
398
403
411
413

Ornamentationofsingle-jerseyfabric
Single-jerseyderivatives
Double-jerseyderivativesbasedon rib

413
414
421

Derivativesofinterlockstructure

427

W eftknittedjacquarddesign
Single-jerseyjacquard design
Double-jerseyjacquarddesign

437
437
441

t.,,;
yy

l
))
%)
lt
'
t
)
(
t
y

Sweaterknitting
Featuresofthesweaterknittingmachine

446
447

The manualsweaterknitting machine


Productionofdifferentfabricsonsweater
kni
tting machine

448

4s3

t
l
@
<41
'
t

7
'

Theset-up

453

Tubularfabric
Singlebed fabric
Ribfabrics
Needle-bed racking

454
455
456
459

Stitchorlooptransferinweftknitting

461

The welt
477
Garmentpanelseparation
480
Shaping during knitting
482
Shapeformation
483
Shaping orfashioningfrequenciescalculation
487
Linking operation
491
Knitted fabricfaults
494
Calculation relatedtoweftknitting
501
Knittingspeed and machinerpm
502
Speedfactororpedormance number
503
Production calculation
504
W eightperunitareaand coverfactor
5O9
Relationbeto yarn count& m achinegauge
511
Relationbetween yarn countand GSM
512
W arp knitting principle
514
lntroduction to warp knitted fabrics
514
The guides
515
The pattern mechanism
517
Chain finks
519
The warp beams
521
Lapping diagramsand chain notations
522
Basicstitchesin warp knitting
523
W arp knitting maehinery
531
Tricotwarp knitting machine
531
Raschelwarp kni
tting machine
538
Two fully threaded guide barstructuresorfabrics
546
Spetialknitfabricproduction
553
Knitted pile fabrics
553
Fleece knitfabric
553
High pile knitfabricsorsliverknitfabrics 555
Plush fabricsorknitted terry fabrics
557
The crochetwarp knittingm achine
559
The straightbarframe
563

@
'i
)
i
r

'

Netting ornetfabrics
Lace fabrics

Nonw oven fabrics

Raw m aterials
W eb form ation
W eb bonding
Finishing
Characteristics and uses ofnonw oven fabrics
Specialty nonw oven products

Textile dyeing,printing Preparatory processorpre-dyeing treatm ents


and finishing
Singeing
Desizing and Scouring
Bleaching
M ercerizing
Heatsetting
Elasticfabric
W ashing
Drying
Dyeing

Preparation and dyeing m achinery


Autoclaves
W inch dyeing m achine
Jiggers
Dyestuffs
Printing

Printing principle
Printing processes
Functionalfinishing
M echanicalfinishing treatm ents
Chem icalfinishing treatm ents

568
570
579
579
580
583
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
598
599
600
605
612
613
615
619
621
622
623
624
627
630
631
640

Acknow ledgem ents


Gratefulacknowledgements are made to m any of my friends, colleagues and dear students
who have relentlessly encouraged me to writethiskind ofa bookand read differentchapterof
thisbook,given encouragementand very helpfulcriticism .
Specially,Iwould Iike to show a huge appreciation to my beloved wife Sumona and m y Iittle
girlsHafsa,Sumaia and Eusha.W i
thout theirsupportand patience lwould never have been
abletofinish thiswork.

02

INTRODUC ION TO TEXTILES


The word ''textile'
'originally applied only to woven fabrics, now generally applied to fibres,
yarns,orfabrics or products m ade of fibres, yarns or fabrics.The term textile originates
from the Iatin verb texere - to weave - but, asthe Textile Institute'sTerm sand Defini
tions
Glossary explains, it is now /'a generalterm applied to any manufacture from fibres,
filam ents or yarns characterized by flexibility, fineness and high ratio of Iength to
thickness''
Textiles,especially fabric isthe fundam entalcom ponentofa readym ade garm ent, because
it is the basic raw m aterialof a garm ent. So it is im portant to know the m anufacturing
sequence offabric from fibre.The quality product isthe m ain goalat presenttim e, W ithout
knowledge ofTextile manufacturing i.e.fibre,yarn and fabrics it is im possible to m aintain
the qualityofagarment.Before elaborating on whole process ofgreyfabric m anufacturing
let us look on what is textile fibre, yarn and fabric and what are the processflow chart of
Textile M anufacturing can be described.

. Textile:
A term originally appbied only to w oven fabrics, but the term s textile and the plural
textiles are now also applied to fibres,filaments and yarns, naturaland m anufactured,
and m ostproductsforw hich these are a principalraw m ateriai.

* Textile Fibre:
Any substance, naturalor manufactured, with a high Iength to width ratio and w ith
suitable characteristicsforbeing processed into fabric;the smallestcom ponent, hairIike
in nature,thatcan be separated from a fabric.

@ Yarn:
An assem blage of fibres that is twisted or laid together so as to form a continuous
strand that can be m ade into a textile fabric. So a yarn is a strand of naturalor m an
m adefibresorfilamentsthathave been twisted orgrouped togetherforuse in w eaving,
knitting, or other m ethods of constructing textile fabrics. The type of yarn to be
manufactured willdepend on the fibres selected;the texture, or hand,ofthe fabric to
be m ade;and qualities such asw arm th,resiliency, softness,and durability required in
thefabric'send uses.

q'
@ Fabrk:
Fabricisa ffexible pdanarsubstance construded from solutions,fibres,yarns,orfabrics,
in any combination.Textile fabrics can be produced directqy from webs offibres by
bonding,fusing orinterlocking to make non-woven fabrics and felts,buttheirphysical
properties tend to restricttheir potentialend-usage.The mechanicalmanipulation of
yarn into fabricisthe mostversatile method ofmanufacturingtextile fabricsfora wide
rangeofend-uses.

FIoW chartoftextileprocessing:

lnput/Raw materials
Textile Fibres

Protessingsteps

Output

Yarn Manufacturing

Yarn

(SpinningMiII)
Yarn

FabricManufacturing

Grey Fabrics

(Weaving/KnittingIndustry)
Grey Fabrics

W etProcessing

Fini
shed Fabrics

(Dyeing,Printing&FinishingIndustry)

Finished Fabrics

GarmentManufacturing

(GarmentIndustry)

Garments

04

TEXTILE FIBRES

Any substance,naturalorm anufactured,w ith a high Iength to w idth ratio and with suitable
characteristics forbeing processed into fabric;the sm allest com ponent,hairIike in nature,
thatcan be separated from a fabric.

Properties ofTextile Fibres:


Prim ary properties oftextile fibres:
High Iength to w idth ratio
Tenacity
Flexibility

Spinningquality(Cohesiveness)
Uniform ity

Setondary properties oftextile fibres:


Physicalshape
Elastic recovery and elongation
Resiliency
Flam m ability and othertherm al reactions
Density
Lusture

Colour
M oisture regain

Prim ary propertiesoftextile fibres:


High Iength-to-w idth ratio:

;
Fibrous materialsmustpossessadequate staple (fibre Iength)and the Iength must be
'

considerably greater than the diam eter.The length is a vew im portant fibre property.
p to severalcentim eters Iong.
t Naturalfibres,exceptforsilk,are m ostly som e m illimeters u'
(-

ttSynthetic fibres are actually filaments (indefini


te Iength)or are chopped into (shorter)

(
:')j
:staple fibres,w hich can,in theirturn,be spun.
E.(?
(
C
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L
.
j-k
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h.'
.

yj

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l
L

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:
j..

...
.

06

--wjujjje
Flexibility is the property of bending without breaking that is the third necessaw
characteristicoftextile fibre.In orderto form yarnsorfabricsthatcan be creased,thathave
the quality of drapability and the ability to m ove with the body and that perm it general
freedom of m ovem ent, the fibres m ust be bendable, pliable or flexible. The degreq of
flexibility determ ines the ease with which fibres, yarns and fabrics will bend and is
im portantin fabricdurability and generalperform ance.

SpinninzqualiW (fnh- WR*--Q):


This charaderistic refers to the ability ofthe fibre to stick together in yarn m anufaduring
processes. Cohesiveness indicates that fibres tend to hold together during yarn
m anufacturing asa resultofthe longitudinalcontourofthe fibre orthe cross-section shape
thatenablesthe fibreto fittogetherand entangle sufficiently to adhere to one another-

Un'

i* :

To m inim ize the irregularity in the finalyarn,it is im portant that the'fibres be som ew hat

sim ilarin length and width i.e.be uniform.The inherentvariabilit'


y in the naturaltibre can
be averaged outby blending naturalfibresfrom m any different batchesin orderto produce
yarn thatare uniform .

W onzaa -

'e oftoe lle & -'':

* 0 10 1shaN (sne*n* .* a 'ap- o- ):


The fibre shapes i.e.the sudace struclure is im portantforthe fibre behaviourin a yarn and
in a fabric.A rough scaly sudace of w oolfibres,for exam ple,ihfluences the feltingrand
shrinkage properties ofwoolfabrics.The scales enable fibresto grip one anotherw he'
na
yarn isspun.

The smooth,glassysudace ofa fibre such asthe nylon fibre,affed sthe lustre ofthe fibre-A
sm ooth sudace will not cling to dirt so readily. The cross-sectional shape of a fibre

influencesthe behaviourofthefabric.A circularornear-circularcross-section (wool)gives


an attradiveorcomfortablefeelascomparedto aflat,ribbon-likecross-section lottonlCircularfibresoften have a poorercovering-powerthan the flatterortriangularones:A flat

ortriangularcross-section givesmore Iustre.Serrated orindentedcross-sectio/s(viscose)


give bettercolourabsorption as a result ofthe Iargerarea.M ore colour is also needed in
the case offine filam ents.The latteralso give a softerhandle orfeel.
:

Elao -c

and

- :

Afibre,whichissubjededtoaforce,willstretchtoacertaindegree-Thisstretchingcan alsobe
expressed asapercentage ofthe originalfibre lenglh,which isthe elongation-The elongatio:of

97

a fibre m ay be m easured atany specified load oras the elongation reached when the fibre
breaks.

Whenafibreissubjeded toasmallforce(orstretchedtoasmalldegree),itmayexhibit
almost pedect elasticity.Elasticity is the property ofa fibre to recover its originallength
afterstretching caused by a Ioad.
The term breaking elongation refers to the amount of stretch that occurs to the point
where the fibre breaks. Elastic Recovery designates the percentage of return from
elongation or stretch toward the originalIength or m easurement.Ifa fibre returns to its
originallength from a specified am ount of attenuation, it is said to have 100% elastic
recovew atX% elongation.
Resilienty:
lt is the ability of a fibre to return to shape following compression, bending or similar
deform ation.It is im portant in determ ining the crease recovery ofa fibre orfabric,and it
plays a significant role in the rapidity with which flattened carpet pile willregain itsshape
and restore itsappearance.
Resilience is the property of a fibre which enables i
t to recover from a certain Ioad or
stretched position and flexibility is that property to resist repeated bending and folding.A
supple fibre has a low resilience and iseasily com pressible.A stifffibre hasa high resilience
and cannotbe easily com pressed.
Flam m ability and othertherm alread ions:

Burning characteristics of the fibres are im portant in determ ining care and use,and they
serve as helpful guidelines in the fibre identification. Federal Iegislation on textile
inflam m abili
ty is an im portant consum er issue and a variety of types of textile end-use
productsmustmeetaspecified resistancetoflames.
AIIfibresare affected in one-w ay oranotheras they are heated.Som e,Iike wool,begin to
decom pose before melting;others,Iike polyethylene oracetate willsoften and m eltbefore
decom posi
tion sets in.The behaviouroffibres on heating and theirigni
tion propertiesare
of great practicalim portance.Indeed,fabrics should withstand the temperatures used in

ironing,laundering (with waterorsolvent)etc.Since syntheticfibresare thermoplastic


substances(i.e.theywillsoftenastheyare heated),thissofteningwillIargelydetermine
theirpracticalusefulness.
In the presence ofair,m ostfibreswillburn.ln thiscontext,theterm LOIisused.Itstandsfor
Lim iting Oxygen Index.The higherthe value ofLOI,the more difficulta substance willignite
since LOIisa m easure ofthe am ountofoxygen w hich hasto be presentin the airto leta

substance(continueto)burn.Onaverage,moststlbstanceshaveanLOIofabout20.Effortsare
m ade to reducetheflamm ability oftextile m aterialsin orderto Iim itaccidents.These effortsare

05
The staple Iength ofnaturalfibres isnotan easy property to define because the fibre Iength
can vary overa greatarea.A statisticalinterpretation ofthe data obtained on fibre length in

a Iaboratory,makesitpossibleto determine the staple Iength (an average length).ln order


forafibre to be spinnable,i.e.to be twistable,and therefore offersufficientcohesion to the
whole,a fibre m ust at least have a Iength of5 to 15 m illim etres.Fibres which are Ionger
than 150 m illim etres require specialized spinning m achines which m ake the spinning
processm ore expensive.
'

The mostcom mon naturalfibreshave aratio Ienglh/thicknesswhichequalsonethousand


orseveralthousands(cotton:1500,
'wool:3000;flax:1200).Coarserfibressuch asjute and
sisalhave ratios between 100 and 1000.W hen filam entsofm an-m ade fibres are chopped
into shorterfibres,an effortis m ade to bring the ratios close to those of naturalfibres,i.e.
between 1000 and 4000.
T

Second necessaw property for a productto qualify fortextile fibre is adequate strength,
termed as tenacity.Tenacity is defined as the tensile stress expressed as force per unit
Iineardensity ofthe unstrained specim en.

The strength of a fibre is generally dependent on the length of the polymer chain,the
degree of orientation of these polym er chains, the strength and types of the forces of

attractionbetween thepolymerchains(interpolymerforces).TheIongerapolymerchain is,


the higher the degrees of orientation and crystallization and, hence, the stronger the
interpolym er forces.Crystalline system s feelstiffand present less resistance to repeated
bending or folding. Stronger fibres will Iead to stronger yarns under the appropriate
conditionsoftw ist.

The tensile strength orbreaking load iscom monly described asthe force required to reach
break.

lnthecaseofafibre,the strengthisdescribed astenacity(specificstressatbreak)


breuking Ioad
Tenacity= m ass perunit/enqttt

Tenacity isexpressed in term sof (centilnewtons pertex(cN/tex orN/tex).


lt is im portant to note that the fibre strength does not alw ays indicate com parable yarn or
fabric strength.Fibres w ith high strength are usefulin seerand Iightw eightfabrics.Fabrics
used in w ork cloths and various industrialapplications are better from high tenacity fibres.
Fibre tenacity does not alw ays reflectthe actualstrength of textile yarn.Itis possible for
yarns to be m ade so that fibre slippage occurs;this does not m ake optim um use of the
actualfibre tenacity.

0'
8

made both in the field ofsynthesisoffibres(chemicalmodification)and,afterwards,by


using substanceswhich sfow dow n orresistburning.
Chem ically speaking,vegetable fibres have aim ost identicalcom posi
tion, and consist of
cellulose,which is a com bination ofcarbon,hydrogen and oxygen.They aIlburn aspaperor
wood,ignite readily,Ieave Iittle or no ashes and release a distinctive fire smellof burnt
Paper.
Fibres ofanim alorigin also have a sim ilarchem icalcom position;they aIIcontain nitrogen
and willtherefore noteasily burn through.They shriveland form charred ashes.They Ieave
afire smellofburntfeathers.

Exceptionsareweighted naturalsilk (Ieavesasheswhich keep the form ofthe yarn)and


acetate w here introducing acetate groups in the pol
ym er chains m akes the fibre melt
before i
tcan ignite.

M an-m ade fibresbased on protein burn asfibresofanim alorigin.Fully syntheticfibresm elt


wi
thoutignition.
Density:

Fibreswith differentdensities butofequaldiam eterwillhave differentcovering pow erthat


is the ability to cover a surface.Fabrics made w ith fibres of different densities willhave
difference in fabric appearance,flexibility,airperm eabilityand cover.

The density,also called volum icm assorm assdensity,isthe mass perunitvolum e and hasp
asitssym bol.It is usually expressed in grams percubiccentim eter.Anotherterm is specific
gravity,w hich isthe ratio ofthe m ass ofafibre m aterialand the m ass ofan equalvolum e of

water(density lg/cm3).The specific gravity ofa substance vis--vis waterequals the


numericalvalueofthe(absolute)densityofthissubstanceifitisexpresseding/cm3.Every
fibre ischaracterized by its density,w hich can be m easured in variousways.
M easurem entofdensity can be carried outwith a gradientcolum n,where the Iiquid in the
tube hasa density which varies in height.Ifa fibre is dropped in the tube,itw illsinkto the
pointatwhich the fibre density equalsthe Iiquid density,and remain suspended there.
This experim ent is based on the fact that a fibre which is subm erged in a Iiquid with the
sam e density willsink nor drift but float, and that the density of a Iiquid can easily be
measured.Treatm ents forfinishing fibres,can influence the results.Foreign substances on
orin the fibresm ustbe rem oved before doing the experim ent.

09
The Iistbelow givesan overview ofthe mostim portantfibresand theirdensities.

Textile Fibres

Fibredensitiesing/cm3

Commercialname

Cotton
Cotton
Flax
Jute
W ool
Silk
Silk
Silk
Polyester
Polyester
Viscose
Cupram m onium
Polyurethane
Polypropylene
Polyethylene
Polyethylene

1.55
1.54
1.50
1.50
1.30
1.33
1.60
1.32
1.22
1.38
1.53
1.53
1.15
0.90
0.92
0.95

Raw
M ercerized

Nyloq 6
Nylon 66

1.13
1.14

Lycra
M eraklon
Courlene
Courlene X3
Perlon
Tri-nylon

Acryl

1.14- 1.17

Orlon(staple/filament)

Polyvinylalcohol

1.30

Kuralon, vinal

No brand
Natural
W eighted
Tussah
Kodel,vestan
Teryleen, Dacron

Lusture:

ltrefers to the gloss,sheen orshine that a fibre has.It isthe resultofthe amountofIight
reflected by afibre,and itdeterm inesthe fibre'snaturalbrightnessordullness.
Colour:
Naturalcolouroffibresvary from pure white to deep gray.tan orblack.M an-made fibres

are usually white oroff-white asthey are produced.


M oisture regain oreffed ofm oisture:

AIlfibres tend to absorb m oisture when in contact w ith the atmosphere.The am ount
absorbed dependson the relative hum idity ofthe air.
For absorption of m oisture of a fibre, the term regain is used.This is the amount of
m oisture present in a textile m aterialexpressed asthe percentage ofthe oven-dry weight

(dry weight)ofthe textile.This dry mass isthe constantweightoftextile obtained after


drying at a tem perature of105OC to 1100c. If B isthe dry weight and A is the conditiond

weight (the weight after being in a normalized atmosphere of 20()C and 65% rejative
humidity),theregainexpressed in percentagewillbe:

).
t
E'1
I
.1

10

MoistureRegain

i
i
p
:h

A- B
-- x100
B

j'

!
;
)
t

Anotherrelevantterm is moisture contentand,expressed in percentage,is:

M oisture content

A-B
x l00
A

i
.
; ...
:
'

:.

The m oisture contentisthe m assofm oisture in a fibre and isexpressed as a percentage of


the totalweight.It is a measure ofthe am ount ofwaterheld under any particularset of
circumstances.The moisture contentisalw ays Iowerthan the regain.
Fibres can presentgreatvariations in the amountofm oisture they w illabsorb. W oolhas a

regain of16% cotton of8.5%,acetateonly of6%.Fibres,which can absorb sufficientmoisture,


are most suitable for processing into clothing because
' they will absorbperspiration from the
body and willhold considerable amountsofm oisture w ithoutfeeling clam my. The abilityofa
fibreto absorb moisture willalso affectthe processing and finishing offibres. Fibreswhich easil
y
absorb moisture,willtherefore Iet dyestuffs penetrate moreeasily during the dyeing process.
Synthetic fibres,which often absorb little moisture,are easily washed and dried by comparison
wi
th fibres,which absorb a lotofm oisture.On theotherhand, thisentailsthe phenom enonof
electrostaticcharging.
The strength ofafibre isaffected significantly by the w ateritabsorbs. Fibres,w hich easily

absorbmoisture,willusuallybeIessstrongwhenwet(exceptforflaxancotton)andwillpresent
increased elongation atbreak.One should also realize thatabsorption ofm oisture can also
m ake the fibre sw ellto a considerable degree,w hich is im portantforfixating dyestuffs

NM URAL FIBER:
tA.*.ew

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11

Elassification ofTextile Fibres:


Textile Fibres

Man-madeFibres

NaturalFibres

Animalfibre

Vegetablefibre

(Protein)

(cellulose)

M ineral

Syntheticfibre Regenerated

Other

fibre
(SYntheti
cpol
ymer)
fibre
(carb
on,gl
a
ss,metal
,
cerami
c,etc.)
(Asbestos)
tnaturalpol
ymer)

Silk W ool
Hair
(sheep) (alpaca,camel
,cow,goat,
horse,rabbitetc.)

Alginate Rubber Regen Regen Cellulose


(elastodi erated er3ted ester
ene) protein cellulo
(azlon) -se
(ra on)

Animal(casein) Vegetable
1

Acetate Triacetate

Seedfibre

Bastfibre

Leaffibre

(cotton#coir) t
fl
ax-hemepjute,rami
e, (auaectac,.s
isal
tc.)
)

Pol
ymethyl Polyolefin Pol
yvinyl
-eneur
ea
derivatives

Viscose Cupro Modal Lyocell

Pol
yure Polyamide Pol
yimide Arami
d
-thane ornylon

Polyester Synthetic
polyisoprene

Non-segm ented

Polyethylene

Pol
ypropylene

Acrylic

M odacrylic

pplyurethane

Chlorofibre

segmented polyurethane

(elastane,spandex,Lycra)

Flourofibre

Trivinyl

Polystyrene

j
C
i
l

12

Fibre Identification:

escience. Atonetime,
The identificationoftextilefibresisavew importantpartofthestudyoftextil
simpIefibreidentificationwasa relati
vel
y easytask;mostconsumerscouldtellbyappearanceandhand
whetherafabricwascotton,wool,silk,orIinen.Oncethefirstmanmadefibreswere introduced,the
processbecame abitmore difficult.Consumersusuallycould identifythe fibrecompositionoffabrics
madeof100 percentrayonoracetate,butblendsofsomefibreswere difficult to identify.As more
fibres w ere introduced, the task becam e progressively m ore difficult.Today,sophisticated
techniquesare usually required foraccurate fibre identification.

The purpose ofthe Textile Fibre ProductsIdentification Actwasto provide inform ation on fibre
contentoftextilesatthe pointofsale.Consumerswere atonce relieved ofthe responsibilityto
identify fibre content of items they purchased; howeverzprofessionals working with textile
productsstillm ust be able to identify fibres accurately.Such individuals include retailerswho
suspectsome textile productsthey boughtforresale have been Iabeled inaccurately;customs
osicialswho m ustidentify imported fibres;dry cleanersw ho m ustclean an item from which aII
the labels have been rem oved; extension hom e econom ists w ho are asked to help solve a
consum er's problem w ith a textile product; and forensic scientists w ho m ust use a textile
sam pleto help solvea crim e.
Formostindividuals,the only information needed isa qualitative analysisoffibre content:what
fibre orfibresare presentin this product? Forothers,a quantitative analysis ofthe product is
also im portant: in w hat percentages are the fibres present? W ith the num bers of fibres
availabletoday and the varietyofblendsbeing produced,neitheranalysisiseasy.
M ethods for qualitative identification of fibres include such procedures as burning tests,
m icroscopy,densi
ty determ ination,m oisture regain analysis,dye staining,chem icalsolubility,
melting point determination,infrared spectroscopy,and chrom atography.Sim pli
fied versions
ofthe firstsix proceduresare relatively easy to pedorm in m ostIaboratories.They require the
use of a drying oven, an analytical balance sensitive to 0.005 gram, a com pound light
microscope capableof200 x magnification,laboratory glassware,and a suppl
y ofchemicals.

A. Burning Test:
The burning testis a good prelim inary testforcategorizing fibres.Observation ofburning
provides information on behaviorin a flame,sm oke generation,odorduring burning,and
ash or residue.lt never should be used as the only method of identifying a fibre,but it
provides valuable information that may be used with other evidence to m ake a positive
identificationofan unknown fibre.
Blendsoffibres are difficultto testusing this procedure.Tbe reaction ofthe predom inant
fibre may m ask the presence ofa second fibre,which could have entirel
y different burning
characteristics. Finishes, especially flam eretardant finishes, can also give m isleading
inform ation. Althoughthe testiseasyto perform,itdoesinvolve the use ofanopenflame,making it
necessaryto observe certain safety precauti
ons.Use a sm allflam e source in an area w here
there is no dangerofigniting otherm aterials.A candle in a stable base ora smallalcohol
lamp is preferable to a hand-held m atch.A nonflam mable pad should be used underthe
burning m aterialto provide protection from molten drip and sm oldering ash.Do nottouch
ash ortweezerswhile they are stillhot.

13
p- - ure:

The sam ple to be tested should be in fibre form . A single yarn from a woven or knitted
fabric should be untw isted to produce a tuft of fibres for testing. Use the follow ing
instructions,and observe the reactionsofthe burning fibre very carefully.
1. Hold the tuftoffibresw ith a pairoftweezers
2. M ove the tuftclose to the side ofthe flam e;do not place the fibres above orbelow
the flam e.Observe carefully to see ifthe fibresm elt, shrink,ordraw away from the
flam e.
Slow ly move the fibre tuftinto the flame to observe i
ts burning behavior, and then
slow ly and carefully rem ove the tuft from the flame to observe the reaction once
the flam e source is no longer present. Carefulobservation provides an answ erto
.

thesefourquestions:(a)W hen introduced to theflame,doesthefibre burn rapidly


orslowly,ordoesitshow no signofignition?(b)Doesthematerialbeginto melt?(c)
Doesthe m aterialproduce a sputtering flam e,a steady flam e, ornofl
ameatall?(d)

W hen the fibre is rem oved from the flam e, does itcontinue to burn,ordoes itself
extinguish?
lfthe m aterialisstillburning when itisrem oved from the flam e, blow outthe flam e.
Note the odorand colourofthe sm oke,ornote that no sm oke was produced when
the fibre wasrem oved from the flam e.
Observe the residue rem aining after burning. Does a residue drop from the
tweezers? Does thatresidue continue to burn? How m uch residue is Ieft? Doesthe
residue rem ain red,indicating that it is stillvew hot? W hat colour is the ash that
rem ains? Isthe ash the shape ofthe fibre,lightand fluffy, oris itbead-shaped?
6. After it cools off,touch the residue or ash.Is it soft or brittle? Can it be crushed
easily between the fingers,orisithard to crush?

Results:

Typicalfibre reactions forthe major naturaland manmade fibre typesare given in the
follow ing table.W hen interpreting results, rem em ber:

14
It is difficult to detect the presence of blends with a burning test.One fibre in a
blend m aycom pletely m askthe propertiesofanotherfibre.
2. Dyes and finishes affect test results. Flam e-retardant finishes are especially
m isIeading.
Coloured fibres,especially those produced with pigments,m ay retain the colourin
the ash orresidue.
'

Table forburning characteristicsoffibre:

1Fibre

Approaching

jInflame
1

Remove from 1Odor

flame

flame

ICotton& 1Doesnotshrinkaway; Burnsquickly Continuesto

j
l
ax
!f

!wi
thflame

i
gni
tesoncontact

I
1

Iooesnotshrinkaway; Burnsquickly continuesto

J
1

1
i
gnti
efs
ncontact
1wi
ht
lao
me
Fuses;melts& shrinks Burnsslowly

awayfrom flame

j
l

hMelts& fusesaway
1

f
f
ame;ignites
rr
eo
am
dil
yl

wte
&lk

!similarto

Self-extinguishes

Burnsrapidly 1
IContinuesto

1A

1Li
ght,fluffyash; r

Iortawnybead

t
.

crid

w
t
hotter
fla
mg;
e b
urymer
n;hotdrmo
lteof
nf
&i
Sh
put
in
pol
ops
Burnsslowly

Fuses;shrinks& curls

wi
th melting,
drips
M el
ts;burns continuesto

awayfrom flame

Slowly

curl
sawayfrom flame Burnsslowly

& sputters

Irregularly

s
haack
pebe
d,ad
hard
bl
I

self-extinguishes tCookingcelery 'Hard, tough gray


r
:

Iburn
Usually

ortan bead

Chemicalodor Hard, tough tan

jbead

Curlsawayfromflame Burnsslowl
y 1self-extinguishes I
iSimilarto
lburninghair
Similarto

self-extinguishes singed hair

lSmall,brittle
bI
ackbead

Crushable black

beadlunweighted)
Shapeoffibre or

+ -2-1 Fusesbutdoesnot Burnswi


th lconti
nuesto

s
f
l
h
ar
mi
n
ekawayfrom

jLight,feathery;

Chem icalodor Hard, t


oughgray

drips,melts Iwhileburning

0e n

1Similarto

&
onti
nues l
tocmel
t;drips T

Meltsawayfrom

flam e;shrinks,fuses

t
n;afterglow 1
ningpaper1v
wusnmtall
'bur
lbur
ae
mo

(
1

(
t

lResidue

1burn;aftergl
ow j
1
urni
ngpaperj
i
gahytj
t
occohj
a
or
u
cr
o.al y
ib
jI
gr
n

IPolyester

mel
ti
ng l
'burnwi
thmel
ti
ng

fabric(weighted)

Chemi
calodor'Soft,sti
cky,

gummymass

B. LightM icroscopy Test:


A compound m icroscope capable of at Ieast 200x magnifications is required for fibre
identification. A magnification of 200x may be adequate for tentative identification,

especiallyofthe naturalfibres,butisnotadequateforviewingthe detailsoffibrestructure.


The I
ensand objectivesofthemicroscope,aswellastheslidesand coverglasses,mustbe

cleanandfreeofscratches.Thelightsourceshould beadjustedformaximum visibilityprior


to Iooking atprepared slides.Have materialsathand to sketch thefibresviewed?and have
accessto a source ofphotographsofknown fibresto m ake comparisonsforidentification.
The following figure shows the longitudinaland cross-sectionalviewsofthe m ostcomm on
fibres.

15
Longitudinalm ounts:
Itis possible to mounta single fibre,but itis Iessfrustrating form ostm icroscopists to use
severalfibres.A m inim um often fibresis usefulw hen the m aterialto be studied isa blend.
Too m any fibreson a slide makes itdifficultto focuson a single fibre to observe the details
of its sudace contour.W hen taking a sam ple from a yarn in a fabric, untwist the yarn
com pletely to separate tbe fibres.Tbe basic steps form aking a Iongitudinalm ountare as
follow s.
1. Place a single drop ofwater,glycerine.orm ineraloiIon the centerofthe glass'slide.
M ineraloiIprovidesthe bestdefinition,butthe otherm aterialsare adequate.
2. Carefully place the fibres in the drop ofliquid with the Iength ofthe fibres parallelto
the Iong dim ension ofthe slide.

3. Place the coverglasslightly overthe drop ofIiquid and the specim en.Tap the cover
glassgently to rem ove airbubbles.

4. W ith the objective in its highest position, place the slide on tbe stage of the
m icroscope.Low erthe objective carefully before trying to focusthe slide.It isvery
easy to dam age the objective by scratching itorsm earing itw ith oil.
Focus on low pow erand observe the fibre before focusing on high pow er.Note the
generalshape ofthe fibre,then look at it carefully forsigns ofscales,convolutions,
pockm arks, striations' and other features. Look carefully to see if m ore than one
type offibre ispresent.

6. W ith the microscope focused on high power,move the fine adjustmentvery slowly
to see ifvariations in surface contourare visible.Again,look carefully to see if m ore
than one fibre type is present.

7. Sketch the fibres as seen through the m icroscope,then com pare yoursketch w ith
standard photographsto conclude w hich fibres m ightbe present.

8AN.9:4

'

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t
<< '

.-

Regularcotton(X-section)

Regularcotton
(Iongitudinalview)

M ercerized cotton

(X-section)

'

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Regularpolyester

Regularpolyester

Trilobalpolyester

(X-section)

(longitudinalview)

(X-section)

DelusteredNylon6(X-section)

DelusteredNyln6flongitudinalview)

*
'

tV :

7
$

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.

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Regularviscoserayon(X-section)

Regularviscoserayon(longitudinalview)

17

a.

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Trilobalnylon6,6 (crosssection)

TriIobaInylon 6,6(Iongitud1naIview)

Polypropylene (crosssection)

Polypropylene(longitudinalview)
'

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OrlonAcrylic (crosssection)

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OrIon AcryI1c(Iong1tud1naIv1ew )

18
Cross-s<w- ionalm ounts:
Specialplastic and m etalplatesare available form aking fibre cross-sections.Specialfibre m i
crotomes
are used form ore sophisticated work.W here such aidsare notavailable,itis possible to m ake a section
using a piece ofcork,a threaded sewing machine needle,and asharpsingle-edge razorblade,
The instructionsfollow .

1. Use asmallpiece offine-grain corkno morethan 1cm (0.5 inch)thick.Cutso thatit


is flaton one side.The cork w edge should be of a diam etersm allenough to slice
easily.
Thread the sew ing m achine needle, and carefully force the point of the needle
through the cork untila Ioop ofthread can be form ed.
Form a thread Ioop around yourfingerand pullthe needle back through the cork.

The needle m ay then be renhoved;itw asneededjustto push the thread through the
corkto form the Ioop.
4. M ake a smallbundle offibre tifitthrough the thread Ioop.Then,using the free ends
ofthe thread,carefully pullthe looped fibre backthrough the cork.The fibre should
be packed firm ly in the hole ofthe cork,and fibre endswilbe visible on both sides
of the cork.After a Iittle practice,estim ation of the exact am ount offibre to use
becom es easier
5. Placetheflatside ofthe cork dow n on a cutting board and use the razorblad'
e to cut
a thin slice perpendicularto the fibre em bedded in the cork.The slice should be no
m ore than 0.5 m m thick. M ake the cut w ith a single,continuous m otion, not a
saw ing m otion.
6. Place the cork slice on a glass slide.Do notuse a m ounting m edium orcoverglass.
Focusthe m icroscope and observe the crosssectionsofthe fibres.
Resulu :
Look carefully at the shape ofthe fibrezand com pare it w ith photom icrographs of know n
fibres. M ost natural fibres can be identified by sim ple Iight m icroscopy, but positive
identification of m anufactured fibres is often difficult w ith this technique.W hen a fibre
blend is present, i
t is possible to approxim ate the blend Ievel by counting the fibres.
M icroscopy isalso a good way to determ inethe num beroffibrespresentin a blend.

C. Chem irnlR lubiliw Tee q:


Chemicalsolubility tests are necessary to identify most m anufactured fibres.They are
usually perform ed after burning tests and m icroscopic exam ination of the fibres.
Prelim inary burning tests usually provide som e inform ation aboutthe specific fibres that
m ay be present or the fibres that are definitely not present,and m icroscopy provides
inform ationon the num beroffibresto be identified andthe predom inantfibresin a blend.
The solubility procedure described in thissection isbased on the chem icalsspecified in the

AATCC (AmericanAssociation ofTextile Chemistsand Colourists)qualitative identification


testmethod.ln som e instances,the term soiubili
ty isa misnomerasthe materialdoesnot
dissolve,butm erely degrades.A m aterialthatdissolvesin a solventcan be recovered from
thatsolvent,whereasa materialdegraded by a solventbreaksapartbutdoesnotdissolve,
and so cannotbe recovered from the solvent.W hen observing solubilitytestsforfibres,itis
not always possible to determine w hether a fibre has actually dissolved or has m erely
disintegrated.

19
AIlchem icaltests should be conducted in a room with proper ventilation and chemical

safety protedion devices. The required Material Safety Data Sheet (M SDS) for each
chem icalshould be posted in areas where the chem icalis used. Although only very sm all
am ounts of chem icals are needed for testing, accidents som etimes happen. Adhere to
chem icalsafety rules in perform ing fibre identification tests. W earprotective eye goggles
w hen using chem icalsolvents.Organic solventsand heated Iiquidsshould be used only in a
fum e hood!Follow Iocallaboratory regulationsfordisposing ofused solventsand fibres.
pr- -=ure:
The following Chem icals used forsolubility testtabte (iststhe chem icalsand testconditions
used in chem icalsolubility testing.W hen there is no priorknowldge ofthe fibresthatm ay
be present,the m aterialshould be tested in the solventsin the otderpresented in the table.
Once a positive identification is m ade, solvent tesling m ay be term inated. W here prior
inform ation indicates that certain fibres m ay be present, test the unknow n fibre only in
those solvents required for i
ts identification. The general procedure for solvent
identification follow s.

W hen solvents are used at room tem perature, the tests m ay be perform ed in a
watch cw stal,a 50-m Ibeaker,ora sm alltesttube.Place a smallam ountofthe fibre
in the containerand add the solvent.Use about1 m lofsolventfor10 mg offibre.

N -x-o jsv-aA jw euuyjW Fx l;


(%1
1.Aceticacid
2.Acetone
3.Sodium hypochlorite
4.hydrochloricacid
5.Form ic acid
6.l,4-Dioxanea
7.m -xylenea
8.Cyclahexanonea
9.Dimethylform amidea
10.Sulfuricacida
11.Sulfuricacida
12.m-cresola
13.Hydrofluoricacidb

10O
100
5
20
85
100
10O
100
100
59.5
70
100
50

(Y
Room
Room
Room
Room
Room
101
139
156
90
20
38
139
Room

*.
**-.e5
5
20
10
5
5
5
5
10
20
20
5
20

ause in afum ehood.


busea nonglassbeaker.

2. Tests pedorm ed at the boiling point of the solvent require the use ofa ventilated
fum e hood.Pourthe solventinto a sm allbeakerand place the beakeron a hotplate

inside the fume hood.Adjustthe tem perature ofthe hotplate to maintain a slow
boil.Add the fibre to the boiling liquid. W atch the reaction carefully to m ake sure
the solventdoes notboildry.Neveradd additionalsolventto the heated beaker!
Fortests conducted at interm ediate tem peratures,heat a beakerofw ater on a hot

d adjustthe tem perature using athermometer. Place


pIate underthefume hood,an'
the fibre and solvent in a test tube,then setthe test tube in the beakerof heated
w ater.

20
4. W atch the fibre in the Solvent carefully to observe the speed with which it breaks
down and the am ountofthe m aterialdissolved.Note w hetherthe materialactuaily
dissolves,degrades into small pieces,or form s a plastic m ass.lf allfibres are not
dissolved in a specificsolvent,carefully rem ove the undissolved fibres.Rinse them in
water,and attem ptto dissolvethem in anothersolvent.

Resqlts:
The following Solubility of Fibres table provides fibre solubility test results.Com pare the
resultsto identi
fy a fibre.Some ofthe chem icals in the table are com monly found in the
home.Other household products containing sim ilarsolvents w illalso dam age ordissolve
fibres.Acetone is often a componentofnailpolish,nailpolish rem over,paintthinners,and
paint rem overs.Amylacetate,a sim ifar chem ical,m ay dam age acetate,m odacrylic, and
vinyon fibres.Vinegarisa dilute solution ofacetic acid;itdoesnotdissolve fibres,butitm ay
damagethe sam e fibresthatare dissolved by glacialaceticacid.

SolubilityofFibres(Chartforfindingthesolventofaparticularfibre)
4
s
z.
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Fiber

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Acetate
Acrylic
Aramid
Cotton
F4ax
(.5lass
Nylon
olefin
Polyester
Rayon
saran
SiIk
spandex
vinal

s
I
I
l
l
I
l
1
I
l
1
I
I

s
l
I

vinyon

wool
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z
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a

78
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j

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4
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z
<

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.

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2
.
r
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j t
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t'

l
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s

S
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s
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4
I
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s
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l

l
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1
s
1
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s
1
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1
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1
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1

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izn

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*

1
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s
I
s
l

s
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s
s
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S
1
I
s
l
S
sp
.S

S
I
s
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I
sp
I

%s '
=R

s
1
I
1
l
I
S
l
1
s
l
S
sp
S

7:
::
g

S
P
1
I

-1
1
j
s
..-.
..-.
I
I
l
-..-.

.
-.

s=soluble.I=insoluble.SP=partialysoluble.N=nylon6,solubie;nylon6,
6,insolubl
e.

Sodium hypochlorite,which hasabout 5 percent available chlorine and a pH ofabout11,is


the active ingredient in undiluted household chlorine Iaundry bleaches.Som e Iaboratories
i
s,z:
. use undiluted bleach asthe chem icalreagent in fibre solubility tests instead ofm ixing a 5
2;
t)
- 'rpercentsodium hypochloritesolution.
?''

:k-

F.

'esolis sometim es a com ponent of household disinfectants and antiseptics. It is not


@
. .'.
t

sent in a sufficiently high concentration to dissolve fibres,but it m ay dam age acetate,


rylic,modacrylic,nylon,nytril,polyester,spandex,and vinyon fibres.
;
y .<
''
)
. i
4
;
.
k
y
i
)
5
'

'
.

.c

)
.

:).

'v.
.,

21

YARN AND YARN M ANUFAW URING

An assem blage offibres that is tw isted or Iaid togetherso asto fo


th
rm a continuous strand
atcan be m ade into a textile fabric. So ayarn is a strand ofnaturalorm an-m ade fibresor
filam entsthat have been tw isted orgrouped togetherforuse in weaving,knitting
m
, orother
ethodsofconstructing textile fabrics. The type ofyarn to be m anufactured willdepend
on
the fibres selected;the texture, or hand,ofthe fabric to be m ade;and qualities such as
warm th,resiliency,softness, and durabiiity required in the fabric'send uses.

Types ofFibres:
A$lthe textile fibres are classified according to theirstaple Iength into two categories
a
, such
sstaple fibre and filament.
staple sbres:
lt has a lim ited Iength thatvaries according to the type such as cotton,wool
,
,j
ute etc.
o
t
ypes
of
s
t
apl
e
f
i
br
e,
one
i
s
s
hor
t
s
t
apl
e
f
i
br
e
anot
her
one
i
s
I
ong
stapie
fib
re.Cotton is m ainly short staple fibre and other m axim um naturalfib
res are long
staple exceptsilk.Silk isonly naturalfibre thatisfilament.

There are tw

Filam ent:

lthascontinuousIength thatm eansthe Iength offilam entis equalto the Iength ofyarn
AIlman-m ade fibresare filam ent. M an-m ade fibres are produced asfilam ent
.
th
though
, al
ey used asstaple fibres ifnecessary. So filam ents are used as staple fibre but staple
fibresneverused asfilam ent.

Classification ofYarn:
U aee**--H-- ofyarn O

ing to theirstruG ure:

Yarnsm ay be divided into three typesaccording to theirstructure asfollows:

1. Raple5h> yarnsor* unyarns(singleyarn):


Spun yarnsare m ade by m echanicalassem bly and twisting togeth
er(spinning)ofstaple
nning, W rap spinning, Ai
, Rotor spi
r-jetspinning etc.machinesare
used to produce thisspun orsingle yarns.

fibres.Ring spinning

22
'

L'

J''
F
%'
C.
. '''

j
1
)
$

'
;
j'
'.'
.r
,
.
1
'''''
w
'
.x.'
i
@ '''.
''7
I
''
E'
.
a-'-.lj..w (?
L
.?v
u'
%L(
;.
j'y.
'.(
/.:
',...
1
7
:'''..'q.
'''i
:(
..=
tsy
r)
e)z
.
..'
s.2
.
..(L
....L..u.
t .a
.t... .

%(.Z. . '

.
.. . .. .

Single orSpunyarn

Ring SpunYarn
%

r...
d
:t 'J

RotorSpun Yarn

'

((
:2
.: .
.

:.%'o;t'.'.-.q
)'' ;.'
.
:.
y.(
)@
'g
rl. )'
. c-..
?
1F.
)
;
v
f
:
r#
'
r-,;
,..'.
))
.
14.
2-;)u.
.i
k-.13
..
..-(

Cardedcotton(ring)yarn

33
1

Combedcotton(ring)yarn

2. Ply yarn:

Single yarns are used in the majority of fabrics for normaltextile and clothing
applications,butin orderto obtain specialyarn features,particularly high strength and

modulusfortechnicaland industrialapplications,ply yarnsare often needed.A lolded


orpIy yarn is produced by twisting two orm ore single yarns toqetherin one operation,

and a cabled yarn isformed by twisting together t-o ormore folded yarns ora
combination ofjolded and single yarns.The twisting togetherofseveralsingle yarns
increasesthe tenacity ofthe yarn by im proving the binding-in ofthe fibreson the outer
Iayers of the com ponent single yarns.PIy yarns are also m ore regular,sm oother and

more hard wearing.The direction oftwisting isdesignated asS orZ,just as in single


yarns.Norm ally the folding twistisin the opposite direction to thatofthe single yarns.

Folded orFly yarn

Three-Folded orFlyyarn

Four-Folded orFlyyarn

so :
* 2

* 3
. '.

Three fold,two-fold
Cabled yarn

Two-fold,two-fold,twofold Cabled yarn

Core Spun yarn

23

3. Filamentyarns:

A filamentyarn is made from one ormore continuoussirandscalled filam entswhere


each com ponentfilam ent runsthe whole Iength ofthe yarn.Those yarns com posed of
one filam ent are called m onofilam entyarns,and those containing more fiiam ents are

known as multifilament yarns. For apparel applications, a multl


hlament yarn may
contain asjew astwoorthreejilamentsorasmlnyas50hlaments.In carpeting,for
exam ple,a filament yarn could consist of hundreds of filam ents,M ost m anufactured

fibreshave been produced in theform ofafilamentyarn.Silkisthe only majornatural


filam entyarn.
'I4& '..* ..($- :'': .''' '' .

Twisted multi-fil
amentyarn

Mono-filamentyarn
1.

- vu-2.-'.:t. r J') w Qw i:'-'.

False-twistTexturedyarn

Qwve1....'- -J' 7 ....z.'.'-.

'>'''
.-'
D l...Z

Stuffer-boxTextured yarn

. .

'

.-

Knit-dekni
tTexturedyarn

According to the shape ofthe fiiam ents in the yarn,filam ent yarns are classified into
two types,flat and bulk.The filam ents in a flat yarn Iie straight and neat,and are
parallelto the yarn axis.Thus,flatfilam entyarns are usually closely packed and have a

smooth surface.The bulked yarns, in which the filamentk are ei


ther crimped or
entangled w ith each other,have a greatervolum e than the flatyarnsofthe sam e Iinear
density,

Texturinqisthe mainmethod used toproducethebulkedfilamentyarns.A texturedyarn


is made by introducing durable crim ps, coils, and loops along the Iength of the
filaments.Astertured yarns have an increased volum e,the airand vapourperm eability
of fabrics made from them is greater than that from flat yarns. However, for
applications where Iow airpermeability is required,such as the fabricsforairbags,flat
yarns may be a better choice. Textured yarns are used for Stockings and tights,
sw imw ear,sportsw ear,outerw ear,underwear,carpets,sew ing and overedge stitching
threadsforextensible fabrics.

Elaq-

ofn rnsarr- ingto theiruse:

Yarnsm aybedivided into two classificationsaccordingtotheiruse:


W eavingyarnsand knitting yarns.
W eaing Yam s:

Yarns forwoven c10th are prepared forthe intended end use.Yarns to be used in the
warp,the lengthw ise direction ofa c10th,are generally stronger, have a tightertwist,
and are sm ootherand more even than are yarns used forfilling,the crosswise direction
of a c10th.Novelty yarns m ay be used in the warp,butthey are generally found in the
filling.Highly twisted crepe yarnsare usuallyfound used asfilling yarns.

24

KnM ingYarns:
These may be divided into yarns for hand knitting and yarns for m achine knitting.
Knitting yarnsare more slackly twisted than yarnsforweaving.Hand knitting yarnsare
generally ply,whereas those for m achine knitting can be either single or ply. The
following are some ofthe yarnsused forhand knitting:
1. Knitted worsted:Thefour-ply all-around yarn used foraccessories,forthe house,
and for apparel. This is the most com mon weight of hand-knitting yarn,
com prising90 percentofthe handm adeyarn business.

Fingering(babyorsock)yarn:Thefineyarnthatwasoriginallywool,butisfound
m ostcom monly in acrylicforcomfortand ease ofcare.
Sportyarn:The three-pl
y yarn used forsocks,sweaters,and hats.
Shetland yarn:The two-plyyarn used forsweaters.
Fashion ornovelty yarn:Any novelty strud ure.

Alltheyarnslisted maybefound inanyfibre.Ofthemajorfibres,rayon istheleastIikelyto be


used in the handmadeyarn business.

Typesoftotton yarn:
There are twotypesofcotton yarn accordingto theirmanufacturing processasfollowsz
i.
Carded yarn
II.
Combed yarn

Flow thart of carded yarn m anufad uring w ith input or feed and output or
delivew produd :
lnptltorFeed produd

M anufacturing process

OutputorDelivery produd

Cotton bale

Blow-Room

Lap

Lap

Carding

Carded sli
ver

Carded sliver

Drawing

Drawn sliver

Drawn sliver

Simplex

Roving

Ring-Spinning
(SpinningFrame)

Spinningbobbin

W inding

(Autoconer)

Roving

'

Yarn(spinningbobbin)
Cone

25

Blow room Section:


Basitopera:on inl eBlow -room :
* Openingthecotton bale
Cleaning the cottonfibre
Dustremoval
* M ixing and blendingoffibres
Even oruniform feed ofm aterialto the nextprocessi.e.card.

ObjedsofBlow-x m:
The basic purposeofblow-room Iine isto supplyfollowing qualitiesoffibre tuftsto the carding
pr0CeSS.

* Smallfibretufts
Homogeneously mixed orblended tufts
Clean fibretufts
Convertfibretuftsinto afibroussheet,iscalled Iap.
Blending:The method ofmixing differentfibreswithin aspecificratic isknown asblending

M ixing:The method ofcom bining identicalfibresin variousgrade ofdifferentratio isknown as


m ixing.
ConventionalBlowroom Iine:
There are different types of conventional blow-room Iine, It differs manufacturer to
manufacturer.Forexam ple atypicalblow-room Iine asfollows:

1.Hopperbale opener
2.UltracleanerorStep cleaner
3.Verticalortwine openerorcleaner
4.Hopperfeeder-1

5.Porcupine opener

6.Hopperfeeder-2
7.Scutcher.

bp
t. .

,
.

jy.

..... -

- -.u

1.> Ie 1
ay

n, *ie

+ y'A
s

T. .

p,w ... . .
jyo

..

t.,7x-'.
z'2sak.

- -

.% ,
%J
. .

2.B.l*

ne

3.

TypicalconventionalBlow-room line

4.

j, 4.
.

herorPI
-eker

26

Flow chart of combed yarn m anufad uring w ith input or feed and output or
delivery produd :

InputorFeed product

M anufacturing process

OutputorDelivery product

Cotton bale

Blow-Room

Lap

i
Lap

Carding

Carded sliver

i
Carded sli
ver

Pre-com bed Drawing

Drawn sliver

i
Drawn sliver

Lapformer

Lap

i
Lap

Com bing

Com bed sli


ver

i
Com bedsliver

Post-combed Drawing

Drawn sliver

$
Drawn sliver

Simplex

Roving

i
Roving

Ring-Spinning

Yarn(spinningbobbin)

(Spinningframe)

i
Spinning bobbin

W inding

(Auto coner)

Cone

27

Processand Produd ofthe cotton Ring spinning:


Process

Product

Process

Produd
Combedsliver

Cotton bale
Q.. ..:.x?z.v

M IXIng 31
3(:
1
BIendIng

--.'
.''-mr
a
-at..,.
- i
7'X ?-=
.
- ;ax, .

..

Com bing

sg;
'

kk6;

.xQ .

E%wq>.

'

'

'

Mztaz

Drawnsliver
Finisher
Draw ing

'

Roving

Carded sliver

..
..

8.Sim plex

Carding

1
.

* *

.
i
.
Q

Yarn cops)

Draw n sli
ver
9. Ring
Spinning

4. Breaker
Drawing

Yarn(cone)

Comber1ap
.
.

10.W 1nd1ng

L$(1

'2
..
i.
'

'

':.
.

(.

yuv q'

'
.

5. Lap
form ing

,#

..

ir.
;

'

q..

'

t. t
-.f

''

$'

:
v
' sl
j
.
k
. %
:
.
.7
..
tr
l
ra #
jr
qr
'
)y
l
q.....!

t
.
#
j
!
.:
7
j!
)'
! '
..
:r
=' j)
l

p.

J:
.

..

' 2.f'
.
.

'''

l
l
p
;

28

Process Layout ofthe yarn manufaduring system with a m odern Blow-room


Iine:
Bale Plucker

Metaletector

i
Uniclean

i
Unim ix

i
i

Uniflex
VisionShield

i
i
Chutefeed
i

Condenser

Carding

(FORCA
'OD
i YARN)

(FORCO #fPYARN)

BreakerDrawing

Pre-com b Draw ing

i
i
Simplex orRoving frame orSpeed frame
i

i
i
Com ber
i

FinisherDrawing

Lap Former

Ringfram e

Post-comb DrawingorFinisherDrawing

(spinnin)
gframe)

Autoi
coner

sim plex orRoving frame orSpeed frame

Rin: frame

Heatsetting

(Spinningframe)

i
i
Heatsetting
i

Packing

Auto coner

Packing

29

A modern blow -room Iine asfollow s:The follow ing blow-room Iine provide bytheTrtzschler.
1

>

r
'

h. *
*'W
'S

-,

f
l
;A
-

,
.

1
I

N.

l
'

1
Bale pluckerorbaleopener

.
j-

Electronicmetalextractor(Trtzschler)
'

*
'
'

7Z

x 'z

l
*

Nw xy

1/

TriitzschlerRN cleaner

Rieter Unim ix

:
4

'

)q
'
-

k .*
*
9

I,
l
11'
j.
j

lI
-w
.

11N
13

y,
p. o-.
*
'
$
,
Lk

Regufatedfeed ofmaterialin the


blow room

Opticalregulation

M odern Blow-room section

Trtzschlerchute feed

30

Carding Section:

Cardingisaprocessinwhichfibresareopened(almosttosinglefibrestaple), parallelised and


removes dust,im purities, neps,short fibres to produce a continuous strand of fibres called
sliverofuniform wei
ghtperuni
tlength.

ObjedsofCarding:
Carding is one of the m ost im portant operations in the spinning process as it directl
y
determ inesthe finalfeaturesofthe yarn, above aIIasfarasthe contentofnepsand husksare

concerned.Therearemanyobjectivesofthecardingprocessandthesecanbesummarizedas:
* Individualization ofthe cotton fibre at a single fibre staple state i.e.opening the tufts into
individualfibres;
* Elimination ofthe remaining impuri
tiesi.e.elim inating alItheim puritiescontained in thefibre
thatwerenoteliminated inthe previ
ouscleaningoperations;
@ Disentanglingofnepsi,e.removalofneps;
* Selectingthefibresonthe basisofl
ength, rem ovingthe shortestones;
* Fibreblendingand orientation;
@ Farallelisingandstretchingofthefibre;
* Finallyproducea continuousstrandoffibrescalled sliverofuniform weightperuni
tlengthi.e.
transformationofthe lapintoasliver, thereforeintoaregularmassofuntwisted fibre.
z-

tx
.m

l.Hopper

1
.

<

'7
.-

..
--. kw

jL
u
;
l
;
j
:
o

,y

k
.

Cardingm achine

ats

j
;
,

s.Doffer
6,Drawing

uo
ni
i
t
.
y,
c
j
cr

feeder
z.t
-icker-in
cylinder
y,g)rum
4.carding
fl

Sectionalview ofthe carding machinewith hopperfeeder

The carding operation is carried out by the card, a machine that in practice is a system of
rotating organs,mobileand fixed flats, covered with steelspikesthatgo bythe name ofwiring.

Doubling and Draw ing:


ln preparing the fibre tufts for spinning, doubling and drawing represent two essential
operations and their com bined effect perm its a sliver w ith a more regular section to be

obtainedtthrough doubling)equipped wi
th parallelfibres (through drawng)as wellas the
countrequested bythespinning plan.

31

The draw ing operation done with the m achine called the drawframe,permitsa hom ogeneous
blend both with fibresofthe same nature aswellasfibreswith a differentnature;the doubling
stepsare usually betweenfourand eight.
On a par with fibre characteristics such as Iength and fineness,a sliver with parallelfibres
permitsayarnwith betterregularityand resistance.The drawing dependson some factorssuch
as the num ber of doublings carried out and the value of the count of the entry Sliver and
delivery sliver.W ith drawing,curls,crim ps and hooksare also elim inated,m eaning the fibres
folded inon themselves,presentin the carded sli
ver.
Drawing is a process in which the sliveris elongated by passing it through a series of pairof
roflers,each pair moving fasterthan the previous.Thispermits com bination ofseveralslivers
and drawing and efongating them to straighten and create greateruniform ity to form a regular
sliver of smaller diam eter.This action pulls the staple Iengthwise over each other,thereby
producing longerand thinnerslivers,Finallythe sli
veristakentothe slivercan.

t,.
#*

.#t
..o
#

1X
X'
x'

. Au''h. k
,
'Nxs..vNxN
hau.%x ''x
xx.hu
ju.g
.

x
&
.
.t...
m
x-.
x
j
a
s
'.
xx

'
sXXX'
' x .'
..

..b..
#4

z.

tzxv.
sasq
o.
z- rxpa
. -

.>.

J
s*.-.,x

,==:
,
%I<m
tJ
t
'
r
'
e7
r'r2
v.vca

/ z

y'T2zyu
.
.
y
:dz.
.
r
.y
''''.e

'

.(;.
,,'.
'.
'....

Draw frame

qk

@ Crimped,curled and hooked fibresarestraightened;


Parallelisationoffibres;
Reduction ofsli
verweightperunitlength;
Reduce irregularitiesoffibresbydoubiinganddrafting;
Remove remainingdustfrom sliver;

* Blending offibreto providecompensation ofraw m aterialvariation.


Therearetwo passagesofdrawing are uses

3-cylinderdraftinguni
tontopof4,wi
thpressurebar

ThemainobjedsoftheDraw-Framearebelow:

* Breakerdrawing and
Finisherdrawing

'

''

.'' .

*
*
*
@

..ta;
F*$

!
d
*
'

The main difference between them,like on the card

'

32
there are also autolevelerson the finisher

drawframes,whosejobitistocorrectthedraftinfunctionofvariationsinthefibrousmass,to

m aintain the section of sliver as even as possible and therefore reduce the frequency of

breakingthreadsinspinningandinsuccessiveoperations.
.

(. ....'
: l(.
(F !.,( '

'''!

2::'!7'% (' '''..z'


%bbbbbbb
.
>
. .'
4J
,
1
r.-#
t
1

k
.
r
.

zE'
fZ).EL
;
- '
j
'

1. Autosevellermodule
2. On-board com puter
a. M easurementunit

q)

4. servomotor

'
'
.

'

'-

)
.

.. '
.

s1, M ain m otor


6. M onitoring sensor
7. W eb condenser

ly
ry
''
.

..

.
'n

8. pejivery rollers
9
. pr
e drawing
1o.v ajn draft

t
..

'

t
'

':
.

Draw frame Auto Ieveler

Com bing section'


.

/.
'
.

The tap form er:


1

r The Iap form erhas furtherm ore,the taskofform ing the interfacing orIap
,

'

w hich isefnployed

t. to feed the combing m achine The Iap isobtained bydoublingacertain numberofslivers(from


y 16 to 32)previously subjectto a drawing passage The slivers are fed side by side, passing
.

through rollers and stop motion. The slivers enter the drafting section and then calendar
section to produce a com pactlap. Finally the Iap iswound on to bobbin. ln the lap former,the
materialundergoesa lightdraftofaround 1.5 to 2 tim esone a drawing aggregate ofthetype 2
ontop of3cylinders.

,
'

..
..

rr .

)..
.

'

).(:.
'
)
y

'

'.

''
.

k
(
t)

ttkxtt.t
-

i
..

.
-'

.
t

''). .

'
c
t
'i
DfY.
'5
?@
.
y
k
y-..

(.

. ..

(N

..

'.

o ..

'
t.
.
.
)

. ;........

. ,.... .

'

Lap form er

t.i

t
''
..

L
t
zt
1''' yr

'

g
. ''i:
'

..

'..

jj
yj
;

'-'''
--'-

'

33
Combing:

iscarried out in orderto improve the quaity ofthe slivercom ing out of
The combing process
a controlled proportion of the shortestfibres,it achieves
the card.The process eliminates
and itrem ovesnepsand residue impurities.
betterparallelization offibres,itstraightens curls,
y aimed at obtaining
ocess is essentiall
It is clear from these functions that the combing pr
materialswith above average physicaland

e
xcellentcad
qua
lityur
yar
dbe
tof
ul
filtfhi
sob
ect
iveyra
w nning ofthe spinning process.Depending
mechani
feat
esns
m an
ust
us
ed
rom
tj
he
ver
begi

on what is being produced,waste from combing varies from 12% to 25%,and this can be
em ployedto obtainyarnswith a medium-coarse countusing the open-end process.So com bing
may be defined as Straightening and paralielising offibres and removing ofshortfibres,neps

and impuritiesbyusingcomb(combs)associated byknives,brushesand rollers.


Forthe production offine and verygood quality yarnscombing processisessential.Fine .
t00th
combs continue straightening the fibres until they are arranged with a high degree of
parallelization thatthe shortfibres,called noilsare combed outup to 25% .Com bing operation
is not done w hen m an-made fibres are procesfing. Finally a sli
ver is form ed by necessary
drafting.

Themainobjectsofthecombingarebelow:
* To remove short fibres below a pre-selected Iength so that the spinner enable to

producefineryarn/betteryarnthatcannotbepossibleincardingstate.
* To remove nepsand foreign m atterfrom the cotton.
M ore straighten and parallisation ofthefibres.

Com bing operation

Contribution ofcom bing to yarn quality:


Im prove the uniform ity and strength
fm prove the spinning value offibre

34

Reducethe nepsintheyarn.
1,,
j
1- staple engtj
8

= 30Necardedyarn

=60Ne combed yarn


@ lm proveyarnsmoothnessand Iusture
Produce much cleareryarn

* lmprove/lncreaseefficiencyofthenextprocess
* Reducethe hairinessofyarn
* Improve bettertwistdistribution intheyarn

Sim plex orRoving fram e:


Thetask ofthismachine isto transform the slivercom ingfrom the drawfram e into roving.ltis
presentin the carded ringspinning cycle and in the com bed ring spinning cycle,in the firstcase

itisfound followingthe post-carding drawframe (one ortwo drawing steps),while in the


second caseafterthe post-com bing drawframe.Furtherdrafting ofthe sliversand twistingtake
place untilthe cotton stock is aboutto a very smalldiameterwhich is called roving.Roving is
thefinalproductofthe preparatory process.Forthe rotorspinning system thisprocesscan be
eliminated.Roving hasnotensile strength;itwillbreakaparteasily with anyslightpull.
Transform thesliverinto rovingoccursina continuousmannerthrough three stages:
@ Drawing
* Twisting

. w inding
roving
flyer

!i

bobbin
'

l
i

Rovingframe

Flyerand bobbin

ithdouble

k Drawingisgenerallycarriedoutbyadraftsystem with3-cylinderweighingarm w
'

('.

apron capable Ofworking with entering slivercounts of0.12 Neto 0.24 Neand counts ofthe
delivered rovingof0.27 Neto3 Ne.

35
The twist is given by the rotation ofthe flyer Iocated on the spindles,in fact the exi
t roving
com ing from the draftcylinders enters in the higher hole of the flyer,passing through the
hollow arm and then winding onthe bobbin.Thetwistvalue isgiven by the following equation:
NO. twists= Revolutionsofthespindle(flyer)
ExitIength 1stcylinder

The numberofrevolutions ofthe spindle can reach up to a m axim um value of1500 rpm .The

twistrategivenbytherovinghasavalueofbetween10to100T/m (0.25T/inch).Itshouldbe
noted that the twist value to give the roving, this being an intermediate product, has a
fundamentalpracticalimportanceforthe nextprocessing stage.

The thread is wound by the action of the bobbin rotating at a hi


gher speed than the flyer

(spindle),in orderthaton every turn the bobbin makesin addition to the spindle,a coilof
roving iswound on the bobbin.The Iength ofcoilisshorterforthefirstlay ersand Iongerforthe
Iast.

Objectsorfunttionsofspeedframe:
* Attenuation ofdrawframe,sliverto form roving ofrequired hankbydraing.
Insertsmallam ountoftwistto give required strength ofroving.
W inding the twistrovingon tothe bobbin
* Build the roving in bobbin such a form,which willfacilitate handling with drawing and
transfertothe nextprocess.
Operationsinvolved:
@ Creeling
Draing
* Twisting
W inding
. Building
Doffing

Roving

Cotton spinning system :


In the cottonspinningsystem onedifferentiatesbetweentwo kindsofyarns:

a) Cardedyarn:
Aftqrthefibrematerialhasbeenopened(Ioosened),cleanedand,ifnecessaryalsoblendedin
thefirststage,itisresolved intothestate ofindividualfibreson acard and deposi
ted inthe

form ofasliver(cardedsliver).Inthenextstageseveralcardedsliversarepresentedtoa

36
draing uni
ton a draw fram e.Drafting Ieadsto a reduction ofthe fibre masspersliver.
Subsequently the individualslivers,now w i
th a Iower m ass,are collected togetherto
form adraw frame sliver.Com pared to the carded sliverthe draw n sliverdisplays

a betterfibre alignm enttowardsthe Iongitudinalaxisofthe sliverand


a higherdegree ofparallelization betweenthe fibres.
A yarn finally spun outofthissliveriscalled acarded yarn.

b) Combedyarn:
In the cotton spinning system a com bing offibres outofdraw fram e slivers is basically
an additionalprocessing stage.Com bing leadsto the following results:

A pre-determined portion ofshortfibresis combed out(comberwaste).This is


significantin the case ofcotton,which as a naturalfibre containsfibres in varying
lengths.Com berwaste can amountto as much as20% to 30% ofthe originalweight
of the fibre lot being processed on the com ber.The portion of longer fibres is
increased in the combed m aterial.W ith regard to the spinning lim itsthe following
rule isvalid:

The longerthe fibresare,thefinerone can spin


The shorterthe fibresare,the loweristhe spinning Iim it.

Thusonecanspinfineryarnsfrom thefibre1ot(sliver)aftercombing
Com bing leadsto a higherdegree ofcleanlinessin thefibre m aterial.
Compared to carded yarns a com bed yarn has a softer handle.This property is also
transferredto fabrics made outofit.

Spinning m achine
Thisisthefinalstage ofyarn m anufacturing.The goalofthism anufad uring processto getyarn
is achieved by this m achine.There are differenttypes ofspinning m achine.Ring fram e is a
conventionalspinning m achine.This machine has very w ide scope,because it can produce
coarse to very fine yarn.Tiflnow this ring spinning m achine is widely used whole over the
world.
There are also som e m odern spinning systemstoo.Rotorspinning system isone ofthem .This
system isalso veryfam ous,butithassome lim itation.ltis mainly used forcoarse yarn.
ln the following section the currently most im portant spinning techniques are described in
Som edetail.

37

Ring Spinning m achine:


This is com paratively the oldest spinning technique and is therefore also referred to as
the classicalorconventionalprocess.
Fibre m aterialsupply to the ring spinning m achine is in the form of a roving.Its fibre
m ass is reduced in a drafting unit.The twist inserted m oves backw ardsand reaches the
fibres Ieaving the drafting unit.The fibres Iay around one another in a heliocoidal
m anner.The norm alforces generated here enlarge the adhesive forces between the
fibresand preventthe fibresfrom ''flying oH''undertensile strain.
'!

G
+

jlz drafting ssembly


==Q4

n
s

1)
f)y<1
:,<rq

..,-

apron

spinning cop

travelle
-

roving

- -

rjng

spindle
Principle ofRing Spinning

A driven spindle,on whichtheyarn package (tapered bobbin tube withyarn)firm ly sits,


is responsible fortw ist.Around the spindle is a stationary ring.Yarn from the drafting

unitisdrawn underatraveler(asmallmetalpiece),freelymovingonthering,andthen
Ied to the yarn package. This traveler, Iagging because of the yarn drag on it, is
responsible forw inding-on the yarn.A controlled up and dow n m ovem ent ofthe ring
determ inesthe shape ofthe yarn package,called a cop orspinning bobbin.

W ith the ring spinning technique aIIknow n yarn countscan be spun and thusthe entire

countrange iscovered (0.3 Neto 148 Neor4texto 2000tex)

'

Com pared to other spinning m ethods the ring spinning technique, how ever, has the

Iowestperformancewithamaximum ofabout20m/min.Onesignificantreasonforthis
is that the entire yarn package m ust insert the fullam ount of tw ist into the yarn; it
therefore cannot becom e too large.Tw istinsertion and yarn wind-on take place in one
continuous process.The m ethod used forthis Ieads to Iarge yarn tensions and tension
fluctuations w ith increasing package diam eters and prevents the productions of Iarge
packages.Thus the running length ofyarn on a cop isrelatjvely short.

38
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Spinning bobbin
O E RotorSpinning m achine:
One com m on aim ofunconventionalspinning techniques is to exceed the pedorm ance
of ring spinning.This is m ainly achieved by separating the process of yarn form ation
from that of yarn winding-on.One result is that the yarn can be wound on at higher
speeds.
As a rule the spinning m achine is supplied w ith fibres from the draw n sliver.Fibres
processed on short staple spinning can also be present in com bed slivers. The

productionofaroving(neededforring spinning)issuperfluous.
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Principle ofO E RotorSpinning

W ith m any ofthese techniques the fibres from the draw fram e sliverare resolved into
individualfibres in a processing stage prior to actualyarn spinning.In such cases the

techniqueisgenerallydenotedasOpen EndSpinning(OESpinning).
Out of this segment OE Rotor spinning (rotor spun yarns) is cuirently of special
significance to circularknitting,besides ring spun yarns.

In this processfibresfrom the draw fram e sliversupply are separated f


rom one another
on an opening roller,taken overby an airstream , Ied through a fibre guide channeland
fed to the rotor.In the revolving rotorhousing the fibresIay them selves and form a ring
Outofthis rotating ring the fibresare w ithdraw n in a plane m ore orle
.
t
ss perpendicular
o thatofthe fibre ring. The rotation ofthe rotoracts on the fibres in the form oftw ist
when they just leave the fibre ring plane. This Ieads to a consolidation of the fibres
am ongst one another,i.e.,to the form ation of a yarn. This yarn is led aw ay from the
rotor area and is subsequently w ound on a cylindricalbobbin to form a crossw ound
package.The yarn obtains ''real''tw ist. As a result of the fibre-yarn geom etry during
tw istinsertion the fibresdo not have the idealized heliocoidalconfigurati
on as in a ring
yarn.Every now and then fibres also coilthem selves on the yarn acrossthe Iongitudinal
yarn axis.These places are called w rappers. A furtherreference is m ade to them Iaterin
a directcom parison between rotorand ring yarns.

Rotorspinning has established itselfso farin shortstaple spinning. The accent lies here

inthe coarse countrange (3Neto 30Neor20 texto 200tex) Due to im provem ents in
.

the technique and m achine construd ion, com bined witb the use of com bed slivers
count up to 42 Ne are available in good quality. Even finer counts are not only being,
aim ed at,butare also being presented to som e extent.
In shortstaple spinning O E rotorspinning raisesperform ance atthisstage by about5 to
6
tim esascom pared to ring spinning.

.
-k.

t-.. .

u,. N

-..*-

..

'' .'
tpv u

/H' - Z'

rqlk.ex)'xak.
AW'
..

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Ring Yarn

...

. v..
'' '

,..::
fwL.

;'
- -

-'

RotorYarn

Autoconer
The quantity ofyarn on spinning bobbins orcopsissmallcom pared to the package needed for
efficientatknitting and weaving. The primary purpose ofthe winding processisto transferyarn
from small spinning packages to Iarge packages, which yield more efficient dow nstream
processing.
Autoconer is a m odern winding system . It is an auto coning system . By thi
s machine we can
produce a cone with required Iength orweightfrom a num berofsm allsize spinning bobbins
those are produced by the ring-spinning m achine withoutany knot. Splicing system is used in
this machine.Itisafully autom aticwinding m achine.

b
Thekni
ttedyarnisalso Iubricated(waxing
y paraffin wax)in thismachine.ln addition,aI1typesoffaul
tseven thick places, colour

materialsetc.oftheyarn are cleaned bythism achine.

40

Yarn conditioning orHeatsetting and Packing


Heatsetting is doing in one kind ofchamber.Thischam beris heated ata certain tem perature

(600c)normallybysteam.Tbeyarnisconditionedinthisheatedchamberatacertaintime(40
to50 min.)to settheyarntwist.Afterheatsettingthese conesarepacked bythe polythene
paperin a cartoon with a certain num bernormally 24 cones of2.08 kg each forknitted yarn.
Totalweightofthe package is 50kg.Butforwoven yarn totalweightofthe package is100lbs.
Finallythese cartoonsare shifted to producefabricand so on.

Conesthoseare readyforheatsetting

Heatsetting chamber

41

Yarn Num bering System

(YarnCount)
Definition:

Countisanumericalvalue,whichexpresstbecoarsenessorfineness(diameter)oftheyarnand
also indicate the relationship between length and weight(the massperunitIength orthe
Iength peruni
tmass)ofthatyarn.Therefore, the conceptofyarn counthas been introduced
which specifiesacertain ratio ofIengthto weight.

TypesofYarn Count:
One distinguishesbetweentwo systems:
1. DirettCountSystem :

The weightofa fixed Iength ofyarn is determ ined. The weightper unitlength is the yarn
count!
The com mon features of aIIdirect count systems are the length ofyarn is fixed and the
weightofyarn variesaccordingto itsfineness.
The followingform ula isused to calculate the yarn count:
N = IC x/
L

W here,N = Yarn countornum bering system


W = W eightofthe sam ple atthe officialregain in the unit
ofthe system
L = Length ofthe sam ple
I= UnitofIength ofthe sam ple

NumbeeingSystem

Unitoftength(I)

UnitofW eightlw)

Tex w stem ,n
Denier,D orTd
DetiTey,dtex
M illitex,m tex
Kilotex,ktex
lute count

1000 m etres
9000 m etres
10 000 m etres
1000 m etres
1000 m etres
14, 400yards

No. ofGram s
No. ofGram s
No. ofGram s
No. ofM illigram s
No. of Kilogram s

No.ofPounds(lb)

42

In brief,definition ofthe above system sisasfollows:

Texsystem

NO.ofgramsper1000 metres.

Denier
Deci
Tex
rklillit(!)(
Kilotex
Jute count

No.ofgramsper9000 metres.
No.ofgram sper10,000 metres.
:No.of milligram sper1000 m etres.
:No.ofkilogramsper1000 metres.
:No.ofIb per14,400yds.

The Texofa yarn indicatesthe weight in gramm esof1000 metres yarn. So that40 Tex
means1000 metresofyarnweigh 40gm .
The Denierofa yarn indicatesthe weightin gram mesof9000 metresyarn. So that150
D means 9000 m etres of '
yarn weigh 150 gm and 100 D m eans 9000 m etres ofyarn
weigh 100 gm .

From abovediscussion itisconcludedthat,highertheyarn number(count)coarsertheyarn


and Iowerthe numberfinertheyarn.

2. Indired CountSystem :
The length ofa fixed weight ofyarn is measured. The Iength perunit wei
ght isthe yarn
count!
The com mon features ofalIindirectcountsystems are the weightofyarn is fixed and the
length ofyarnvariesaccordingto itsfineness.
The foll
owingform ula isused to calculate theyarncount:
N=

L xw
W xI

W here,N =Yarn countornum beringsystem


W = W eightofthe sam ple atthe officialregain in the unit
ofthe system
L= Lengthofthe sample
w = Unitofweightofthe sample.
I= UnitofIength ofthesam ple.

NumberingSystem
Englishcottoncount,Ne(NeB)
Metriccount,Nm
Woollencount(YSW )
W oollpntount(Dewsbury)
W orstedcount,NeK
kinencount,NeL

UnitofLength(I)
840yards(yds)
1000metres/1km
256yards
1yard
560yards
300yards

UnitofWei, (w)
1pound(lb)
1kg
1pound(lb)
1ounce(oz)
1pound(Ib)
1pound (Ib)

43

Inbriet definitionoftheabovesystemsisasfollows:
English countsystem
M etriccount

Woollencount(YSW)
Woollencount(Dewsbury)
W orsted count,NeK
Linencount,NeL

:No.of840yd lengthsperpound .
:No.ofkilometersperkilogram.
:No.of256yd Iengthsperpound.
:No.of ydIengthsperoz.
:No.of560yd Iengthsperpound.
:No.of300yd Iengthsperpound.

The Neindicateshow many hanksof840yardsIengthweigh oneEnglish pound.So that32Ne


means32hanksof840yardsi.e.32x840yardsIength weighone pound.
The Nm indicateshow many hanksof1000 m etresIength weigh one kg.So that50Nm means
50 hanksof1000 metresi.e.50x1000 metres Iength weigh one kg and 100Nm means 100
hanksof1000 metresi.e.100x1000 metresIengthweigh one kg.

From abovediscussionitisconcludedthat,highertheyarnnumber(count)finertheyarnandlower
the numbercoarserthe yarn.

Som e im portanttonversion factors:


1 yard = 0.9144 m etre
1 m etre = 1.0936 yard
1 m etre = 39.37 inch
1 cm = 0.3937 inch
1 gm = 0.0353 oz
1 oz = 28.350 gm
1 pound = 453.6 gram
1 kg = 2.2046 pound

1m/kg=0.4961yd/lb

1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 m 2= 1.1960 yd2
1 yd2= 0.8361 m 2

lgm/m2=0.0295 oz/ydz
1 oz/yd2=33.91gm/m2
1 pound = 0.4536 kg

1yd/lb=2.0159m/k

44

Ealculationsconcerning count:
In practice,three problemsmayhave to be solved in yarn calculations:
Countto be found,Iength and weightmustbe known.
W eightto befound,countand Iength mustbe known.
Lengthto befound,countand wei
ghtm ustbe known.
Exam ple 1:
On a cone,there are 9800m yarn which weigh 490gm .W hatisthe Ne,Nm ,Tex and Denierof
the yarn?
Solution:
ForNe:

e know that,Ne=

L xw
prx l
Here, L = 9800m
W = 490gm
w = 1Ib = 453.6gm
I= 840yds= 840x0.91m

Ne=(9800x453.6)/(840x0.91x490)
Ne= 11.87
Ne= 12
ForNm :

e know that,Nm =

L xw
I'
F'x l
Here, L= 9800m
W = 490gm
w = 1kg = 1000gm
l= 1000m

Nm=(9800x1000)/(1000x490)
Nm = 20
ForTex :

e know thatTex =

prx /
L

Here, L= 9800m
W = 490gm
I= 1000m

Tex=(490x1000)/9800
Tex = 50

45
ForDenier :

W e know thatDenier=

W xI
L
Here, L= 9800m
W = 490gm
I= 9000m

Denier=(490x9000)/9800
Denier= 450

Exam ple 2:
w hatIength ofyarn iscontained in 1.2 kg ofa yarn ofNe30?

Solution:
W e know that,Ne=

Lxw
W xl
L=

Nex IxW
W

Here, Ne = 30
W = 1.2 kg = 1200gm
w = 1Ib = 453.6gm
I= 840yds= 840x0.91m

L=(30x840x0.91x1200)/453.6
L= 60666.67m

Exam ple 3:
How m any kg do 700 000 m ofayarn ofNe30 weigh?
Solution:

W e know that,Ne=

Lxw
W xI
W = Lxw
Nex I
Here, Ne = 30
L= 700 000 m
w = 1Ib = 453.6 gm
l= 840yds= 840x0.91m

W =(700000x453.6)/(840x0.91x30)
W = 13 846.15 gm
W = 13.85 kg

46

Formulaeforcountconversion
Knownvalue
Neededvalue
Unit
Directsystem
Indirectsystem
Abbr den ktex tex dtex mtex Nm
Ne
NeL NeK
'
u
den -- 0.00011 0.111 1.111 111
S
5315
11882 7972
xden

ktex 9000 --tpv


---

Tt

xktex
9
0.001
xtex xtex

jtex 0.9 0.0001


xitex xdtex

xden xden xden

den

den

ien

0.
590

1,
654 9.226

1.938

xktex xktex xktex


-- 10
1000
xtex xtex

ktex
l
tex

ktex
59.5
tex

ktex
1654
tex

ktex
826
tex

ktex
1932
tex

0.1 x -dtex

l
dtex

59(5
dtex

16549
dtex

2269
dtex

19329
dtex

1000 10000 1000000

100
xdtex

mtex 0.
009 0.000001 0.001 0.01x ---

'

den

New
17449
den

l 590022 1654(50 826(59 1932999

xmtex xmtex

mtex mtex

Metr.No Nm

9tXC

10C loc loo ---

0.590

1.654

0.
886

1.938

'Nm

Nm

Nm

xNm

xNm

xNm

xNm

ccttcn

N.

5315

0.590

---

2.
80

1.
50

3.28

<

Ne

Ne

xNe

xNe

xNe

---

0.
536

1.172

xNet

xNet

---

2.188

ginen

Nek

worsted Ner
Woollen New
(Yorkshire)

Nm

mtex

Nm

590.5 5900 590000


Ne

Ne

Ne

1.
693

mtex

xNe

mtex

14822 1.651

1654 16540 1654000 0.605

0.357

NeL

NeL

NeL

xNet

xNek

7972

0.886

886 2260 286000 1.129

0.667

1.
867

xNex

xNeK

0.305
xNew

0.
853
xNew

Nek

17440
New

NeL
Ner

NeL

Nek

NeK

Nek

xNeK

1.938
New

1938 19380 1938000 0.516


New NeW NeW xNew

mtex

mtex

xNeK

0.457
xNew

---

Application:
Mul
tipl
y ordivide the known value by the factor given under needed value to obtain the
desiredvalue.
From the above chartthefollowing countconversion form ulaethose are very importantfor
practicalfiel
d:

5315
D

D=

590.5
T

Tex=

e=

e=

5315
Ne
590.5
Ne

Ne=0.59x Nm

Nm= 1.693x Ne

9000
Nm
1000
Tex=
Nm
Tex= 0.111xD

9000
D
N 100
m=
T
D=9 xTex
m=

D=

47

Exam ple 1:

Known value:32 Ne

Needed value:Nm ,Tex,Denier?

Nm = 1.693xNe = 1.693x32 = 54.176 = 54

Tex=590/Ne=590/32=18.44
Denier=5315/Ne=5315/32=166.09
Exam ple 2:

Known value:150D

Needed value:Ne,Nm,Tex?

Ne=5315/den=5315/150=35.433
Nm =9000/den =9000/150=60
Tex =o.lllxden = 0.111x150 = 16.65

Countcalculationanddenotion(Designation)forpIyordoubled(folded)yarn:
Ply yarns are produced by twisting two or more singles yarns together.This increases the
strength ofthe yarn.The singles yarns m ay be of equalor different count and they m ay be
tw isted togetherin one orseveralstages.Yarnsofdifferentcountaretwisted togetherin fancy
yarns,forinstance.

Designation ofplyyarns:

Inthe designation ofpIyyarns,three differentoptionsarecom monly used:


The tomm ertialcount,which is designed ptimarily to give inform ation aboutthe com position

ofthepIyyarn,i.e.the numberofconsti
tuentyarns,theircount,twistand directionoftwist(S
orZ)andthefoldingtwist.

Thenominal(resultant)tount,whichisthecountofasinglesyarnofthesamefinenessasthe
folded orpIy yarn.Thisisused mainly in calculations.

The effed ive count,which isthe nominalcount,corrected forthe shortening ofthe yarn during

doubling(twistcontraction).Twistcontractionresultsinasomewhatshorterandcoarseryarn.
The following exam ples quoted from Tentative Textile Standard No. 62 will iflustrate the
method.

40/1Z16ring-spunAmericancotton
Thisdescribesa single yarn oflineardensi
ty 40 tex (approx.15scotton count),
having 16 tpi.Z twist, spun on a ring fram e from Am erican cotton.Traditional
m ethodsofdescribing the same yarn include thefollowing:
15sring-spun American cotton,16 Z;

'
.

1/15s,16ZAmericancotton,ring-spun;orsimply15scotton.

48

15/2S18;7/1S27cotton
Thisdescribesa two-fold cotton yarn ofresultantlineardensity 15 tex having 18 tpi.

(S-direction)foldingtwist,made from two singleyarns,each ofIineardensity 7 tex


and having 27tpi.(S-direction).Traditionalmethodsofdescribingthe same yarn
include the following:

2/80scotton;27Sx18S:orsimply2/80scotton.
Note that 15 tex is approximately equivalent to 40s cotton count, and that the

resultantcountofa2/80scottonyarn,whichisproducedbytwistingtogethertwo
singleseach approximately80scotton count,is40scotton count.

45/3Z20;15/2S18;7/1S27cotton
This describes a cotton-sewing thread of resultant Iinear densi
ty 45 tex m ade by
twisting together,w i
th 20 tpi.Z-twist,three two-fold yarn sim ilarto thatdescribed

in(11)above.
The first figure in yarn descriptions set out according to Tentative Textile Standard No.62

alwaysreferstothe resul
tanttexnumberofthefinalyarn.Inexample(111),thegroupsoffigures
have the following meanings:

45/3Z 20 indicatesthatthe Iineardensity ofthefinalyarn is45tex,thatitconsistsof3 plies


twisted togetherw ith atwistof20 tpi.,Z.

15/2 S 18 indicatesthateach ofthe 3 plies comprising the finalyarn consists ofa two-fold
thread having a resultantIineardensityoflstex,and adoublingtwistof18 tpi.,S.

7/1 S 27 indicatesthateach ofthe single yarns comprising the two-fold plies consists of a
cotton yarn having alineardensityof7 tex,and a spinning tw istof27tpi.,S.
* W ith regard to a plain pIy one mustdifferentiate between two possibilities.Such a pIy
can consistof
yarnswiththe same count
yarns having differentcounts.
PI
y with yarnsofthe same count:
Thisisthe m ostcom monly used plain ply.
I
'Eakulation ofcounton the indired system :
z't.
t2:t4s
I
'
!
i
k
I
j
!
jj
lR :::
.

t
)
L
r
'g

Ir.!l

(-.
y

t
;..
, z'
.

q-

p
t
!
?
,L,,
.
:
r'
..
.-

q
t
.

.,
..

)
j:
,

..y
r
(.
;

Where,NR=Plyorresultantcount(e.g.NmorNe)
N=Singleyarncount(e.g.NmorNe)
n = Num berofyarnsinthe pIy

49

Example 1: A pIyconsistsof2 singleyarns,each having acountofNm 50.


N
Solution:
PIycount
NR= n

=50/2=25Nm
Exam ple 2: A p1y consistsof2 single yarns,each having acountofNe40.
N
Solution:
PIy count
NR= n

=40/2=20 Ne
Denotion ordesignation based onthe indired system :

N/n
The ply in theexam ple isdenoted asfollows:

Nm50/2;Nm30/2/3;Nm40/2/3/4;Ne40/29Ne40/39Ne60/2/3etc.
Calculation ofcounton thedired system :
NR= N x n

Where,NR=PIyorresultantcount(e.g.texorden)
N=Singl
eyarncount(e.g.texorden)
n = Numberofyarnsinthe pIy
Exam ple 1: A ply consistsof2single yarns,each having a countof20tex.
Solution:
PIycount
NR= N x n
= 20 x 2= 40 tex

Exam ple 2: A plyconsistsof3 singleyarns,each havinga countof50 den.


solution:
Ply ceunt
NR=50 x 3
= 50 x 3 = 150 den
Denotion ordesignation based on the directsystem :
N xn

The pIy in the example isdenoted asfollows:


20tex x 2;50den x 39330 dtex x 2 x 3etc.
@ Thus the pIy denotion always contains the single yarn counts,written in a prescribed

manner.A knittedfabricisoftenproducedbyfeeding-intwo(veryseldom three)yarns


at each feeder without their being twisted previously.ltis important to note that in
spite ofthisthesame nomenclature isused fordenotion asin the case ofa ply.

50

Length calculation ofa cone ofsew ing thread :

Example1: Whatlengthofyarniscontainedin95gm ofayarnofNe50/2?


solution:
W e know that,

Lx w
W xI
NexlxW

Ne=
L=

Here, Ne=50/2=25
W = 95gm
w = 1lb = 453.6gm
I= 840yds= 840x0.91m

L=(25x840x0.91x95)/453.6
L= 4002.31m
' From the above calrulation,the form ula can be developed to caltulate the Iength ofsewing
thread from a tone asfollow s:
,
-

ForNesystem:L=(NRxW)x(840x0.9144)/453.6
t=(NRxW )x1.6933
'
..

W here,

L=Lengthoftheyarninmetre(m)
NR= Resul
tantorpIy countofyarn in Nesystem

i
)
:

y
'

W =WeigitOftheYarningramme(gm)
1.6933=Constantvalue(0nIyforNesystem)

;J

Nmsystem:
(

(.
j
.2

'
,

.L,

L=(NRxW)x1000/1000
L= Nq XW

w jjrro

L=Lengthoftheyarninmetre(m)

: t,

NR= ResultantorpIy countofyarn

3*t
1
e '
pl
7:r
t
;
?
:
' .
?7'

W =Weightoftheyarningramme(gm)

)#
#'E.
k.
'
s.
..
)
>8
=A
''y)
.

..

f'
,
.

J.

.yl'
s

q
.
t
'
.

V
.
);.

51

Fancy yarns

In the design of textile products: yarns are first selected on the basis of their m echanical
propertiessuch asstrength,extensibility,elastici
ty,etc.Choicesmay also be made on the basis
ofthe so-called physiologicalproperties such asvapourpermeability and m oisture transport.
M echanicaland physiologicalproperties are governed mainl
y by the type offibre, the fibre
Iength,and the spinning system .
.
However,yarnsm ay also be selected fortheirappearance.Specialtypes ofyarns,both single
and folded,can be created to give particularopticaleffects.
Coloureffects:
1.
M ixture or Ingrain:These yarns are m ade by m ixing fibres of di
fferent
colours during spinning.This results in a heathereffect.Fabric exam ple:
m arengo.

M elange orVigoureux:These yarns are spun from combed sliverortop


which has been printed with stripes.The appearance is somewhat Iike
m ixture.
. . .' '

- '.'..o.

' . -.. . .

' ... ....

.. ...

. .

. ..
.

i1

..e...
-ru'-. -.

laspe' or M ouline': These yarns are made by folding two or m ore


differentl
y coloured yarns, or yarns made from different fibres with
different dyeing behaviour. They give a mottled appearance. Fabric
exam ple:fresco.
.

IV.

..

. . .. .

. .

:.''.:.uL
;;

qkr..
r;
tr :e... 7(. . ....n.:.)w.n(!::trL.'.sT$)r.k..
,.4

..

M ottle or M arl: These yarns are made by spinning from two-colour


rovings orfrom two rovings ofdifferentcolours.The appearance is Iike
mouline'butwith Iesssharp contrast.
.-J
y.7.>-.a.*.--a.-<..
-.
-xl'..%'
w*
.r.....e.(
taf:kp.yL.w.
r
@I
..;'
t.r)@
.:
rl
-ttr!;:cLsbjt...r:..
rt
..q'l.....%.
xr7..(.s.....s.-...ik
..w;t')ypw.''j
J'y. .'.j' .'.
::' ' ' . '..
r:%kr2i?.1
:..2:r' >''
ytltk..t.
...
..
cc ...m.-.-.wv-,..,.,,.pr.......wwj
;,
)y;yu/..s.., .
.s.'. ...v ..jgj;'.jyy.zjy.,;ys.
r..
uwp),>+w<u-g;
.t.wz.
,.
,;yv.
ry.
aa,sl-jseyrrzzzyrztzl.--,-sw.ws:.zw...ajt+ug
uc
.
.,

B.

Structure effed s:

1.

Nub:Theseyarnsaresingle orfoldedyarnshavinglongthickplaces,regularly
or irregularly disposed.The slub effect is made either in spinning or in
folding.Fabri
csmay havethecharacterofIinenorwild silkwhich isfavoured
infurnishings.
'

.-

..

.
..

. .

..
.o

...:.. .j..y..oyaugrs.
Js.
zr.:z .:
k:1..x..
a. n;..

w.

g.

52
Chenille:This is a cut pile yarn,it is soft and volum inous.These yarns are
m ade bycutting specialfabrics into strips.They are used in furnishing fabrics
and knitwear.
v u1

-''' .

%' ... ... ....TL


U..
;..yJh,;..g.....xoy.w..
'...
oo..a..;z:
y.>.Qi..v..
t..c.>7f;).-Vk(
..
$z;.t... ... ..).7...''
.j.'
.'Ls.yzftgyy).
t.,
!.u;
n: s..cu<u..y-s. '
E.

Erepe:These yarns are used to m ake fabrics with a wrinkled surface and a
sandy handle.They are m ade from highly twisted yarns.Fabric exam ples:
crepe dechine,georgette,crepon,m arocain.

Bourette or knop: These yarns are folded yarns containing short, often
coloured bunchesoffibresoryarn atregularorirregularintervals.The knops
may be form ed during carding, during spinning, or during folding.Fabrics
havea structured surface.Example:Donegaltweed.

V.

Boude'orloop:These yarns are com pound yarns made by a specialfolding

processwhich resultsin wavyorIooped projections.Fabricshave amore or


Iessgrainy handle and a textured sudace.Exam ples:boucle',frise',frotte'.

C. Lustre effects:
Mattorlustreeffectsare obtained bymixingmattand brightfibres.Lustreandgli
tter
'

effectscanalsobeobtainedbytheuseofmetalfibresormetallisedpl
asticfilms(e.g.
Lurex),orclearfilms,orman-madefibresw'
lthspecialcross-sections.Fabricexamples:
brocade?Iame'.
..
.

&:er c.....>:
. t/@x )L'L
.tt .Rt2%
Y k-;t:@2<.u''%7:f'z>'4! qtk

L-w

''*. 4+5a ;.

a( j'(.
/..
nz 1

. .e .1ee.'k BT

yl
'
t.'
jjo..a.;,k
.z
1w.!'
...
G.
fi'k>.
jthi
%s
)
'k
.j.
)j
y
.xyn
..
vt;f
'i
.L
..
.L.p.jj
.a
..y
.
a
J
'
lj
j
z'
js.
(
t
j
k4
y
yy
jjj
tjy
g
kjj
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j
q
y
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x
j
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.a
.
.:
.
.
yj
jh
y.
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y
jji
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gs
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y.js
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F!qraj
p;'
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ks

qt
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-.:k., !..'R
J)#:77
4)t.'.<s(.,<(.
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9# 1
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,.'
.a%;.'vs.v..:..'., .'.,a..z,s... .xcz..... ..........- ..

:
.

. .c .-

53

FABRIC AND FABRIC MANUFACTURING

Fabric:
Fabric is a flexible planarsubstance constructed from solutions,fibres,yarns,orfabrics,in any
combination.Textile fabrics can be produced directly from websoffibres by bonding,fusing or
interlocking to make non-woven fabrics and felts,buttheirphysicalproperties tend to restrict
theirpotentialend-usage.The mechanicalmanipulation ofyarn into fabric isthe mostversatile
method ofmanufacturing textile fabricsfora wide range ofend-uses.

Types ofFabric:
There are three principal methods of mechanically manipulating yarn into textile fabrics:

interweaving (interlacing orinterlacement),interlooping andintertwining.AIIthree methodj


have evolved from hand-manipulated techniquesthrough theirapplication on primitive frames
into sophisticated manufacturing operationson automated machinery.
a. Interw eaving:

Itisthe intersection orinterlacementoftwosetsofstraightthreads,warp(ends)


andweft(picksorfilling),whichcrossandinterweaveatrightanglestoeachother.
W eaving i
s by far the oldest and m ost comm on method of producing continuous
Iengthsofstraight-edged fabric.

Wovenfabric(Interlacing)
b. Interlx ping:

Itconsisl offormingyarnts)intoIoops,eachofwhichistypicallyonlyreleasedaftera
succeeding Ioop has beenformedand intermeshed with itsothatasecuriground

54
Ioop structure is achieved.The loops are also hed together by the yarn passing

from one to the next.Knitting is the most com m on m ethod of interloping and is
second only to weaving as a m ethod of m anufacturing textile products. lt is
estimated that over seven m idlion tons of knitted goods are produced annually
throughout the world.Although the unique capability of knitting to manufacture
shaped and form-fitting articles has been utilized forcenturies,modern technology
has enabled knitted constructions in shaped and unshaped fabric form to expand
into a wide range ofapparel,dom estic and industrialend-uses.

W arp knitted fabric

W eftknitted fabric

Knittedfabric(Interlooping/lntermeshing)
C. Intertwining and tw isting:

It includes a number of techniques,such as braiding and knotting, where threads


are caused to intertw ine with each otheratrightanglesorsome otherangles.These
techniques tend to produce special constructions w hose uses are lim ited to very
specific purposes.

k
%y x
Ax
y.yx
),
kk z

'

yGJ' #
yy4
yh
,

b
tsyhs Ax
s%'
xs
&k.z
kh ;
z/o
'
> y ,y

% Xk>
%
t
-s.
,
/'4c.
k.

ktyzo) :;.
.

v
-ks '
ttt,.f,:.
.
4
,

f.
:
b,'
7ks#
'
,p':z
,k.t
.v
xx

Braidfabric(Intertwining)

,
.

There isanothermethod ofmanipulating directly fibre intotextile fabrics isso caled nonw oven

process.Thisrelativelyyoungbranchofthetextileindustryhasexpandedenormouslyafterthe
second world-warbecause ofthe high production ratesand the resulting costsavings.
:
.

55

None ve s are flexible,porous products consisting ofone ormore fibre layers. The separate
fibres may eitherbe preferentially oriented in one direction ormay be deposited in a random
manner.They are bonded by chem ical, thermalormechanicalprocesses into textile products.
Nonwovensare mainly planarstructures.

y
u
. w yj
& ,< a> .
t
,,

y.
yj

x
'N3
..
,
-5
1
'
!
1
1
1
1
:
!
l
1
I
1
1
l
1
.
,
j
-1
.
1
t

'
-,
(
jj
l
.
.

--

Magnification ofa nonwoven fabric

Needle-punched web

Nonwovenfabric(mechanical,chemicalorthermalbonding)

Fabricdassifir- ion ataglan :


W eaving machine/Loom
1.W oven Fabric
W eaving Process

Two setsofyarn:

(Interlacing/Interlacement) a.W arp/Ends--+ verticalyarn


& parallelto the selvedge

b.Weft/picks----+ horizontalyarn
Knitting machine

lI.Knitted Fabric

Knitling Process

O ne orone setofyarn

(Intermeshing/Interlooping)
111.Nonw oven Fabric ---- -+ Nonwoven Process

Fibre web

(Mechanical/Chemical/Thermalbonding)
Braiding m achine
IV.Braided Fabric
Braiding Process

(I
ntertwining/Diagonal
interlacement)

AtIeastthree group of

yarnfrom a set

56

W OVEN FABRICS AN D W EA VING TECHNO LOGY

57

Rvoven FabKcs:
W oven fabrics are com posed ofIongitudinalorwarp threads and transverse orweftthreads,
interlaced with one anotheraccording to the class of structure and form ofdesign thatare
desired.

Process Flow To M anufacturing W oven Fabric:


Yarn from Spinning

W arp Yarn Prm aration

W eR Yam Preparati
on

i
W arping

i
Sizing

ForconventionalIoom

(shuttleIoom)

Drawing-in and Denting

Pirn W inding

Formodern Ioom

(shuttlelessIoom)

i
Cone

(Directl
yfromspinning)

Looming

Tying-in
W eaving

W eaving preparation:
Yarn is the basic building block in weaving. Therefore, after yarn manufacturing, the next
successive stepswould be to weave the yarn into a fabric. However,in practice,the condition
ofyarn produced on the spinning machine is not always good enough to be used directly for
fabricform ation.Package size, yarn surface characteristics,and otherfactorsm ake itnecessary
forb0th weftyarn and warp yarn to be furtherprocessed forefficientfabricform ation. These
preparatory processesare called weaving preparation.

58

Warp and weftyarnsare subjected to differentconditionsand requirements duringweaving


Therefore,the preparation ofwarp and weftyarns is different W arpyarni
ssubjectedto higher
stresseswhich requiresextra preparation.The weftyarnsare notsubjectedto thesametypeof
.

stresses as the warp yarns and thusare easilyprepared forthe weaving process. Depending on
the spinning m ethod,the weftyarns may not be prepared atall, but rathertaken straight off
the spinning process and transported to the weaving process. Thi
s is the case with open-end

(rotor),airjetandfrictionspinningsystemswhichprovidealargesingle-endpackagesuitable
forinsertion during weaving.However, ring spun yarns need to go through a winding process
forseveralreasons thatare explained below . The process used to prepare yarns for weaving
depend on yarn type as well.

W inding isthe majorpreparation process forweftyarn.W arp preparation includes winding,


warping,sizing and drawing-in ortying-in.

Spun yarn quality characteristics that are most important for good weaving pe/ormance
include shortand Iong-term weightuniformity, imperfections,tensile properties and hairiness.
lt should be noted that variation in a property is almost always more important than the
average value ofthat property.Regardless of the processes employed, a second concept of
quality has to be embraced.Notonly m ust the quality ofthe yarn itself be maintained and
enhanced,butalso the quality ofyarn packagesis extremely importantto furtherprocessing.
The cost of repair a yarn failure is m uch less if it occurs priorto the weaving process. ln
addition,a yarnfailure during weaving also increasesthe chancesforoffqualityfabric. M any if
not m ost of the quality problems encountered during fabric forming are directly related to
mistakes made during yarn manufacturing oryarn preparation forweaving.
Since winding is com m on forboth weftand warp preparation, itwillbe discussed firstforboth
yarn systems.The weaving process isparticularly abusive to Iengthwise yarns in a woven fabric;
therefore,the technology surrounding the preparation ofwarpyarn forweaving isgivenspecial
attention.

W inding:
W inding is basi
cally transferring a yarn from one type of package to another. This sim ple
definition may make the winding sound like a trivialprocess;however, it is an im portantand
necessary processthatperformsthe following functions especiallyforring spun yarns.
W inding produces a yarn package thatis suitable forfurther processing. Ring spinning

producessmallpackagesofyarn(calledspinner'spackagesorbobbins)whichwouldbe
depleted relatively quick during weft inselion orwarping. Therefore,the amountof
yarn on several small packages is combined by splicing or knotting onto a single
package.Knotting has been replaced bysplicing in modern winding machines.

59
'

'

t
(

)
.

..

O1
% /
.
'' '
,
'
-,i
'.
'
u
-.'
.
-'
l
y'
.
s
;:
.

Cotlon

'

.
.

..

- ..-

k
-

'
t

).
.

8 ''
*' '
.
,, '
--

..
W

.
:

..
..

Building Iarge packages

..

Eq

Yarn Faults

* The winding process provides an opportunity to clear yarn defects. Thin and thick
places,slubs,neps orIoose fibres on the yarn are cleared during winding and,thus,the
overallquality ofthe yarn is improved.Staple yarns require this clearing operation m ost
because they may have these kindsoffaults more often.
The increasing use of newerspinning technologies resulted in a situation where the oId
conceptofyarn clearing and package quality now has become a partofthe spinning process
ratherthan part of a separate winding process.Properly formed packages of defect-free
spun yarn are an even m ore criticalfactor.Package considerations include condition ofthe
package core,the properprovision ofyarn transfertails;properIy formed splicesorknots;
elim ination ofinternaldefects such as slubs,sloughs,tangles,wild yarn,scuffs and ribbon
wind; and elimination of external defects such as over-end winding, cobwebs, abrasion

scuffs,poorpackageshape orbuild,properdensity(hardness)and unwindabilitv.


W inding Process:
There are three main regions in winding;those are shown inthe following figure.

a) Region1:
Unwinding ofyarn from the spinning package - The yarn package is held inthe creel
in an optimum position forunwinding.Yarn withdrawalcan be done in two ways:
Side w khdrawal:In this method the spoolis rotated and therefore the yarn
does notrotate during withdrawal.Asa result,the yarn twistdoes notchange,
which is anadvantage.

60

Since the yarn does not rotate,the spoolm ust rotate forside withdrawal. This
requires additional energy and equipm ent, which is a disadvantage. At high
w inding speeds,due to inertia,the rotation ofthe spoolcan cause yarn tension
variations. Upon start-up, higher tensions m ay be developed because the
w inder m ustovercom e spoo!inertia.
side w ithdraw al:

over-end w ithdraw z :

ynrn
guide

Yarn w ithdrawalsystem
*

Over-end w ithdraw al:In this sp tem,the spooldoes notrotate. Therefore,the


problem s associated w ith rotating a spoolare avoided. The method is sim ple
and does not require driving the spool.
The disadvantage ofthis system is ballooning w hich is due to the w ay the yarn
is w ithdraw n and unwound from the package athigh speeds. Centrifugalforce
causes the yarn to follow a curved path leading to ballooning upon rotation of
the yarn. Ballooning leads to uneven tensions in the yarn. Each time one
com plete wrap ofyarn is rem oved from the supply package, the tw ist in that
length changes by one turn.This change m ay be insignificantfor regular round
yarns,butin cases w here flatyarns ofm etal, polym eror rubberare used,even
one twist is not allow ed since yarns m ust rem ain flat. These yarns cannotbe
unw ound using the over-end m ethod;therefore,the side w ithdraw alm ethod
m ustbe used.

1
r

61

a
i

x
o
.
Y

=5 o
x
x os

yarn

PKW e
stop motion feeler

yau clerery, 4:

Qx
Q:
*
S
> ao

tem jon
device

> .:

ymn
D ide
<
e

o
K
x
+Q

sphmers
package

1
1!
>
<

#>%.t:
tx
:'
S'

thtz

Schem atic ofw inding process

b) Region2:
The tensioning and clearing region - In this region, proper tension is given to the
yarn fora desired package density and body.Tbe typicalcom ponents ofthis region

are a tension device,a device to detectthick and thin spotsin the yarn (clearing
device)and astop motion.Thestop motion causesthewinding to stopin caseof
yarn breakage or the depletion of a supply package.The yarn is directed into this
region by a guide.

There are tw o types ofguides:closed and open.Closed guides require a yarn end to
thread, and open guides do not.Open guides,however, give Iess positive guiding.
Engineering issues here are guide smoothness, abrasion betw een yarn and guide
causing yarn damage.Ifthe guide is too rough,dam age ofyarn due to abrasion w ill
occur.On the otherhand,if the guide is too sm ooth, friction m ay develop.Guides
are usually m ade from hard stainlesssteels orfrom ceram ics.

. .w

62
.,
''
.

w.

-w

* .'

''

/ 0

1
t
:::1
4

,.
'

ww

..

..
...
.
e

s > N

67 .

fkt
w<
..>...
z

..

'

.x

Various types ofyarn guides:top left- w ire hard chrom ed,top right- plasm a ceram ic
coated,bottom right- alum ina sintered,bottom Ieft- hard porcelain.
W ire guides are easier to m anufacture to any shape.The chrom ium Iayer can be
satin finished or m irror polished depending on the need. Ceram ic-coated m etal
guides are especially good for synthetic fibres. These guides com bine wear
resistance of ceram ic com pounds with ductility of metals w hile allowing com plex
shapes to be made. As a result, there is no need for inserts, clam ps or gluing.
Alum ina sintered yarn guides w ith m at surfaces are recom m ended forsynthetic and

mixedyarns(nylon,polyester,etc.)whilealuminasinteredyarnguideswithpolished
surfacesorground polished sudaces are generally used fornaturalfibres (silk,wool,
cotton,etc.).Porcelainyarnguidesareproducedwith matormirrorjlazes.Theyare
resistantto w earofnaturalorsynthetic fibres and yarns.

Ceram ic Inser't
Trum pet
Busla
Tvpe A :- A Yarn End is Required forThreading

<-

Pig Tail
Slotted Cuides
Post
Tvpe B:-A Yarn End is N ot Required for Threading

Types ofyarn guide

'

63

Tension Y vice:
The tension device m aintains a proper tension in the yarn to achieve a uniform
package density.lt also serves as a detectorforexcessively weak spots in the yarn
that break underthe added tension indtnced by the tension device.

There are three majortypes of tension devices;those are shown in the following
figure.

@ rmpstan (ormultiplitative):
The output tension depends on the inputtension,coefficient offriction

betweentheyarnandthe post(g),andthetotalangleofwarp(a):
YOut= YinCVC

Since g,(x and e are constants,Toutis'a constant m ultiple ofthe incom ing

tensionTin(thisisthereasonwhyCapstaniscalled multiplicative).lfTiois
zero,so is the Txt.

Changing g, ,the num ber of guides and/or Tin changes the output
tension.g can be changed by changing the post materialoryarn sudace
characteristics.
a)Capstantensi
oner(topvi
ew)
ozrlx lxxx a

CN:

'r0Ur

TIn

b)Addi
ti
vetensl
oner(si
deview)
N

T$n

..

Tou!

c)Combinedtensioner
N

T.o

Tout

** E

*N -.

.*

Principles of basictensioning devices

64

* Addive tensioner;

ln thissystem,a dead weightorspring is used to applya normalforce (N)


to change the tension.The outputtension is calculated by:
Tout= Tio+ 2!-tN

Since jt and N are approxim ately constants for a given system , Tout is
obtained by sim ply adding a constant to Tin.If Tjn is zero,there is stillan
output te nsion Tout= ZgN.Toutm ay be changed sim ply by changing the
norm alforce N.

Rollertensioner

Tension rollerunit

m
+

wrkyj

.a

ay

. .

v>
.

Capstantensioner(forfineyarn)

e .'
r'

'

'.'

>

Disctensioner

* Com bined tensioner:


This is the m ost com m on type, which consists of atleast a disc, and

Capstantypetensioner.Tensionischanged by normalforceand/orwrap
angle.
TOut= Tin+ Tine't
'x+ 2gN

=Tin(1+ eB3 +2gN

'
A:

65

*
*j

k: a

. ..

' ,

),
l
i

s
f.

. jj

> .-.
-

i
'

<

. .

'

)
'

N < .- < .
.
L
j
11
1 .a

'
.

VariousYarn tensioning devices

Com pensating yarn tension regulator

Postand Disctension devices

Yarn Cleareo :
The purpose of a yarn detectoris to rem ove thin and thick places.Yarn detectors are

usualiytwotypes:mechanicalandelectronic.
A m echanicalclearerm ay be as sim ple as two parallelblades.The distance betw een

the plates is adjustable to allow only a predetermined yarn diameter to pass


through.Athickerspoton theyarn(slub)willcausethetensionontheyarnto build
up and eventually break the yarn.Consequentiy,this type of device can only detect
thick places in the yarn.

The clearers of today's technology are m ore sophisticated and contain electronics
w hich continuously m onitor the yarn to detect thin and thick places. Electronic
detectors are m ainly two types:capacitive and photo-electric.In a capacitive type
detector,the variation in the m ass of the yarn passing througb the plates changes
the capacitance of the unit.It should be em phasized that the system m easures the
m ass of the yarn.The signalis not based on the physicaldimensions of the yarn.
W hen the generated signalreachesa certain value,the yarn is cut.

66

In a photo-electric detector,the yarn passes between a Iightsource and a photocell.


Any fluctuation in yarn thickness catses the fluctuation of Iight com ing t the
photocell,which changes the resistance ofthe photocell.This resistance change is
detected by a signalconditioning am plifierw hich can be setto send a signalto cut
the yarn and stop the winding process.
a)Capacitivedetector
yarn

codenser
oscillator

N
.

bl
adjustable
ade

b)photo-elrcl
ricdetector

%
i1
:
t'
j qt
jytixedblade
k 1
l.
y
,,
l
'

j -.t yarn
ij
z r

yarn
x

ti
j ttt

k. j)
<j
r
.
g
;r )
/?
.,
.

1'h

sgnal
conditioning
amplitier

.
photocell

.
Q
.

ljgu
souree

-h-x

iguay
S
oning
c
nd;s
ao
mpl
fier

Principle of mechanicalyarn clearer

'

Principles ofelectronic yarn clearers

)q

i..:
,

The Iatest yarn clearing systems can al


so detect foreign fibres.These fibres are

classified and eliminated during thewinding process.Asa result,thequalityofthe

yarn can be im proved during the winding process.

Stop M G ion:

The purpose of a stop motion is to stop w inding when the yarn breaks orruns out.
Stop m otions vary from machine to machine.In general,a mechanicalstop motion
consist of a counter weighted orspring loaded sensing device which is held in an
inactive position ifthe yarn is present.Breakage orrunning outcauses the absence
ofthis restraining yarn and allow s the sensing device to activate.Electronic stop
motions simply sensethe existence ofthe yarn w ithout mechanicalcontact.

p
k
-

)
kq

c) Region3:
The winding region - In this region,the yarn package w hich is suitable forfurther
processing is w ound.M a ny types of package configurations can be obtained

67

including cone, tube or cheese, dye tube or spooldepending on the next stage of
processing.
The basic requirem ent ofw inding is uniform tension on the yarn.Uniform tension is
necessary forconsistentw inding and yarn uniform ity w ith respectto properties that
are functions of tension. If the tension on yarn passi the tension device is
constant, the tension in the package should be constant provided that the yarn
speed is constant, i.e., the tension on the package is only a function of the yarn
speed.
The yarn is w ound on the package by only rotating the package.Considera disc of

radius R,rotating atan angularvelocityfo.Then,the Iinearvelocity (orthe tangential


sped)ofanypointonthecircumferenceofthepackage is:
V = to R = the yarn Iinearvelocity

ThereforeV = f( and R)
The rotation of the package m ay be accom plished in tw o w ays:Spindle drive and
Friction drive.
force

Package

packagc

V
R

A
spindle

drivingroller
ya.
l'
n

Rotating package

Spindle

Spindle drike of a package

YZCR

Friction drive ofa package

* Spindle drive w inder:

In this system ,the spindle,w hich holds the package,is driven directly.There
are tw o variations ofthis system :constantspeed w inders and variable speed
w inders.
Constantspeed w inders:

The spindle is driven at a constantspeed,

i.e.,fo=constant.Since.
o= 2an,thenn (rpm)isconstant.

68

Therefore,V =YR = f(R)


As m ore yarn is wound on the package, R increases,hence V increases.
This is nota desired situation,as explained below .

Since T = tension = f(V),a change in yarn veocity causesa change in


tension. Therefore, the tension will vary throughout the package. This
probjem can be overcom e by using the second type of the spindle drive
system s in which the spindle speed is varied.
Variable speed w inder:

Inthe equationV = foR,thistime foisvariable.As R increases(i.e.more


yarn onthe package),fowillchangeto keep V = constant.Although R and
(0 are variables,the product YR = V = yarn velocity = constant.

Change fo, a variable speed m otor or a variable speed connection is

needed which increasesthe cost.Therefore,this system can be justified


only for very delicate yarns.A sim ple w ay to achieve this is to use the
second type ofw inder.
* Frittion drive w inder:
ln this system ,the spindle,thatcarries the package,is free to rotate and the
package is driven through sudace friction betw een the package and a driven
drum orroller.

Atthe pointofcontactA (assuming no slippage),yarn,friction drum and


package have the sam e velocity,i.e.

Vy=Vd =ftdRd=constant((%,Rdareconstants)
Thus, a constant sudace speed on the package and therefore an alm ost
constant yarn w inding speed are obtained.This system is w idely used for
staple yarns.

Traveo ing M echanism s:


A traversing m echanism is tsed to distribute the yarn axially along the package.
The distribution ofthe yarn should be done evenly on the package.

lnthefriction drive winder(only),a traversing groove cutintothefrictiondrum


is ed,which is show n in the follow ing figure.The yarn w illfit into the groove
and travelbackand forth along the length ofthe package as the drum rotates.

69

Typicalwinding machine(Grooved rollerforyarntraverse)


Inthe spindle drivewinder(alsoin somefrictiondrive),a reciprocating traverse
is used,i.e.an externally driven guide carriesthe yarn backand forth across the
package.

TypesofPackages:
Based on the w inding pattern, yarn packages can be grouped under three
categories:parallel,near-paralleland cross-wound packages.
* Parallelw ound packages:

These packages are sim ilarto warp beam s;there are many yarns,which
are parallelto each other.Forthese packages,flanges orshoulders are
necessaw to prevent yarn instabilities.The application of this type of
package is lim ited.
* Near-parallelpackages:

In this type of package,there is usually one yarn end thatis wound on the
package.A nearparallelwound package is notself-supported.Therefore,
forstability,the ends ofthe package need tapering,flangesorshoulders.

70
(a)Parall
elwoundpackage

(b)Nearparallelwoundpackage

(c)Crosswoundpackage

Types ofpackages
Cross-w ound packages:
A single yarn end is wound on the package ata considerable heli
x angle,
w hich is generally Iess than 800. This type of winding provides package
stability and, therefore, there is no need to taper or flange the edges.
Thus,a cone ortube could be used in the w inding process.

The ratio of winding speed (Vw)and traversing speed (Vt) determines the
package type for near-paralleland cross-w ound packages.If Vtis very Iarge,
relatively fastsuccessive Iayers ofyarn w illbe Iaid at distinct angles to each
k
other,producing a cross-wound package.If Vt is slow ,successive Iayers w ill
E
r
be very close to pa rallelto each other, producing a near parallel-wound
k
t
package.Sloughing-off is a condition w here m any coils of yarn unwind from
the package at a tim e.lt depends on w hat is called a criticalw inding angle.
:
zk1
r
.:
f
:tx>. The package forms can be conical or cylindrical, as required by the
J..)(.
2
,
uh
.
.u
t
' subsequentprocesses.
'

..

k..
!?
'

kr

71

Pirn Vvinding:
A pirn orquillis a weft bobbin thatis placed inside a shuttle in shuttle weaving.
As the shuttle travels back and forth across the width of the shuttle loom,the

weftyarnisunwoundfrom thepirnthroughtheeye(forordinaryshuttle)orslot
(forautomaticshuttle)oftheshuttleandIaidintheshed.Theyarnonthe pirnis
o pered at one end such that the yarn w ithdrawal takes place continuously
w ithoutentanglement.
yarn
package

&yarn

guide

+1
.

D
c

tension

oh

deviceA
Yy

.
c
G
2

stop motion

yarn

guide

12

8
LE
o
.E

(1tlill

Schem aticofpirn winding

W inding ofa pirn is differentfrom the regular winding process.ln quilling,the


yarn is transferred from a Iarger package to the smaller pirn,w hich is show n in
the following figure. Also, the inspection of yarn is not part of the process,
therefore,there is no yarn clearing zone.
The traverse mechanism is also different because of the different geometry of
the pirn.The traverse here does notgo backand forth along the package.Itonly
builds yarn on one part ofthe package ata time,which is shown in the following

figure.Therefore,pirn building is somewhatsimilarto the building ofa bobbin


on a ring spinning frame.This type ofw inding helps reduce ballooning effects,
m aintain uniform tension,and reduce the possibility ofslough-off.

The machines that are used to w ind pirn are called ''quillers'' or pirn w inding
m achines.These m achines are automatic,w hich m eans that w hen the pirn is
filled,itis doffed and an em pty pirn is placed on the spindle autom atically.W it'h
the elimination ofshuttle Ioom s,the pirn w inding process i
s also disappearing.

72

W inding M achine:
Cross winding m achines are used forcross winding oftubes,cones and bobbins with
one ortwo flanges.Yarn laying and package drive are achieved by a grooved drum.In
cross-winding,the stability ofthe package isprovided by the acute crossing angle.The
package endscan be tapered aswell.A nearparallelwinding machine with fourwinding
positionsand autom atic doffing also available.The yarn traverse is controlled by a cam
drivengear.Today'swinding machinesallow use ofdifferentsize bobbins with different
flange diameters,overallIengths and winding widthsonthe sam e m achine.Forwinding
of industrialyarns such as aram id,carbon orglass yarns and monofilaments,specially
designed yarn guide elementsare used.A spindlespeed of5000 rpm ispossible.
Today yarn singeing machine with gas burnersofstainless steel,traveling blower and

gas/airmixingstationwithvariablemixingratio isalsoavailable.
Precision W inding:
In precision winding,the position ofthe yarn as it is Iaid on the package is controlled
very precisely to increase the density of the package.The following figure shows a
precision winding machine.ln this particularm achine,the yarn positioning system isalIelectronic. W ith the electronic system , freely program m able package building is
possible,which isshown in the followingfigure.
(t

'
tt
. '
u
:
u'
#
ttv
:
.

t v a.'

1.
:%

.
'..

861'.

ysjy.

1 2

3 4.

Sections

Examplesofpackagesmadewith precisionwinding

. . v

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73

Problem :
How Iong w illit take for a w inder to w ind 3.00 Ibs of 16 Ne yarn ifthe w inder

operatesat745yd/min.with theefficiency95%?
W e know that,

Time,t= Iength/speed
L
P'

= -

Here,L = Length ofyarn in the package

Speed,V = 745yd/min.
W eightofthe yarn in the package,W = 3.00 Ibs
Yarn count,Ne= 16
W

e know that,Yarn count,Ne=

L xw

1#'x /
Th
Ne x p-x/
erefore,L=
W
=

16 x 3.00 x 840
1

= 40,320 yds
*

t=

40320
745

=54.12minutes(assumingnobreaksorstops)
To considerthe effectofefficiency,
Therefore,t= 54.12
0.95
= 56.97 m inutes.

74

W ARP PREPARATIO N

The preparation of warp yarn is more dem anding and complicated than that of the weft or
filling-yarn.Each spotin a warp yarn mustundergo severalthousand cycles ofvariousstresses

appiied by the weaving machine.W eaving stressesinclude dynamic extension / contraction,


rotation (twist/untwist),and clingingofhairs.Additionally,there are metal-to-yarn andyarnto-yarn flexing and m etal-to-yarn and yarn-to-yarn abrasion stresses. M odern weaving
machines have placed increased demands on warp preparation due to fasterweaving speeds
and the use of insertion devices other than the shuttle. W arp yarn must have uniform
propertieswith sufficientstrength to w ithstand stress and frictionalabrasion during weaving.
The numberofknotsshould be keptto a m inimum .The knotsshould be standard type and size
such that they fit through the heddle eyes and reed dents. Sizing agent m ust be applied
uniform ly on the surface ofthe yarn.The yarns on the warp sheet must be parallelto each
otherwith equaltension.
.
W arp preparation involveswinding,warping,sizing and drawing-in ortying-in.The purpose of
warp winding is to form a package ofgood quality yarn that is large enough to be used in the
creelof a warping machine.W inding of yarn forwarping is usually done at relatively high
tension.

W arping:
W arping section forw arp yarn preparation:
In generalterms, warping is transferring many yarns from a creel of single-end packages
forming a parallelsheet of yarns wound onto a beam or a section beam . Today's warping
macbinescan processaIIkindsofm aterials including coarse and fine filam entand staple yarns,
monofilaments,textured and sm00th yarns,silkand othersyntheticyarnssuch asglass. Usually
a staticeliminatordevice isrecom m ended foryarnsthatcan generate staticelectricity.
The warp beam that is installed on a weaving machine iscalled a weaver's beam . A weaver's
beam can contain severalthousand ends and fordifferent reasons itis rarely produced in one
operation,There are severaltypesofwarping processesdepending on the purpose. ltshould be
noted thatthe warping terminology is qui
te different in different regions and sometim es the
same term may be used to identifydifferentprocessesin differentregionsorindustries.

75

W arping is aimed at preparing the weaver's beam to be set up on the weaving m achine.
W arpingcarriesoutfollowing operations:

Creation,outofa Iimited numberofwarp threads(creelIoad),ofawarp composed of


anynum berofthreadswith the desired length;
Arrangementofabove-mentioned threadspccordingto the desired sequence;
M anufacturing ofawarp beam with said characteristics.
* Ifthe creeling capacity isequalorhigherthan the num berofwarpthreads,the warping
would sim ply entailthe direct winding on the warp beam ofthe threads com ing from
the creel.Generally this condition does nottake place and,even with creels of high
capacity,thfunum berofcreeling positions nevercorrespondsto the numberofthreads,
which isalwaysbyfarhigherthan the num berofbobbins,which the creelcan contain.
Thisproblem hasbeen solved by dividing the warping operation into two phases:
* 1Stphase:unw inding ofthe threadsfrom the bobbinsand theirwindingon intermediate
carriers,tillattainm entofthe required totalnumberofwarp threads;
2ndphase:sim ultaneous rewinding ofaIIthese threadsand subsequentwinding on the
weaver's beam;the contemporaneity of these two operations is the prerequisite to
produce a beam w here aIIthreadsshow same tension and Iength.
Depending on the kind of intermediate carrier used,the industrialwarping process can be
carried outaccording to two di
fferenttechnologies:

Sectionalwarping(Indirectorconicaldrum ordresserwarping)
Beam warpingordirectwarping(preparatorybeam warping).

76

Exam plesofW arp Beam

DirectW arping orHigh speed warping:


ln directwarping,the yarns are withdrawn from the single-end yarn packageson the creeland
dirctlywound onabeam.
Directwarping isused in tw o ways:

* 1. Direct warping can be used to directly produce the weaver's beam in a single
operation.This is especially suitable forstrong yarnsthat do notrequire sizing such as
continuous filaments or monofilaments and w hen the number of warp ends on the
warp beam isrelativelysm all.Thisisalso called directbeaming.

@ lI.Directwarping is used to make smaller,intermediate beams called w arp'er's beams.


These smaller beams are com bined later at the sizing stage to produce the weaver's
beam.This process is called beam ing.Therefore,for exam ple,if the weaver's beam
contains 9000 warp ends,then there would be - say - 9 warper's beam sof 1000 ends
each.Ifthisweaver's beam were to be m ade atone stage,the creelwould have to have
9000 yarn packages,w hich is hardly possible to m anage and accom modate.Usually 8 to
10 ends per inch are recom mended on section beams for sizing purposes. Beam
hardnessisrecom mended to be 50- 60 ;hardnessshould be achieved with tension,not
from packing rollpressure.
Directwarpers are used to warp aIIconventionalstaple fibres,regenerated fibres and
filaments.In directwarping,a flange beam isused.Since aIIthe yarnsare w ound atthe
same time,the flanges provide sufficient yarn stability on the beam.The typicalbeam
flange diam eters are 800,1000, 1250 and 1400 m m with working widths of 1400 to
2800 mm . M achine specific options include tape applicator, static elim inator,
windscreen, com b blowing and dust extraction devices, yarn storage and inspedion
units,oiler,tension roller unit,beam removalunit and controlplatform.An expanding
zigzag com b which isused to controlthe width ofthe beam and keep the yarnsparallel
and straight.

77

DirectorHigh speed warping

IndirectorSection W arping:
In indirect w arping,a section beam is produced first as show n in figure.Other nam es
used for section warping are pattern w arping, band warping or drum w arping. The
section beam is tapered at one end.W arp yarn is wound on the beam in sections,
starting w ith the tapered end of the beam . Each section has m ultiple ends that are
traversed together slow ly during w inding along the Iength of the section to form the
angle.Due to the geom etry ofthe yarn sections,the Iastsection on the beam w illhave a
tapered end thatw illm ake the whole yarn on the beam stable.Itisim portantthateach
layeron the beam contain the sam e num berofyarns.The sam e Iength ofyarn isw ound
on each section which is m easured by a m easuring roller.The warping speed can be

adjusted in the range of20 to 800 m/min;however,residualelongation willbe reduced


athigh speeds.

AfteraIIthe sections on the beam are w ound com pletely,then the yarn on the beam is
wound onto a regularbeam w ith flanges,before sizing.This process is called beam ing.
Som etim es a section beam isalso used in the sizing stage.

78

IndirectorSectionalw arping
W ith today's com puterized sectionalwarping system s, once the basic style inform ation
isentered,the com puterautom atically calculatesthe follow ing:

num berofsectionson the beam and width ofeach section


carrier Iateralm ovem ent speed and autom atic positioning of each section start
point
autom atic stopsforIeasing
calculation of the correct feed speed irrespective of the m aterial and warp
density.

The com putercan also m onitorthe following:

automaticstopsforpredeterm ined Iength

operatingspeed regulationof+/-0.5% betweenwarping and beaming


* beam ing traverse m otion
mem ory ofyarn breakage during warping forbeam ing
Othertypicalfeaturesofa m odern sectionalw arperare:
* feelerrollerto apply m aterialspecific pressure to obtain exactcylindricalwarp
buildup
* Iease and sizing band m agazines
* constantwarp tension overthe fullw arp w idth
* autom aticsection positioning with photo-opticalsection w idth m easurem ent
* pneum aticstop brakes
warp tension regulation foruniform buildup
* autom aticwarp beam Ioading,doffing and chucking

79

W arping M achines:
A typicalwarpingmachinehasthreemajorcomponents:creel,headstockand controldevices.
1-Creel:
There are varioustypesofcreels.The mostcomm on creeltypesare:

* parallelstandardcreelwithfixedpackageframe(singleendcreel)
* parallelcreelwith package trucks

* parallel creel with swiveling package frame sections (for cotton, viscose,
polyester/cotton,woolcolored)
* parallelcreelwithreservepackages(magazinecreel,forsyntheticfilaments)
* parallelcreelwith unrollingdraw-offforpolypropylene,m onofilam ents
* V - creelwith reversiblefram es

* V - creel with reversible frames and automatic knotter (for cotton, viscose,
polyester/cotton)
* V - creelwith traveling packages.

Parallelcreels are used forsectionalwarping and direct warping;V - creels are used for
directwarping.

ln single end creel,there is only one package for each warp end.Since creeling takes a
considerable time,the package size should be such that a num berofbeam scan be made
from one creel.Also,usually m ore than one creelisused such thatonce a creelisdepleted;
the next one would be readily available to continue warping.Depending on the space
requirem ents,this is done eitberby m oving tbe beadstock orby m oving the creels.jfthe
headstock ism ovable,then usuallytwo creelsare used which are called duplicated creels.lf
the headstock isfixed,again two creels willbe enough buta third creelplace isneeded in
which to m ove theem pty creel.Thisisknown asa truckcreelortrolley creel.

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80
Trolley creels are suitable for both sectionaland direct warping. The creelgenerally has a
rectangular tube construction. The trolley creels have w heels for easy m aneuvering;
how ever,they are stabilized to preventtipping over.

In a m agazine creel,usually a two-package creelisused.The tailend ofthe running package


is attached to the leading end of the reserve package. This allows continuous warping
operation.W ith a yarn splicer,the undesirable effects ofknotscan be avoided.Norm ally a
magazine creelw i
th two pivoting spindles:a working spindle and a reserve spindle. W hen
one set of spindles is in operation,the em pty packages are rem oved from th
eserve set,
.e r
which is then filled with new packages.The creelcan be Ioaded from the center aisle or
from the outside.They are idealifIong yarn Iengthsare to be unwound, ifthe packages do
nothave measured yarn Iengthsorifresidualpackages are used.
In the sw ivelframe creel,em pty packages can be replaced on eitherside from the center
aisle.Thiscreelissuitable forconfined spaces.A foot pedalis used to sw ivelthe frame 1800
to allow the em ptyside to be recreeled.Sw ivelcreelscan have a V shape asw ell.
In traveling package creels,the creelis Iike a continuous belt.Usually two creels form a V

shape.W henthefullpackagesare being used forwarpingontheoutside position (activeor


run posi
tion),the emptyinnerside can be filled with packages.W hen the fullpackagesare
emptied,thesidewiththefullpackagesisbroughttothewarpingarea(outside)byrotation
and the warping continues w ithout m uch interruption except for threading of the warp
ends.Afterrotating the creel,the groups ofyarn from the verticalrows are threaded and
pulled to the warperw here each yarn is positioned in the designated com b dent. The V
configuration is especially suitable for warping of staple yarns at high speeds. Other
advantagesofV -creelare:
*
*
*
@

no need foryarn guide


uniform yarn tension acrossthe w hole beam
free yarn run from the creelto the w arping machine
low yarn tension

In caseswhere overhead unwinding cannot be tolerated, a rollercreelis used.ln the roller


creel,the package rotatesand side withdrawalofyarn takes place. Thistype ofcreelisused
especiallyforcarbon filam ents,aram id fibres,tape yarnsand monofilaments.

II.Headstock:
The yarn speed should be keptasconstantas possible during w arping. l
n indirect(sectional)
warping,a constantspeed drive isgenerally sufficient in providing approxim ately uniform
yarn speed on the surface ofthe beam .Thisisbecause the thicknessofthe yarn builton the
beam is relatively smallcom pared to the beam diam etersuch thatthe surface speed does
notchange m uch .ln directw arping,the change due to yarn buildup on the beam is

81 significant.Therefore,in direct warping,m echanism s that are sim ilarto the ones used in

w inding are utilized to attain uniform yarn speed;surface friction drive and variable speed
drive are comm only used.Forsome filament yarns,variable speed drive is chosen since

Today's headstocks are equipped with advanced design features such as precision direct
drive, advanced electronics, smooth doffing and program mable breaking. Autom atic
hydraulic doffing is accom plished with tbe operation of one button. Program m able
pneum atic braking provides a constantstopping distance regardlessofthe operating speed
or beam diam eter.The length of the yarn wound on the beam is controlled with a
m easuring rollerand counterdevice.The density ofthe yarn can be controlled by tension,
pressure orboth.Frictionaldrive usually resultsin higheryarn density.In spindle drive,yarn
tension and a hydraulically activated pressure roller are used to controldensity.Som e
headstocksare designedto run m ore than one beam w idth.
111.ControlDevices

Sim ilarto winding,warp yarnsare threaded through tension devices,stop motions,Ieasing


rodsand the reed.Uniform tension is necessary so thataIlthe warp endsbehave the same
way.The tension on the warp yarns is kept relatively Iow.Every end requires a tension
controllerwhich isusually Iocated close to the package.
A quickresponse,advanced stop motion isnecessaryforwarping.Dueto the high inertia of
the beam ,itisdifficultto stop the beam suddenly once an end is broken.How ever,the
beam m ustbe stopped before the broken end reaches the beam .The stop m otion

82
electrically Iinks each warp end to the warperbraking system ;when a warp end breaks,the
warperstops.Powerfulbrakesare used forthis purpose.A lightindicatesthe Iocation ofthe
broken end.The warping process is generally irreversible,unwinding of the beam w ould
cause yarn entanglement.The stop m otion device,which can be mechanicalor electronic
forquick response,isusually Iocated nearthe creel.

In an electronic,motion sensitive stop m otion device;the electroniceye detects movem ent


ofindi
vidualendsto triggera warp stop when there isno yarn m ovement.

To avoid static buildup,especially with m anm ade fibres,different m ethods can be used
including chem icals,ionization ofairorhum idification ofair.Fans are used to prevent Iint
accum ulation when warping staple yarns.

83

SIZING O R SLASHING

Sizing section also forw arp yarn preparation


Although the quality and characteristics of the w arp yarns coming out of the winding and
warping processes are quite good,they are stillnotgood enough forthe weaving processfor
m ostoftheyarns.The weaving processrequiresthe warp yarnto be strong,sm ooth and elastic
orextensible to a certain degree.To achieve these propertieson the warp yarns,a protective

coatingofapolymericfilm formingagent(size)isappliedtothewarpyarnspriortoweaving;
this process is called sizing orslashing.Sizing is not a value added process in woven fabric
m anufacturing.This is because,afterthe fabric is woven,the size m aterials willbe removed
from thefabricduringthefinishing operation,which iscalled desizing.
The main purposesofsizing are asfollows:
to increase thestrength oftheyarns
* to reduce theyarn hairinessthatwould cause problemsinweaving process
* to increase the abrasion resistanceoftheyarnsagainstotheryarnsand variousweaving
m achineelements
* to reduce fluffand fIyduringthe weaving processforhighspeed weavingm achines.
To increase the weaveability ofthe warp yarn,thisisthe m aingoalofsizing.

The ultimate goalofsizing isto eliminate orreduce warp breaks during weaving.W arp breaks
are caused ei
therby high tension orby Iow strength in the yarn.High tensionsin the warp are
caused by Iarge shed openings,lack ofpropertension compensation,high beat-up force and

iudequatelet-cq.Knots,afnentactementandhithfrictionalsocausetensionbuildup.
Sizing is a complem entary operation which iscarried outon warpsformed by spun yarnswith
insufficienttenacity orby continuousfilamentyarnswith zero twist.ln general,when sizing is
necessary,the yarn isbeam warped,therefore aIIbeams corresponding to the beam sare fed,
as soon as warping is completed,to the sizing machine w here they are assem bled.Sizing
consistsofim pregnating the yarn with particularstlbstanceswhich form on the yarn surface a

film with the aim ofimprovingyarn smoothnessand tenacity duringthe subsequentweaviig


stage.Thanksto its im proved tenacity and elasticity,the yarn can stand without problems the
tensionsand the rubbing caused byweaving.

Thereisnotjustone sizing'recipe'whichisvalidforaIIprocesses,onthecontrarythesizing
methodschange depending on the type ofweaving m achine used,on theyarn type and count,
on the technician'sexperience and skill,butabove alIon the kind ofm aterialin progress.The

84
only comm on denom inator of the various sizing m aterials is that they have to be easily
removable afterweaving in orderto allow carrying outwithoutproblem sthe sejected finishing
cycle.The substancesused as sizing m aterialare potato flour,starches,glues,fatsbutalso talc
and kaolin,when a particularly thicksize isrequested.

Itshould be noted thatonlywarpyarnsneed to be sized.This isbecause,asm entioned earlier,

warp yarnsare subjectto harshertreatmentsthan fillingyarnsduringthe weaving processon


the weaving m achine.Therefore,the filling yarns willbe free ofsize and no specialfinishing
considerationsare necessary forthese yarns in the fabric.Often,around 80% ofyarn failuresin
weaving are caused by 20% orIessofthe yarns in a warp w hich are called repeaterends.The
slashing processdeals with enhancing individualwarp yarn properties notw ith im proving the
characteristics of the warp sheet. If done im properly, slashing can worsen yarn sheet
characteristics.

Severalspun yarn propertiesare positively affected by sizing.Figure showsthe effectofsizing


on a typicalstaple yarn sheet.Good sizing should reduce hairiness, im prove strength and
abrasion resistance while keeping the yarns separated.Elongation is reduced in a controlled
manner.Flexibility isreduced butreasonably maintained.ffthe sizing is notdone correctly,the
Iong hairfibres protruding from one yarn willbe glued togetherw ith the fibresfrom the other
yarns.This willcause damage of the size film when the yarn sheets are separated back into
individualyarnsatthe separatorrodson the slasherw hich w illreduce the strength and cause a
yarn break.The fibresshould be keptto the body ofthe yarn such thathairsand fibrilsdo not
interfere with the weaving process.
Factorsinfluencing yarn hairiness include hairinessgenerated by the winding process,spinning
tensions,Iocation ofthe yarn on the spinning package,yarn balloon shape,yarn twist,spindle
speed, yarn count, percentage synthetics in a blend, end spacing at slashing, size add-on,
slashercreep speed and bottom squeeze rollcover.

-r-

Controlofyarn hairinesswith sizing,


top:unsized;middle:im properlysized;bottom ;properly sized.

85
A practical understanding of the im portance of size penetration, size encapsulation, yarn
hairiness, residuaqyarn elongation and yarn abrasion resistance is essentialto good sizing
practice. lt is im portant that the size film must coat the yarn sudace without excessive
penetration into the body ofthe yarn,because ifthe size m aterialis penetrated deep in the
yarn,com plete desizing would not be possible.Therefore,only enough penetration should
occurto achieve bonding ofthesize film to preventremovalduring weaving.

Thefollowingtermsare used related to sizing:


* Size Concentration:the massofoven drysolid m atterin size paste

SizeTake-up(sizeadd-on):themassofpastetakenupinthesizeboxperunitweightof
oven dry unsized yarn
Size Percentage:the massofoven drysize perunitweightofoven dry unsizedyarn.

There is an optim um levelof size add-on that gives the m inimum warp end breakage.
Excessive size kakesthe yarn stifferand less extensible;yarnswith too Iittle size willnotbe
strong and smooth enough forweaving.Therefore,too Iittle ortoo m uch sizing causes an
increase in w arp end break.Optim um size add-on givesthe bestresultsforweaving.
Although sizing is done mainly to increase the strength ofthe yarn,som e strong yarnssuch
ascontinuous filam ents stillneed sizing.This is because sizing keeps the slack and broken
filam ents togetherin Iow tw ist yarns which otherw ise would protrude from the body and
rub againstthe m achine elem ents,Ieading to entanglement,developm entoffuzz balls and

end breaks.
Otherpointsto tonsiderin sizing:
Slasher creel tension control is critical especially with MJS and open-end yarns.

Maximum tension should notexceed 5% ofbreakingstrength(15- 20gforringspun


yarnsand 12- 15gforopen-end,MJS and MVS yarns).W ith coarse yarns,sometimes
30g isallowable.
The am ount ofsize picked up is affected by the viscosi
ty ofthe size mix aswellas the
yarn strudure.The viscosity of the mix is controlled by the recipe, amount of solid
content in the size Iiquor and the type of sizing product, mechanicalm ixing Ievef,
tem perature and tim e of boiling.Flat filaments,textured and spun yarns pick up size
differently.
* Yarn spacingatthe slashersize boxand onthe dryingcylindersisvery im portant
The choice ofsize forstaple yarns is usuall
y based on cost.Forfilamentyarns,the size
m aterialischosen based on the com patibilitywith thefibre.
Running the slasher at creep speed,which is sometimes necessaw ,generates a very
undesirable condition forpropersizingand should be m inimized in everyway possible.
@ Stretch ofwarp yarnsduring sizing should be controlled accurately to maintain residual
elongation in the yarn which is needed forgood weaving.Back beam - size box stretch
.

should notexceed 0.5% .

* W ater-solublesizescancauseproblemsinwaterjetweaving.

86
Process studies to determ ine causes for inefficiency should be conducted with strict
cause analysis techniques by an experienced practitioner and not as partofa typical

stopfrequencystudyforjobassignments.
* Guide rollersshould be keptfree from nicks,burrs and sharp edges,especially for MJS

yarns.Theyshould besanded/polishedfrequently.
Pre-wettingyarns priorto sizing can reduce the am ountofrequired size add-on forthe
same performance,especiall
y forcotton yarns.

Sizing m achine:
A sizing machine is used to apply the size materialto the warp yarns.The first sizing m achine

was buil
t in 1803 in England.The majorpartsofthe sizing machine are the creel,size box,
drying units,separation unit,beam ingand variouscontroldevices.
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Warpsizing(simplified)
The size box is probably the m ost im portant section ofthe sizing machine.During the sizing
process,thesheetofyarnsispassedthroughthe size box which containsthe hotwatersolution
ormixturesofsizing agents.The yarnspick up the required quantity ofsize solution in the size
box,any excesssize issqueezed offasthe yarns pass through squeeze rolls.Depending on the
size m aterial,warp quality and density,single and double imm ersion rolls and singl
e squeeze
and double squeeze configurations are used. M ultiple size boxes can also be employed.In

general,single boxsizingmachineshavetwo squeezing rollersandtwo boxmaciineshavea


single rollerin each box.Itisim portantthatthe rollers provide uniform squeezing pressure.The
squeezing system determ inesthe degree ofsize pick up to a Iarge extent.W hile providing size

consistency,the rollpressure should be idjusted to getaround 125 to 130% wetpickup for


cotton yarns,110to 115% forpoly/cotton and 95to 105% forpolyester.0n average,MJSand
open-end yarns pick up around 10 to 15% more wetsize than a comparable ring spun yarn.
Therefore,about10% more watershould be added to getthe same add-on.The bottom rollers
are usually made ofsteelandthetop rollersare rubbercoated.

87

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Beam creelarrangements

Section ofa size box

Tem perature ofthe size box is importantfor propersize pick up.For 100% polyvinylalcohol

(PVA)sizing,atemperatureof160to 1700F(700c)isrecommended.Constantsizetemperature
can beobtained in two ways:

1. Directheatinginwhichsteam isinjectedintothesize.
2. Indirectheating inw hich steam flowsin pipesaround the double walled size box.

A cooker is used to prepare the size and the shearing action in the cookeris im portantfor
uniform m ixing.Powdered size from silos,big-bags orsacks is metered into weighing stations
and then transferred to the cooker.
Afterthe size box,the yarnsgo through the dryersection.The wetyarnsare dried by using bot
air,infrared radiation orcylinderdrying.Cylinderdrying is done using steam heated hot rolls
which are called drying cylinders.Some-times,a com bination ofdrying methodsis used on the

same machine.Quite often,the wetyarns (usually filament)are predried using hotairor


infrared and drying iscom pleted with drying cylinders.
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Due to the nature ofsizing,the yarns in the sheetm ay be stuck togetheratthe exitofthe
dryersection.Therefore,they are separated into individualendsby using bustrods.First,the

88

individualsheets of yarns from each section beam are separated followed by pins in the
expansion comb to separate the yarns witbin each sheet.Then the yarns are wound onto a

Ioom beam forweaving(weaver'sbeam).


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Typicalleasingsystem

Beam arrangem entsin the creelare usuallytwo types:


Groupsof2,4,6 or8,oneto fourtiers
Staggered,two-tierarrangem ent

Some sizing machinescan have up to 24 beam positions.The beam scan be controlled in groups
orindividually.The Iet-offcan be individuallet-off,single group let-offorw rap-round Iet-off.

89

DRAW ING-IN AND R ING-IN

Draw ing-in:
After sizing,the sized warp beam is prepared to be placed on the weaving machine. High
fashion fabrics generally have high density which increasesthe dem and on the quality ofshed
opening.Asa result,warp Ieasing isbecom ing m ore popular.Different Iease com binationscan
be selected w i
ththe automated Ieasing m achines.
Drawing-in isthe entering ofyarnsfrom a new warp into the weaving elem ents ofa w eaving
machine,nam el
y drop wires,heddlesand reed, whenstarting up a new fabric style.Tying-in the
new warp endstothe depleted warp isdone when a new pattern isnotrequired.
A drop wire is a narrow m etalsheetthat is hung in the airby the tensioned warp yarn. Ifthe

warpyarnisbrokenorslacken(Ioose),thenthedropwiredropsandtouchesametalbarthat
extends along the width ofthe machine.This contact between the drop wire and m etalbar
closes an electricalcircuit and shutsdown the machine im mediately. There is a drop wire for
each warp yarn.

Pinning machinesare used to pin open dropw ireson warps. Sincethepi


nningspeedishigh(up

to200wiresperminute),thesemachinesareeconomicalformorethan3000 warpends.

Afterdropwire,thewarpyarngoesthroughtheheddleeye(thereisonlyonewarpyarnper
heddle eye).Thisisdoneaccordingto aplancalleddrawing-in-draft.Thentheyarnisthreaded
throughthe reed spaces.A reedspace istheopening betweentwo dents(metal)inareed In
.

general,one,tw o orthree warp yarns are passed through one reed space. The reed plan

90
specifiesthe num berofyarns perreed space.The num berofyarnsdependson the diameterof
the yarnsand the dent opening;each yarn should be able to move freely up and down in the
reed space independentofthe otheryarns.

Schem aticofDrawing-in

W arp Drawing-in System

In the manualm ode of drawing-in,one person sorts the warp yarn and the other draws it
through fronthe otherside.The sortingstep can be automated by a reaching machine.
Today,the drawing-in and tying-in processes are fully automated. Drawing-in is done using
robot-like m achines.A specialtype of heddle is needed forautomated drawing-in.The warp
ends,takeh from the warp sheet,are fed individually to the drawing-in elem ent;heddles are
separated from the stackand broughtto the drawing-in position;a plastic knife opensa gap in
the reed and a hookdraws-in the warp end through the heddle and reed in one step.

91

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Fully autom ated Drawing-in m achine

Automaticdrawing ofwarp end through drop wire,heddle eyeand reed


Automaticdrawing-in increasesspeed,flexibility and quality in weaving preparation com pared

tomanualdrawing-in.A drawingrateof50,000warpendsper8hours(200endsperminute)is
possible.

hangingstylemeansproducinganew fabricstyle,weaver'sbeam changingmeansgoingon


weavingthesamefabricstylejustreplacingtheemptybeam withafullbeam ofsametype.
DraWing-in consists of threading the warp yarns through the drop wires,the healds and the
reed.Depending onthe stylesofthe produced fabricsand on thecom pany'ssize,thisoperation
can be carried outm anually,bydrawing-in m ale orfemale workers.

Tying-in:
Afterthe depletion of a warp beam on the weaving m achine,if there willbe no change in
design,then the drawing-in process needs not be repeated.The ends ofthe old warp beam

(now afabricbeam)arecutandtheendsofthenew warpbeam aretiedtothecorresponding


endsofthe oId beam w hich iscalled tying-in process.Then,the warp ends are pulled through
the heddle eyesand reed untilthe knotsare cleared.

92

A sm allportable robot is used on oroffthe weaving m achine fortying-in.A typicalwarp tying

machinecan knotsingleorpIyyarnsfrom 1.7to80 Ne(340- 7tex).Theycanknotcotton,


wool,synthetic and blend warp yarnsaswellasyarnsofdifferentthicknesses.Typicalknotting
speed ofa knotterisfrom 60 to 600 knotsperm inute.

W ith continuousfilaments and bulky yarns,a non-slip double knotisrecom mended which can
be handled by knotting m achines.Som e automatic tying machines can knot extrem ely short

tailsofyarns(5mm).Tapeyarnsand monofilamentsrequire a slightlydifferenttying machine.


Tape yarnsofup to 8 mm w idth can be tied.The knotting speed istypically 60 to 450 knotsper
minute.The number of warp ends to be tied together'can be preprogram med; once this
num berisreached,the knotterstopsautom atically.A dualknotting system is used on a double
beam weaving m achine; the knotters work from Ieft to right and from right to Ieft
simultaneously.

The warpwelding machine is used to weld the warp end layerwith aplasticfoilafterdrawing-in
w hich providessim pl
e insertion through the weaving m achine.Thisresultsin tim esaving atthe
machine startup.After drawing-in with a brush beam the ends protruding from the reed are
aligned paralleland stretcbed evenly.An approximately Scm wide plasticfoilisplaced ontop of
the Iowerwelding barand a Iongerpiece ofplastic foilis placed on the warp yarnsabove the
lowerpiece ofplasticfoil.By moving the upperwelding bardow n,the plasticfoilsare welded
togetherwiththe warp yarns in between.

Severalpointsshould be considered duringdrawing-in and tying-in.Impropersplicing and/or


knotting can become criticalto good weaving performance.The straightnessofindividualwarp
yarns and theirfreedom to act independentl
y as they pass through a weaving m achine are
im portant for quality weaving.Yarns that are crossed and tangled cannot proceed without
excessive stress and yarns that are restricted or influenced by drop-wire activity, heddle
spacing,harnessinterference orreed spacing willnotweave attop perform ance.

93

FUN DAM ENTALS O F W EAV ING

W eaving Printiple:
The following figuresshow a schematicofweaving.The warp yarnsare stored on a beam called

aweaver'sbeam orwarp beam (alsocalled aloom beam)andtheyflow to thefrontofthe


machine where the fabricbeam is Iocated.The filfing yarn isw ithdrawn from a single package
and inserted betweenthe sheetsofwarp yarns,which are perpendicularto thefillingyarn.
The warp beam,which holdsthe fengthwise yarns,isIocated atthe back ofthe m achine and is
controlled so that itreleases yarn to the weaving area ofthe Ioom as needed.Thisfunction is
the Iet-offmotion,the firstoffourprimary Ioom motions.The heald wiresorheddlesare wire
or metalstrips that allow controlof the individualends; an end is pulled through the eye
located in the centerofeach heddle.The individualheddlesare mounted in a harnessorheald
shaftthatallowsthe warp yarnsto be controlled in groups.A Ioom has at Ieasttwo harnesses
orheald shafts,and mosthave m ore.The num berofharnesseson a Ioom helps determ ine the
com plexity ofthefabricdesign thatcan be produced.

Heald w ire

Reed
W oven (210th

Warpyarn

Heald shafts
w arp beam

Filling yarn
filling carrier

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Basicstructure ofaweaving machine


lnatwo-harnessloom,everyotherwarpyarnacrossthewidthofthefabricisinoneharness.W henthat
harness is raised,halfofthe w arp yarns rise to produce an opening between the tw o

94
sheets of warp yarns.This opening, known as the shed,produces a path through w hich the
filling is inserted.The loom m otion is called shedding,and the order in which harnesses are
raised and Iowered produces a pattern in the fabric. In looms containing m ore than two
harnesses,the sequence fordrawing endsthrough heddles and mounting heddles in harnesses
becomesmore intricate.In m any cases,groupsofharnessesare raised and Iowered together.A
very good fabric designer is needed to plan the drawing-in ofa warp and the sequencing of
harnessmovementsin a3z-harnessloom .

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Crosssection ofshuttle loom along thewarp direction


The third basic Ioom motion is picking orweft insertion.For many years,weft yarn was laid

acrosstheshedwithashuttle.Intoday'sweaving machines,anotherdevice,suchasajetofair
orwater,a rapier,orasmallprojectile,isused to placethe pick.Then eachfillingyarnmustbe
packed againstthe previously placed pick.Thisisaccom plished by using a reed,which is parallel
to the harness,to pressthe pick into position.This isthe beat-up m otion,the fourth and final
prim ary loom motion.The three motions such as shedding, picking and beat-up is called
weaving cycle orIoom cycle.
The c10th beam,orc10th roll,Iocated atthe frontofthe Ioom,hofds the com pfeted fabric;as

each pickisbeateninto position,thefabricjustproduced isrolled ontothetake-up beam.This


take-up motion isthe finalloom m otion;because Iet-offand take-up occursim ultaneously,the
loom motion isusually referred to as''Iet-offand take-up'
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Most fabrics are produced on weaving m achines with eight or fewer harnesses; elaborate
fabrics, however,require many harnesses and the specialattachments required to control
groups of harnesses,orthey have mechanism s sim ilar to com putercontrols that move each
individualwarp yarn to produce complex patterns.These m ore elaborate shedding mechanism s

suchasdobbyandjacquardsheddingmechanism.

95

Basicw eaving m otions:


Although there are m any m echanisms on a modern weaving machine for various purposes,
there are five basicm echanismsthatare essentialforcontinuousweaving asfollows:
W arp Iet-off,shedding,pickinsertion orpicking, beat-up and fabrictake-up.
1. W arp Let-off:
W arp Iet-off m echanism releases the warp yarn from the warp beam as the warp
yarn is woven into the fabric.The Iet-off m echanism applies tension to the warp
yarns by controlling the rate offlow ofwarp yarns. The m echanism should keep the
propertension on the warp yarnsw hich controls the crim p rates ofwarp and weft
yarns. Uniform tension is essential in weaving. Increasing the warp tension
decreases the warp crimp and increases the filling crimp in the fabric. The crimp
ratio ofwarp and weftaffectsthe fabricthickness. Yarn diametersbeing the sm e,
equalwarp and weftcrim ps resultin the Iowestthicknessofthe fabric.

Let-off mechanisms can be classified as negative and posi


tive. In negative Iet-off
m echanism,the tension on the warp yarns providesthe driving force againstfriction
forces in the Iet-off motion.The tension of the warp is regulated by the frid ion
between the chain orrope and the beam ruffle. The negative friction type ofIet-off
mechanism s were m ainl
y used for non-autom atic weaving. In positive Iet-off
m echanism s,the w arp beam isturned ata rate which depends on the yarn length
between the warp beam and c10th fell. A separate m echanism is used to apply
constanttension on the warp yarnsasthe warp isdepleted.
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weavingmachine

Let-offmechanismscan also be classified asm echanicalorelectronic. Mostmodern


weaving m achines have electronicIet-off. Electronicwarp Iet-offprovidesa positive

96

and controlled release of w arp yarn from fullto em pty beam w hich results in a
consistent warp tension.It isgood for preventing fabric defects such as pick density
variation and stop m arks.W eaving tensions should be m aintained atm inim um Ievels
forbestweaving perform ance.
The electronic fet-off system can be equipped w ith a pulley m echanism .or a
reduction gearm echanism .The Iinearand positive letting offofthe w arp beam can
be provided by a m agnetic reading ofthe w hip rollposition.Electronic warp let-off
system s have program m able m ovem ents w ith a tenth of pick accuracy to elim inate
stop m arks.They have the capability to release the yarn tension atthe stop ofthe
weaving m achine and recoverit atthe starting ofthe m achine by a num berofpicks

ranging1/10ofapickto 50 picks.Thisway,theoverstretchingoftheyarn,which is
the majorcause ofdefectsduring the standstilltim e,is prevented.The system can
follow anym ovementofthe machine,such astheforward slow motion (jogging)and
pickfinding m otioriW i
th the electronic Iet-offm echanism ,since brake and coupling
Iiningsare no Iongerneeded,spare partscostisreduced.
2. W arp Shedding:

Shedding is the m ovem ent of som e w arp yarns up and som e down to m ake an
angled opening for the weft yarn to be inserted through.This opening is called
''shed''. Before the insertion of the next w eft yarn, the w arp sheet has to be
rearranged according to the fabric design pattern so that the required fabric
structure isproduced.
3. W eftInsertion orPicking:
Aftereach shed change,the weftyarn is inserted through the shed as show n in the
follow ing figure. lt is possible to select and insert different w eft yarns one after
another.These w eft yarns can be of different colour,w eight,etc.,and a selection
m echanism is used for this purpose. Depending on the m achine type, several
different weft yarns can be used in the sam e fabric. The selection m echanism
presentsthe properw eftyarn to the yarn carrierforinsertion ofeach yarn.
W eaving m achines are usually classified according to the w eft insertion m echanism .

The majorweft insertion systems thatare used today are air-jet,rapier,projectile


andwater-jet,which are called shuttlelessweavingm achines.

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Shuttle w ith a pirn

97
harness l

tillinginsertion

harness2

tillingselection

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andey
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fabric

Selection and insertionoffillingyarnsi.e.Picking


reed

tilling
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Elem entsofw arp shedding m otion

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Schem aticofbeat-up process i.e.Beating

A gripperprojectile transports a single weftyarn into the shed.Energy required for


picking is builtup by tw isting a torsion rod.On release,the rod im m ediately returns

to its initialposition,sm oothly accelerating the projectile through a picking lever.


The projectile glides through the shed in a rake-shaped guide, braked in the
receiving unit,the projectile isthen conveyed to itsoriginalposition by a transport
device installed underthe shed.The projectile'ssmallsize makesshedding motions
shorterw hich increases operating speeds overw ide w idthsoffabric,often weaving
m ore than one paneloffabric with one insertion m echanism .
weftcone

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W eftinsertionbyRapier

The above figure illustrates w ef'


tinsertion by tw o flexible rapiersw ith w eftcarriers,
a giverand a taker.The w ef'tis inserted halfw ay into the shed by one carrierand

)
;

98

takenoverinthe centerbythe othercarrierand drawnoutto the opposite side ofthe fabric.A


specialcrank gear drives the oscillating tape w heels to w hich the rapiertapes are
attached. In the shed, the tapes m ove w ithout guides.The grippers assum e the
correct clam ping position autom atically. Different versions of rapier insertion
system sare also available.
The m ost popular m ethod of w eft insertion is illustrated in the follow ing figure

where a jetofairisused to ''blow''the weftyarn into the shed.Thissmallmassof


insertion fluid enables the m echanism to operate at extrem ely high insertion rates.
The picks are continuously m easured and draw n from a supply package,given their
initialacceleration by the m ain air nozzle and boosted orassisted across the fabric
w idth by tim ed groups of relay air nozzles.The otherfluid system uses waterasthe

insertion medium, but the use of a water-jet is generally Iimited to hydrophobic


yarnssuch as nylon orpolyesterfilam ent.

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W eftinsertion byShuttle

A shuttle Ioom uses a shuttle to store and carry the yarn back and forth across the
Ioom .Shuttle Ioom s have becom e obsolete in m anufacturing of traditionalw oven
fabrics due to several reasons, including Iow production rate, high noise, safety
concerns, Iim ited capabilities, etc.Nevertheless,the shuttle loom is stillused as a

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t referencepointforthemodernshuttlel
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des,some
r industrialwoven fabricsare stillbeing m ade on specially designed shuttle Ioom s.
'
Yarn Accum ulatorsorFeeders:

Yarn feedersoraccum ulatorsare used to w ind a predeterm ined yarn Iength to m ake
i
t ready for insertion.Their m ain purpose is to supply weft yarn to the weaving
machine sm oothly and at a constant and propertension.There are varioustypes of
feeders used.The selection ofa feederdependson severalfactors:

99

m axim um speed dqlivered

yarn count

windingdirection (SorZ)

yarn reserve control

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Schem aticofa typicalair-jetweaving m achine


M axim um speed depends on the yarn count range. Reserve controlcan be done
m echanically or electronically by m eans of photocells.The threading through the
feeder can be done m anually or pneum atically. The tensioning of the yarn is
controlled by a breaking device which can be of different types including bristle,

metallamella,flexbrakeandcoaxialoutputtensioner.Thefigure(flexbrake)shows
the m em brane and the endless beryllium coppertensioning strip.The flex isused to
replace the brush ring and output tensioner in conventional brake system s.The

figure (Coaxialoutputtensioner)shows the yarn travelsthrough two tensioning


discsmounted inthefeedernose.An adjustable tensioning spring regulatesthqbase
force exerted by the discs,w hich allow the setting,and m aintaining oftension Ievels.
During the weft insertion process,the ''Coaxialoutputtensioner''com pensatesyarn
tension fluctuations.W eft breakage atthe feederentry is detected electronically to
stop the w eaving m achine.Forheavy yarns,a balloon breaker can be fitted in front
ofthe feederinstead ofthe norm aleyelet.

100

Yarnfeedersforrapierandprojectileweavingmachine(courtesyofNuovaRojElectrotex)

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During weaving offine woolens and Iinen yarns,usually a Iubricant is used w hich is
supplied by a Iiquid dispenser. The purpose of the Iubricant is to reduce w eft
breakages and increase weaving m achine speed and weaving eficiency.A Iiquid
dispenser is placed between w eft yarn package and feeder, w hich allow s an even
distribution of Iiquids,w ax,oil,m oisturizers and anti-static Iubricants on weftyarns
during weaving.The w eftyarn is coated w hen it passesovera m otordriven rotating
cylinderthatisim m ersed in a Iiquid reservoir.
To im prove the fabric appearance,i.e.,to com pensate yarn count fluctuations and
colour irregularities, a one-one-w eft insertion from tw o bobbins instead of weft
insertion from onl
y one bobbin is recom m ended.
4. Beat-up:
W hen the w ef'tyarn is inserted through the shed,it Iies relatively farfrom itsfinal

position.Thisisbecausethe insertion device (air-jet,projectile,rapier,etc.)cannot


physically fitatthe acute angle ofthe shed opening.This finalposition iscalled fell,
w hich isthe im aginary Iine w here the fabric starts.Therefore,the new ly inserted

101

w eft yarn needs to be brought to its finalposition by pushing through the warp
sheet.Beat-up is the process of pushing the Iast inserted weftyarn to the c10th fell
by using a device called reed asshow n in the above figure.ForaIIpracticalpurposes,
the fabric is notform ed untilbeat-up occurs.

Reed isa closed comb offlatmetalstrips(wires).These metalstripsare uniformly


spaced at intervals that correspond to the spacing of w arp ends in the fabric;

therefore,thereedisalsousedtocontrolwarpyarndensity(closeness)inthefabric.
Warpdensityisexpressedaseitherendsperinch(epi)orendspercentimeter(epc),
which affects the w eight of the fabric.The spaces betw een the m etalstrips are
called ''dents''.The reed holds one or m ore warp yarns in each dent and pushes
them to the c10th fell.After beating up the weftyarn,the reed is withdrawn to its
original rest position before the insertion of the next pick. The follow ing figure

shows a regularreed and a profiled reed.Profiled reed is used in airjetweaving


m achines.In shuttle Ioom s,the reed also guidesthe shuttle.

RegularReed(bottom)andProfiledReedttop)
The shape and thickness of the m etalw ires used in the reed are im portant.Reed
selection depends on several considerations including fabric appearance, fabric

weight (ends per unit width),beat-up force,airspace requirement and weave


design.
Reeds are identified by a ''reed num ber''w hich is the num berofdents per unit
w idth.Specifying the num berofends perdentw ith a certain reed num berdictates

theconstruction(density)ofendsperinchinthefabriconthe Ioom.Itshould be
noted thatinterlacing causes a naturalcontraction ofyarns in the fabric such that

102
density ofw arp endsoffthe Ioom w illbe higherthan in the reed;generally about5%
higherdepending on the weave,tensionsand yarn sizesinvolved.

5. Take-up:
Asthe fabric isw oven,itshould be rem oved from the w eaving area.This is achieved
by the take-up m otion.The fabrictake-up rem ovesc10th at a rate thatcontrolsw eft

density ( picks per inch i.e. ppior picks per centim eter i.e. ppc).Two factors
determ ine w eft density: weaving m achine speed and rate of fabric take-up.
Generally, the pick insertion rate of a w eaving m achine is fixed at the tim e of
purchase based on the range of fabrics it is intended to produce, the type of
insertion m echanism and the w eaving m achine w idth.There is two types oftake-up
m echanism ,such as positive take-up m echanism and negative take-up m echanism .

Following figure shows the positive fabric take-up m echanism on a typicalAir-jet


weaving machine.W eaving machinespeed isexpressed aspicksperminute (ppm)
and rateoftake-up asinchesperminute (ipm)orcentimeterperminute (cm/min).
W arp density and weft density togetherare referred to asthe ''construction''ofthe
fabric.
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Schematicoffabrictake-up mechanism on atypicalAirjetweavingm achine


The follow ing relationsexist:

Reed number= Num berofdents/inchornum berofdents/cm

Weftdensity(ppiorppc)=

Machine speedlpicks/min)
Take-up speedlinch/min orcm !min)
Warpdensity(epiorepc)=Reednumberx ends/dent
Fabric Construction = W arp density x W eftdensity

103

Itshould be em phasized thatboththe endsand pickscontractbecause ofinterlacing


causing construction on the Ioom and off the loom to be different.Subsequent
fabric finishing steps also introduce changes in the fabric construction,which m ust
be considered in setting up Ioom specifications.

Auxiliaryw eaving m otionsorfunctions:


In addition to the five basic m otions ofa Ioom,there are many otherm echanisms on
typicalweaving m achinesto accom plish otherfunctions.These include:
* A drop w ire assem bl
y,one w ire for each warp yarn,to stop the machine when a
warp end isslackorbroken.
* A tension sensing and com pensating whip rollassem bly to maintain tension in the
warp sheet.
A m echanism to stopthe m achine when aweftyarn breaks
Autom atic pick finding device reduces m achine dow ntimes in case of weft yarn
breakages.
.
@ W eftfeedersto controltension on each pick.
Pick mixersto blend alternate picksfrom two orm ore packages
* W eftselection mechanism forfeedingm ulti-typeweftpatterns.
* W eft selvedge devices such as trim mers, tuckers, holders and special weave
harnessesforselvedge warp ends.
* W eft replenishment system to provide uninterrupted weft insertion by switching
from adepleted to afullpackage.
@ A tem ple assembly on each selvedgeto keep fabricwidth atthe beat-up asnearthe
w idth ofthe warp in the reed aspossible.
* Sensorsto stopthe m achine in the eventofm echanicalfailure.
* A centralized lubrication controland dispensing system.
* A reversing m echanism to avoid bad start-upsaftera machine stop.
@ A colour coded Iight signal device to indicate the type of machine stop from a
distance.
@ A production recording system .

Fabricw idth:
Atthe m om entitiswoven,the fabricw idth is equalto the reed width asshow n in the
follow ingfigure.However,asthe w eavingcontinuesand fabricgetsaway from the reed,

thefabricstartsnarrowingduetoseveralfactors(itshouldbenotedthatthereare
certainfabricswhichdonotgetnarrower,e.g.glassfabrics).Theseareweavingdesign,
fabric construction and w eaving tensions.The interlacing pattern ofthe w eave design
affectsthe crim p Ievelin the fabric and crim p on the w eftyarn causesthe fabricto
contractin width direction.Fabricconstruction,i.e.,the num berofweftand w arp yarns
perunitIength,also affectsfabric crim p and therefore fabricw idth.High weaving

104
tensions,especially in the warp yarns,cause fabric to shrink.W arp yarnsclosestto the
selvedgesofthe fabric undergo m ore stressdue to w idthwise contraction ofthe fabric
tow ard the center,causing Iinearangulardisplacementofthese outermostyarns.
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Function ofTem ple in weaving

The narrowing offabric width should be prevented,by using a tem ple on each side of
the machine.Controlof fabric contraction by the tem ples of the m achine is another
criticalaspect ofgood weaving perform ance.A tem ple is a m etallic device that keeps
the fabric stretched by applying a force along the weft direction.There are various
tem ple typesasshown in the following figure.Itisalso possible to have a tem ple across
the fullwidth ofthe fabric.Fullwidth tem ples ensure uniform fabric quality overthe
entire weaving width with delicate fabrics and easieroperation.The fulltem ple hasthe
followingadvantages:
*
*

Uniform warp and w efttension overthe entire w idth.


Uniform fabric characteristicsoverthe entire w idth.
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DifferentTem plesused in w eaving m achine


No fabric draw ing defect.
No dam age to fabric by needle rings.
Rapid changeoverfrom fullw idth to cylindricaltem ples.

105

W eaving m achine orLoom :


W eaving is done on a m achine called a Ioom .AIIthe w eaves that are know n today have
been m ade forthousands of years.The Ioom has undergone significant m odifications,
but the basic principles and operations rem ain the sam e.W arp yarns are held taut
w ithin the Ioom ,and weftyarns are inserted and pushed into place to m ake the fabric.
In prim itive loom s,the warp yarns were kept upright or horizontal. Backstrap Ioom s,
used for hand w eaving in m any countries,keep the warp yarns taut by attaching one
beam to a tree orpost and the other beam to a strap thatfits around the weaver's hips
as the weaver stands, squats, or sits. W eft yarns are inserted by a shuttle batted
through raised w arp yarns.To separate the w arp yarnsand weave faster,alternate warp
yarns were attached to bars that raised the alternate w arp yarns.A toothed device
sim ilar to a fine com b pushed the filling yarns in place.Eventually,the bar developed
into heddles and harnesses attached to foot pedals so the w eavercould separate the
w arp yarns by stepping on the pedals, Ieaving the hands free for inserting the weft
yarns.

During the IndustrialRevolution,m ass-production high-speed Ioom sw ere developed.


The m odern Ioom consists oftw o beam s,a w arp beam and a c10th orfabric beam ,
kolding the w arp yarns betw een them .W arp yarns thatare sufficientforthe Iength,
width,and density ofthe fabricto be woven are wound carefully onto a warp beam .The
w arp w illbe raised and Iow ered by a harnessheddle arrangem ent.A harnessisa fram e
to hold the heddles.The harness position,the num berofharnesses,and the warp yarns
thatare controlled by each harness determ ine the w eave pattern orinterlacing.A
heddfe isa w ire w ith a hole oreye in its centerthrough w hich a warp yarn isthreaded.
There are as m any heddles asthere are w arp yarnsin the c10th,and the heddles are
held in tw o orm ore harnesses.Each w arp yarn passes through the eye ofonly one

heddle.Theselection ofthe specificheddleand harnessisam ajorfactorindeterm ining

106

the structure ofthe fabric.The above figure (basic structure ofa weaving machine)
illustrates how a sim ple tw o-harness Ioom is used to raise one harness w hile the other
harness rem ains in its originalposition.W ith this arrangem ent,the yarns from a shed
through which the'
w eftis inserted.

The carrier used fortransporting the w eft yarn m ay differ from one kind of Ioom to
another. The different devices used form the basis'for classifying different types of
Ioom s.The nam e ofthe Ioom often refers to the carrier used to insertthe w eftyarn.
Originally, these carriers w ere fairly Iarge, som ew hat oval w ooden shuttles with a
bobbin of yarn in the center. W ithin the industry m any people refer to new er
equipm entasw eaving m achines ratherthan Ioom s.W eaving m achinesvary from older,
shuttle Ioom sto m odern shuttleless m achinesw ith sophisticated electroniccontrols.
A. Shuttle W eaving M achines:
Forcenturies,the basic loom operated with a shuttle to lay the w eft yarn.By the
m iddle of the tw entieth century,shuttle Ioom s had developed to a high levelof
efficiency, allow ing them to m ake fabric rapidly w ith reduced num bers of flaws.
These shuttle w eaving m achines depend on a shuttle,a boat-shaped,m etal-tipped
carrier,to supply a continuous Iength of w eft yarn forthe weaving operation.The
yarn isactually w ound on a sm allspindle orbobbin know n as a pirn orquill,w hich is
placed in an opening in the shuttle.The shuttle enters the shed and m oves across
the w idth ofthe fabric to Iay the pick;it stopsatthe opposite side ofthe fabric;and,
after that pick is beaten into place,a new shed is form ed and the shuttle returns
across the Ioom , releasing yarn from the pirn to produce another pick. As this
operation is repeated,the weft yarn is alternately w oven over and underthe warp
yarnsatthe sidesofthe fabricto form the selvedge.
The width ofthe fabric is controlled by the num berand spacing ofthe w arp yarns
acrossthe Ioom .The yarn supply on each pirn isfairly sm all;itis enough to produce
severalinches of fabric Iength.Pirn in the shuttle m ust be replaced w hen the yarn
supply is exhausted.The frequency with w hich a pirn hasto be replaced dependson
the fineness of the w eft yarn. Coarse yarns require m ore frequent replacem ent;
fineryarnsneed to be replaced Iess often.
In the m echanicalchanger,fullpirns are kept ready in a revolving case.The m acgine
ram s them into the shuttle w hen the shuttle com es to rest briefly aftercrossing the
yarn.The pressure ofthe fullpirn crow ds the em pty quillout ofthe shuttle.It falls
through a slot into a containerunderthe Ioom .The new pirn is pushed m echanically
into place in the shuttle,w hich has a self-threading device that autom atically picks
up the yarn when the new pirn is inserted.This allow s the w eaving to continue
w ithout a stop.

107

A specialized process has been developed thatallows w inding of pirns to take place
at the Ioom . In the Unifilsystem ,em pty pirns are carried on a conveyer bel
t to a
point w here yarn from a Iarge package is w ound onto an em pty pirn that is then
returned to a position where it can be placed in the shuttle.This system requires
thatfew erw ound pirns be supplied,butit has severallim itations.It is usefulonly for
single-colourpicks,and because the costofthe system is high,itis m ost econom ical
for coarse yarns that w ould require especially frequent pirn replacem ent. Picking
w hen tw o or m ore different colours or types ofweftyarn are used requires tw o or
m ore shuttles and a m ore com plex and costly type of Ioom arrangem ent. A
conventionalshuttle Ioom has one shuttle box on each side ofthe m achine.
To insert yarns of diserent colours or types, a num ber of shuttle boxes m ust be
m oved up and dow n to bring shuttlesinto position to create the pattern.Such Ioom s
are often called pick-and-pick Ioom s. Am ong the advantages of m ost shuttleless
Ioom s is that they draw yarn for each pick directly from yarn packages, m aking it
easierand Iesscostly to inserta num berofdifferentcolours ortypesofyarn.

The Iength of fabric produced by a single w eaving m achine is determ ined by the
Iength ofthe individualwarp yarns w ound on the w arp beam s.Ifa soo-yards Iength
of fabric is needed, each end on the w arp beam willbe Ionger than 500 yards to
provide enough yarn for the fabric Iength, plus an additionalam ount for certain
allow ances.The am ountoffabric produced in a given tim e period isgoverned by the
speed atw hich the picks are inserted.
The speed w ith w hich w eaving m achines operate hastraditionally been expressed in
picks perm inute,orppm .Itoperatesatspeeds ranging from about110 to 225 picks

perminute(ppm).Asshuttleequipmentwasoperated athigherspeedsto increase


m illproductivity,the noise Ievelin weave room s becam e intense.Shuttle Ioom s are
extrem ely noisy because the pickerstick,orbarthathitsthe shuttle acrossthe shed,
and the barthat catches it on the other side m ake Ioud clacking noises each tim e
they m ake contact with the shuttle.The shuttle Ioom isthe oldest kind of Ioom .Itis
effective and versatile,but ithas otherdisadvantages.The shuttle som etim escauses
abrasion on the warp yarns as it passes over them and som etim es causes thread
breaks.This, in turn,results in m achine stoppage in orderto tie the broken yarns.
Shuttle Ioom s operate m ore slow ly than som e new typesofIoom s.
B. Shuttleless W eaving M achines:

Shuttleless w eaving m achines w ere invented to increase the speed ofw eaving,
reduce the Iiterally deafening noise and overcom e the otherdisadvantages ofthe
shuttle loom .The m odern Ioom w ith a shuttle,although m uch fasterin operation
than the earliestautom atic loom s,is notsusceptible to furtherincreasesin speed
because ofthe variety of operations thatthe m achine m ust perform .Tim e is
required forstopping the shuttle and accelerating it in the otherdirection and the

108
w eight ofyarn on the pirn that m ustbe carried acrossthe shed Iim itsthe speed.For
this reason,future Ioom developm ents are Iikely to be in the area of shuttleless
w eaving.

Shuttlelessw eaving m achinesw ove 17 percent m ore fabric in 1987 than they did in
1982, and Textile W orld predicts that shuttle Ioom s w ill be outnum bered by
shuttlelessw eaving m achines in the early 1990s.
Shuttleless m achines m ay be classified as to the m ethod used in inserting the w eft
yarns.Fourbasictypeshave been developed:

* Machineswithgrippersorprojectiles(throw across)
@ Machineswith mechanicallyoperated gripperarmsoriapiers(reach
across)
* Machinesemploying airorwaterjetsto carrytheweft(spitorblow
across)
@ M achinesthatform m ultiple sheds(m ultiphase)
In hand w eaving and autom atic shuttle weaving, the weft yarn is continuous and
runs back and forth across the fabric,but in m ostshuttleless weaving,the w eftyarn
extends only from selvedge to selvedge,as it is cut off before it passes across the
shed. In aII shuttleless w eaving, the yarn for the pick is unwound from Iarge,
stationary packages ofyarn that are som etim es set on one side and at othertim es
set on both sides ofthe Ioom .Since w eaving speed dependson fabricw idth,there is
evew incentive to build widerm achinesform ore efficientw eftinsertion.

Projectile,M issile,orGripperW eaving M achine:


These weaving m achinesw ere developed in the 1950s in Sw itzerland and represent

the first proven shuttleless weaving machine.In the gripperor projectile type of
w eaving m achine,a sm allbullet-shaped or hooklike device gripsthe end ofthe weft

yarn,which is shown in the following figure.Asthe gripperis projected acrossthe


warp shed,ittowsthe weftbehind it.The projectile can move more quicklythan a
conventionalshuttle because ofits decreased size;it can travelfartherm ore easily,
thereby m aking possible the w eaving ofw ider fabrics,and it does not require the
step ofweftthe shuttle;it pullsthe yarn directly from a prepared yarn package.

Projectile Ioomswith one ormore projectilesare available;the m ultiple-projectile


type ism orecom mon.Two typesofprojectile Ioomsare used.In one,the projectile
travels only in one directiis returned to the starting point by a conveyor belt.

To m aintain the w eaving speed,each m achin m usthave severalprojectiles,


although only one is in use at any one tim e.It is called m ultiple-prtile system s.

Theycan be used in machineswith awideweaving bed sothe projectilegripperscan


transferthe pickacrossthe fabric in a relayfashion.In otherm ultiple-projectile

109

systems,the gripperfrom the firstprojectile picks up yarn from the supply source
and m oves across the shed to lay that Iength ofyarn;then, as beat-up occurs,the

projectile dropsinto a conveyorsystem thatreturns itto the supply side to pickup


new yarn. In the m eantim e, the second gripper has pulled a pick to repeat the
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Operationprinciplesforaprojectileweavingmachine

Steelgripperprojectilesas
smallas4 inches

In the other type of gripper m achine, a single gripper inserts one w eft yarn
alternately from the right- and Ieft- hand sides of the Ioom . It is called single-

pfmfctile system.Thissystem picks up yarn on the supply side and carries itthe
entire w idth of the shed.After beat-up has occurred, the projectil
e picks up yarn
from a second supply source on the otherside and returns acrossthe shed to place
the next pick.The gripper serves the sam e function as a conventionalshuttle, but
instead of holding a pirn, it carries the yarn behind it. Packages of yarn m ust,
therefore,be placed on both sidesofthe m achine.
Each pick is individually cut,so there is not a continuously w oven selvage Iike that
produced by a shuttle m achine.Instead, the edges are fringed. To finish them , a
tucking devce is used on both sides to interlace the fringe with the Iast few w arp
yarns along each edge.
Such m achines m ay be w ide or narrow ;they are available in weaving w idths up to

approximately508cm (200 inch).In additionto being quiet,machinesare popular


because they can deliver w eft yarns from Iarger packages, which increases
productivity reducessom e faultsin weaving.

110

The projectile machine notonly weavesfabric more quickly than doesthe shuttle
Ioom , but it runs w ith Iess noise, m aking it possible for m anufacturers to com ply
m ore easily w ith governm entregulationsthat restrictnoise Ievels.

There is also a saving in pow ercosts forw ide-w idth fabrics.Narrow fabrics are not
econom ically w oven on this loom since too m uch tim e is spent in periods of
acceleration of the gripper.W ide fabric w idths are quite productive,as the power
consum ed is Iess than thatfora conventionalshuttle joom ofthe sam e size.Sheets
are woven side by side on som e of these m achines to take advantage of these
savings.According to data from producers of these m achines,the Ioom s can reach
speedsslightly over1,200 m etersofw eftyarn perm inute.

The projectile Ioom hasgood versatility and isused fora wide varietyofbasicfabrics
ranging from cotton-type goods such as percale and printcloth to worsted-type
m aterial. It does require a sm ooth, uniform yarn that is properly sized to reduce

friction.The projectile loom hasspeedsofupto 300 ppm .


Rapierw eaving m achine:

As in tbe projectile loom,a stationary package of yarn is used to supply the weft
yarns in the rapierm achine.O ne end ofa rapier,a rod orsteeltape,carriesthe w eft
yarn.The other end of the rapier is connected to the controlsystem .The rapier
m oves acrossthe w idth ofthe fabric,carrying the w eftyarn across through the shed
to the opposite side.The rapieristhen retracted,Ieaving the new filling in place.
In som e versions of the m achine,tw o rapiers are used, each half the w idth of the
fabric in size.One rapier carries the yarn to the center of the shed, w here the
opposing rapierpicks up the yarn and carries it the rem ainderofthe w ay acrossthe
shed.A disadvantage of both these techniques isthe space required forthe m achine
if a rigid rapier is used.The housing forthe rapiers m ust take up as m uch space as
the w idth of the m achine.To overcom e this problem , Ioom s w ith flexible rapiers
have been devised. The flexible rapier can be coiled as it is w ithdraw n and w ill
therefore require Iess space.How ever,ifthe rapier is too stiff,it w illnot coil;if it is
too flexible,itw illbuckje.The double rapier is used m ore frequently than the single
rapier.Rigid and flexible rapier m achinesoperate at speeds of up to 1,300 m etersof
weft per m inute.These rapier loom s are efficient.They operate at speeds ranging

from about 200 to 260 ppm ataboutthe noise Ievelofprojectile Iooms.They can
produce a w ide variety of fabrics ranging from m uslin to drapery and upholstery
m aterials.

111
rapier
;;J22t2::t:.

Single r/g/ rapier The rapier(a Iong thin rodlenters the warp

from tbe Ieftand carries one pick across the entire wam widlh.
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Double rigid rapiers. The two rapiers entertbe warp sim ultanm
ously and meetin me oenter.3%e Ieft-hand rapieroarries m e
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N uble fex/Ne rapiers.Same principle as rigs'd rapiors butm e


rige
' rods are replacod by flexible steelorplastic tapes which
follow a curved patb.

The operation principle ofthree rapiersystems

Newer rapier m achines are built w ith two distinct w eaving areas fortwo separate
fabrics.On such m achines,one rapier picks up the yarn from the center, betw een
the two fabrics,and carries it across one weaving area;as itfinishes Iaying that pick,
the opposite end ofthe rapierpicks up anotheryarn from the center, and the rapier
m oves in the otherdirection to lay a pick forthe second w eaving area, on the other
halfofthe m achine.The above figure shows the action on a single w idth offabricfor
a single rigid rapiersystem,a double rigid rapiersystem , and a double flexible rapier
system .

Rapier m achines weave m ore rapidly than m ost shuttle m achines but m ore slow ly

than mostprojectile machines.An importantadvantage ofrapiermachines istheir


flexibility,w hich perm its the Iaying of picks of different colours. They also weave
yarns ofany type of fibre and can w eave fabrics up to 110 inches in w idth w ithout
m odification.

Air-jetW eaving M achine:


These weaving m achines,invented in Czechoslovakia and Iaterrefined by the Sw iss,
Dutch,and Japanese w ere designed to retain the tensionless aspect ofthe picking

actionofthe waterjetwhileeliminating the problem scaused bythe use ofwater


.

The above figure depictsthe basic steps in air-jetweaving.The yarn ispulled from
the supply package at a constant speed, w hich is regulated by the rollers, located
with the m easuring disk just in front of the yarn package. The meajuring disk
rem oves a length of yarn appropriate to the w idth of the fabric being woven. A
clam p holdsthe yarn in an insertion storage area, w here an auxiliary airnozzle form s
itinto the shape ofa hairpin.

112
supply package
measuringdish
auxiliary nozzle

rollers Q

.....- ....

hairpin

tuye storage motion

clam p

m ain nozzle
Shed *
'

x
.

NN
.

NN

NN

relay nozzles

guiding channeloftbereed

Operation principleoftheAir-jetloom
The m ain nozzle begins blow ing airso thatthe yarn is set in m otion as soon as the
clam p opens.The hairpin shape isstretched outasthe yarn is blow n into the guiding
channelofthe reed w ith the shed open.The yarn is carried through the shed by the
air currents em itted by the relay nozzles along the channel.The initialpropulsive
force is provided by a m ain nozzle. Electronically controlled relay nozzles provide

additionalboosterjets to carry the yarn across the shed.The maximum effective


width forair-jetweaving machines is about 355 cm (140 inch).Atthe end ofeach
insertion cycle the clam p closes;the yarn is beaten in,and then cut,afterthe shed is
closed.Again, som e selvage-form ing device is required to provide stability to the
edgesofthe fabric.

These weaving machinesuse ajetofairto propeltheweftyarn through the shed at


ratesofupto 600 ppm .Datafrom manufacturersindicate thatairjetIoomsoperate
at speeds up to 2,200 m eters of pick inserted per m inute. They can weave

multicoloured yarnsto m ake plaidsand are available with both dobby and jacquard
patterning m echanism s.

Air-jetIooms require uniform w eftyarns.They are m ore suitable foruse w ith


heavierthan lighretyarns because the Iighterw eight yarns are m ore difficult to

controlthrough theshed.Yet,ifthe yarn istoo heavy,theairjetmay notbe ableto


carrythe weftacrossthe loom .W ithinthese restraints,the air-jetloom iseffective
andcan produce awidevarietyoffabrics.Also,theair-jetIoom operatesata Iower

113

noise Ievelthan the shuttle, projectile,or rapier Ioom s.Air-jet weaving is m ore
popular because the m achines cost less to purchase,install,operate,and m aintain

than rapierorprojectile weaving m achines,and the air-jetcan be used on a broader


variety ofyarnsthan awaterjet.

Today autom ated flaw detectorsinstalled on air-jetm achinescan inspectfabric.The


unit on the batcher is program m ed to stop the m achine w hen defects that fall
outside preset tolerances are detected. The batcher operator then cuts out the
defect, seam s the fabric, and restarts the fabric take-up.These flaw detectors are
capable ofinspecting fabric at400 ppm .

W ater-jetweaving m achine:
These w eaving m achines w ere first developed in Czechoslovakia in the 1950s and

subsequently refined bytheJapanese in the 1960s.W ater-jetweaving machinesare


notused asfrequently asairjets,butthey are preferred forsom e typesoffabrics.
The process is unsuitable foryarns of hydrophilic fibres because the fabric picks up
too m uch m oisture.W ater-soluble w arp sizings are used on m ost staple w arp yarns.

Therefore,the use of water-jet Iooms is restricted to filament yarns of acetate,


nylon,polyester,and glass;yarns that are nonabsorbent,and those that do not lose
strength w hen w et.Furtherm ore,these fabrics com e offthe loom wet and m ust be

dried.In thistechnique a waterjetisshotunderforce and,with it,a weftyarn.The


force ofthe w ateras it is propelled acrossthe shed carries the yarn to the opposi
te

side.Thism achine is econom icalin itsoperation.A waterjetofonly 0.1 centim eter


is sufficientto carry a yarn across a 48 inch shed.The am ount of waterrequired for

each weft yarn is Iess than 2.0 cubic centimeters.W ater-jet m achines can reach
speeds of 2,000 m eters of picks per m inute.The water-jet looms can produce
superiorhigh quality fabricsthat have good appearance and feel.

Both airand waterjetweaving machinesweave rapidly,provide forIaying different


colours in the weftdirection,and produce uniform ,high quality fabrics.They are Iess
noisy and require Iess space than m ostothertypes ofw eaving m achines.They cause
m inim al dam age to w arp yarns during the w eaving operation, because the air or

waterjetsare lessabrasive than moving m etalparts.


The speeds of shuttleless w eaving m achines can be com pared by m easuring the

picksperminute (ppm)ortheyardsIaidperminute(ypm)inweftinsertion.In1990,
the top speed fora projectile weaving machine w as420 ppm with between 1000
and 1203 ypm w eft insertion. Flexible rapier m achines operated at 524 ppm and

rigid rapiersat475 ppm ,Iaying weftatupto 1404 and 930 ypm,respectively.Airjets


could Iayasm any as1200 ppm and waterjetsupto 1500 ppm,Iaying 2145 and 2360
ypm ,respectively.

114
Ifa fabric 60 inches w ide isw oven on each m achine ata density of50 pice per inch,
approxim ately 84 yards ofw eftyarn w ould be needed to produce an inch offabric.

In theory, the projectile would produce approximately 8.4 inches of fabric per
m inute; the flexible rapier, 10.5 inches;the rigid rapier, 9.
5 inches;the airjet,24

inches;andthe waterjet,30 inches.The slowestofthe new m achinescould produce


a yard offabric in 4.3 m inutes,and the fastestw ould take just1.2 m inutes.Seldom
do w eaving m achines operate atfullcapacity,but even at 50 percentefficiency such
m achinescould produce a yard offabric every 2.5 m inutes.
M ul&iphase orm ultished w eaving m achine:
AlIthe weaving techniques discussed thus far require that the shed be open alIthe
w ay across the m achine forthe device carrying the filling yarns to pass through the
shed. This im poses a lim it on loom speed. The m ultiphase w eaving m achine
overcom esthis Iim itation by form ing m any differentsheds atdi/erent places across
the m achine and form ing these only asthe w eftyarn inserted. In thisw ay,a num ber
ofw eftyarns can be inserted,one behind the other.As a section ofthe shed opens,
the w eftpasses,and the shed closes,opening again in the new pattern as the next
w eft yarn arrives.Speed is increased because of the num ber of yarns that can be
inserted alm ost sim ultaneously one right after the other, but the actualspeed of
m ovem ent of the w eft yarns is Iow er than in other types of m achines. For this

reason,weftyarnsthatare weakrcan be used.SultzerRuti,the manufacturerofa


m ultiphase m achine,states that its Ioom w illinsert up to 5,400 m eters of pick per
m inute.

The process transform s w eaving into a continuous process rather than a cycle of
shedding, picking,and beating up. M ultiphase Ioom continually inserts w eft yrns
from yarn carriers. Rotary beat-up devices press inserted yarn firm ly against
previously form ed c10th. If the pattern cbanges,sm allgroups ofyarns are changed
into a new shedding position aftereach new yarn carrierhas passed.
The operation of m ultished w eaving m achines is based on a series of w avelike
m otions acrossthe w eaving surface.In general,fabricsw oven on these Ioom s do not
have a true 9O- degree angle betw een w arp and w eft;the w eft yarns are slightly
slanted,or skewed. M ultished w eaving is lim ited to specialtypes of fabrics, but it
can be expected to gain acceptance in the yearsahead.
M m any as 16 to 20 w eft carriers insert the precut w eft in a continuous process
instead ofthe interm ittent process ofsingle-shed w eaving. Beating up and shedding
arrangem ents are different.ln this continuousw eaving process,the num berof picks
per m inute is doubled. How ever, m ultiphase Ioom s have never been extensively
used in the industry.
.
)
i

115

Fabricselvagesorselvedges:
In yard goods, the outer edges are constructed so they willnot raved.These finished

edgesare called the selvages(self-edges)and are often madewith heavierand more


closely spaced w arp yarns than are used in the rest of the fabric by using m ore or

strongerwarp yarns orby using a stronger weave.Selvages (also called selvedges)


provide strength to fabric for safe handling of the fabric.Selvage should not curl.The
w arp yarns alw ays run parallelto the selvedges. Proper use of the selvages can also
prevent the bow ing and bias conditions that occur in som e fabrics. The weaving
m achines need m echanism sw hich through the form ation ofsufficiently strong selvages
bind the w efts together,thus im parting to the fabric a proper appearance and solidity
and preventing the breaking up of the threads on the fabric edges during the
subsequent operations.
'

In shuttle Ioom s,there is no need forspecialselvedge;since the yarn is not cut after
each weft insertion,the edges of the fabric are sm ooth and strong.On conventional
shuttle Ioom s,it is form ed w hen the weftyarns turns to go back acrossthe fabric.The
conventionalIoom m akes the sam e kind of selvedge on both sides ofthe fabric.At the
present tim e this is the only advantage of shuttle Ioom over shuttleless Ioom . In
shuttleless weaving, since the w eft yarn is cut after every insertion,there is fringe
selvedge on both sides of the fabric. In this case, special selvedges are needed to '
prevent slipping of outside warp yarns out of the fabric.There are severaltypes of
selvedge designs that are used for this purpose with shuttleless loom s.The kind of
selvedge used dependsupon econom y ofproduction and the expected use ofthe fabric.

* Plain selvages:
These selvages re constructed of the sim ple plain w eave w ith tbe sam e size
yarn as the restofthe fabric,butw ith the threads packed m ore closely together.
Such sejvages are fairly durable and firm . Plain selvages are sim ilar to the
structure ofthe rest of the fabric.They do not shrink and can be used for seam
edges.
* Tape Selvages:

The tape selvages are som etim es constructed w ith the plain w eave but oflen are
m ade ofthe basket ortwillweaves,which makes a flatteredge.Tape selvages
are m ade of heavieryarns orply yarns,w hich provide greaterstrength.They are
firm erand w iderthan plain selvages.Fortow els,bed sheets,drapery and curtain
fabrics,tape selvages give added strength to the edges.Selvages vary in w idth
from one-quarterto three-eights ofan inch.

116

Splitselvages:

Split selvages are m ade by weaving a narrow w idth fabric tw ice its ordinary
w idth with two selvages in the center. The fabric is then cut betw een the
selvages, and the cut edges are finished w ith a chain stitch or hem m ing. Split
selvedges are used when item s such as tow els are w oven side by side and cut
apartafterw eaving.
Fused selvages:
These selvages are m ade on fabrics of therm oplastic fibres, such as
polypropylene,nylon,etc.,by pressing a hotm echanicalelem enton the edgesof
the fabric.The fibres m elt and fuse together, sealing the edges. Electronically
controlled therm alcutters are used to cut and fuse selvedgesofsynthetic fabrics
on weaving m achines. The tem perature of the cutters is reduced w hen the
m achine is stopped.This technique is som etim es used to spli
t w ide fabrics into
narrowerwidths.
Leno selvages:

The Ieno selvages are obtained by binding the wefts w ith strong additional
threads working in Ieno or gauze weave and by elim inating through cutting the
protruding w eft ends. Half cross Ieno w eave fabrics have excellent shear
resistance.They are m ade w ith specialIeno w eaving harnesses.The Ieno selvage
is used on som e shuttleless Ioom s. The construction utilizes a narrow Ieno
weave,w hich Iocks the cut ends along the fabric edge.A Ioose w eave generally
requires a tight Ieno selvage, whereas a Iight weave m ay have a leno selvage
w ith Iess tension.The Ieno gauze system is optim ally suited for heavy fabrics,
blankets,w allcoverings.

normalo und x ivee


a:produce by
asbuttle Ioom

frilwex lvage
lefm Alvage

tucked* vv

(rm twistl

Tutked-in selvages:

The tucked selvedge isa technique used on som e shuttleless Ioom s. A device is
used to tuck and hold the cutends into the fabric edge.In tucked-in selvage, the
fringed edgesofthe w eftyarns are w oven back into the body ofthe fabric using

117

a specialtuck-in m echanism . As a result, the weft density is doubled in the

selvage area,Tucked-in selvedge was being only used for projectile weaving
m achines in the past, however, it is now also applid to other shuttleless
w eaving m achines. This system is generally used for Iight to m iddlew eight
fabrics,w hen w eave and fabric density perm its.There are also available tuckedin selvage m otions, which are entirely controlled by pneum atic or m ixed
pneum atic and m echanicaldevices.
The construction of the selvage is dependent upon the particularw eave and a
num berofotherfactors.A form ula forw eaving the tucked-in selvage considers

fibre density,the diameterofthe yarns(which isalso affected bytwist,ply,and


countvariation),aswellasthe yarn diameterbalance,orratio ofthediameterof
the w eft yarn to that of the w arp yarn - in effect,if the diam eter ofthe weft
yarn is finerthan the diam eterofthe warp yarn,fewerwefts can be inserted in
the fabric selvage,because the warp intersection requires m ore space between
the w eftsthan one diam eterofthe w eft.

W hen setting up forthe selvageson a projectile weaving machine,the following


pointsm ustbe noted.
* The selvage m ustbe draw n into the reed 15 m m wide.
* The selvage m ustnot be thinned too m uch.
* The reed m ustbe filled w ith yarnsup to the Iastdent.
If possible,the selvagesare alw ays drawn-in on separate harnesses.The selvage
harnesses are alw ays behind the ground harnesses, so that the front shed is

shorter.Thisarrangementenablesthe shed to be adjusted smaller.


Grey Fabriclnspedion Lines:
After w eaving,som e fabrics are inspected on the w eaving m achine for quality
purposes.Inspection speed can be varied betw een 0 to 1O0 Iinear m eters per m inute.
Inspection m achines have a Iighted diffusion screen.Fabric alignm ent is controlled by a
m obile trolley operated by photocellsto sense the c10th.
*

e
:

/
.4

S
gy

118

FA BRIC STRU CTU RE A N D D ESIG N

119

INTRODUW ION T0 FABRIC STRUW UREAND DESIGN

W oven fabrics are composed of longitudinalor warp threads and transverse or weft threads,
interlaced with oneanotheraccordingtotheclassofstructureand form ofdesignthataredesired.
The termschain ortwistare applied to the warp and the warp threadsare known individually as
ends,whilethetermspicksandfillingareapplied to theweftthreads.
Inthefollowing theterm threadsisused in referring to warp and weftcollectively,butin orderto
distinguishclearlyoneseriesfrom the otherthewarp threadsare mostlydescribed as'end'andthe
weftthreadsas'picks'.
According to weave structures woven fabrics may be conveniently divided into two principal
categories,asfollows:
Simple Strudure:
Inwhichtheendsandthe picksintersectone anotheratri
ghtanglesand in thec10th
are respectivel
y parall
elwith each other.In these constructions there isonl
y one
series of ends and one series of picks and aIIthe consti
tuent threads are equally
responsibleforb0ththe aspectofutility orperformanceinafabri
cand tbe aspectof
aestheticappeal.

Simple Structure
lI.

CompoundStructure

Compound Strudures:
ln which there may be morethan one seriesofendsorpickssomeofwhich maybe
responsible forthe body ofthe fabric,such asground yarns,whilst some may be
employed entirelyforornamentalpurposessuchas'figuring',or'
face'yarns.ln these
clothssomethreads may be found notto be in parallelformation one to anotherih
eitherplane,and indeed,there are many pile surface constructions in whicb some

threadsmayprojectoutatrightanglestothegeneralplaneofthefabric.

120

Warp(End)andWeR (Pick/Filling)Yarn:
W arp and weftyarns have differentdemands placed on them and may differin theirstructure or
fibre type.Thus,afabricmay nothavethesame performance characteristicsforwarpand weft.The
warp m ustwithstand the high tensionsofthe loom and the abrasion efweavipg,sn the warpyarns

are strongerand more uniform with highertwist.Fillipg yarns at'e more pften fancy orspecialfundionyarnssuch ashigh-twistcrepe yarns,Iow-twistnappingyarns,orboucle yarns.

Identification ofwarp and w eft:


Di
fferentiating between warp and weftis possible by carefully examining botb the fabric and the
length-wise and crosswise yarns.

1. Theselvedgeal
waysrunsinthelengthwise(warp)directionofaI1fabrics.
2. Mostfabricshave Iowerelongation inthewarpdirection.
3. The warp yarnsIie straighterand are more parallelinthefabricbecause ofIoom tension.
4. Fancyorspecial-fund ionyarnsareusually inthefillingdirection.
5. Fabric characteristics may di
fferentiate between the warp and weft directions. For
example,poplinhasa weftrib and satin haswarpfloats.
6. W arp yarnstend to be sm aller,are more uniform in structure and appearance,and have
highertwist.
7. Fabric crimp is usually greaterforweftyarns since they must bend orflex overorunder
warp yarnsdue to the way the loom operates.

Grain:
Grain refersto the geometry orposition ofwarp yarnsrelative to filling yarnsin the fabric.A fabric
that is on-grain has warp yarns parallelto each otherand perpendicularto the filling yarns tbat
move straightacrossthe fabric.Lengthwise grain is parallelto the warp yarns.Crosswise grain is
parallelto the weftyarns.Fabrics are almostalways woven on-graill.Handling,finishing,orstress
due toyarn twist,weave,orotherfabricaspectsmay cause fabricsto distortand Iosetheiron-grain
characteristic.These fabricsare off-grain.Fabricquality hasincreased significantly and it israre tn
findfabricsasbadlyoff-grain.

off-grain fabrics:These create problems in production and use.During finishing,off-grain causes


rerunsorrepeatingfinishing stepsand Iowersfabricquality.Productsdo notdrape properlyorhang
evenlyand printed designsare notstraight.
There are two kinds ofoff-grain.Skew occurs when the weftyarn is at an angle otherthan 90
degreesto the warp.Itusually occursin finishing when one side ofthe fabric travels ahead ofthe
other.Bow occurswhen the weftyarnsdip in the centerofthe fabric;itusuallyd:velopswhen the
fabriccenterlagsbehind the two sidesduringfinishing.
Fabricsshould alwaysbeexam inedforgrain.On-grainfabricsusually indicate highqualitystandards
and minimize problemsin matchingdesignsorpatterns,incutting and sewing.

121

Structure:
In the manufadure ofafabric,byweavingon aloom,thetechnique- how thetwo seriesofthread
are interlaced at rightanglesto each otheris called strudure.Orthe interlacem ents ofwarp anl
weftthreadsare known asstrudure.

Texture:
A term referring to the appearance orhand ofa fabric and especially such features asstrudure
coarseness,openness.Thissignifiesthe generalquality ofa fabric,devel
oped by the interlacemen
ofyarn used weight,bulk,how itfeels when handled etc.are also express by the term texture
Materials,countofthe yarnsrelative densityofthreadsare itsmain fadors.

Sett:

A term usedtoindicatethespacingofendsand/orpicksinawovenc10ththisisusuallyexpresseda
threadsperinch,centimeterorotherconvenientunit.The state ofthe c10th ofthe time should bl
described,eg.Grey,finished wovenfabricsettsare commonly given in a pare
warpxweft,asforexamplehandkerchief- 36 x36

Thread density in warp and weo:

Warp(ends)densityisexpressedinEndsperinch(EPl)OrEndspercm (EPC)
Weft(picks)densityisexpressedinPicksperinch(PPI)OrPickspercm (PPC)
W oven fabric Specification:
W oven fabricconstrudion orspecification asfollows:
EPI x PPl
xFabric width
W arp countxW eftcount

OR

W arp count xW eftcount


x Fabric W idth
EPI xPPI

Forexample:
110 X 52 X 56,
20 X 16
,

30 X 30 X 57 - ,
130 X 70
58

Fabricweightcalculation:

Thjrearetwowayoffabricweightcalculation.0neisweightperuni
tareasuchas,GsMtgramsper
2
squaremeter)oroz/yd andanotherwayisweightinrunningIength.
'

GSM taltulation:
Calculate.
theGSM ofthe following fabric
120x 70
,,
x58
40 x30
Forwarp weightcalculation
Here,EPI= 120
'
. .Tot
aInum berofends= 120x39.37

Lengthofeachend=lm +lm x0.03

(warpcrimpo
,z
t=31$)

= 1.03m
'
. .Tot
alIength ofwarp yarn = 120 x 39.37 x 1.03 m
W e getfrom theyarnnumberingsystem,
L xw
Ne =

W xI
Lxw
'
W =
N exl
120x39.37x1.03x453.6
=
40
gm
x840x0.9l44
ForW eftweightcalculation
Here,PPI= 70
'
. .Tot
aInum berofpicks= 70x39.37

Lengthofeachpick=lm + lm x0.05

(weftcrimpL'=594)

= 1.05m

TotaIIengthofweftyarn = 70 x 39.37 x 1.05 m


W e getfrom the yarnnum beringsystem,
N Lx w
e=
W xI
L xw
'
W =
N exI
70 x39.37x1.05x 453.6
=
30
gm
x840x0.9144
l20x39.37x1.03x453.6 70x39.37x1.05x453.6
'
. .Tot
aIwei
ghtofthefabricpersquare meter=
+
40x840x0.9l44
30x840x0.9144
1
20
x
1.
03
7
0x
l
.
05
39.
37
x
453.6
=
( 40 + 30 )x 840
x0.9144
1
20
x
1
.
03
7
0
x
l
.
05
=
'
..

( 40

+ 30 )x23.25

GS
EPI xl.03 PPI x1.05 x
M=
+
23.25
Newa
Newe

123

Similarlyoz/yd2canbecalculatedbythefollowingformula:
oz/ydz =

EPI x 1.03 PPI x1.05


+ Newe x0.686
Newa

1.03=Forwarpcrimp (warpcrimp% =3%)


1.05=Forweftcrimp (weftcrimp% =5%)
The crimp % forwarp and weftcan be changed.These two values normally applicable form ost
com monfabrics,altboughcrim p% mainlydependsonfabricstructure.

W eightcalculationinrunningIenlh(Yarnconsumptioncalculation):
Calculatetheweightofwarp and weftyarn in kgto produce2000 m ofthefollowingfabric
150x 100 ,,
x58
50x50

Forwarp weighttakulation
Here,EPI= 150
'
aInumberofends=150x58
. .Tot
Length ofeach end = 2000m + 2000m x 0.03
= 2060m
' Tot
allengthofwarp yarn = 150 x 58 x 2060 m
..
W e getfrom the yarn numberingsystem,
N Lxw

(warpcrimp% =3%)

e=

W xl
L xw
'*.h/s/zz
N ex1
150x58x2060x0.4536 kg1 20% WastageOftjetotalweightofwarp.
=
50x840x0.9144
From the above system asim ple formula is developed to calculate the weightofwarp yarn in kgto
produce aparticularIengtbofafabricasfollows:
W eightofwarp yarn in kg.=

EPlxFabri
cwidthini
nchx(Fabri
cl
engthinmi
-Fabricl
engthinmxcri
mp%lxccts sx sslz
o

Newam

+Wastage% oftotalweightofthewarp(about20%)
ForW eftweighttalculation
Here,PPI=100
'
aInumberofpicks= 100x39.37x2000
. .Tot

124

Lengthofeachpick=(58//+58/'x0.05)/39.37

(weftcrimp% =5%)

= 1.547m
'
. .Tot
aIIength ofweftyarn = 100 x 39.37x 2000 x 1.547 m
W egetfrom theyarn num beringsystem,
N Lx w
e=
W xI
Lxw
'
W=
Nexl
100x39.37x2000x 1.547x0.4536 kg +15% wastageofthe totalweightofweft.
=
50x840x0.9144

From the above system a sim ple formula isdeveloped to calculatealso the weightofweftyarn in kg
to producea particularIength ofafabricasfollows:

Weijhtofweftyarninkg.=

PPIxFabricl
engthi
nmx(Fabricwi
dthi
ninch+Fabri
cwi
dthini
nchxcri
mp%lxccx sx sslz
.

Neweft

+Wastage%oftotalweightoftheweft(about15% althoughitdependsonselvedge,loom type)


Similarlyweightofthewarpandweftyarninpound(lblcanbecalculatedbythefollowingformula:
W eightofwarp yarn inIb.=

EPIxFabri
cwi
dthi
ni
nchx(FabricI
engthi
nyds+FabricI
engthinydsxcri
mp%)+wastage
Newarpx840

% oftotalweightofthewarp(about20%).
W eightofweftyarn in Ib.=

PPIxFabri
cI
engthinydsx(Fabri
cwi
dthi
ninch+Fabri
cwi
dthini
nchxcri
mp%)+wastage
Neweftx840

% oftotalweightoftbeweft(about15%1.
Problem :
Calculatetheweightofwarp and weftyarnin Ibto produce 2500 yds.ofthefollowing fabric

120x90 ,,
x58
16x14
The weight of warp and weft yarn in Ib. can be calculated directly from the fabric
specificationby usingthe aboveform ula.I
twillbeveryeasy and itsafeIotoftimes.

125

Solution:
W eightofwarp yarn in Ib.x

E?IxFabricwi
dthini
nchx(Fabri
cl
engthinyd5+Fabri
cI
engthinydsxcrimpqbl+wastage
NewarpX840

% oftotalweightofthewarp.

=l20x58x(2500+2500x0.03)+20%
16x840
= 1333.48'F1333.48 x0.2
= 1333.48'F266.696

=1600.176Ibs,Or725.84kg(1600.176x0.4536)
W eightofweftyarn in Ib.=

P?IxFabricI
engthi
nydsx(Fabri
cwi
dthi
ni
nch+Fabricwidthininchxcri
mpt
lk
llj.w aytage%
.

Ne,vefttk840

oftotalweightoftheweft.

=90x2500x(58+58x0.05)+15%
14x840
= 1165.18 '
F1165.18 x 0.15

=1339.961bs.Or607.804kg(1339.96x0.4536)
Foundation ofw oven c10th strud ure:
Variationofwoven c10thstructure dependsonfollcwingfoundati
onalfactors:
Thenature ofyarnsused
Thecotzntorrelativethicknessoftheyarnsused aswarp and weft
The relative setting,orthe numberofends orpicks,which are placed side by side in a
given width and Iength ofthe c10th
The orderofinterlacing theendsand picks
* M odificationsproducedbyfinishing

Elassiscation orpartsofa com plete design forawoven fabric:


A complete design forawovenfabricconsistsofthree par'tsasfollows:
* The weave plan:
It illustrates the interlacing of ends and picks in the fabric underconsideration.ln
theweave plan,spacebetweentwoverticallinesindicatesaswarp yarn andspaceLetween
two horizontalIinesindicatesasweftyarn.

126

* ThedraftingorIoomingplan:
A draftindicatesthe numberofheald,used to produce a given design and the orderin
whichthe warp threadsorendsarethreaded through the maileyesofthe healds.In the
drafting plan, Space between two vertical lines indicates as warp yarn and space
betweentwo horizontalIinesindicatesasheald Shaft.

Drafting plan

W eave plan

Lifting plan

The Iiftingorpeg plan:


Lifting plan definesthe selection of healdsto be raised or Iowered on each successive
insertion ofthepickofweftto produce thepattern.
Dentingplan:
This indicates the orderofdrawing-in the warp threads orendsthrough the dents of
reed,

Pnintpaperdiagram in textiledesign:

Toillustrate aweaveeitherinplanview and/orincross-section,asthefollowingfigure,takesaIot


oftime,especially form ore com plicated weaves.A type ofshorthand fordepicting weave
structures hastherefore been evolved and the paperusedforproducing designsisreferred toas
squared paper,design paperorpointpaper.Generally the spaces betweentwo verticallinesof
graph ordesignpaperrepresentonewarpthreadorend and thespaces between two horizontal
Iinesofgraph ordesignpaperindicatesoneweftthread orpick. Ifasquare isfilled in itrepresents
an end passing overa pickwhilstablanksquare representsa pickpassingoveran end.Ifendsand
pickshaveto be num bered to m ake iteasierto describethe weave,endsare counted from Ieftto
rightand picksfrom the bottom ofthepointpaperdesign tothe top.The pointpaperdesi
gnshown

in thefollowingfigure(a)isthedesignfora plainweavefabric.Togetabetterimpressionofhow a
numberofrepeatswould look,fourrepeatsofadesign(twoverticall
yandtwo horizontally)are
sometimesShown.W hen fourrepeatsare shown the firstrepeatisdrawn in the standard way but

127
forthe remainingthree repeatscrossing diagonalIinesmay be placed into the squares, which inthe

firstrepeat,arefilledin.Thismethodisshownforaplainweaveinfollowingfigure(b)
.

X
X

X
X
X

y2

One repeat

Plan view -3x3 repeats

(a)

(b)

Pointpaperdiagram (a)1-repeat(b)4-repeat

M ethodsoffabri:representation:
lnterlacingtype 'a':
In thistype thewarpyarn isupoverthe weftyarn. Inthe graph ordesign paper,itisrepresented by
putting any type ofsign such as cross,circle,orcolourshade in the square space ofthe design
paper.

R ----->warpup

R -----'
>Weftup
lnterlatingtype 'b':
ln this type the wek yarn is up overthe warp yarn.In the graph ordesign paper, itis normally
represented asempty squarespace ofthe design paper.

R ----->weftup
R ----+warpup
One repeatofw eave:
A num berof interlacings combined together in both diredions produce a uni
t of design, or one

repeatoftheweave.Intheabovefigure(a)representsonerepeatofthedesign.

128

Some importantfactorsorterm s:
The weave showsthe interlacing pattern ofwarp and weft.Each weave consists ofthe following
partsorfields
3

Contactfields:
These arethe contactpointsbetween warp and weftcrossingatrightangle.The number
of contactfields always equals the productofthe num ber of warp and weftthreads.
Contactfield = RNwax RNwe = 3x 3= 9

Interlacing field:
These are the points w here a yarn of one system of threads changes its position in
relation to the othersystem.A distinction ismade between single and double interlacing
fields.
Single interlacingfield:
The yarn bendsfrom thetop ofthe fabricto the bottom and coverstwo ormoreyarns.
interlacingfield

contactfields

freefield

Doubleinterlacingfield:
The yarn bends,covera following yarn,bends again and reappears atthe same fabric
side.
interlacingfield

Interlacing fieldsare adivefieldssincetheyprovidethe fabriccohesion.


Freefield:
These are the zones where the warp and weftyarnsdo nottouch and do notchange
fabric side.Because ofthe free field floats are formed and the yarns in the weave may
shi
.

129

@ Openfield:
These are zoneswhere neitherwarp norweftthreadsoccurs.The numberofopen field
isimportant,forexampl
e forairandwaterpermeabili
ty.
Openfield =RNwaxRNwe= 3x3 =9 ,same ascontactfield
W here,RN = Repeatnum ber
W a=warpand W e=weft

Form ulanumber:
It isa kind ofshort-hand system representing the waving ofwarp orweftyarn.I
tgi
ves
the successive floats.The numberoffloats alwaysequalsthe numberoffigures in the
form ula number.The warp floatscom ing up are putabove the fraction Iine,the warp
floatsgoingdown are putunderthefraction Iine.

FN we= - -2-- 1- -t1

FNwa= .. 1 -2 .1
1

W here, FNwa=formulanum berforthewarp & FNwe=formula num berfortheweft.

Repeatnumber:
Itindicatesthe num berofwarp and weftyarnsin the repeat.The repeatnumberforthe
warp equalsthesum ofthefiguresintheformulanumberforthe wef'
tandviceversa.
* Interlacing ratio:
The interlacing rati
o of a fabric is the ratio between the actualnumberofinterlacing
fields and the maxim um numberof interlacing fields. The degree ofinterlacing is the
interlacing ratio expressed inpercentage.

Draoing:
Variousmethodsofindicatingdraftsmaybe em ployed asforinstance -

% %Ntulih:lihet
ln which thehorizontalinesrepresentthehealdsandtheMerticahnesthe warpthreads,
while the m arks placed where the lines intersect indicate the healds upon which the
respectivethreadsaredrawn.

130

b) Bynumbering:
Asshownbythenumbersbelow thedesigns,whichrefertothenumberofthehealds(the
fronthealdisnumberone).lnthiscasethethreadsaresuccessivelydrawnonthehealdsin
the orderindicated bythe num bers.

hI

1 2 34 3 2 1 4 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 34 5 67 8

By the use ofdesign pae r:


In which the horizontalspacesare takento representthe healds,and the verticalspacesthe
warp threads.M arksare inserted upon the sm allsquaresto indicate the healdsupon which
the respectivethreadsare drawn.Thismethod isusuall
y the mostconvenient.

0
1 0'
t

131

Systemsofdrafting/classifiationofdrafting:
1. StraightdraA (or
g):
The warp endsare threaded through the heddlesaccordingto theirnum ericalorder.
A distinction is m ade between S-?nd Z-entering.Straightdraftisthe mostcommon
and can be used with 4ny numberofshaftsfEaih stkcessive thread is drawn on

successiveshafts,tiefirs!yhi4,donthefirstshft,the.kecondthreadonthesecond
.

'

shaft,and so on.The Iajtthr#d ofthewarp repeatisdrawn on the Iastshaft.Thus

the numberofshaftsequaljthewarp repeat.and the rvpeatofdraftequalsthewarp


repeat.

4r

t=

3 I'
2 2
'
1..
12 3 4

3
2
1 .
l2 3 4

S3
2
Z-entering

S-entering

2. Pointdeah :
Point entering is obtained by straight entering of a number of'yarns followed by

reverseeritering ofthe same 9radifferentnumbrofyarns.Ppint1dr


sareusedfor
'.
1pf
.t
'
.

weaves,whiharesymmetrlalabouttbecenter,andiseyarefryjiitp?lyemployed
toproducewavdordiamorideffects.Themain.advantae'qtj
tisjy
'
liihisthatit

alfowstheproduciionofquitefargeeffectseconomically,wIl'
ihifa'
ttem/edonthe
straightdraftswould reqtlire alm osttwicethe num berofhealds.The method used to
constructthese drafts and itwillbe seen thatto achieve a welldefined pointin the
design the ends are draw n in straight order starting w ith heald 1 and finishing w ith
the last heald in the num berem ployed,where upon the orderofdrawing-in ofthe
consecutive ends is reversed.The firstand the Iast healds carry only one end each,
w hilst aIIthe healds in the m iddle carry two ends each perrepeatofthe draft.As a
result,using thissystem ofdrafting the num berofends perrepeatofthe design is:2
x num berofhealds- 2.
'

j'

'

5
4
3
2
l

'!

5
4
3
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.

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f
1 2 3 4 56 7 8 91011121314.

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y;

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,

123 432 14

'

132

3. Skip drafts:

Thewarp endsarethreaded inan irregularway.W arp endswiththesame action are


threaded through the sam e jhaft.This.system is'
particularly usefulin weaving very
.

densely setfabricsw here norm ally a sm allnum berofhealdsisrequired.In orderthat


the mailswillnotbetoo crowded onthe sjaf'
tand to reduce friction and rubbing
n

'

between the ends itiscustmr..w1.


0 tls rn4.r,

healdsthan the minimum necessary


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nkea
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. m ay be draw n on tw o healds,
forthe w eave.Forexam ple,irlcase >. ,
,, ,
.

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ifthe c10th iscoarse;oron fpr
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healds, ifthe c10th isvery fine.
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4. Broken draft:
Itcan be considered as a m odified pointed draft.Again it is a com bination ofstraight
drafts w ith different directions of constructing.But the direction is reversed not on
the Iast orthe first shaft.W hen the direction is reversed the first thread ofthe next
group is started higher or Iow er than the last thread of the preceding group.This
sm allm odification changesconsiderably the design by breaking the axisofsym m etry.
The orderofinterlacing ofthe Iastthread ofthe firstgroup is opposite to that ofthe

firstthread ofthe precedinggroup.Thisdraftisapplied forproducinj herringbone


twills,diaperdesign and etc.
'

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F-+!'

.l

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Dlvided draft:
Thisdraftisemployed forderived weaves,doublewarpweaves,two pIyweaves,pileweaves,and
t Someothers.Theshaftsaredivided into twoormoregroups.A suitable type ofdraftischosenfor
.

)
t;: eachgroup.Thedivideddraftisemployedfordouble-warpfabric.Therearetwosystemsofwarp
'

'/
)
(
,
lt'
threads:thefaceandbackones.
:k,i:-'.

ql
t,
tt
..
.

io

133

#1a2b3c4d1e2f3a4b1c2d3e4f

6. Grouped drahs:
These drafts are em ployed for production of check and stripe designs,in w hich the
stripes have different w eaves or their com binations. A typical draft is used for
producing the fabric with two different stripes containing 15 and 12 threads,
respectively.The w arp repeat ofthe firststripe equals 3 and the second 4.The weave
of the first stripe requires 3 shafts,and that of the second stripe 4 shafts.AIIthe
threads of the first stripe are draw n on 3 first shafts w ith straight draft,and the
threads ofthe second stripe are draw n on shafts4,5,6,7 ofthe second group.The
repeatofthe draftis27.

7. Cuw ed dra :
These drafts are applied for fancy w eaves having a Iarge w arp repeat w ith the
purpose of reducing the num berof shafts.Note,thatthe m inim alnum berof shafts
equalsthe num berofthreads in warp repeat w ith different orderof interlacing.The
draw ing-in is done applying the rule:aIlw arp threadsw hich worksalike are drawn on
the sam e shaft.Curved draftsare irregularand cannotbe classified.

134
8. Com bined draft:
Various m ethods ofdraw ing-in can be com bined in one draftforproducing a certain
type offabric.Two orm ore draftsdescribed above can be applied sim ul
taneously,for
exam ple,straightand skip orsateen,grouped and curved,and so on.Com bined draft
is the m ost com plicated and can be chosen only ifthere are som e technologicalor
econom icalreasons.

The basicw eavesorstruduresofw oven fabric:


W oven fabric Structure isdefined asthe interlacementofwarp and weftyarn at900angIesto each
other.Itis also called weave structure.The numberofweave structuresthat can be produced is
practically unlim i
ted.Three types ofweave structure form the basis of even the most com plex
weaves.Known asbasicweaves,these are the plain weave,the twillweave,andthe satin weave.In
the following section basic structures,from which aIIotherweave structures are developed,are

discussed.AIIstructurescan be derived from the three basicweaves:Plain,Twilland Satin/


Sateen.Mosttwo-dimensionalwoven fabricsare constructed from sim ple weavesand ofthese at
Ieast90 % use plainweave.

135

PLA IN W EAVE

The plain weave isthe simplestofthe weavesand the mostcom mon.Itconsistsofinterlacingwarp


and weftyarns in a pattern ofoverone and underone.Imagine a smallhand Ioom with the warp
yarnsheld firmly in place.The weftyarn movesoverthe firstwarp yarn,underthe second,overthe
third,underthe fourth,and so on.In the nextrow,the weftyarn goes underthe firstwarp yarn,
overthe secondy.underthe third,and so on.In the third row,the weftmoves overthe firstwarp,

underthesecond,and so on,justasitdid in the firstrow.Plainweave isobtained by raisingaII

even-numbered warp'endsatone pick and raising aIIthe odd numbered onesatthe otherpick.lt
meansthreadsinterlacinjinalternateorder.

Plain weave

&W
' ;
7
.

Close-up photographofpl
ainweave

Graph paperexam ple with


draingand Iiftingplan

M ainfeaturesofplain weave:
@

Threadsinterlacing in alternateorder.
The repeatcontainstwo endsandtwo picks.
Bothsidesofthe weave are identical.

Eachthreadgivesmaximum amountofsupporttotheadjacentthreads.
Texture isstrongerand firmerthan any otherordinaryc10th.

Madefrom aIIkindoftextileraw materialsandyarnsi.e.cotton,Iinen,jute,man-made

fibres,both spun and continuousfilamentyarns.


Itcomprisea high productionofthe totaloutputofwoven fabrics.

Twohealdshaftsaresufficienttoproduceplainweave,whenthenumberofends/inchi6
Iarge(morethan50),fourorsixhealdshaftsareusedwithskipdraft.

136

Classification ofplain c10th:


There are atIeasttwo ways ofapproaching such a classi
fication.The simplestis in termsofwarp
and weftcoverfactors.

a.

Approximatelysquare tloths:
The clothsin which thewarp and weftcounts,the endsand picksperinch,and therefore
the warp and weftoverfactors are approximately equal,so that warp and weft are
equally prom inent,ornearly so,on both sidesofthe c10th.The crimps are also usually
approximatelyequal.

150 X 150
40 X 40

b.

X 560

W arp fated tloths:


The cloths in which the warp coverfactorsubstantiall
y exceedsthatofthe weft,and in
which the warp predominateson both sidesofthe c10th.A warp faced effectisobtained
byincreasingthe warp counti.e.warp yarn isfinerthantheweftyarn.

'

1so x 30

so x 8

t.
'

x s6'
'

W eR fated doths:
The clothsin which the weftcoverfactorsubstantially exceedsthatofthe warp,and in
whichtheweftpredominateson b0th sidesofthec10th.A weftfaced effectisobtained if
theweftyarn isfinerthan the warpyarn.

i
l
g
..

'
!#
:

32 x 148

7 x 6o X 571
,
j
;

F;
'

t
a

'

L
Lk

nothermethod of classification,more Iogicalin some respects,distinguishes between balanced


nd unbalanced structures:

'

rn

(
'
.

..

)j)

137
a Balanted cloths:

. The clothsinwhichthe warp andweftcountsare similar,and Iikewisethe endsand picksper 1


(
inch.The yarncrim psare usuall
y equal.

140 X 140

X 59'
'

45 X 45

b. Unbalanced tloths:
TheclothsincludeaIIthose whichdo notconform tothe requirementsofbalancedcloths.
Theyaregrouped underthree headings:
'

1. )L The endsand pi
cks perinch are similar(square sett),butthe warp and weft

cpntsaredifferent,sothewarpandweftcoverfactorsarealsodifferent.

'
'

.
(
,

(2
.
,

)'
t.x

11.,
l
.

,.
.

50 X 42

x s8'
'

The warp
and weft counts are sim ilar, but the ends and picks per inch are
''
different,so againthewarp and weftcoverfactorsare different.
.

150 X 140 '


X 57''
42 X 42

111.

The endsand picksperinch are different,and so are the warp and weftcounts.
The warp and weftcoverfactorswillusually be different,but in a specialcase
they may be similar.
120X 90

X 58''

20 X 16

DerivativesofPlain weave:
W eavesdeveloped on the basis ofplain weave principle iscalled derivativesofplain weave.AIIthe
weavesthose are based on plainweave principle are classified asfollows:
Plain weave derivatives

Rib weave

MattorHopsackweave

W arp rib

W eftrib

Regularwarp rib

Regularweftrib

lrregularwarp rib

Irregularweftrib

Regularmatt
Irregularmatt
Stitch matt
Fancy matt

138

RibW eave:

Ribbed orcorded effectsare variationsofthe plain weave.Interesting and attractivefabricscan be


obtained with the rib variation ofthe plain weave orby making a rib-weave construction.The rib
may be produced in the warp orin the weftby alternating fine yarnswith coarse yarns,orsingl
e
yarnswi
th doubledyarns.There aretwo typesofrib weave,such aswarp rib andweftrib.
W arp Rib weave:
In the warp rib,the warp ends floatovertwo ormore picks.Atthe change ofshed which
occurs sim ultaneously across the whol
e warp,the picks in the same shed are bunched
togetherand form the ribeffectwhich characterizesthisweave.Usually,onlythewarpends
can beseen onthe b0thface and backsurfacesbecausetheyareveryclosel
ysetandtendto
coverthe weftwhich only actsas a weftmaterial.Thus,while one usesgood quality,fine
yarn forthe warp,theweftcanbeacheap,coarse material.So the mainfeaturesofwarprib
fabricsareasfollows:
W arp yarnsare used asa single yarn and weftyarnsare used asgroup orbundle
yarns.
Rib orcordeffectsareshown horizontallyi.e.weft-way rib effects.
Theformula numberofatypicalwarp ribweaveis 22warp rib, 4ywarp ribetc.
Intherepeatsize,the numberofwarpyarnisalwaystwoandthenumberofweft
yarnisdependsonthe formulanumber,itisthesum ofwarpandweftfloats.

There aretwo typesofwarp ribweave,such asregularwarp riband irregularwarprib.


RegularW arp rib weave:

ln thisweave the numberofpicksinthe bundle should be same,i.e.inthe formulanumber,


the numberabove thefraction Iine and below thefraction Iine are same.ThethicknessofaII
ribsare same.Sothesame size ofribsare produced onthe surfaceofthefabric.The regular
warp ribweavesare shown inthefollowingfigure.

#
.
7
r -

*)

!
@I
N- -

139
IrregularW arp rib weave:
In thiscase the num berofweftyarnsin the bundle are different,i.e.in the form ula num ber,
the num berabove the fraction Iine and below the fraction Iine are notsame.The thickness

ofaIIribs are notsame.So the differentsize ofribs i.e.thick and thin ribs are produced on
the sudace ofthe fabric.The irregularwarp rib weavesare shown in the following figure.

I1
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
1
:1:I
t
I
;
I
.
:
i
(
11'1
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,
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x - (wa

rp rlbl

M (..,p1:)
j

j,
.
j;
:
j:
;
jt
k
,
j:
;

Close- upview of 41 warp ribfabricwithweave,draftingand liftingplan

W eftRib w eave:
These are opposite to w arp rib weaves, and result from extending the plain weave
horizontally.This weave may be described asplain weave in which two ormore endsweave
togetherasone.In the weft rib which is frequently called cord,the picksfloatoverseveral
warp ends w hich are bunched together to form a rib in the warp direction.W ith these
fabrics,the pick spacing is usually so close thatthe weftcom pletely coversthe warp.Here,
one uses a fine, high-quality yarn as weft and a cheaper,coarser yarn as warp.The first

following figure shows atwo-end weftrib (cord).The draftisshown forfourheald shafts.


The short-hand orform ula number used for the warp rib is inadequate for the wek rib
because it only indicates the Iength ofthe w arp floats.Forcharacterizing the weft rib,the
Iength ofthe float m ust be added.Thus,the weave show n in the first following figure is
described by: 112. So the m ain featuresofw eftribfabricsare asfollows:
W eftyarnsare used asa singleyarn and warp yarnsare used asgroup orbundle
yarns.
Riborcord effectsare formed warp-wise i.e.in thedirection ofwarp.
Theform ula numberofatypicalweftribweave is 113, 11(
4+2)etc.
In the repeatsize,the num berofweftyarn isalwaystwo andthe num berofwarp
yarn isdependson theform ula number,itisthesum ofgroupyarns.
The prominence ofthe ribs can be increased by suitable use ofcoarse and fine
yarns.
There are two typesofweftrib weave,such asregularweftrib and irregularweftrib.

140

RegularW eftrib weave:


In this weave the num ber of warp ends in the bundle should be same,i.e.in the form ula
num ber,there issingle num beratthe rightside ofthe fraction Iine.The thickness ofaIIribs
issam e.So the same size ofribs is produced on the surface ofthe fabric. The regularw eft
rib weavesare show n inthe followingfigure.
.

!
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ww

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et
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t
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) . )t .-yys..t
( .t )))
.

y-.. ...
-.. y
.

j'
jjjjjji
.
)
j
ig
j
ij
)
.
l
jjjjjjjjjjjjjjj ..

>
.
#.
----k
t,,---.'
-

Close-up view of 114 w eftrib fabricw i


th weave,drafting and Iifting plan

lrregularW eftrib w eave:


In this case the num berofw arp yarns in the bundle isdifferent,iae.in the form ula num ber,
there istwo differentnum bersatthe rightside ofthefraction Iine.The thicknessofaIIribs is
notsam e.So the differentsize ofribs i.e.thick and thin ribsare produced on the surface of
the fabric.The irregularweftrib weavesare shown in the follow ing figure.

a
lr-

'

,.

,.

. -

W j&jj

141

Hopsatk BasketorMattWeave:
The hopsackweave,avariation ofthe plainweave,usestwo ormore warp and /ortwo ormore
weftyarnsside byside asone yarn.The resultantc10th isfairly loose in weave.The hopsackweave
isobtained by doubling orotherwise multiplying the interlacing pointsofthe plain weave in b0th

thewarpand weftdirection.Basketweavesaremadewithtwo ormoreadjacentwarpscontrolled


by the sam e harness,and with two ormore weftyarns placed in the same shed.The interlacing
pattern is similarto a plain weave,buttwo ormore yarns follow the same parallelpath.Basket
weave fabrics are more flexible and wrinkle resistant because there are fewer interlacings per
square inch.The fabrics Iookflatterthan com parable regular plain weave fabrics.However,Iong
floats snag easil
y.The mattweave c10th has a greaterresistance to tearing.M attweaves tend to
give smooth-surfaced fabrics.ln the repeatsize ofthe mattweave the numbersofwarp and weft
yarnsareequal.There are fourtypesofhopsackormattweave suchasregularmatt,irregularmatt,
stitch mattandfancy matt.
RegularMattweave:
M ostregularmattsare woven with the Same num berofendsand picksand the sameyarn
coun.Equalwarp floats exchange wi
th equalweft floats.So the regular matt weave is
produced bythecom binationofregularwarp and weftribweave.The regularmattweave is
represented bytheformula numberof'' AAA '''where 'A'indicatesthewarporweftfloats.
Denting plays an important partin achieving a correct mattweave.Endsthat work alike
should be separated by the reed as the endstend to rollortwistround each otherwhen
weaving.The followingfiguresshow close-upview ofsome regularmattweave with drafting
and Iifting plan.

U z

Ij. .
11-x

Close-up view of 222 mattfabricwithweave,draftingand Iiing plan

V.
,5
i

thweave,draftingandIiftinkpl
Close-upview 0f 1j4 mattfabricwi
an

142

IrregularM attweave:
W arp and weftfloats are different in one repeat of irregularm att weave.So the irregular
m att weave is produced by the com bination of irregular warp and weft rib weave.The

irregularmattweave is represented by the formula numberof.. A (A + B),,, w jere zA'


B

indicates the w arp floatsand 'B'indicates the w eft floats.The following figures show closeup view and interlacing diagram ofsom e irregularm attweavesw ith drafting and Iifting plan.

u
yj*
l

nterlacingdiagram of 1(311)mattfabricwithweave,draftingandIiftingplan

)'

V
,

s.

3 (3+ 2)
2

eave,draftingandliftingplanof 2(4+2)withclose-upview

Stitch M attw eave:


M attorbasketstructuresare Iiable to slippage,especially in coarserweavesorw hen woven
w ith worsted yarns.To produce a firm c10th with Iower setting,the centre ends in each
square can be stitched.In case of warp float area the centralw arp yarn goes dow n and of
weftfloatarea the centralwarp yarn com es up.The following figures show the w eave plan
ofsome stitch m attfabricw ith drafting and Iifting plan.

143

!
?

'

'

y
.

-.

..

- ..

'L.

'

..

?- 7(titchMatt)

5 s(stitchMatt)

Fancy M attw eave:

Fancy matt is one kind ofstitch m att.In case ofstitch matt,the stitch orstitching thread is
does not affectthe prom inence ofactualregularm atteffect.The stitching thread is hidden
by the neighbouring threads,so it does not visible on the fabric surface.But in the fancy
m attthe stitching threadsare nothidden,they are visible.The stitching system affects the
design of tbe regular m att weave. They produce decorative appearance on the fabric
sudace.Itcan be com pared w ith ''katha''and ''nokshi-katha''.

.
'

'

U
. .

!l !i

----.

j.j.!r

;.

..:
...> .

g.-)t:;'t

.
.
.

7--.7FancyMatt

''

9 9 Fancy Matt
9

'.

.
l;e

144

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:

I
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t.7j.
- .
-

- '

.
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55

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.

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77

Fancy M att

Fancy M att

Ornam entation ofplain c10th:


A plainweaveisornamented withoutdeviatingfrom thetrue principlesofplain weaveasfollows:

The threads in b0th warp and weftvary in colour,raw material,types ofconstruction


and in thickness.
Threadsofdifferentcoloursarecombined in checkform.
By using fancyslubyarns.
Bycombiningdifferentordersofdenting.
By using two warp beams, which are differently tensioned,is produced seer-sucker
stripe.
t
S
$

1
1
$
% $

Seer-suckerstripe

Z 1$ S

Crepon effect

Byusingdifferenttwisted yarns(suchashardtwisted weftyarn isproduced crepon


effect).
Byusing differentTextile materials,such aswooland cotton isproduced unionfabric.
Byusing aspeciallyshaped reed,which risesandfallsthethreadsarecaused toform zigzag Iinesinthe c10th.
Byusing extremelyfineorcoarse yarn.

145

End uses:
I
tisused forstructures,which rangefrom very heavyand coarse canvasand blanketsmade ofthick
yarnstothe Iightestandfinestcambriesand muslinsm ade in extremelyfineyarns.

Advantagesand disadvantagesofplain weavefabric


Advantages:

W earswell
Offersappropriate background forprinting,specialfinishes,andapplied surfacedesigns.
Issnag-resistant
Hasgood dimensionalstability i
fofhighfabriccount,i.e.high threaddensi
ty.
Isreversibl
e ifnotprinted orfinished with specialesects.

Disadvantages:

Ravels

Appearsuninteresting
Showswrinkling

HasIowertearStrengththan someotherweaves
Showssoilreadily.

146

TW ILL W EAVE

The second basicweave pattern used in manufacturing fabricsisthe twillweave. Thisweave is

characterized by diagonalIinesorribs(twillIines)on the face,and often on the back,ofthe


fabric.Theface diagonalcan varyfrom reclining tw ill,with aIow l4-degree angle, to steep tw ill,
with a 7s-degree angle.A twillangle of45-derees is considered to be a medium diagonalora
regulartwill;itisthe mostcom mon.
The angle ofthe twillIine isdetermined bythe closenessofthe warp ends, the num berofyarns
perinch,the diametersofthe yarnsused,and the actualprogression forming the repeat. These
twillIines are produced by letting aIIwarp ends interlace in the same way but displacing the
interlacing pointsofeach end by one pickrelative to thatofthe previous end. W hile the plain
weave can only bewoven in oneform,there existseveraloptionswith regard to tw ills.
TwillIinesare formed on both sides ofc10th.The direction ofdiagonalIineson the face side of
c10th isopposite to thaton thew rong side coinciding respectivelywith the weftand warp floats
on the otherside.Thus,ifwarp floats predominate on one side ofthe c10th, weft floats w ill
predom inate in the same proportion onthe otherside.

Twillsdifferfrom plain weavesin the increased numberofpicksand endsneeded to com plete a


repeat pattern.W hereas a plain weave requires two ends and two picks for a repeat, the
sim plest tw illrequires three picks and three ends.At Ieast three heald-shafts are needed to
make a twillweave.Norm ally straightdrafting system is used to produce regulai'twillfabric.
The smallest possible repeat fora twillweave is 3 ends x 3 picks,and there is no theoretical
upperIim i
ttothe sizeofthe repeat.
-

147

The designation ofthe design ofa twillfabric describesthe placementofthe warp yarnsover
and underthe weftyarns.In afabricdescribed asa 22 twiql,fourwarp and fourweftyarnsare
used to form thedesign repeat.

Classification ofTwillw eave:


Twillweavescan be classified from fourpointsofview:

a) Accordingtothewayofconstrudion
3
W arp-waytwillweave:
W eft-way twillwave:

1
2
3

warp-way twill,etc.
weft-way twill,etc.

b) AccordingtothedirectionoftwillIinesontheface
ofthefabric
2
S - TwillorLeft-hand twillweave:

1 S,etc.

Z - TwillorRight-hand twillweave:

2 Z,etc.

c) Accordingtothefaceyarn(warpor
weft)
4
W arp facetwillweave:

z S,etc.

W eftface twillweave:

3Z,etc.

Doubleface twillweave: 3Z,etc.

d) Accordingtothenatureoftheproduc
edt
willIine
1
3
Sim ple twillweave:

Expandedtwillweave:

*- - *
- '
-

3 S, z Z,etc.

2 3

M ultipletwillweave;

*1

:Z,etc.

2 S,

3 1 S, l z a Z,etc.

' '--'
Inwarp waytwillweavewarp floatrun in the warp direction.
'

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warpwaytwill j
2
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W arp w ay tw ill

l
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#-E
3' weftwaytwill
t
1

W eftw ay tw ill

148

Form ula num berofevery yarn is sam e i.e.aIIwarp ends interlace in the sam e w ay but
displacing the interlacing points ofeach end by one pick redative to that ofthe previous
end.In this case any sign or colour in the square of graph or design paper represent
warp up and em pty square representweftup.
e-- +-

..

N T g
e
In w eft way tw illweave weftfloatrun in the weft direction. Form ula num berofevery
yarn is sam e i.e.allweftyarn interlace in the sam e way but displacing the interlacing
pointsofeach pick by one end relative to thatofthe previous pick. ln thiscase any sign
.

orcolourin the square ofgraph ordesign paperrepresentweftup and empty square


representwarp up.This isexceptionalthan othernorm alsystem .

- # . **....e..+ .N *.....-*.-Y...+ # .*O.K.


The Iinescreated bythispatternarecallediwillIinesordiagonalIinesorwales W hen
.

the c10th is held in the position in w hich itwaswoven, the diagonalIineswillbe seen to
run eitberfrom the lowerleftcornerto the upperrightcornerorfrom the lowerrightto
the upperIeftcorner.
$ . yp Aj. j-euX ..1:g% gji
W hen the twillrunsfrom the lowerrightto the upperIeftcorner, the twillis know n asa
Ieft-hand twill.Itis produced by downward displacementofthe interlacing points, ifthe
starting pointis bottom Ieftcornerorupward displacem entofthe interlacing points, if
the starting point is bottom right corner. For exam ple it is expressed by the form ula
3
,,
num ber 1/ 2 S , w here S - indicate the direction of twjjjjjne.rhe follow ing figures
show the weave plan of di
fferent left hand twillfabric. The alignm ent of twillIine is
parallelto the m iddle portion of'S', so itiscalled S- twill.

;Ir---1Ik::qIIlCl,r111-

71i11iIIi:

W henthe diagonatline runsfrom the lowerleftcornertotheupperrightcorner'


llis
, the twi

knownasa right-handtwill.About85% ofaIltwill-wovenfabricsare right-hand


twills. ltisproduced by upw ard displacem entoftbe interlacing points.
'

Forexampleitis

149

expressed by the form ula num ber..

;! ,,
Z , w here,Z- indicate the direction oftw illline.
2

The following figures show the weave plan,with drafting and Iifting plan of different
right-hand tw illfabric.The alignm entoftwillIine is parallelto the m iddle portion of'Z',
so itiscalled Z - twill.
'

'

K1

z- z

#y,

c) Ae- iY o thefu -

lwarporwe l:

The description oftwillw eavesisnotated as

, z,

a ,and so on.The top digitol

thefractionIinereferstothenumberofwefty&rnscrossed overbythewarpandthE

bottom digit to the num ber of weftyarns the w arp passes under before returning tc
crossthe filling again.W hen the crossing is overand underthe same num berofyarns
the fabric is called a double-face oreven oreven-sided twill.W hen warps pass over
Iarger or sm aller num ber of weftyarns than they pass under,the fabric is called ar
uneven twill.Uneven twillfabrics have a right and a w rong side and therefore are no'

considered reversible.The traditionaldenim fabric used in blue jeans is an uneven

warp-faced tw ill;the w arp yarns are dyed blue and the weftyarns are undyed,so th(
fabric appears blue on the face and w hite on the back.There are two types of unever
tw ill,such asw arp-facetw illand w eft-face twill.
:

W arp-faced tw ills have a predom inance ofw arp yarns on the face ofthe fabric,witl
2
3
3
4
z ,and so onThe top digitofthe fraction Iine is higherthar
patternsof
, j, ; , ,
k

the bottom one,so it is called w arp-face tw ill.Since w arp yarns are m ade w ith highe
tw ist, these fabrics are stronger and more resistant to abrasion and pilling. Tht
followingfiguresshow the weave plan and interlacing diagram ofwarp-face twill.

150

7I k
I

. .

$!
'

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3

#
4

2
w eh-face Tw ill:

W eft-faced tw ills have a predom inance ofw eftyarns on the surface of the fabric, w ith
2
3
1
2
patterns of 3, a , z, u,and so on.The top digitofthe fraction Iine is sm aller
than the bottom one,so itis called w eft-face tw ill. W eftyarns are generally weakerthan
are warp yarns,so that relatively few w eft-faced tw ills are m ade.The follow ing figures
show the w eave plan ofweft-face tw ill.
'

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.'av. .:,''

i
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:
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.. 1i ,

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.

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.

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:n--.ble face Tw illorEven-sid-M - iII:

Even-sidedtwillsexposeanequalamountofwarpandweftyarnoneachsideofa

'fabric.They are also know n as reversible tw illsbecause they Iook alike on both sides,
although the direction ofthe tw illIine differs. Betterquality w eftyarnsare used in these
fabricsascom pared w ith w arp-faced tw ills because both setsofyarn are exposed to
wear.They are m ost often 2 ; tw illsand have the bestbalance ofaIlthe tw illw eaves.

151

;
)

, 4 4,etc.are also the double-face twill.In thiscase the top and bottom both dig.
3
'
)
ofthe fraction Iine are sam e,so itiscalled double-face twill.The follow ing figuressho
the weave plan ofsom e double-face twill.
.

jj
..
j
jj

7- I

. ...

.
.

.
.

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(

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There are two types of sim ple twill,such as sim ple w arp tw illand sim ple wefttwillf

Each1warn
end is
raise
d over
orIower
id underonl
vone1 oi
ckinthe repeat,with pattern
-1
1
2
3
4
1'
' l
Of

, a,

4, 1, 1,

y,and so on. z, a, 4 ,etc.are the sim ple wef

tw illand

, 3 1,

y,etc.are the sim ple w arp tw ill.The following figures show th.

weave pfan w ith drafttlng and Iifting plan of some sim ple warp and sim ple weft twi
fabrics.

'

'J

II

II
.

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152

w(y--j
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44
-

Expanded Tw ill:

Each warp end is raised over or Iowered under more than one adjacent pick in the
repeat.lfthe w arp and wefttw illIines are ofequalw idth,the fabric isdouble-faced.Itis
a
a
4
2
represented by the form ula num berof 3, z, 4 , 4,and so on.The follow ing
figuresshow the weave plan ofsom e expanded tw illw eaves.
'

'

1
t

2
-

lk!tlltillltq1r!lilI:

#
4

u.x

Ineachrepeat,thereareatIeasUtFowarptwillIinesortwowefttwillIinesofdifferent
w idth.Ifthe prom inency ofw arp yrn is m ore than i
t iscalled w arp-face m ultiple tw ill
and the prominency ofweftyarn ismorethan itiscalled weff-face multiple twill.Ifthe
prom inency ofboth w arp and w-eftyarnsare sam e than it iscalled double-face m ultiple
tw illaltisrepresented by the form ula num berof 4 1 ,.
' 3 1 2 , 1 3 1 and
1

lsa

s on.The following figures show the weave plan with close-up view ofsome multiple
twillwkaves..
'

EE
j
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g
;l

4 1
S
1 1

3
1 12 S

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1 15

DerivativesofTwillw eave:
W eavesare developed onthe basisofprinciple oftwillweave orfrom a regulartwill,these are
called derivativesoftwillweave.Thecom mon twillderivativesare listed below:
Zig-zag orwaved orpointed Twillweave
HerringboneTwillweave
Diam ond design

154
4. Diaperdesign
5. Broken Twillweave
6. Re-arranged Tw illweave orTransposedTw illweave
7. Stepped Twillweave
8. Elongated Twillweave
9. Com bined Twillweave orcom bination oftwillw eave
10.Shaded Twillweave orshaded design
11.Curved Twillweave

1. Zig-zag orPointed orW aved Tw illw eave:


In zig-zag twills the diagonalIine proceeds eitherto the Ieft or right.W here two Iines
m eetthey create a point,form ing acontinuouszig-zag effectin the fabric.Ifone takesa
twillweave and reversesthe drafting order in the heald shafts regularly aftera certain
num ber of ends, the twillIines w illrun across the w idth of the fabric in a zig-zag
configuration.The reversing ofthe draftcan occuraftera repeatorafterany num berof
warp ends.Each reversalproducesa point.
Selecting the righttw illweave w hen constructing zig-zag or waved effects is of great
im portance.Shortwarp or weft floats should be used so as to avoid Iong floats w hen
the weave isreversed.So zig-zag weave isproduced by the com bination ofS-tw illand Ztwillweave.According to the change oftw illdirection there are two types of zig-zag
weave,such as:
Horizontalzig-zag,and
Verticalzig-zag weave.
HorizontalN g-zag weaw :
lfthe direction oftw illIine is change dependson the warp yarn than horizontalzig-zag
tw illweave is produced.The repeat size of horizontalzig-zag is calculated from the
regularorbase twillweave.ln one system ,the num berofwarp yarn in zig-zag weave is
double ofthe num berofw arp yarn ofbase tw ilfand the num berofweftyarn issam e as
base tw illw eave.Forexam ple,ifthe repeat size ofbasic regulartwillis4 x 4,than the
repeatsize ofhorizontalzig-zag is8 x 4.In othersystem,the num berofwarp yarn in zigzag weave istwo Iess from double of the num ber of warp yarn ofbase tw illand the
numberofweftyarn issame asbase twillweave.Forexam ple,ifthe repeatsize ofbasic
regulartw illis 4 x 4,than the repeat size of horizontalzig-zag is 6 x 4.In general,the
direction oftwillIine is changed afterthe com pletion of repeatof regulartwillweave
and the pointiscreated atthe changing tim e.Normall
y w arp-way tw illis used asregular
basictwill.Returning a straightdraftin the opposite direction willcreate a pointed draft
and does resultin a horizontalwaved effectif program m ed with a peg plan ofthe twill
weave.So pointed orV - draftis used to produce horizontalzig-zag weave.Itispossible
to produce thisweave from any type ofregularbasictw illw eave.The follow ing figures
show the weave plan with drafting and Iifting plan ofsom e horizontalzig-zag weaves.

155
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8X4
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Horizontalzig-zag twillbased on
z Tw illweave

2Z

12 34 3 2

. #

6X4

z Z

Horipontalzig-zag twillbas
ed on
.

.
z

z TFillweave

1 234 l 234 12 143 214 3'2 14

#
2

20X4

Horizontalzi
g-zag twillbased on

ZTwiflwave

1234 5654 3216

a
z
3

12x6
g
H orizontalzig-zag tw illbased on

Z
3

Tw illweave

156
'

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:
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..

3
2

i :

, ,

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.- ..- -. .

'

10x5
,
!,j< = 3
HorizontalZig-zagTwIIID3Se(IOn

Z Twillweave

16 x8

HorilentalzigqagTwilkasedonY-?- zTwillweave
1 2

The follow ing figuresshow the close-up view ofsom e horizontalzig-zag fbric.

Zig-zag tw illbased on 2 ,

Zig-zag tw illbased on z ,

reversing aftereach repeat. reversing afterevery 10 picks.

3 1
1 3

157
Ved icalzig-zag w eave:

Ifthe direction oftwillline ischange depends on the weftyarn than verticalzig- zag twill
weave is produced.The repeat size of verticalzi
g-zag is calculated from the regular or
base tw illw eave.ln one system , the numberofweftyarn in zig-zag weave isdouble of
the num berofw eftyarn ofbase tw illand the num berofw arp yarn issam e asbase tw ill
weave.Forexam ple,ifthe repeatsize ofbasic regulartw illis 5 x 5, than the repeat size
ofverticalzig-zag is 5 x 10. In othersystem,the num berofw eftyarn in zig-zag weave is
tw o less from double ofthe num ber ofw eft yarn of base tw illand the num berofwarp
yarn is sam e as base tw illw eave.Forexam ple, ifthe repeatsize ofbasic regulartw illis5
x 5,than the repeat size of horizontalzig-zag is 5 x 8. In general,the direction oftw ill
line is changed afterthe com pletion of repeat of regular tw illweave and the point is
created at the changing tim e.Both w eft-w ay and w arp-w ay tw ills are used as regular
basic tw ill. Straight draft is used to produce vertical zig-zag w eave. It is possible to
produce this w eave from any type of regular basic tw illweave. The follow ing figures
show the weave plan with drafting and lifting plan ofsom e verticalzig zag weaves.
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Zig-zag tw illisused forfigured orornam ented design,upholstery,wall-covering,screen,


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These weaves are generated by introducing a step into the design after a certain
num ber ofends or picks.At the step, every thread changes from up to down orvice
versa.lf the originalw eave is not double-faced, this m eans that,at every step,a w arp
twillchangesinto a wefttw illorvice versa. It isalso produced by the com bination ofS twilland Z - tw illlike zig-zag weave but itis notcreate a point. Itis also divided into two
groupsdepending on the change ofthe direction oftw illIine, such as:
Horizontalherringbonetwillweave, and
Verticalherringbone twillweave.
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lfthe direction oftwillline ischange according to the herringbone princi4le dependson the
warp yarn than horizontalherringbone twillweave is produced. The repeatsize ofhorizontal
herringbone iscalculated from the regularorbase twillweave Iike ashorizontalzig-zag w eave.
In thiscase the num berofwarp yarn in herringbone w eave isdouble ofthe num berofwarp
yarn ofbase twilland the num berofweftyarn issame asbasetwillweave. Forexample,ifthe
repeatsize ofbasicregulartwillis4 x 4,thanthe repeatsize ofhorizontalherringbone is8 x 4.
Ingeneral,the direction oftwillIine ischanged aflerthe completion ofrepeatofregulartw ill
weave.Norm ally warp-way twillis used asregularbasictwill. Broken draftisused to produce
horizontalherringbonew eave, ifdouble-face tw illweave isused asbase twill. W hen uneven

160

tw illsuch aswarp-face or w eft-face tw ill is used as base tw ill then straight draft is
used to produce horizontalherringbone w eave.
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It is possible to produce this weave from any type of regular basic tw illw eave.The

verticalstripe effect isproduced on the sudace ofthisfabric.The justpreviousfigures


show the w eave plan with drafting and Iifting plan of som e horizontal herringbone
w eaves.

VerticalHerringO ne TM IIw eave:


Ifthe direction oftw illIine is change according to the herringbone principle dependson
the w eft yarn than vertical herringbone twillw eave is produced.The repeat size of
verticalherringbone is calculated from the regular or base tw illw eave like as vertical
zig-zag weave.ln this case the num berof w eftyarn in herringbone w eave is double of
the num berofweftyarn ofbase tw illand the num berofwarp yarn is sam e asbase tw ill
w eave.Forexam ple,ifthe repeat size ofbasic regulartw illis 4 x 4,than the repeatsize
ofverticalherringbone is4 x 8.In general,the direction oftw illIine ischanged afterthe
com pletion of repeat of regulartwillweave.Norm ally w eft-w ay tw illis used as regular
basic tw ill.Straightdraftis used to produce verticalherringbone w eave from aIltype of
base tw ill. lt is possible to produce this w eave from any type of regular basic tw ill
w eave. The horizontal stripe effect is produced on the surface of this fabric. The
follow ing figures show the w eave plan w ith drafting and lifting plan of som e vertical
herringbone w eaves.
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Verticalherringbonetwillbasedon

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The w eave,drafting and Iifting plan w i


th Close-up view ofverticalherringbone tw ill
based on 2 w arp-w ay tw iII.
2

162

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3. Diam ond design:

This isa derivative oftw illweave.Diam ond design isdeveloped on the basisofpointed
principle.Itisbuild-up bythecombination ofverticaland horizontalzig-zag wqave. The repeat
size ofdiam ond design is also calculated from the regularorbase tw illw eave. In

163
)
thiscase the num berofboth warp and weftyarnsin diamond weave are doubleofthe number
ofwarp and weftyarn ofbase twillrespectively.Forexam ple,ifthe repeatsize ofbasic regular
twillis4 x4,thanthe repeatsize ofdiam ond design is8 x8.Diamond isa reversible design.So
itm ay be divided into two equalparts in both verticaland horizontalaxis.Pointed orV draftingsystem isusedto producediamond design.
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Diamon'
ddejignbasedon
2 Z twillweave

xy

164
The construction principle of diam ond as follow s:there is severalsystem to build up
diamond design.At first selectthe repeatsize according to the basic tw ill.Then repeat
size is divided into fourquadrants.Now the basic tw illis put in every quadrant by the
change of direction of tw illIine in this way that the opposite tw illIine of every tw ill
should be paralleland they produce an angle atthe changing point.Both sides ofsom e
diam ond design are equalbut som e diam ond designs are not equalalthough they are

developed on the sam e basic tF ill. It depends on the construction principle,w hich is
show n in the follow ing figures.
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4. Diaperdesign:
This derivative oftw illweave is developed on the basis of herringbone principle.It is
build-up'by the com bination ofverticaland horizontalherringbone weave.The repeat
size of diaper design is also calculated from the regular or base twillweave like as
diam ond design.In this case the num berofboth warp and weftyarns in diaperweave
are double ofthe num berofw arp and weftyarn ofbase twillrespectively.Forexam ple,
ifthe repeatsize ofbasic regulartw illis4 x 4,than the repeatsize ofdiaperdesign is8 x
8.Diaper is not a reversible design like diam ond.It may be divided into two parts in

diagonalaxis.Brokendraftisusedto producediaperdesign;ifdouble-facetwillweave is
used as base tw ill.W hen uneven twillsuch as warp-face orw eft-face twillis used as
base twillthen straightdraftisused to produce this design.
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166
The construction principle of diaperdesign as follow s:there is severalsystem s to build
up diaperdesign.Atfirstselectthe repeatsize according to the basic tw ill.Then repeat
size is divided into'four quadrants. Now the basic tw ill is put in every quadrant by
changing direction oftw illIine on the basis ofherringbone principle in thisw ay thatthey
do not produce point Iike as diam ond.For every change oftwilldirection a warp tw ill
changesinto a wefttw illorvice versa Iike as herringbone principle.

11

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herhouse hold fabricscan be m ade by thisw eave.

167
5. Broken orreversed Tw illw eave:

A broken tw illisform ed by a break in the continuation ofthe tw illiine atpredeterm ined


intervals.There isseveralsystem sto produce broken tw ill.Usually the break willbe at
the centre of the repeat,with only one reversal,but m ore com plicated breaks can be
m ade. One divides the original w eave into two halves and copies the first half
unchanged,starting from the firstwarp end.The second halfis copied in reverse order,
starting from the Iast end.Broken tw ills are also produced by dividing three or more
parts.Norm ally straightdraftis used to produce thisweave.The pattern can be broken
either in the warp or in the weft direction and no tw illIine willbe generated.The
following figures show the close-up view w ith w eave, drafting and lifting plan of
differenttypesofbroken tw illweaves.
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6. Re-arranged Twillweave orTransposed Tw illweave:

Rearranging a weave means taking single thread orgroup ofthreadsofthe base weave

and arranging them in a differentorder.lfthe rearrangementdoes notexceed thi


repeat of the base w eave,the sam e straight draft can be used.The pattern can be
rearranged either in the warp or in the w eft direction. By this rearrangement the
different types of novelty and attractive designs can be developed in the fabric.The
appearance ofsom e rearranged tw illissam e as broken twill.This tw illweave iscreated
bythe follow ing differentmethods.

169

Rearrangem entofindividualthreads:
O ne can rearrange weaves by changing the sequence ofthe warp ends. The follow ing
figure represent
5 - end expanded w eft tw ill 23 rearranged as a steep orelongated
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tw iIIby changing the w arp sequence to every 2ndend.


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The follow ing figure representsa 8 - end m ultiple tw ill 23 21w here the warp endsare
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Rearrangem entofgroupsofthreads:
W ith this type of rearrangem ent, one divides the originalw eave into groups oftw o or
m ore ends and changes their sequence, e.g.by reversing it or arranging them in satin
fashion.The follow ing figure represents 8 - end m ultiple tw ill 2 2
1 3 , divided into
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The following figure represents the rearranged weave of the just previous figure is
divided into groupsoftw o picks each and these are also arranged in reverse order.

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Corkscrew W eave:
Corkscrew w eaves are a variety of rearranged tw ill.These are characterized by a som e
w hat subdued tw iflform ation w ith eitherwarp orweftface.These w eaves,also called
diagonalribs.The peculiar feature of corkscrew weaves is the com bination oftwo or
m ore distincttw il.Iines,w hich m ay be ofdifferentcolours.Corkscrew fabrics,which are
usually m ade of fine w orsted,should be set close in the w arp,otherw ise the tw idlw ill

Iookthin and ragged.


They are used eitheralone orin com bination w ith otherw eavesforvariety of purpose.
They are used forgarm ent for which they are capabe of producing firm and com pact
texturesofgreaterstrength,w arm th and durability.They are oftw o kinds,such asOdd num bercorkscrew w eave,and
Even num bercorkscrew weave.
Odd num bertorkscrew w eave:
Odd num bercorkscrew weave is created by rearranging any type ofregulartw illw eave
in a sateen order.Both w arp and weft face types are available.W arp-face - warp floats
are one thread Ionger that w eft floats. Sam e in the case of w eft face. They are
developed from odd num ber of ends and picks.The follow ing figures show the odd
num ber corkscrew w eave from respective regulartw illw eave w ith drafting and Iifting
plan.Straightdrafting system is norm ally used to produce this weave.

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Even num berCorkscrew w eave:


Even num bercorkscrew is produced from two different regular base tw illofthe sam e
repeat size.In this case the num ber of w arp yarn in the repeat size of the resultant
corkscrew weave w illbe the sum ofthe num berof w arp yarn ofthe base tw illw eave
and the num berofw eftyarn is equalto the base tw ill. Forexam ple,ifthe repeatsize of
the base tw illis 6 x 6 then the repeat size of the resultant even num ber corkscrew
w eave is 12 x 6.Straight drafting system is norm ally used to produce this corkscrew
weave.The follow ing figure show the even num ber corkscrew weave from respective
regulartw illweave w ith drafting and Iifting plan.

173

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7. Stepped Tw illweave:
These weaves are generated by introducing a step into the design after a certain
num ber of ends or picks.At the step, every thread changes from up to dow n or vice
versa.Ifthe originalweave is notdouble-faced,this m eans that,atevery step,a warp
tw illchanges into a w efttwillorvice versa.There are three typesofstep tw illweave,
such asW arp-way step twill
W eft-way step tw ill,and
Both warp and weft-waystep twillweave.

W arp-w ay step tw illw eave:

There are two types ofwarp-way step twill.One is created in the sam e twilldirection
and anotherone iscreated by reversalofthe twilldirection.
Sam e tw illdirection:
In the sam e tw illdirection step may be occurafterthe repeatorany desired num berof
2
thread.The following figure represents 4 - end double-faced twill 2 w ith step after
every fourendsand same tw illdirection.

174
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The follow ing figure represents 8 - end m ultiple tw ill 41 12 w ith a step afterevery fo ur
and two ends alternately and sam e tw illdirection.

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Reversalofthe tw illdirection:
Sam e as horizontalherringbone tw illweave. Italready discuss in the previoussection.
W eft-w ay step tw illw eave:
There are also two typesofw eft-way step twilllike as warp-w ay step tw illw eave. One is
created in the sam e tw illdirection and anotherone is created by reversalof the tw ill
direction.
Sam e tw illdirection:
ln the sam e twilldirection step m ay be occurafterthe repeatorany desired num berof
thread like as w arp-w ay step tw illw eaveThe follow ing figure represents 4 end
-

175

double-faced tw ill 2 w ith step afterevery fourpicksand sam e tw illdirection.Straight


2
drafting system is normally used to produce thisweave.

Reversalofthetwilldired ion:
Sam e asverticalherringbone tw illweave.Italready discussin the previoussection.

Bothwarpand weft-ways'e/twillweave:
Sam e asdiaperdesign.These are also discussed in the previoussection.

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8. Elongated orR eep Twillweave:

A peculiar form of twill,known as an elongated or steep tw ill,is obtained w hen the


warp floatofeach thread risestwo orm ore picks instead ofone pick above the floatof
the preceding thread.A steep tw illcan be m ade by drafting in succession the al
ternate
threadsofa regulartwill.
This isa term applied to a regulartwillwhich has been altered to achieve a steeperor
flatter angle. The angle ofelongated tw illiseitherbelow 450orabove 450.These are

basedona square sett(samenumberofendsand picksperone inchand an identical


yarn count).Any deviationfrom thiswillautomaticallyinfluencetheangle.Theangleof

176

the tw ill Iine is determ ined by the step num ber (the rate of advance from one

interlacing pointtothe next).


There are tw o types ofelongated twill, such as warp way elongated tw illi.e.w arp-way
elongation and w eft way elongated tw ill i.e. w eft-w ay elongation. There are two
m ethodsby w hich elongated tw ills are developed.

M ethod - 1:By using step num ber:


The angle ofthe elongated tw illis determ ined and this also decides the step num ber.
Assum ing the step num ber required is tw o,then starting w ith the first end and using
only odd num bered endsw illautom atically achieve a step oftwo.

M ethod - 2:By selecting a base line:


Only a base Iine is selected w ith a step num berdivisable through the repeatofthis Iine.
Repeatofbase line:12 + 2 = 6 ends repeat, 9 + 3 = 3 endsrepeat,15 + 3 = 5 endsrepeat,
15 + 5 = 3 ends repeat,etc.This is a m ore efficientm ethod, elim inating draw ing outthe
base w eave in full.
W arp w ay elongation:

W arp way elongated tw illis developed from the warp-w ay regulartw illw eave. Ifthe
repeatsize of regulartw illiseven num ber,then the num berofwarp yarn in the repeat
size ofthe elongated tw illis halfofthe regulartw illand the num berofweftyarn issam e

asregulartwillweave,whenthestep numberistwo.W henthe repeJt


'siie ofregular
tw illis odd num ber then the repeat size of elongated tw illis sam e as regular twill.
Straight drafting system is used to produce this weave. The follow ing figures show the
weave plan w ith drafting and Iifting plan ofsom e w arp w ay elongated tw illfabric.
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W eftw ay elongation:
W eft way elongated tw ill is developed from the w eft-w ay regular tw illw eave.If the
repeatsize ofregulartwillis even num ber,then the num berofweftyarn in the repeat
size of the elongated tw illis half of the regular tw illand the num ber of warp yarn is
sam e as regular tw illweave, when the step num ber is tw o.W hen the repeat size of
regular tw illis odd num berthen the repeat size of elongated tw illis sam e as regular
twill.Straight drafting system is used to produce this w eave.The follow ing figures show
the w eave plan w ith drafting and Iifting plan ofsom e weftway elongated twillfabric.

178

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Theobjectofcombinedtwillistoproduceusefulandnew weavesofgreatervarietyand
interest. Com bined tw ills are those produced by arranging the tbreads of two
continuous regular twill weaves alternately with each other.The repeat size of two
regular twillweaves m ay be equalor different.This com bination may occur in warp
direction or weft direction. According to this com bination, there are two types of
com bined twill,such aswarp-way com bined tw illand weft-way com bined twill.

Forthe construction ofcom bined twill,the repeat sizes oftwo regularbase twills play
an im portantrole.The repeatsize ofthe com bined twilldependson the repeatsize of
the regularbasetwill.Ifthe repeatsizesoftwo base twillsare sam e,then the num berof

warpyarn inthe repeatsizeofthewarp-waycombihedtwfllistwiceofregularbasetwill


and the num ber of weft yarn is same as regular tw ill. Sim ilarly for the weft-way
com bined tw ill,the num berofweftyarn in the repeat size is tw ice ofregularbase tw ill
and the nmberofwarpyarn issame asregulartwill.Butifthe repeatsizesoftbebase

twillsarenotsame,thenitisimportanttocalculatetheir(repeatsizesofthebasetwills)
Iowesttommonmultiple(LCM).Inthiscasetheselectionofrepeatsizedependsonthis
LCM value.Forwarp-way com bined twill,the num berofwarp yarn in the repeatsize is
twice of LCM value and the num ber of weft yarn is sam e as LCM value.Sim ilarly for
weft-way com bined twill,the num ber ofweft yarn in the repeatsize is tw ice of LCM
value and the num berofwarp yarn issam e asLCM value.
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W hen the repeat sizes of the base twills are sam e then the construction principl as
follows:
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M ark the repeat oftwice the num berofends ofthe base twillsand same as
the num berof picksofthe base tw ills.In this case the calculated repeatsize

willbe10x5.
Transfer alI ends of the base twill
transferaIIendsofbasetw ill

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Z to the odd num bered ends and

Zto the even num bered ends.

The following figure show the w eave plan ofthe above mentioned warp-way com bined
tw illw ith drafting and lifting plan.Divided drafting system is norm ally used to produce
warp-waycom bined tw illfabric.

180

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Atfirstselectbase twills, such as 2 Z and 3a Z .
z

CalculatetheLCM valueoftherepeatsizes(4x4and6x6)ofbasetwills In
thiscasethe LCM valueofthementionedbasetwillsis12(LCM of4 and6)
.

M ark the repeat oftw ice the num berof ends ofthe LCM value and sam e as
the num berof picks ofthe LCM value. In thiscase the calculated repeatsize
willbe 24 x 12.
Transfer aIIends of the base tw ill 22 Z to the odd num bered ends and
transferaIlendsofbase tw ill 33 Z to the even num bered ends.
The follow ing figure show the w eave plan ofthe above m entioned w arp w ay com bined
twillwith drafting and lifting plan. Divided drafting system is also used to produce this
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W eft-F ay com bination:


W eft-w ay com bined tw illnorm ally developed from the weft-w ay twill.W hen tbe repeat
sizesofthe base tw ills are sam e then the construction principle asfollows:
Atfirstselectbase tw ills,such as aa Z and 2 3Z w eft-way tw ill.
.

M ark the repeat oftwice the num berofpicks ofthe base tw illsand sam e as
the num berofends ofthe base tw ills.In this case the calculated repeat size
w illbe 5 x 10.
Tfansfer aII picks of the base tw ill 3 Z to the odd num bered picks and
2
transferaIIpicksofbase twill 23 Z to the even num bered picks.

Thxfollpwing figure show the weave plan ofthe above mentioned weft-way com bined

twillwithdrafting an Iifting plan.Straigbtdrafting system isnormallyusedto produce


w eft-way com bined tw illfabric.

182
W hen the repeatsizes ofthe base tw ills are different then the construction principle as
follows:
Atfirstselectbase tw ills, such as 3 Z and
. 2 1 Z weft-way tw ill
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Calculatethe LCM valueoftherepeatsizes(4 x4and6x6)ofbasetwills ln


thiscasetheLCM valueofthementionedbasetwillsis12(LCM of4and6)
.

M ark the repeatoftw ice the num berof picks ofthe LCM value and sam e as

the numberofendspfthe LCM value.ln thiscase the calculated repeatsize


w illbe 12 x 24.
Transfer aII picks of the base tw ill 31 Z to the odd num bered picks and
x
transferaIIpicks ofbase tw ill 22 l1Z to the even num bered picks.
.

The follow ing figure show sthe w eave plan ofthe w eft-way com bined twillw ith drafting
and Iifting plan.Straightdrafting system isalso used to produce this weave.

183

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Shade effect can be produce in different way on the sudace ofthe fabric.This shade
effect an be introduced in any type ofcross-overorstripe orfigure design.There are
mainly two types ofshading effects,such as single shading and double shading effect.
W hen these shading effects are produce by the use of twillweave,then it is called
shaded twillweave.The base tw illm ay be eitherwarp-way orweft-way twill.So there
are two typesofshaded twill,such assingle shaded tw illand double shaded twillweave.

184

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In thiscase the shade effect isgradually decreasing from deep to Iight by decreasing the
num ber of warp or weft floats and vice versa.These effects are produced from the
regularm ultiple tw ill.In these m ultiple twills,the w arp and weftfloatsare arranged in a
regularorder.Such as 6 1 5 2 4 3 3 4 2 51 6 , 51 42 33 24 15 , 4 :j3 g 2 a 1 4, 3 j 2z 1a
etc.

The follow ing figure show s the w eave plan ofthe single shaded tw illfabric.
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V thiscasetheshadeeffectisgradually increasingfrom Iightto deep byincreasingthe
t!''.
(Xpmberofwarp orweftfloats and again gradually decreasing from deep to light by
.

decreasing the num ber of w arp or w eft floats.These effects are produced from the
iregularm ultiple tw ill.In these m ultiple tw ills,the w arp and w eftfloatsare arranged in a
7
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calorder.Suchas
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1 z 3 4 s s 4 3 2
s 4 3 2 l 2 3- 4 s

1 2 3 4 4 3 2
4 3 2 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 3 2

, az :
jza

185

The follow ing figure showsthe weave plan ofthe double shaded tw illfabric.

1
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3g:38

1 2 3 4 4 3 2

Doubleshadedtwillweavebased on

z
4

'Fosifconstructionofshadedtwill,thereisnospecialsystem;itissameasregulartwill
c'ns'tiiuction.only specialty isthat,the arrangementofwarp and weftfloats in the
ttkri'ianumber.

'

186

Advantagesand disadvantagesoftw illw eaves:


Twillweavesusuall
y make fabricscloserin texture,heavier,and strongerthan do plain weaves.
This iswhy tw illsare so suitable form en'sclothing fabrics.Also,i
t is possible to produce more
fancy designs in twillsthan in plain weaves.In addition to theirdistinctive appearance and high
strength,twillfabricstend to show soilIessreadily than plain-weavefabrics.However,twillsare

moreexpensive to produce than plain-weavefabricsbecauseIoom productivitfisfrequently


reduced bythe increased com plexity ofshed formation with additionalheald-shafts.'

The majoradvantagesofa twillfabricarethatitisdurable and wearswell,resistsspiling,and

hasgoodresistancetowrinkling lts disadkantgesarethat,bncesoile,itijm6rkd


'iMlculftt
.

clean than plain weave fabrics an8 i


t usually hasa right and wr'bn
g sid,'whith ra#'mk
e
J '
' ''2
garmentdesign difficuit.Unessgiven speciairatments,some uneventwtlftabricskrodte
garmentsthatarepronetotwistingorskewingonthebo'
yafirtatindeilng. 'Z' ''''''6'
'

''

187

O n N W EAW

lntroduction:
Satin is the third basic weave ofthe woven fabrics. ln basic construction,the satin weave is
sim ilar to the twillweave but generally uses from five to as many as twelve harnesses,
producing a five to tw elve-shaft construction. lt differs in appearance from the twillweave
because the diagonalofthe satin weave is not visible;it is purposely interrupted in orderto
contribute to the flat,smooth,Iustroussurface desired.There isno visible design onthe face of
the fabric because the yarnsthatare to be thrown to the sudace are greater in numberand
finerin countthan theyarnstbatform the reverse ofthe fabric.
Satin weaves produce a sm ooth,even and glossy fabric surface. This is due to the interlacing
pointsbeing covered up bythe floatsofthe neighbouringthreads. The smoothnessofthe fabric
surface can be im proved by:

Higb thread density


5m00th yarnw ith Iow twist
Filamentyarnfrom m an-made fibre.

Close-up view ofSatin weave

Close-up view ofSateenweave

Each end and each pick m akes one, and only one intersection and the intersections are
distributed in an orderly manner.Uniform ly separated from each other, and nowhereadjacent.
Satin is more Ioose structure fabric,when compare with plain and twillfabrics. Satin is widely

usedforthefoundationofjacquarddesign.

188

Classification ofsatin w eave:


0ne distinguishes between warp and weftsatinsdepending on whetherthe fabric face shows

thewarp orthe weft.W eftsatinsare also called satens.W i


ththe mostcommon simple warp
satin,each warp end is Iowered only on one pick in the repeatwhile,with the weftsatin,it is
onl
y raised on one pick.The smallest regularsatin weave is the 5 - end satin which can be

representedeitherby

(2)orby

(3)wherethefigureinthebracketshowsthesizeofthe

Step.

Sothewarpsatinisdenotedbytheformulanumber A 1(B),where,Az indicatesthenumberof


warp floatsand 'B'indicatesthe step value ofsatin weave.Sim ilarly the weftsatin isdenoted
bytheformulanumber 1 (B), where :A#indicatesthe numberofweftfloatsand tB,indjcates
A

the step value of satin weave.lt is im portant to note that when the face side of a fabric
composed by the warp satin weave then the reverse side ofthisfabricshould be composed by
theweftsatin weave.
Both warp and weftsatinsare divided into two groups,such as
Regularwarp satin and irregularwarp satin
Regularweftsatin and irregularweftsatin.
There isa step value orm ove numberforregularwarp orweftsatin weave butthere isno step
value forthe irregularwarp orweftsatin weave.In general4 - end and 6 - end satin weaves
are irregular,because they have no step value.Other5 - end to 16 - end satins are regular,
because they have step values.

M ove num berorStep value selection forSatin w eave:


W ith the satin weave,the distance between consecutive interlacing points is alwaysthe same
and is referred to as the step orstep values orm ove numbers ofthe satin.The weaves are
developed with the help ofthis move orcountnum ber.To establish thisnumbercertain rules
have to be considered.The num bermustbe largerthan one and m ustnotbe one Iessthan the
num beroftbreads in the repeat,asthis would create atwill.The num berm ustnotbe a factor.
The move num bercan be applied by counting warp-waysorweft-ways.
The value ofthe step indicatesby how many picksthe interlacing pointon the nextwarp end to

therightmovesupward.Oneobtainsthevalueofthestepbydividingtherepeatnumber(i.e.
thenumberofendsorpicksintheweaverepeat)into pairsofnumbers.Ofthetwo numbersof
a pair,ei
therboth ornone can be used as a step value.Usable steps m ustm etthe following
conditions:

189

Neithernumberm ustbe unity.


None ofthe numbersmustbe afactorofeitherthe othernumberorofthe
repeatnumber.
The two num bersm ustnothavea com mon factor.

For exam ple, in case of8 - end satin, 1 and (8 - 1)or7 doesnotaccepted asstep val
ue.
Considerany two num bersbutthe sum ofthistwo numbersshould'b
di
e equalto 8 and 8 is not
vided by thisselected num beri.e.there isno comm on factorsof8.
So 3 or5 can be choosing
asa step value.
Usable step valuesforsatin weaves:

Repeatsizeofthe weave
4 - end
4 x4
5 - end
5x 5
6 - end
7 - end
8- end
9 - end
10 - end
11- end
12- end
13 - end
14 - end
15- end
16- end

6x6
7x 7
8x8
9x9
10 x 10
11 x 11
12 x 12
13 x 13
14 x 14
15x 15
16 A 16

etc.

Usable step vabues


No
2,3
No
2,3,4,and 5
3 and 5
2,4,5,and 7
3 and 7
2,3,4,5,6,7,8,and 9
5 and 7
2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10, and 11
3,5,9,and 11
2,4,7,8,11,and 13

3,5,7,9,11,and 13

Construction Principle ofSatin W eave:

weftsl n(sateenweave):
In thsconstruction tbeweftyarn lieson the surfaceofthe fabricasitpassesregularl
underthe warp yar,ns.Forinstancq
yoverand
p yarnsand underone
, a weftyarn may pasjoverfourwar
The floats are consequently made up ofthe weftyarns and tNe Iusterappears in the weft.
,
direction.There aretwo typesofweftsatin, such asregularand irregularsateen weaves
.

Re larWG saNn(sateenweave):
Desi
gning,a weftsatin construction = An eight-sha construction i.
h
e.8 - end sateen illustrates
erethe rulesthatm ustbe followed to selecta suitable interval.

190

Arrange in pairs the num bersthat w illadd up to the desired repeat num ber.Foran
eight-end weft satin,the shaftorrepeat num beris 8.The pairs are 1 and 7,2 and 6,
3 and 5,4 and 4.
@ Elim inate the pair that contains the um ber 1 and the num ber below the repeat

number,which is 7 (8-1)in this case.A contiguous diagonalwould result ifthese


intervalsw ere used,producing the conventionaltw illw eave.
Next,elim inate the pairs that have a com m on divisor and those that are divisible
into the shafl orrepeatnum ber.Thisstep elim inates 2 and 6,4 and 4.The pair3 and
5 rem ains.These num bers are the only intervals that can be used in an 8 - end
construction.lfany of the elim inated num bers were used as an interval,the fabric
w ould show no interlacing w hatever for one or m ore w arp yarns; in fact, there
w ould be no fabric because itwould fallapart.

x.- y *x
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8 - end sateen m ove


num ber5

8 - end sateen m ove num ber3


* Now that the only possible interlacings have been w orked out,the design can be

constructed (in above figure).Forconvenience,here the interlacing begins in the


Iower Ieftsquare.The horizontalrows ofsquares representw eftyarns- that is,the
successive picks on the w eaving m achine.The verticalcolum ns representthe w arp
yarns.
* The intervalto be used forthis particulardesign could be 3 or5;in this case 3 has
been selected.As this isto be an 8 - end construction,the interlacing on the first

pickwillbe7squares(warpyarns).
* To find the warp yarn that w illinterlace on the second pick,count 3 to the right,
beginning with the square above the interlacing that is already started at the

starting point.Adjacentinterlacingonthe sam eIine willbe similarly7 squaresapart.

191

@ To find the warp yarn that willinterlace on the third pick,startwith the square
above interlacing pointofpreviouspick.Count3 to the right,and interlacing pointis

plotted.Adjacentinterlacingswillbe 7squaresapart.
This same procedure determ ines the interlacing points on successive
picks,
additionalinterlacingsalwaysbeing 7squaresapart.
* On the ninth pick,the design starts to repeat, which proves the accuracy of the
construction ofan 8- end w eave.
W here itisnotpossibleto plotsubsequentinterlacing bycontinuingtocounttothe
right,because ofthe smallarea ofthe design, interlacingson successive pickscan be
determ ined by counting 5 to the Ieftinstead of 3 to the right. Ifthe interval5 had
been used to countto the ri
ght, 3 would have been used to countto the Ieft.
*

The following figures show the weave plan, draing plan,Iifting plan interlacing diagram and
,
close-up view ofdifferentregularsateen fabrics.
*
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5- end sateen move num ber2

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12- end sateen
move num ber7

192

e t-*- ,*1j

j:

There is no step value or move number to construct the irregular sateen.So the above
mentioned rule is notapplicable forthe construction ofirregularsateen.Only 4 - end and 6 end sateens are irregular.The following figures show the weave plan with draing and Iiing
plan of these two irregular sateen fabrics.Straight draing system is used to produce this
W eave.
7.W
=#...+w
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7 '
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*r-

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arsateen
q Irregul

6- end irregularsateen

):

W arp satin iswoven so thatthe warp may be seen on the surface ofthe fabric.Forexam ple,in
a five-end construction,the warp m ay passoverfourweftyarnsand underonepin a 12 - end
construction,the warp may pass over11 weftyarns and under 1.Since the warp Iies on the
Surface and interlacesonly 1weftyarn atatim e,the Iengthsofwarp between theweftyarn are

called floats.These floats Iie compactly on the surface with very little interruption from the
yarnsgoing atrightanglesto them.Reflection ofIightonthe floatsgivessatin fabricitsprimary
characteristicofIuster,which appearsinthe direction ofthewarp.
Designing a satin construction - W hen makinga design fora satin construction,the interlacings
on successive Iines m ust be separated by a proper intervalto avoid form ing the contiguous
diagonal.W hen the properintervalforany shaftorrepeat construction isselected,the design
willnotrepeatitselfuntilthe num berofsuccessive picks that make up the desired shafthave

been interlaced.lna five- end construction,forexample,the deslgn


beginsto repeaton tke
%
sixth Iine;in an eight- end,onthe ninth Iine;in anine- end,onthe tenth Iine.

The following figuresshow the weave plan,draing plan,Iifting plan,interlacing diagram and
close-upview ofdifferentregularsatinfabrics.

193

= =

q.
#

8x8

!.(m--ys)

---

7(m * 5)

8 - end satin move num ber5

4 1

! -

5
4

3
2
1

5
4
3
2

#-->m 3
5X5
- -4
.(m-+a)
1

F4 (m-- 2)

.
5- end satin m ove num ber3 with Close- up view

5- end satin1move num ber2

4
#-->m5
7x7

l6 (m- -ys)

7 - end satin m ove num ber5

9x9

18 (m- .+4)

9 - end satin m ove num ber4

' (

194

IrregularWarpsatin(satinweave):
There is no step value ormove num berto constructthe irregularsatin like as sateen.So the
above mentioned rule isnotapplicable forthe construction ofirregularsatin.Only 4 - end and
6- end satinsare irregular.The follow ingfiguresshow the weave plan with drafting and Ii
fting
plan ofthesetwo irregularsatin fabrics.Straightdrafting system isused to produce thisweave.
'

('(
!

.
;

'

(:
(

--

'
I

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(;

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l
y

7
.

#
3
1

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.

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.

# 4x4

t ' t:

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.
'

y. ..y

..

..

.
.

6x6

rregularsatin
1

4- end irregularsatin

5 lrregularsati
n

6- end irregularsatin

Advantagesand disadvantagesofsatin weave:


These constructions produce smooth,Iustrous,rich-looking fabrics thatgive reasonably good

service ifthey are notsubjected to excessive hard wear.Short-floatfabricsare more durable


than Iong-floatfabrics,forthe formerhave Iessexposed yarn to catch on rough objects;Iong
floats,al
though they increasethe sheen ofafabric,snag and pullifthere are anyprotrusionsor
splinterson furniture.
W hen style callsfor Iuxurious fabrics forform alwear,satin is often chosen.It is an especially
suitable fabricforcoatIiningsbecause itssm ooth surface allowscoatsto be slipped on and off

veryeasily.Injeneral,itshedsdirtwell,butabri
ghtrayoninaIong-floatsatinweavewilloften
have a metallic sheenthatmay appeargreasy aftercontinuouswear.
Satin weave usuall
y requires more shafts in the weaving than do the plain or twillweaves,
thereby increasing the costofproduction.

Materialsthataremadeinthesatinweaveincludeantiquesatin(millionsofyardsperyear),
bridalsatin, charmeuse,cotton satin, dress satin, satin bengaline, satin crepe,satin faille,
slippersatin,and Venetian satin.

DerivativesofSatin W eave:

W eavesare produced on the satin base is called derivativesofsatin weave.Lotofjacquard


designsbased on this satin weave.In this case the follow ing sim ple structuresthose are based
on satin weave willbe discussed.

195

1. Crepe W eaves:
The characteristic feature ofcrepe fabrics is one oftexture.Theirsurface exhibitsan allover,random ,small-scale pattern in low relief.There are two w aysofobtaining thiskind
oftexture:

By using a special'crepe'or'oatmeal'weave in conjunction with ordinary,


normal-twistspun orfilamentyarns,and

High-twistcrepe yarnsinconjunctionwith plain orothrsimple weavessuch


astwillorsatin.

The fabricshould have a rough irregularsudace withoutany prom inentfeatures.Thisis


generally achieved by having approxim ately equaldisposition ofwarp and wefton the
surface ofthe c10th,and also by avoiding anyfloatsw hich exceed three.
The characteristics ofcrepe-weave fabricsdepend Iargely upon the kind ofyarn used.If
ordinary yarns are used and the crepe weave is em ployed to give a crepe appearance,
then the fabric w illhave Iittle drapability, Iow strength,and Iim ited durability. Som e

crepe fabricstend to stretch,and some may shrinkwhen subjected to wetting.On the


other hand, com binations of yarns and w eave construction can produce fabrics of
interesting appearance and texture that have good drapability,resilience,stretch,and
serviceability.
There are fourbasic m ethodsofproducing crepe w eaves:

a. On a sateen base
b. By reversing
c. By superim posing
d. On a plain weave base
The m ethodsoftonstruu ion are:
a. Sateen base:
Constructa sateen weave
Constructa twillw eave on the sam e repeatsize
Using the sateen base asthe starting pointofeach Iiftofthe twill,rearrange
the tw illweave on the sateen .base.This new weave is called sateen base
crepe w eave.
'

The following figures show the w eave plan with drafting and Ii
fting plan of di
fferent
sateen base crepe fabric. Norm ally straight drafting system is used to produce this
W eave.

196
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Sateen baSe Crepeweave

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Sateen base crepe weave

13 1

b. Reveuing:
Makea smallmotif,asat'a?;
Reverse 'a'byturningitover,so thatthe warp Ii
f'
tsofthe4thend becomethe
th
th
weftIiftsofthe 5 end and those ofthe 4 end become thewarp liftsofthe
5thend;similarl
y the 6tb, 7th,and 8thendsarethe converseofthe 3rd,2ndand
1St, respectiveIy,and the design isnow on8 endsx 4 picks;
Reverse this by turning it over in the weftdirection and using the same
technique as described.The finaldesign is thus produced,which is called
crepe weave.
The method ofconstructing this weave may Iead to a tendency to create grouping of
threads,which isgenerally undesirable in crepe weaves.The following figuresshow the
weave plan with drafting and Iifting plan of different crepe fabric.Normally straight
draftingsystem isused to produce thisweave.
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BY Reversing orTransposing

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199

)
i

t. Superlm posing:

Constructtw o different weavesw ith sam e repeatsize.As sateen w eaves are


m ainly used in this m ethod,there is alw ays a predom inance of weft over r
warp.
Superim pose one w eave on the otherto give the finalweave.
The follow ing figures show the weave plan w ith drafting and li
fting plan of different

crepefabric.Normallystraightdrafting system isused to producethisweave.

L.

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d. Plaln base:
Design a sateen on halfthe num ber of ends and picks required in the final
design - a 6-end sateen w illbe used fora design to be produced on 12 ends x
12 picks;

200
Expand this w eave so that the sateen base appears on alternate ends and
picks only,and use this base asthe starting pointofeach Iiftofa tw ill,in this
case 13 113 111,asshow n in the follow ing figure;

On the rem aining ends insert alternate ends ofplain w eave,i.e.aIIofthese


ends willw eave the sam e tabby;care should be taken to Iiftthe w arp on the
picksopposite to those on w hich the sateen base appears;
Now com bine these to give the final design, which is repeated in the
follow ingfigure.
This m ethod providesthe m ost successfulattem ptto cover pattern form ation,but it is
alw aysdifficultto give an allovereffectw hen the repeatsize issm all.

6
5
4
6

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Plain base crepe w eave

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Plain base crepe w eave

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201

2. Corksceew W eaves:

There are tw o types ofcorkscrew w eave, such as odd num ber corkscrew w eave and
even num bercorkscrew w eave. 80th are discussed in previouschapter.
ln thiscase onlj
odd num bercorkscrew weave w illbe discussed, because this isa sateen derivatives
.

'

0dd num bertorkR rew weavel


The construction principle ofodd num bercorkscrew weave i
ssam e assatin base crepe
weave.Forthe construction ofthis weave it is im portantto select odd n
um berrepeat
size.Then construct a sateen and a tw illw eave w ith the sam e selected repeat size
Using the sateen base as the starting point ofeach li
ft ofthe tw ill,rearrange the tw il.
l
weave on the sateen base. This new w eave iscalled odd num bercorkscrew w eave
f
. The
ollow ing figures show the w eave plan w ith drafting and lifti
ng plan of different odd
num ber corkscrew fabric. Norm ally straight drafting system is used to produce this
Feave.
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Oddnumberctyksc.rew weaveof 23 42z multipletwillbasedonsateenweaveofmovenumber3

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202

3. Shaded W eaves:
W ith a weftsatin, one can gradually add interlacing points untilit turns into a w arp
satin.The gradualchange-over produces a shaded effect in the fabric, particularly if
warp and wefthave differentcolours.There are tw o types ofshaded design like shaded
twillw eave,such as- Single shaded design,and Double shaded design.
Single Shaded design ofw eaves:
In thiscase num bersofweftsatinsare developed side by side atfirst.Then these sateen
units are divided into the num ber of groups. W ith each group of sateen one can
gradually add warp floatswith the interlacing points untilitturnsinto a warp satin.After
thisthe resultant weave willbe a single shaded design.The follow ing figures show the
differentsingle shaded design.

' K

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Singleshaded design based on 5-endsateen

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203

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Single shaded design based on 7 - end sateen


Double Shaded design or w eaves:

Like as single shaded design at first num bers ofw eft satins are developed side by side.
Then these sateen units are divided into the num ber of groups as per requirem ents.
W ith eacb group of sateen one can gradually add w arp floats w ith the interlacing points
untilit turns into a w arp satin.From this w arp satin w ith each group of sateen one can
gradually m inus w arp floats w ith the interlacing points untilit turns into the previous
w eft satin orsateen.Afterthisthe resultant w eave w illbe a double shaded design.The
follow ing figures show the different double shaded design.

y e
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204

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Double shaded design based on 7 - end sateen

W arp shading in an 8 - end satin w hich isdivided into groupsofsixendseach. Atthe beginning
ofa new group,an interlacing pointis added in the warp direction, i.e.on the picks following
the warp Iifts.In orderto achieve adequate fabric strength,itis advisable to add plain weaving

ends(aftereachgroup).Theseareadditionaltothesatinendsinthedentingofthefrontreed.

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205

FANCY DESIGN OR STRUW UREOF FABRICS

The interlacing ofthe threads in a form which varies from that of the basic weaves already
described,isaccom plished with aview to producing a fabric which isdecorative in appearance
and may also utilize the characteristic features of the weave for some usefulpurpose.The
importantfeatures and construction principle ofsome decorative fabricswillbe discussed in
thischapter.

HuckabackW eaves:
M ain featutes:
Theseweavesare generally applied in them anufacture ofnon-piletowels.The main featuresof
thisweave are asfollows:
This weave is characterized by a rough surface,which is produced by floating
threadsin groupsarranged on a plain weave basis.
A more balanced huckaback is produced ifthe weave-repeat size istwice an odd

number(i.e.2 x 5 = 10;repeatsize = 10 endsx 10 picks),butitisby no means


impossible to produce the weave on a repeatwhich iscomplete on twice an even
numberofthreads.

W ith these constructions hardwearing and extremely thick, moisture absorbing


fabricsare produced.

206

*
*

Groupsofplain weave are exchanged with groupsof0ne end plain weave and one
end floating.To achieve a more prominent raised effect in the area w here the
threadsarefloating correctdenting playsan im portantpart.W heneverpossible the
long floating endsshould be drawn into thesam e dent.
10 x 10 isthe widely used repeatsize.
Thisweave can be divided diagonally into equaltw o parts.

Construction principle:
The following figure showsthe stagesin constructingthe huckabackweave:
M ark out the repeat size,divide into quarters and fill in plain weave in two
opposite onesasshow n atfirst;
Fillin a motif in the othertwo quarters,which is preferably produced by taking
plain weave and adding orremoving som e lifts,as atsecond one;care should be
takento ensurethatthe m otifand the plain weave bind togethereffectively;
The finalweave isproduced bycom biningfirstand second one.

10 x 10 Huckaback design

10Xl0

207
Drafting system :

Di
fferentdraing systems are used to produce thisfabric.The draft which isgenerally used is
so arranged that the odd numberthreads are carried by the two front heald-shafts and the
even numberthreadsbythe backtwo heald-shafts.
Uses:

Linen and cotton yarns are com m only used, and in coarser qualities they are particularly
suitable forhand towels,glasscloths,rollertowels and quiltings.Shirtings,dresswearand table
Iinen are produced inthe finerqualities.
The follow ing figures show the weave plan with drafting and Iifting plan ofdiferenttypes of
huckabackfabrics:

K K

10X6
Devon huckaback

10 x 6 Huckabackdesign(Devon huckaback)

208

K K

K *
.-

--

14 x 14 Huckaback design

14 x 10 Huckaback design

209

M ock Ieno w eaves:


M ain features;
Thisweave isalso referred to asimitation gauzeweave.The mainfeaturesofthisweave areas
follows:
Itisan open perforatedweave IikeasIeno fabrics.
Itisproduced inthe ordinarywaywithoutspecialIeno shafts.
The sim ilarity ofthisweave to the huckaback is quite obvious,butthe method of
denting isdifferent,asitisnecessaryto encourage thread grouping.
The weave isarranged ingroupsofequalorunequalsizes.Threadsworking in plain
weave alternate with threads floating on the face orback ofthe fabric.The ends
from each individualgroup are wheneverpossible drawn into the same dent;this
bunchesthe floating endstogetherand causesa slightgap oropening in the fabric
giving an appearance sim ilar to a gauze or leno weave, hence the name 'mock
Ieno'
Even numberrepeatsize isnormallyused to producethisweave,
Thisweave can also bedivided diagonally into two equalparts.
@ The smallestrepeatsize ofthisweaveis6 x6.
@

Close-up view ofM ockIeno fabrics

Eonstruction printlple:
The stagesinproducingthe weaveare illustrated bythefollowingfigure:
@

M ark outthe repeat size,divide into quarters and filla smallm otif in opposite
quarters,asinfirststep;
@ Completely reverse this moti
fin the two remaining quarters,by substituting warp
IiftsforweftIiftsand viceversa,asinsecond step;
@ Combinefirstand second stepsto givethefinalweave.

The following figuresshow '


the weave plan with drafting and lifting plan ofdifferenttypes of
mockIeno fabrics:

210

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M ockInoweave

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12 x 12 m ockIeno weave
End uses:
Because ofthe decorative all-overeffects,the end uses range from curtainsto table Iinen and
apparelfabrics.Fabricsproduced w i
ththisweave are used forembroidew cloths,canvascloths
and Iight-weight window curtains, but i
t is also popular in combination with other weaves,
particularly plain,in tablelinen,brocades,blousesand dress-wear.

HoneyEom b w eave:
Theterm isapplied to weaveswhich resem ble honeycomb cells.The cellularformationsappear
square in the c10th.They are form ed bysome endsand picksinterlacing tighterthan othersand
therefore developing a highertension.Usually single clothsm ade by progressi
vely Iengthening
and shortening both warp and weftfloats to form ridgesand hollows on a square pattern,to
give acellularappearance.Sometim escalled waffle orwaffle piqu.
There are two types of honeycom b weave, such as - ordinary honeycom b and brighton
honeycom b.

Ordinary Honeycom b:
M ain features:

The main featuresofordinaryhoneycomb are asfollows:


* The characteristic features of this weave are alternate raised and sunk diamondshaped areaswhich giyethe effectofa honeycomb.
* 80th sidesofthefabric Iookthe sam eand the surface ofthefabricisrough.
* IthasIongfloatsofwarp and weftyarns.

212
In the repeat size the number of ends and picks m ay be equalor unequaland
m ultiple oftwo.
In the Iargerrepeat size,a double row ofbinding has been constructed by using a
1 1
twillweave atfirststage,so thatafirm erstructure willbe produced.
1 %

* The Iongfloatsinthe centre ofthe diamondsare notequal,and ifthefabric isbeing


produced with a square sett,thiscan be detrim entalto the appearance ofthe c10th
asthey willproduce a rectangularpattern instead ofa square one.Two methodsare

available forimproving the appearance when thisoccurs:adjusteitherthesettor


the weave.

Close-up view ofOrdinaryhoneycom bfabric

* W hen equalfloats are required in the construction,it is necessary to construct a


honeycom b in which the shorterofthe two Iong floats isthe sam e asthe required
float length in the final design. For exam ple, the original 10 ends x 10 picks
honeycomb withthe firstend having afloatofseven.The two indicated centre ends
are removed to give the finaldesign on 8 ends x 10 picks,with equalIongestfloats
ofseven in both the warp and weft directions.Sim ilarly the two indicated centre
picks are removed to give the finaldesign on 10 endsx 8 picks,with equalIongest
floatsofsevenin both the warp and weftdirections.
* Pointed drafting system isnorm ally used to producethisweave.

ea- ,-.ao
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The stagesofconstructing anordinary honeycom b weave are asfollows:
1

* Construct a -J.Z twillstarting in the bottom le-hand corner,then a sim ilar one

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running in the opposite direction and starting one square in or one square down
from the top Ieft-hand corner,so thatthere willbe a clean intersection ofthe twill
Iines,asatfirststage;
* ln one ofthetwo diamondsproduced,Ieave a row ofstitching pointsand then Ii
ft
theremainderofthe diam ond solid. Thisisthefinalweave.

213

The following figuresshow the weave plan with drafting and lifting pdan ofdifferentequaland
unequalrepeatsizesofordinaryhoneycom b weaves.
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Ordinary honeycom b weave

Thefollowingfigure(Ieft-one)showsahoneycombproducedonaIargerrepeat, and with the


warp Iift designed in the opposite diamond, whilstthe right-side figure shows a honeycom b
weave on an even Iargerrepeatsize;in thiscase, a double row ofbinding hasbeen constructed
by usinga 1 1 twillweave atfirststage,so thatafirm erstructure willbe produced
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End uses:

Thisweave particularlysuitable forhand towels, glass cloths,dispensed rollertowels and bath


mats, where moisture absorption properties are particularly desired, but in sim ilar coarse
cotton qualitiesitisalso used forquiltsand softfurnishings, and in finerqualitiesforshirtsand
brocades.In conjunctionwi
ththenewertextured yarns, it isproduced in very coarse qualities
forcellularblankets,

215
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Brighton Honeycom b:
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Brighton Honeycomb isa com plex structure.The main featuresofbrighton honeycomb are as
follows:
* M ore honeycom b cellsofvarying size are produce in thisweave.
* The fabricsurface isalso rough likeasordinary honeycom b.
* W hen making the weave,the num ber of threads per repeat should always be a

multipleoffour(i.e.12endsx 12picks),whilsttheIongestfloatshouldalwaysbe
!.
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oneIessthanhalfthenumberofthreadsintherepeat(i.e.2
-

BothsidesofthefabricIookthesameIikeasordinaryhoneycomb.
Straightdraing system is used to producethis brighton honeycomb weave.

rnnen- 'n Y nn'ple:


The construction, more com plicated than the ordinary honeycom b, is illustrated by figures
below,withthe following stages:
Construct aZ Ztwill, starting in the bottom Ieft-hand corner,and then constructa
a

1 1 S twi'
ll, starting with the first warp Iifts in the squaresto the rightand below
1 a

the square in the top Ieft-hand corner,and indicate the pointson the double row of

binding which are immediately adjacent to those of intersection that willallow


extensive floatsin the weftdirection,asillustrated in firststage;

216
@ Using the points indicated in first stage as the extrem e Ii
ftofthe Iongest float,lift

theremainingadjacentends,asinsecondstage;
* Each ofthese warp floats now form the centre float of a diamond w hich can be
com pleted.Thisisthe finalweave.
The draftofthe brighton honeycom b isstraight,thus producing a Iifting plan which is identical
with the design;therefore,there isno saving ofheald-shaftsas isthe case with the pointed or
V- draftoftheordinary honeycom b.
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12x12zri
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Close-upview ofBri
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The following figures show the weave plan with drafting and Iifting plan ofdifferent Brighton
honeycomb weaves.
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24X24Brihtonhone combweave

End uses:
Although the weave is notas popularasthe ordinary honeycom b, itisused in sim ilarqualities
form ore decorative end usessuch asquiltsand brocadesand,in some cases,hand towelsand
glasscloths.Itisalso suitable forcrockerytowels.

Distorted Thread Effect:


M ain featuresofdistorted thread effed :

Leno weave can also be used to create a figured appearance by causing a coarse
endstocrossanumberofstandingends.
In thisweave,the crossing end is made to Iie at an angle to the normaldirection of
the warp and weftthreads.
Im itationsofthis effectcan be produced by otherweaves designed to cause certain
selected threadsto be distorted.

218

@ The Iattermustfloatfreely onthe surface ofthefabric;afirm groundweave (e.g.


plain)helpstodeveloptheeffect.
Typesofdikorted thread efed :
There are two types ofdistorted thread effect.Such as - distorted warp effectand distorted
wefteffect.Theconstruction principlesoftheseweavesare described asfollows:
a. Distorted W arp efed :
The frequency ofthe distorted threadsshould be decided and shown asin the following
figure,where the design isconstructed in stages:

After indicating the threads in the warp and weft direction which are
essentialforforming the distortion,fillin plain weave on aIlthe remaining
endsand picks,asatfirststage;
@ Fora warp distortion,Iiftthe preselected warp threads offirststage except
where they cross the preselected weftthreads,and then Iift aIIremaining
ground endsoverthe preselected weftthreadsin one group on the firstpick
and in the othergroup onthe second pick,asatsecond stage;
@ The com pleted design,third stage,is then form ed by combining first and
second stage.
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219

W hen the fabric is relaxed after weaving, the floating ends are distorted and assume
approximatelythe zigzag conformation.
b. Distorted W efteffect:

Thefrequency ofthe distorted threadsshould be decided and shown asin thefollowing


figure,w here the design isconstructed in stages:
* After indicating the threads in the warp and weft diredion which are
essentialforforming the distortion,fillin plain weave on a11the rem aining
endsand picks,asatfirststage;
* Fora weftdistortion,liftthe preselected weftthreads offirst stage except
where they cross the preselected warp threads,and then Iift aIlremaining
ground picksoverthe preselected warpthreadsin one group on the firstend
and inthe othergroup on the second end,asatsecond stage;
* The com pleted design,third stage,is then formed by com bining first and
second stage.
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Distorted-threadeffectfabric(weftthreaddistorted)

W hen the fabric is relaxed after weaving, the floating picks are distorted and assume
approxim ately the zigzag conformation.

220
*-> >

Fabricsproduced with thischaracteristic are used in ornamentaldresswearand shirting fabrics


when produced in Iight-weightcotton and spun rayon qualities.ln heavierqualitiesthey serve
forsoftfurnishingsin cotton,forsuitingsin worsted and forcoatsin woolen fabrics.The above
close-up view clearly shows distorted weft threads Iying on the surface of a c10th which is
popularforladies'dresswear.

Cord w eave:
The m ain characteristic ofthisweave are cords running in warp orweftdirection.They have
some sim ilarity in appearance to the preceding weft or warp rib weaves but they are not
reversible.The end use ismainlyforapparelfabrics.

W u *..-1 xk.. .k- w


Byusing ofthickyarns
W eave producescord effects
a.Bedford cord weave,
b.Pique weave.
-

a)BedfordCordweave:
Me e a The Bedford cord classofweavesproducesIongi
tudinalwarp Iines in the c10th with
finesunken Iinesbetweenthe cords.
* W arp face c10th.
In one repeattwo ormore cordsare produced.
* W adding orpaddingareusedto give greaterprom inence ofthe cord effect.
Endsand picksare alwayseven number.In specialcasesendsmay beodd number.

Picksnumberalways4.ie.12X4,16X4,20X4etc.(forplain-faceBedfordcord).

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Cordsrunning down the piece in the warp direction form the main characteristicofthisweave.
The face of the c10th is usually plain weave and the corded effect is produced by allowing
alternate pairs of weft threads to float on the back of the fabric behind each cord. These
threads interweave in plain orderwith the outside ends ofeach cord and are known as the

cuttingends(sunkenline).
TypesofBedford cord:
Therearefive typesofBedford cord design, such as1.
Plainface Bedford cord
2. W added Bedford cord
3.
Crepon Bedford cord
4.
Bedford cords,arranged with alternate picks
5. Twillface Bedford cord.
Construction principlesofplain-face Bedford cord w eave:

The stagesofbuilding up a Bedford cord weave, illustrated bythefollowing figure are:

* Indicatethewidthoftwocords(inthisexample,eachcordhassixends), and then

show the outside ends of each cord, known as cutting ends, weaving plain
throughout,asatfirstand second stage;
* The firstpairofpicksfloat underthe warp ends in the firstcord and weave plain in
the second cord.The second pair of picks weave plain in the first cord but float
under the w arp ends,and thus on the back ofthe c10th on the second cord. This
fourth stage isthefinaldesign.
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222

In orderto increase the prom inence ofthe cord effect,wadding ends may be introduced, as
illustrated in the following figure.In the following figure,one wadding end in each eight-end
cord;i
tcan be seen thatitliesbetween the plain weave face and the floating wefton the back
ofthe fabric.The weave fora Bedford cord with 12 ends in each cord and 3 extrawadding ends

isalsoshowninthenextfigure(30x4repeatsize).
The draing and Iifting plan ofthese designs are shown in the figure also;itcan be seen that
the cutting ends are always controlled by the frontshafts and the wadding ends by the back
shafts.W hen arrangingthe orderofdenting,the cuttingendsshould be placed on eitherside of

a reed wire,so thattheyare in adjacentdentsofthe reed,inorderto give uniformity to the


edgesofthe cords.

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223
H

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Fabrics produced with thisweave may be m ade in medium-weightcotton orspun rayon fabrics
forIadies'blousesand dresswear,sportswearand ornam entaltrim mings.In heavierqualities,it
issuitableforsoftfurnishingw hen produced with cottonyarnsorfortrouseringswhen made of
worsted yarns.

b) Pique W eave:
* '*W * '* '
A typicalpique structure consists ofa plain face fabric composed ofone series of
warp and one seriesofweftthreads,and aseriesofbackorsti
tchingwarp threads.
Continuoussunken linesorcutsi.e.cordsare run horizontallyinthe c10th.
* One cord producesperrepeat.
* Normally skipdrafting system isused to producethisweave.

* @'* - *,
'

There are fourtypesofpiqueweave such as-

1. Ordinarypiqueorweltstructure/Loosebackwithoutwaddingpicks.
2. W eftwadded welts/Loosebackwaddedweltstructure.
3. Fastbackweltorpique structure.
4. W aved pique structure.

The specialfeaturesofthese weltsareasfollows:

@ The num berofface picks in the width ofa cord isvaried according to requirem ents,
butusually the num berofconsecutive picks that are unstitched should not exceed
twelve.
* The orderofthe warp thread arrangement,which isalwaysone face orground,one
stitching orback end and one ground orface end,in each splitofthe reed,orin the
proportionoftwo face to pne stitching end.

e-

.* 4m# e #*e e - e :

The following figure shows a cross-section of the weave through the weftand indicates the
stagesinthe construction:

224
* Indicate the order of the warp thread arrangem ent, w hich is alw ays one
ground,one stitching end and one ground end, then fillin plain weave on the
ground endsasatfirststage;
@ The stitching w arp is lifted overthe required num berofpicks, as determ ined
by the requirem ents of the finalfabric appearance; at second stage a tw o
pick weave is illustrated;
* The finalweave isproduced by com bining firstand second stage.
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W hen m akingthe draftforpique itispreferable to controlthe ground endsfrom the frontshaft

(skip-draft)andbacktwoshaftsareusedforstitchingends.F example,plainweave,maybe
drawn ontwo healds,i
fthe c10th iscoarse, oron fourheal
ds,ifthe c10th isofmedium fineness,
oron six healds,if the c10th is very fine.Same ground ends are arranged in di
fferent heald
shaftsforreducingfridion.

225
W added welts:

In orderto increase the prom inence of the unstitched portions of the c10th, i.e.
horizontalcords and to m ake the c10th more substantial,it is custom ary to insert
wadding picksbetween thetightbackstitchingendsand the slackface fabric.
Usually the wadding weftisthickerthan the ground weft,and is inserted two picks
at a place,the Ioom s being provided with changing shuttle boxes atone side only.
Sometim es, however, th same kind of weft is used for both the face and the
w adding,Ioom sw i
th a single box ateach side being em ployed;and,in such a case,
one wadding pick ata place m ay be inserted.
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* Again, in som e cloths thick wadding picks w hich are inserted in pairs, are
supplemented by single wadding picksofthe face weft.AIIthe face ends are raised
when the wadding picks are inserted,as indicated by the different colour in the
designs,while the stitching endsare Ieftdow n.
* The stitching ends are placed on a separate beam w hich isvery heavily weighted,
whereasthe face endsare keptatmoderatetension.
* At intervalsthe tightstitching endsare interwoven into the plain face texture,with
the resul
tthatthe Iatterispulled dow n and an indentation isform ed on the surface.
Fast- backwelts:

In each of the foregoing designs, the stitching ends are only Iifted to form the
indentations,theterm ''loose-back''being applied to thistype ofstructure.
@ The term 'fast-back''isapplied to cloths in which the stitching endsare interwoven
in plain orderwith all,orsom e wadding picks.The reduction ofthe float length of
the stitching endson the back ofthe fabric which resul
tsfrom thisinterlacing helps
to producea m ore serviceable c10th Iessliable to accidentaldam age.

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W aved piques:
A waved pique is a sim ple modification of the welt structure in which the
indentations are not in a horizontalIine but are arranged in alternate groups, as
shown at first in the following figure,the marks in which indicate the Iifts of the
stitchingendson the face picks.
The group ofmarksdoes notoverlap horizontajly,asone com menceson a face pick
im mediately followingthaton w hich the otherhasfinished.
Between succeeding groups two wadding picks are inserted, as indicated by the
arrowsatthe side offirstfigure.
The complete design to correspond with first figure is given at second figure,in
which the endsare arranged in the same orderasin a wel
t,while there areten face
picks to two wadding picks.The Iiftsofthe tight stitching ends force the wadding
picks first in one direction and then in the other,so thatwaved Iines are formed
acrossthe c10th.The following figuresshow the weave plan with drafting and Iiing
planofatypicalwaved pique orwel
tdesign.

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227
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End uses:

ltisnow used onlyto avery Iimited degree,m ainl


y fortrim m ingsand otherornamentaluses.lt
isalso used forneckties,IadiesIightsum merholding costum eetc.

Sponge V/eave:
Any one of a variety ofweave arrangements thatgroups endsand picks together in orderto
form a cellularstructure and to create a softspongy effectinthe fabric.Examplesinclude spot
weaves,diamond effects,honeycombsand sateen-based structuresw i
th Iiftsadded.
Sponge weave considered as the result of honeycom b effect and also form the cell Iike
honeycom b weave.The ch4racteristicsfeaturesofthisweave are asfollows:
* The numberofendsand picksare alwaysequal;
10 x 10 isthe sm allestrepeatsize ofthisweave;
Straightdraftingsystem isused to produce thisweave;
Low twisted and coarseryarns are used to produce this fabric.So the fabric
produced bythisweave isvery softand absorbent;
For the construction of this weave it is im portant to calculate the Iongest
floatofdiam ond.Thisfloatis depends on the repeat size ofthe design.The
following form ula isused to calculate thisIongestfloat:
Longestfloatofdiamond = Num berofendsorpicks in the repeat-l
* ltisareversible c10th Iike honeycom b;

228
Honeycom b w eave produce one cellon both sides butin thiscase num berof
produced cellon both sides ofthe w eave dependson the num berofrepeat
size;
* Thisweave produce on the sateen base.

10 x 10 Sponge w eave

26X26
Spongeweave

26 x 26 Sponge w eave

E:d Qses:
Usesinclude fancy woolen shawls,bed-sheet,towel,counterpanes,drapes,bathing wrapsand

dressfabrics.Itisalsousedasgroundofjacquarddesign.

229

Simpie weavessuch as Y

CO LOUR AND W EAVE EFFECTS

Iain Z mattand Z twillmay be used inconjunctionwithtwo-

1p , 2
2
colour warp and weft patterns to produce small geom etricaldesigns in two colours.The
particulardesign which resultsdependsboth on the weave and on the arrangementofthe two
coloursin thewarp and weft.These patternsare called colour-and-weave effects.They arevery

frequentl
yusedinwoolenandworstedfabricsforcostumes,sportsjacketsandladies'coats.
There are two typesofcolourand weave effects,such as* Sim ple colourand weave effects,and
* Compound colourand weave effects.

Ordercfcolouring/Arrangementofthreads:
Thereare two typesoforderofcolouring,such as@ Sim ple orderofcolouring,and
* Compound orderofcolouring.
Both simple and com pound orderof colouring again di
vided into two types,such as-regular
orderofcolouring and irregularorderofcolouring.
Sim ple orderofcolouring:
In thisorderofcolouring,only one ratio ofcolourisused eitherforwarp orweft,suchas* Regularorderofcolouring4 dark,4 Iight;3 dark,3 m edium,3 Iightetc.sameforboth warpand weft.
@ lrregularorderofcolouring2dark,1light;3 dark,2m edium,1 Iightetc.same forb0th warp and weft.
By arrangingthe weftin a differentorderfrom the warp,forexample- 2 and
2 warpingcrossed with 1 and lwefting
Com pound orderofcolouring:

In thiscase morethan one ratio ofcolourisused eitherforwarp orweft,such as2 dark - 2 lightand 4 dark- 4 Iight;6 dark- 6 Iightand 3 dark- 3 lightetc.
same forboth warp and weft.

230
* In thecombination ofcom pound orderofcolouring,italso m ay be regularor
irregularorderIike assim pleorderofcolouring.

Orderofcolouringforwarp yarn iscalled warping and orderofcolouringforweftyarn iscalled


wefting.
A convenientclassification ofthe ordersofcolouringforthe threadsisasfollows:
* Sim plewarpingand sim plewefting
Com pound warping and sim plewefting
Sim ple warpingand compound wefting
Com pound warping and compound wefting.
ln the above com binationsthe orderofwarping may bethe same ordifferentfrom the orderof
wefting.To each orderofcolouring,simple,stripe and checkweavesm ay be applied.The style
ofpattern which isproduced by the com bination ofeach orderofcolouring with each type of
weave isgiven below:

Pattern chartforcolourand weave effects:


W eave

Orderoftolouring
Simple warpingand
SimpleweAin
Com pound wam ing and
Sim Ie weAin
Sim ple warping and
Com pound weAing
Com pound wam ingand
Eompound weAin

Sim ple
W eave
Simple
Pattern
Stripe
P/ttern
Cross-over
Pattern
Check
Pattern

Stripe
W eave
Stripe
Pattern
Stripe
Pattern
Check
Pattern
Check
Pattern

Ehetk
W eave
Check
Pattern
Check
Pattern
Check
Fattern
Check
Pattern

Construd ion principle ofcolourand w eave effect:


Orderofcolouringand weave structure isfixed fora particularpattern.The stagesin producing
the pattern are illustrated below:
* M arkoutthe repeatsize ofpattern according to the orderofcolouringand repeatof
theweave;
Fill-upthe repeatsize by particularweave structurewith crosses;
Indicatesorderofcolouring by shade,the shadesindicatethe darkyarns;
Forwarp colouring,colour i.e.shade is put only warp-up position ofthe particular
warp yarn and forweftcolouring,colouri.e.shade is put onl
y weft-up position of
the particularweftyarn;
@ Thisfinalpattern isproduced by com biningthe colourand weavestructure.

231

Sim ple colourand w eave effects:

1
In what follows it is assum ed that dark and light yarns are used,although any sufficiently '
contrasting colours are possible.The following designs are the example ofsim ple colourand
weave effects:
End and end toloufing Pattern:

The effectofarrangingthewarp andweftend andenddarkand Iight(i.e.1dark:1Iight)ina


plain weave c10th is shown in the follow ing figure;the shades indicate the dark yarns.The
weave and colour arrangement produce the pattern,which consists of fine horizontalIines
alternately darkand Iight.

M X

M#

XX
XX

jX
xx X

XX
X

XX
X

XX
X

XX
X

X
XX
X

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XX
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XX
X

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XX
X

X
XX

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XX
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X X X

End and end col


ourin:
W eave:1 plain
1

Orderofcolouring:1:1forbothwarpingand wefting

W eave: 2 twill
2
Orderofcolouring:2:2 forboth warping and wefting.

Continuoesline efed :
The effectofarranging the warp and wefta2:2 orderofcolouring inthe

2
tw ill-weave c10th is
2

shown in the above right figure;similarly the shades indicate the dark yarns.The weave and
colourarrangement produce the pattern,w hich consists ofcoarse horizontalIines alternately
darkand Iightbutitisnotsharp Iine Iike previousend and end colouring pattern.
HairlinesorPin stripe:
The effectofarranging the warp and wefta 2:2 orderofcolouring inthe

2 m att-weavec10th

is shown in the following figure;similarly the shades indicate the dark yarns.The weave and
colour arrangem ent produce the pattern,which consists ofthick or coarse horizontalIines
alternately darkand IightIike aspreviousend and end colouring pattern.
In the following right side figure the weave issame as in the Ieftone,butthe warp and weft
colourarrangement has been changed:the resultin verticalIines.Similarly the pattern can be
changed bychangingthe startingoftheweavew ith same colourarrangementofboth warpand
weftyarn.

232
XK
XX

XX
XX
XX

KX
XX

XX

XX

XX

XK
XX

XX
XX

XX
XX

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XX
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XX
XX

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1

W
HAIR LINESORPIN STRIPE

W eave: 2 2 matt
2

Orderofcolouring:2:2forb0thwarping andwefting.

Crow sfootpattern:
The effectofarranging the warp and weft2:2 orderofcolouring in the 1 plain-weave c10th is
1
shown in the following Ieftfigure;sim ilarlythe shadesindicate the darkyarns.The weave and
colourarrangem entproduce the pattern,which isthewell
-know ncrowsfootdesign.
A similarbutIargercrowsfootpattern resultsfrom using a4:4 colouring with a 2 2 m att-weave
z

represent in the following m iddle figure.The close-up view of a fabric using this weave and
colouring isshown inthefollow ing rightsidefigure.
Other Iessuseful
,patternsresultifthe footing i.e.the starting pointofthe 22 2 m att-weave is
,

altered,the order of colouring remaining the same.The reader m ight work these out for
himself.
X

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CrowsfootDesign 1
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Dog'st00th orHound'st00th Pattern:


The m ostpopularweave forcolourand-weaveeffects is 2 twill.W itha4:4colouring,arrangedas
-

inthefollowingfigure,itgivesa distinctive and decorative pattern know n asdog'st00th when a


relativel
y fine construction givesa small,and ashound'st00thw hena coarserconstruction givesa
Iargerpattern.A fabricmade with thisweave and colouring is show n actualsize in the following

rightside figure.

2a3

!
Al
tering the footing ofthe weave changesthecharacterofthe effectproduced,butnone ofthe !
alternatives are as effective or as usefulas the one show n. Here again the reader m ay
experim entwith alternative arrangements.

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XX
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Close-up view ofdog'st00th

shepherd'sCheck Pattern:
A 6:6 orderofcolouring with a

2
twillweave givesan effectsim ilarto,butbolderthan,dog#s
2

t00th.A woolen coating woven in this way from black and white yarns,known as shepherd's
check,isshown in thefollowing figure.
XX

XX
XX
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XX
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Allovereffect:
A 6:6 orderofcolouring with a 44 twillweave givesan effect,known as alloverefect,isshow n
in the follow ingfigure.

2B4
gx

x'x

. p xxx
; g .x.

XX X

XXX

XX X X
XX X X

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xx x
x x

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Allovereffct

Birdseye effect:
A usefultype of colour-and-weave effect is known as birdseye,defined as '/a fabric having a
pattern ofverysmalland uniform spots,the resultofa com bination ofweave and colour/'.The
developmentofthe pattern and ofanotherpattern ofthe same type,buthaving Iargerspots,is
given in the following figures.Boththese patternsuse sim plefancy weaves.Otherfancyweaves
used with sui
table ordersofcolouring provide a considerable range ofpatterns,some ofwhich
are distincti
veenough to be useful.
X

X
X
x

XXX

X
X
X

j Xx
X XXXX
XX x
X XXX
jX
XXXX x
x
X
XX

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X
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Birdseyeeffectorpattern

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Birdseye effectorpattern

Stepped tw illPattern:

A 1:1orderofcolouringwitha 2: twillweave(forfinereffect)or1:2orderofcolouringwitha
twillweave(forfinereffectlor2:1orderofcolouringwitha twill3aweave(forcoarsereffect)
givesa usefuleffect know n asstepped tw ill.Itsdevelopm ent is show n in the follow ing
figures.Thefollow ing rightside figure showsaworsted suitingfabricm ade with thisweave and
colouring.
Fabricssuch asthisin whichthe warp and weftare end-and-end and pick-and-pickin contrasting

coloursrequireuniform yarns,accuratelyspaced.Yarnirregulariiies,orvariationsinyarnspacing,

235

show up very markedly.Even the highest-quality fabrics of this type tend to exhibitsome
irregularities.

XXX

M XXXX
YX
x
yx XXX
X
X

@
1
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1

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.
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1

Stepped twill

Stepped twillorpattern

Com pound colourand w eave effects:


In this case different types of check and stripe patterns are produced.The following figure
showsa stripe pattern,w hich isproduced by sim ple weave and simple wefting with compound
warping.As a weave i 2 m att is used,Forwarp colouring 1:1 and 2:2 orderofcolouring and
2

forweftcolouring sim ple 1:1 colourarrangem entare used here.The repeatsize ofthis pattern
is32 x 16.
X
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X

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X

236

Glen check:
Distinctive patterns are often m ade in woolen and worsted fabrics in 2 twillweave, with
2

alternating blocks ofends and picks arranged 4:4 and 2:2.ln those partsofthe fabric where
both warp and weft are coloured 4:4,we obtain a dog's t00th effect.W here both warp and
weftare coloured 2:2,eitherverticalorhorizontalIines result.W here the warp iscoloured 4:4
and the weft2:2,and vice versa,we obtain two new effects.A woolen fabric embodying these
effects isillustrated actualsize in the following figure.This type ofdesign iscalled glen check.
The warp and weftpatternsare both -4white :4black;4white :4red;4white :4black;4w hite :
4black;zwhi
te :zblack x 8;4white :4green;4w hi
te :4black;4white :4black;4white :4green;
zwhite :zblackx 8.The colourand weave effectrepeatson 64 ends x 64 picks,but because of
the double overcheck in red and green,the design repeatson 128 endsx 128 picks.Itrequires
only fourheald shaftsto produce thisfabric.The follow ing figures show the close-up view of
glen checkfabricwith weave plan.

Close-up view ofGlen check fabric

237

W eave plan ofGlen checkfabric

FIG URING W ITH EXTRA THREA DS

238

M ain Features:
A distinguishing feature offabricsin which extra materialsare em ployed isthatthe withdrawal
ofthe extra threadsfrom the c10th Ieaves a com plete ground structure underthe figure.The
formation of a figure by means of extra threads thus does not detract from the strength or
wearing quality ofa c10th,exceptso farasthe extra threads are Iiable to fray out,whereasin
ordinary fabrics,in which the figure isform ed by floating the weftorwarp threads Ioosely,the

strenmhofthec10thisreducedsomewhatinproportiontotheratiooffigureandground.
One ofthe advantagesoffiguring with extra materials isthat bright colours in sharp contrast
with the ground may be broughtto the surface ofthe c10th in any desired proportion.Pleasing
colourcom binations may thus be conveniently obtained,since the extentofsurface allotted to
the figuring colour may be readily proportioned in accordance with the degree of itscontrast
with the ground shade,withoutthe Iatterbeing affected.

M ethodsofinte uting extra sguringthreads:


The extra threads may be introduced either as weft or warp,or the two methpds may be
employed in combination.W hen the extra materialisintroduced aswarpthen a separate beam
isrequiredforeach warp on accountofthe differenttake - up rates between the extra and the
ground ends.Forextra weft figuring the weaving machine must have the capacity to insert
m ore than one colourorkind ofweft.The form ofthe design may renderit necessary forthe
extra threads to be inserted in continuous order with the ground threads,or in interm ittent
order,while where they are introduced the arrangem entofthe figuring and ground threads
m ay be l-and-l,l-and-z,1-and-3 etc.according to the structure ofthe c10th and solidity of
figure required.ln extra weftfigures,forIoomsw i
th changing boxes atone side only,sim ilar
resultsto the l-and-l ordermay be produced by wefting 2-and-2;while the 2-and-4 ordermay
be substi
tuted forthe l-and-z,with,however,Iesssatisfactory resultsas regardsthe solidityof
the figure.
In thiscaseextrawarp and extraweftdesignsare presented by the followingfigures:

rame no
'nnofoO warpwithextraweA Y ring:
In extra warp figuring there are two or more series of warp threads to one series ofweft
threads,and the method hasthe following advantages and disadvantages,as compared w ith
theextraweftprinciple.

239

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Extra warp design

AA ante :
* The productivity ofa Ioom isgreaterbecause only one seriesofpicksisinserted,
and a fasterrunning loom can be used.
* No specialpicking,box,and uptake m otions are required.
@ There istheoretically no lim itto the num berofcoloursthatcan be introduced.
. In anintermittentarrangementofthe extra endseitherspotted orstripepatternscan be
form ed,w hereas a sim ilararrangem ent in the w eftcan only be used to form

spots(exceptin specialcases)because ofthe objectionable appearance of


horizontalIines.

240
e

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Extra weftdesign

Disadvantages:
Two ormore warp beamsm ay be required instead ofone.

Ifan ordinary jacquard and harness are employed a smallerwidth of repeat is


produced by a given size ofmachine,because the settofthe harnessrequiresto be
increased in proportion to the numberofextra endsthatare introduced in a design.
* In dobbyweaving the draftsare usually m ore complicated.
Strongeryarn is required forthe figure,and the threads are not so soft,full,and

Iustrous;extra ends are subjected to greatertension during weaving than extra


picks,and asa rule,there isIesscontraction in Iengththan in width,and the resultis
thatextra warp effectsusually show Iessprominentlythan extraweftfigures.
lfthe extra threads have to be rem oved from the underside ofthe c10th,itis m ore
difficultand costlyto cutaway extra endsthan extra picks.

241

COM POUND FABRICS

Some cloths are produced on the double c10th principle of construction but due to the
deliberate absence of stitching between the Iayers become single cloths upon their removal
from the Ioom.Two such constructions,the double width and the tubularc10th are described
respecti
vel
y inthe following stages.

TubularC10th
BasicPrinciple:

A tubularfabric consistsoftwo distinctface and backfabricsin which sel


vedgesare joined,
because the shuttle fliesfrom leftto right,inserting the face pick and then fliesin the opposite
direction,inserting the back pick.W hen the pickisinserted into the face fabricaIIthe threads
ofthe back warp should be lowered,and when the pick isinserted into the backfabric allthe
face warp threadsshould be raised.
W hile producing seam lessbags,the shuttle insertstwo face pickspassing from leftto rightand
from rightto Ieft.Then two back picks are inserted.Asa result,only the Iek selvedges ofthe

face and back fabrics are joined,forming the bottom ofthe bag.The sides ofthe bag are
formed by m aking ashortIength ofthe double fabricand then again awhole width ofthe bag.
UsesofTubularfabrics:
Tubularfabricsare used form aking fire hoses,seamless bagsand sacks,technicaldrying cloths,
decorative and othercloths.
Typicalweaves:

Forconstructing the tubularfabrics,the followingweavescan be used asthe bases:


Plain weave, hopsack -222,weft rib-22 ,twill-21 and twill-22 .The plain weave is m ost widel
y
used.
Construd ion:

To constructthis weave,two systemsofwarps,face and back ones,and two systemsofwefts


are necessary.Both warpsare often wound on the same weaver'sbeam and the face and back
picksare inserted by the same shuttle.

242
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TubularC10th

OU Ie 1 th cloth'
.
Ifa tubularfabric is woven with a sequence 2 top picks - 2 bottom picks,a folded or double

widthfabricisproduced where the two fabrii Iayersare onlyjoined togetherby the wefton
one side.The otherside rem ainsopen.W hich isthe open side dependson the pick sequence.
herefore,the pointpaperpresentation ofaIIfolded fabrics m ustspeci
fy the sequence ofweft
insertion.Atthe edge where the weftpassesfrom one fabricIayerto the other, the continuity
ofthe weave m ustbe preserved.

Foided orDoublewidth c10th

M ulti-ply Fabrics
* . .2 .

The multi-plyfabric consistsofthree ormore fabricswoven one above the otherand stitched
ogether.From three to eight Iayers are used.A narrow eight-ply fabric is applied for making
he Industrialbelts.
r -.--....-8-.-

* 4*

he multi-ply weave can be constructed,ifeitherlongitudinalsection orcrosssection isgiven.


he Iongitudinalsection ofathree ply weave isshown in the following figure. The warp repeat
fthisweave is6 and theweftrepeat,12.

l'
he sequence ofwarp threads atthe diagram correspondsto thatin the reed.The numbersof
the picks correspond to the sequence of their insertion in the fabric. Thus there are three
system s of warps,i.e.the face,the centre and the back,and the same num ber of the weft
ystems.The multi-pl
y fabricconsistsofthree fabrics,the weave ofw hich isplain.
e

he stitchingwithoutusing extrasystemscan be effeded bythefollowing five methods:

243

From face to centre and from centreto back.


From backto centre andfrom centre toface.
From backto centreand from face to centre.
From centreto face and from centreto back,
* Combination stitching.
*

In the exam ple offi


gure A the sti
tching iseffected from back to centre and from centre to face.
The stitching ofthe face and centre fabrics isdone by interlacingthe centre warp thread 3with
the face weftthread 4,and the stitching ofthe centre fabric and the back one,by interlacing
the backwarp thread 6w ith the centre weftthread 8.

11

'

#
1

12
11
10
09
08
07
06
05
04
03
02
01

# 1 2 34 k 6

%
Figure -A

i
Figure -B

The diagram ofweaveatB isconstructed bystudying the positionofeachweftthread relatively


to the warp threads.Forexam ple,the warp threads1,2,3,4 are placed above the weftthread 1
and the warp thread 5 is placed below thisweftthread atA.Thatis why,5 warp overlaps are
m arked atB by painted squares,they are 1,2,3,4,6 and one weftoverlap,by a blank square.In
such a mannerthe diagram ofweave atB hasbeen constructed.

For producing this fabric six heald shafts are necessary with straight draft of warp threads.
M ore often 6 threadsare drawn in one dentofthe reed.

244

STITCHED DOUBLECLOTHS
Introductipn:
Double clothsarefabricsin which there areatIeasttwo seriesofwarp andweftthreadseach of
which is engaged primarily in producing its own Iayerofc10th, thus forming a separate face
c10th and a separate back c10th. The two layers may be only loosely connected together in
which case each may be readily identified as a different entity orthey may be so intricately
stitched ortiedtogetherthattheyappeartoform a complexsingle structure.
The purpose ofthe constructi
on may be entirely utilitarian, such as the improvementofthe
thermalinsulation value ofa fabric in which a fine, smartface appearance is necessary;orit
may be aesthetic in intention forwhich purpose the existence oftwo seriesofthreadsin each
direction improvesthe capacityforproducing intricate effectsdependentupon e
'ithercolour, or
structuralchanges.

Classification ofDouble cloths:


Mostofthe double clothscan be classified underwelldefined headingsand the following Iist
givesthe principalstructuraltypeswith the simple schem aticdiagram sin the figure illustratin
the basicprincipleofeach construction
g
.

1. Self-stittheddoebletloths:
Thesefabricscontain onlythe two seriesofthreadsin both directionsand the stitchin
g
ofthe face c10th Iayerto the back Iayerisaccomplished byoccasionally dropping aface
end undera back pick,or, by lifting a back end overa face pick, or,by utilizing both of
the above systemsin differentportionsofthec10th. Thistype ofstructure andthethree
differentmethodsofstitchingare illustrated atthe followingfigures,

2. Centre-stlttheddoobletloths:
ln these fabricsa third seriesofthreads isintroduced eitherin the warp orin the weft
direction whose entire function isto stitch the two otherwise separate Iayers ofc10th
together.The centre threads Iie between the face and the back c10th and for the
purpose ofstitching oscillate at regular intervals between the face and the back thus
achieving the required interlayercohesion asshown atthefollowing figure.

245

3. M ubledolsseeehe W th--oInoah:nm :
Tbese structuresare sim ilarto the firstcategory in as m uch asthey do not contain an
additionalseries of stitching threads.However, they are distinguished from the self
stitched fabrics by the factthatthe stitching ofthe face and the back c10th isachieved
by frequent and continuous interchange ofsome tbread elements btween the two
c10th Iayers.Thus,in som e portions ofthe c10th the face ends m ay be m ade to interweave with the back picks and the back ends w ith the face picks as illustrated
schem aticaly at the following figure.The point at w hich the threads interchange
representsthe sti
tch point.

W
In this class ofconstructions the principle ofthe interchange istaken one stage further
than in the third category and com plete c10th layers are made to change places as
shown atthe follow ing figure.As stitching between the two fabrics occurs only atthe
pointofc10th interchange the degree of cohesion in thstype ofc10th dependson the
frequency ofthe interchange.

ln some fabricsthe constituentthread covponentsare occasionall


y merged together
into a heavily setsingle c10th and occasionally are separated into distinctIayersto form
figure areas ofopen double c10th on the firm single c10th ground.Usually,the effect
dependsupon a degree ofdistortion asthe cramm ed single c10th areastend to spread
out,thus affecting the appearance ofthe double c10th 'pockets'.A c10th ofthis type is
shown atthefollowing figure.

Polntsto be considered before goingto construction a double c10th asfollow s:


t

-x.% .-

-....* - * k .--- --

M*

r ... - ...* K....


X.>k.. ..*

'

These are decided m ainly bythe weightto be added to the facetexture,butthe order
ofarrangem entofthe weftthreadsisdeterm ined partly by the weftinsertion ofthe
Ioom .The m ostcom mon varietiesofdouble clothsare arranged in w arp and weft1

246

face,1 back and 2 face,1 back.For looms with boxes at one side only,and when the
back weft is different from the face weft, sim ilar effects may be obtained in m any
weavesbychangingthe wefting to 2 face,2 backand 4 face,2 back,respectively.Cloths
which require a very fine face are sometimesarranged 3 face,1 back in warp and weft.
The threads m ay also be arranged in a m ixed order,i.e.1 face,1 back in warp and 2
face,1 back in weftand vice versa.Or2 face,1 back in warp and 2 face,2 back in weft.

Irregulararrangementssuch as5 face to 4 back(FBFBFFEFB)and 7 faceto 5 back


(FBFFBFBFFBFB)arealso employed,and theseare occasionall
y usefulasthey admitof
relative proportionsofface backingthreadsbeing used which cannotbe obtained in any
ofthe regularbases.
In deciding on the relati
ve thicknesses ofthe face and backyarns,a good rule to follow
is to have the relative counts about proportionate to the relative numbers of the
threadsperunitspace.In a 1 face,1 back double c10th the backyarn should be similar
to,ornot much thickerthan the face yarn.In 2 face to 1 back,the back yarn may be

proportionately thicker,orsay,from 2/3 to X thickerthan theface yarn.Ifthe same


weave is used on both sidesofthe c10th the backthreads may be 3 or4 timesasheavy
as the face threads in the 2-and-1 arrangement,especially when centre threads are
employed forstitching.
2. R lettion ofthe fate and backweaves:
W hen the threadsare arranged in equalproportionsthe backweave is usuallythe same
asthe face weave,orcontainsaboutthe sam e relative num berofintersections,as,for
instance,the 2-and-2 twillissui
table forbackingthe 3 up,2 down,Iup,2 down twill.In
other arrangem ents the backing weave is,as a rule, m ade with a relatively greater
num berof intersectionsthan the face weave in orderto compensate forthe reduced
num berofthreads.In the 2 face,1 back arrangem ent,the plain weave is suitable for
backing the 2-and-2 twilland the 2-and-2 hopsack;the 2-and-1 tw illforbacking the 3and-3 twill;and the 2-and-2 twillforbacking the 4-and-4 twill.In the making ofcloths
with a fine,sm art face and soft back,the same weave may be used,in the 2-and-1
arrangem ent,forboththe face and backtextures.Forasim ilartype ofc10th in a l-and-l
arrangem entofthe threads,a Iooserbackthan face weave may be em ployed.The most
regulareffect isobtained by having the repeatsofthe face and backweaves equal,or
one a m ultiple ofthe other.Forexam ple,the 1-and-3 twillisunsuitable forbacking the
2-and-3 twillunlessthe threadsare arranged irregularly in the proportion of5 face to 4
backthreads.
3. Tying orstitthing:

Thestitchingofthebackandfacefabricsofthedoublec10thcanbeeffectediniive
ways.In thefirstthree m ethodsthe threadsofIayersare used forstitching.Intwo other

247

methodsthe extra system eitherofwarp orweftisintroduced,w hich Iies between the


face andthe backfabric,stitching them .
a. The firstm ethod which iscalled the stitching from face to backiscarried out
by lowering the facewarp below the backweft.Ifthe sti
tching isachieved by
dropping a face end under a back pick both these elem ents must be away
from theirrespective surfaces.
b. The second m ethod iscalled the stitchingfrom backto faceand iscarried out
by raising the backwarp above the face weft.W hen the m ethod ofstitching
invol
ves raising the back Warp overthe face picksthen the back end can be
used fortying only when itis away from the underside ofthe back c10th and
the pick overwhich the tie is m ade m ust be away from the face ofthe top
c10th.A stitch made in conformity with the above two condi
tions is invisible
on eitherside ofthe double c10th.
The third method,i.e.the com bination stitching,isthat when the stitching
from back to face and from face to back are applied simultaneously.The
warp ofeach fabricisincluded inthe shed oftheotherfabric.
d. The fourth m ethod iscalled the stitching with an extra warp.ltoccurswhen
the face and backfabricsare stitched togetherby extra warp and there isno
interlacing of the threads ofthe face fabric w ith those ofthe back fabric.
Three systems of warp and two systems ofweftare used in this case.It is
necessaryto distinguish the extra stitching warp from the extra stufferwarp,
the threadsofwhich can also Iie between the face and backfabricswithout
interlacing with the weftthreads.
e. The fifth method is called the stitching with an extra weft.In thiscase,the
face and back fabricsare stitched togetherbyextra weftwhich bindsthe face
and backwarps.The fabricsare held togetheronly by extra weftthreads.For

increasing thi massofthe fabrics,stuffing weftthreadscan be introduced


between the fabrics.W hen the extra weftthreads differin countortype of
fabrics,the Ioom should be equipped with a multi-shuttle m echanism .

4. n e O nstrudion ofthe N intpae rdesign:


5. The Y mlnw deahinw the tonM dion ofthe pea ing orlifting plans,trou-sedion
and longitudlnalqe on.

Selection ofsuitable stitching positions:


Indoubleclothsthesti
tchesjoiningthetwofabricstogether,ifcorrectlyplaced,haveno effect
on theappearance ofeithertheface orthe underside ofthe c10th.The method oftyingw hich is
the m ore suitable is,in som e cases,determined bythe characterofthe face weave.Ifaw arp
satin,orawarp-faced twillweave isem ployed forthe face fabric,tying by Iiftingthe backwarp
only is suitable;w hile in the case ofa w eft sateen ora w eft-faced tw illw eave,itisonly
advantageousto tie by dropping the face ends.W hen there is achoice ofthe two m ethods,

248

otherthingsbeing equal,the formermethod isusually preferable,asthe backwarp isIessIiable


to show on the face thanthe backweft,which inthe Iattersystem ispulled upwards.
Using the system oftying in which the back ends are raised forstitching overthe face picks it
may notbe possible to realize the above assumption w i
th som e weave combinationsand some
faceto backthread ratiosbecause forperfectplacem entofthe tie thefollowingfourconditions
mustcoincide:
1. The backend mustbe atthatpointaw ay from the underside ofthe backc10th.
2. ltm ust'surface'betweentwo Iong warpfloatsofthe face weave.
3. The face pickoverwhich the backend israised m ust be absentfrom the surface ofthe
face c10th.
4. Itm ustbe only pulled down ata poin'
tatwhich itspenetration into the back c10th level

iscoveredbytwoadjacentweftfloatsonthe undersideofthebackfabric.
Clearly,in some circumstances itwillnotbe possible to achieve the simultaneouscoi'
cjdence
ofaIIthe fourconditions.
',
Similarky,when theface endsalelowered forstiyching underthe bgikpicks:
1.'The face end atthatpointmstbf'
absentfrom the sudce''
ofxthe face c10th.
n

I
t
rmpj
' tbe Iowered ata p6fntatwh
ich two Iong bak0
1wi.
rp-flpatscoyjrit on the
;
'

0th.
undersideofthe back. c1

,.

.
.. ..

)
.'
.:
(
.;
.,
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.

.r.
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,
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tt.
g.-;t
3. The back pick atthe tie pointm ustbeawayfrom the undersideofthe backclbtlsq
k
)
j
!
..
,
t.
.
t:y
4.
(
sy,.
.

..

.
.

..
.

',

.. .

Itmustpenetratetcwardsthe surfacexata pointatwhich itWik,becil red bk-two


adjacentfaceweftfloatsonthesurfaceoftheface c10th.

Again,the sim ultaneouscoincidence ofthe conditionsmay not,in som e cases,be possible.

If i
t is conceded thatthe condi
tions (1)and (3)in each system oftying are absolutely
compulsory then a certain degree offreedom must be accepted with regard to the conditions

(2)and(4).
Construction Principle:
% q%* u-.:r*-% :
There isno need to separate stitching thread.The threadsofthe face and back c10th are used
forstitching.There are threetypesofselfstitch double c10th,such as-

--.,*.*-= -*

.....zW %

D % o-% je

Inorderto preventconfusionthediN rentstagesinworkingoutadoublec10thdesign


should be represented by differentkili4sofm arks,asshow n in the followingfigures,
s

w hich illustrates,step by step,the construction ofa 3 tw illand . 4 tw illstructure in


w hich the endsand picksare arranged 1 face,1 back.A and B representthe face and

249
.

the back w eave respectively.At C an area equalto one repeat of the double weave is
m arked out with the orderofarrangem entofthe face endsand picks and the backends
and picks indicated clearly atthe m argins.C show sthe first stage ofactualdouble c10th
construction w hich m ay be defined as:Insertthe face w eave on the face ends and face
picks only, according to the originaldesign.The second stage is sim ilar except that it
refers to the back w eave: lnsert the back w eave on the back ends and picks only,
according to the originaldesign.

@ FACEWARPUPOVEI
!FACEWEFT
F MCKWARPUPOVERMCKKEFT
1 MUTUALPOI
NTBETWEENFACE
WARPANDBACKW EFT

I
X STI
TCHI
NGFOI
NTMCrT0FA:fSTI
TCHI
NG

C)WEFTUPOVERWARP
E
'

A-FaceWeive

B-BackW eave

B
F
B
F
B
F
B
F!
B
F
j
F
B
F
B
jz

'

BFBFBFB B B B B
C

B
F
B
F
8
F
B
F
B
F
B
F
B
F
B
y

BFBFBFB B B B B
D

D shows the m arksforthe separating Iifts w hich ensure thateach seriesofyarnsweaves


only w ith its ow n kind and this m ay be stated as: Lift aIIface ends on back picks.
Sim ilarly,to com plete the sequence,a1Iback ends m ust be Ieft dow n on aIIface picks
w hich m eans an absence of m arks, i.e. alI back ends dow n on face picks.These are
called m utualpoints.

D also represents a stage in w hich two separate fabrics are produced one above the
other.As there is no particular reason for producing tw o disconnected cloths in this
m anner, it willbe realized thatthis stage is the interm ediate point in the construction
reached priorto the insertion of stitches orties to bind the tw o clothstogether.Before
the stitch m arksare inserted it m ustbe decided which m ethod ofstitching isto be used
and how frequently the clothsare to be stitched.
Assum ingthatitis required to stitch by Iifting the back endson the face picksand thateach
back end is to stitch once in the repeat,the correct positions ofthe ties are show n

250

by the crosses atfigure D.The following figure D representthe finalweave plan and
figure E representthe drafting plan and figure F representthe Iifting plan.

M * de pre e

W f- tobackse

ingsystem ;

The construction principle is sam e Iike as previous one. In this case face and back
weaves both are sam e 4 tw illw eave.The second stitching m ethod is used here,i.e.
4

stitching by dropping the face ends on back picks.As in the previous system ,one stitch
perrepeat is m ade,only in this case the face ends and not the back ends are used for

the purpose.The following figure showsthe weave plan (D)ofa double c10th based on
4

same two 4 twillweaveswiih face to back stitching method.The figure E and F


represents drafting and Iifting plan ofthis weave respectively.

@ FACEwARPupOVERFACEWCF
'
T
K BACKWARPUPOVERBACKWEF'
T
* MU
T
U
A
L
P
O
I
N
T
B
E
T
WE
Z
N
F
A
C
E
WARPANDBACKWEFT

X STITCHf
NGPOI
NTFACfT0MCrSTI
TCHI
NG
C)wEFTtlpovERWA:P
',
E

B
.

A-FACEWEAVE

B-BACK WEAVE

F
B
F
B
F
B
F
B
F
B
F
B
F
B
F

B F B FB FB F B B B B

'

F
B
X
F
Bx
F
B
N
F
B
x
F
B.
X
F
B
x
F
B
X
F
B F B rB F B F B B B B
D

' '

X
x
x
X

X
X

Facetobackstitchingmethod

nnuble de pre u'oa by com bined stitching a stem :


The construction principle is sam e like as previous one. In this case face and back
w eavesboth are also sam e 4 4tw illweave.The third stitching m ethod i.e.the com bined
stitching system is used here.Back to face and face to back both sti
tching system s are

used.Thefollowing figure showsthe weaveplan (D)ofa double c10th based onsame


tw o

4
4

tw illw eaves w ith com bined stitching m ethod.The figure E and F represents

drafting and lifting plan ofthisweave respectively.

251

Self stitching system is used to produced the above three structures of double c10th.
Only 1:1 thread arrangem ent is used forboth face and backw eav described above.Itis
noted thatthe differentarrangem entofthreadsare also used such as- face warp :back
w arp = 2:1,face w arp :back w arp = 2:2,face w arp :back warp = 1:2 etc.Sim ilarly the
w eftyarnsare also arranged in differentorder.The thread arrangem entm ay be sam e or
different forwarp and weftyarn.The repeat size ofthe finaldesign is depends on this
thread arrangem ent.

@ FACEWARPUPOVERFACEWEF'
T
1 BACKWARPUPOVERBACKWEFT
K MUTUALPOI
NTBETWEENFACE
WARPANDBACKWEF'T

(
X)STI
TCHINGPOINTFACETO
BACKANDBACKTO FACE

(((
jWEFTUPOVERWARP

A-FACEW EAVE

'

B-BACKWVv6

B
F
B
F
8
F
B
F
B
F
B
F
8
F
B
F

B
x
F
B
X
F
Bx
F
B
F
B
F
B
I.:
B
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B
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F B F B F B F B F B'F B FIB r B
'

F B F B F B F B F B F'B B F B

(2
.

,,.

.'' .
D
Combinedstitchingmethod

k..

W added double c10th:

A wadded double c10th consistsofa face and a backfabric,tied togetherby floating back ends
on face picks,orface endsunderback picksas in ordinary self-stitched double cloths, w ith the
addition ofa specialseriesofweft orwarp threads introduced independently ofthe face and
backyarns.The warp-wadded clothsthusconsistofthree seriesofwarp and two seriesofweft
threads,while in the weft-wadded clothsthere are three series ofweftand two seriesofweft
threads.The wadding threads Iie between the two fabrics,and are visible neitheron the face
nor back; hence a thicker and cheaper yarn than that used for the face and back may be
em ployed forwadding withoutthe appearance ofthe c10th being affected.
The type ofconstruction istherefore usefulin caseswhere increased weightand substanceare

requiredto beeconomicallyobtained inconjunctionwith afinefacetexture.Thewadding


threads m ay be introduced into any arrangem entofthe face and back threads, butthe

252

com mon proportions are 1 wadding to 1 face and 1 back,2 face and 2 back,or2 face and 1
back.The firstarrangement issuitable when the wadding yarn is notso much thickerthan the
faceyarn,and thesecond and third when verythickwadding isused.

W arp wadded doubleeloth:


The wadding yarn is more econom ically and conveniently introduced in the warp than in the
weftbutthegreaterstrain puton the warp threads in weaving necessitatesthe use ofa better
quality ofwadding m aterial.The construction ofthe designsisillustrated in the following figure
in which theface and backweavesare given atA and B respectively,whilethe complete design
isgiven atD and the draftatE.The endsare arranged in the orderof1face,1 back,1 wadding,
and the picks 1face,1 back.The face weave is 53 twill
,the back weave is 22 tw illand atwill
orderforback warp tying liftsisused.In the warp wadded structuresthe wadding endsm ustbe
raised on aIlbackpicksand Ieftdow n on aIIface picks.
Draftforthe design D in the following figure isgiven at E.The wadding ends require onl
y one
heald,butin fine setts,to avoid crowding,they may be draw n ontwo orm ore healdsw hich are
then operated asone.Thefollow ing figure Fisthe Iifting plan ofthisweave.

@ FACEWARPUPOVERFACtWEn'
1 BACKWARPIJPOVE:BACKWEFF
@ WAR
MUTU
ALPOINTBETWEENFACE
PAND MCKWEFT
N'FITCHINGPOINTMCKT0FACKSTITCHING
.

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B
r
B
f:
B
F
i!
F
B
F
B
F

'B
F
B
F
B
F
B
F
B
F
B
F

8X8
r
:
A-Faceweave .r

8X8
B-Bac
kweave

F
B
F

(2

C)WEF'TUPOVERWARP
@ 'wADPEDWARPUPOVERBACKWEFT

'

warwaddedlouble(:
1
0th

- ''

w eA '-- Mde double dotb:


The construction ofdesignsforthese clothsisillustrated bythe exam plesgiven inthe following
figure in which A isthe plan ofthe face weave,and B ofthe backweave.Since the waddingyarn
simpl
y liesbetween the two fabrics withoqtinterweaving with either,the same conditions are
necessary,so farasregardsthe face weave,the tiesand the backweave,asin1he construction
ofordinarydouble cloths.

253

The wadded design istherefore exactly the same asthe ordinary double design exceptforthe
inclusion ofthe wadding threads;and in orderthat comparisons may be m ade,the double
weave with the wadding isgiven atC.In the complete design,given at D the crosses indicate

theties(backwarpuponthefacepicks).ItwillbenotedthatinweftwaddedstructuresaIIface
endsare up.And alIbackendsare down,onwadding picks.

In the following exam ple the picks are arranged in the orderof1 face,1 back,1 wadding;and
the ends 1 face,1 back.The 7-end satinette weave,warp surface on both sidesofthe c10th,is

employed,thetying beingeffected by raisingthebackingendsinasateen(3-move)orderover


the face picks.The followingfigure E and F representsthe drafting and Iifting plan respectively.
1 FACEWARPUPOVERFACEWEFT
K BACKWARPUPOVERBACKWEF'
T
K MUTUALPOI
NTBETWEENFACE
WARPAND BACKWEFT

X STI
TCHI
NGFOINTZACrT0FACrSTI
TCHI
NG

(
Z WEFTUPOVERWARP
K FACEWAEFUFOVEEWAOZEDWEFT
W
B
F
W
B
F
W

2
F
B
F

7-End Satin

A-FaceWeave

B
F

B
F
B
F

'

B
F

7-Endsateen
B-BackW eave

FB FBFB FB FBFB FB
14X21

E
X

)(

W
B
F
X
W
B
F X
W
:
'
F
s
X
.W
'
B
F
X
# FB FBFB FB FBF BFB
14X21
D

x
X
X
X
X

W eftW addedDoubleC10th

Centre stitch double :10th:

In wadding adouble c10ththe chiefobjectisto getaheavystructure byintroducingayarn


which isusuallythickerand cheaperthan the face and backyarns.In centre stitching,however,
although the threadsm ay be introduced in the sam e orderas in wadding,and additional
weightthereby be obtained,the specific purpose isto bind the two fabricstogetherw ith the
centre threads,which asa rule are finerthan eitherthe face orbackingthreads.Inthissystem
the threadsofone fabricdo notinterweave w ith those ofthe otherfabric;the centre thfeads
oscillate between one and the other,and Iie betw een them w hen notem ployed fortying.The

'

254

two fabrics are Iess firm ly united than with the self-stitching,and the c10th has a softerand
fullerhandle.Thestitching threadsmay be used aswarp yarn orweftyarn.
Eentrewarp eilch double clol :

The plansin the following figure are illustrative ofthe construction ofdouble clothsarranged 1
face,1 back,inw hich thetwo fabricsarestitched togetherby meansofcentre warp.The design
3

C(Ieftside)isadouble5x5twill,thefaceweave ztwillbeingasatA,andthe backweave a


twillasatB,while the endsare arranged in the proportion of5face and 5 backto 1stitching,as

indicatedatC(Ieftside).

'
'

X 1 FACEWARFUFOVERFACEWEF
'
T
1 Mc4WAFPUF0VE8BACLWEF
'
T
(
1 MUTUALFOI
NTBETWEENFACE

M FACEWARFUpOVEqFACEWEFT
W BACKWARFUFOVERMCIWEF
I
'
T
1 MUTUALFOI
NTBETWEENFACC

WARFANDBACKWEF'T

WARFANI)BACLWEF'T

I
XISTI
KHINGFOI
NTCENTREWARF

X STI
TCHINGPOI
NTCENTEEWARF

ZIWEF
I
'
TU?OVERWARF

Z WEFTUFOVERWAR?

STIKH

x
1)
FACEWEAVE B
F
B
F
B
F
:
F
B
F
X5
F B FB FB FS B FB
B-M CKWEAVE
C

STITEH

5x5
FACEW EAVE B

F
B
F
B
F7
B
F
B
F

'.

Centrewarpstitchdodblecl@th

'i
.

5X5

B'
-MqKWEAW

(
o

i
o
.

F B F S B FB F B F SB

(: C
.
entrewarpstitchdoublec10th

Centre warp stitch double c10th

Aseach repeatofthe double weave gi


ven atC (Ieftside)containsonly one stitchingend,the
tiesalwaysoccurin the sam e Iine,both on the face and backofthe c10th.A betterarrangement

isgiveninthedesignC(rightside),intheabovefigure,inwhichtheendsareintheproportion
of3 face and 3 backto 1 stitching;2 face and 2 backto 1stitching.The faceweave and the back

weavearethesameasinthedesignC tleftside).Inthiscasetherearetwostitchingendsinone
repeatofthe double weave,w hich not only causes the fabricsto be more firm ly united,but
enables an alternate distribution of the ties to be made.The figure D and E represents the
draftingplan and Iifting plan respectivelyofthisweave plan.
r . %

* r2.%

Thistype ofsti
tching is notvery often used asitreducesthe rate ofc10th production.This is
dueto t-he factthatw hen the centreweftpicks are introduced the take-up m ustbe rendered
inoperative and thusthe picksdo notcontribute to the Iength ofc10th being produced.ln
constructionsinw hichthe use ofcentre stitching threadsisessentialitis,therefore prefereble
to usethe centre warp sti
tches.However,there are som e situationswhich make itnecessary

255

to use the centre wek and one reason forthe use ofthis m ethod occurswhen aIIthe existing

jacks in a dobby are required to operate the face and the back healdsand none are Ieftto
controlthe centre warp ends.Occasionally the centre weft is also used ifthe mounting ofan
extra beam required bythe centre warp threadspresentsa particulardifficulty in respectofthe
controloraccessto the warp yarns.

The plansA to D in the follow ing figure illustrate the principle ofstitching by meansofcentre
weft.The double 6 x 6 m attweave isem ployed,the face weave 33 3 being gi
ven atA, and the
backwe
4

ave z (4+2)atB.Thepicksareinthe proportionof3face and 3backto 1stitchingas


lndicated atD,one repeatofthe doubleweavethuscontainingtwo centre picks The complete
.

design isgiven atD. The following figure E and F represents the drafting planaand Ii
fting plan
respectivelyofthisweave plan.

- B
F
s
A- 6X: .
F
FACEWEAW
:

F
B
. - s
()
F
:

F
B

F
B

6X6

F
B

F
B

B-BACKWEAVE

'
o

B
F
# FB FB FB FB FB FB
C

'

1 FACEWARPUPOVERFACE'.WEFT
W BACKWARPUPOQ'
EFBACKWEW
.. .
1 MtlytlAtpojN.
rBEtwEE:NFAcE '
wAqpANI)BAcyWEFT

(7 X

F
B
F
#F BFB FB FB FB FB
D

centreweftstitchdouble610th

(X S
TITCHINGPOI
NTCENTREWEFT
s'rjycH
Z WEF'
TUPOVERWARP

End uses:
Double cloths are used as differenttypes ofdecoratike c10th such as- sofa cover, furnishing
c10th,curtain fabric,bed cover,pillow cover,and otherhom e textile,etc.Itisalso used forthe
production ofwintergarm ents,quilts,belts,differenttypesofindustrialfabricsetc.

256

FA BRIC USED IN A PPAREL SECTO R

Fabric based on Plain w eave:


1. Georgette:It ism ade with filamentyarns. Ingeorgette,the directionofthecrepetwist

(SorZ)forwarpandweftyarnsalternates.Forexample,even-numberedwarpandweft
yarns may be S-twistand odd-numbered yarns may beZ-twist. Itcan be a solid colouror
printed.Itisvery lightweight,drape well,and isused in apparel. ltwasoriginally made
ofsilkbutnow often ism adefrom m anufactured filamentyarns.
1. EhiWon: lt is m ade from fine, highly twisted filam ent yarns. Because of the tightly
twisted crepe yarns,chiffon has excellent drape, very Iightweight,and although it is
delicate in appearance,itis relati
vel
y durable. Itcan be a solid colourorprinted.Itwas
originall
y m ade ofsilk butnow often ism ade from m anufactured filam entyarns. Sheer
evening dresses,blouses,Iingerie,and other dressy apparelare constructed from the
fabric.
3. Voile:Voile is a sheerfabric m ade with high twist or voile twist spun yarns that are
com bed or worsted.It is a soft fabric with some what Iowerfabric count and has a
distinctive two pIy warp and good drapability. ltcan be solid colourorprinted.Voile was
originallya cotton orwoolfabric,butitisnow available w i
th many fibre contents.

4. Organdy: lt is the sheerest cotton fabric that is given a tem porarily or permanently
stiffened finish.Com bed yarns contribute to i
ts sheer appearance. Its sheerness and
crispnessare the resultofan acid finish on Iaw ngray goods. Because ofitsstiffnessand
fibre content,itisvew prone to wrinkling. Itisused forcurtainsand forsum merweight
apparel.It is available in solid colours or prints. Fabric construction:sim ilar to Iawn
fabric.
c
.

. ..... (
ce.

tk:t

L'
)-

Qj(,

Georgette

Chiffon

Voile

Organdy

257

5.

- *:ltisthe filam entyarn counterpartto organdy,i.e.itis also a stiffsheerfabric


m ade offilam entyarns.Ithas a Iotofbody and a crisp hand.Itis also used forcurtains
and forsum m erweightapparel.Itisavailable in solid coloursorprints.

6. 1-

: lt is a fine, opaque, light weight, plain weave fabric usually m ade of com bed

cottonorcotton-blend(cotton/polyester).Thefabricmaybebleached,dyedorprinted.
Lawn is sim ilarto organdy fabric,but itdoes not receive the acid finish like asorgandy
and,thus,rem ain opaque.Fabric construction:
70'sX 100's
80 X 80

7- *------- It is an opaque, Iight weight, s'pun yarn, plain weave fabric w ith a smooth
surface.It is the softest ofthe Iight weight opaque fabrics.W hen m ade ofcotton or

cotton/polyester,theyarnsare usuallycombed.ltcan bemadeofalIwool,silkorrayon.


Batiste also is sim ilar to organdy fabric,but it does not receive the acid finish Iike as
organdyand,thus,remain opaque.Fabric construction:similarto law n.
'

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Organza

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Law n

:ltisayarn dyed,plain weave fabricthatisavailable in avariety ofweightsand


qualities.lt m ay be balanced or unbalanced and of com bed or carded yarns.lf tw o
colours ofyarns are used,the fabric iscalled a check ora checked gingham .If three or
more colours are used,the fabric is reffered to asa plaid gingham .Itis usually m ade of
cotton orcotton blends.Betterquality fabrics are made w ith com bed yarns.W hen they
are m ade ofanotherfibre,the fibre content is included in the name;forexam ple,silk
gingham .Fabric construction:
28'sX 42's
Carded : 64 X 60 TO 64 X 76
28'sX 42's
Com bed: 84 X 76 TO 88 X 84

9.

-Itisa plain weave fabric,usually ofcotton,rayon,orblended w ith polyester.


Usually cham bray haswhite yarns in the weftdirection and coloured yarns in the warp
direction.Iridescentcham bray is made w ith one colourin the w arp and a second colour
in the weft.Itcan also be made with stripes

258
10.Taffeta:It is a generalterm that refersto any plain weave filam ent yarn fabric with a
fine,smooth,crisp hand.Unbalanced taffeta hasa fine rib m ade by heavierfilling yarns
and m ore warp yarns.Faille taffeta has a crosswise rib m ade by using m any m ore warp
yarnsthan weft yarns.M oir'e taffetas have an em bossed waterm ark design.Balanced
taffetas have warp and weftyarnsofthe sam e size.Iridescenttaffeta haswarp and weft
yarnsofdifferentcolours.

11.M adras:ltisusually aIIcotton,and hasa Iowercountthan gingham .M adrasgingham or


madrasshirting isa Iightto medium-weight,dobby weave fabric in w hich the pattern is
usually confined to verticalstripes.
12.Cheese c10th:It is a Iight,sheer,plain woven fabric with a very softtexture and a very
1ow count.lt may be naturalcoloured, bleached,or dyed. If dyed, it m ay be called
buntingand could be used forflagsorbanners.
13.Crinoline:Itisa stiff,spun yarn,plain weave fabric sim ilarto cheese c10th,used in book
bindings,hatsand stiffening forapparel.Itisheavily sized to serve asstiffening fabrics.
14.Buckram :lt is heavily sized to serve as stiffening fabrics.Buckram is a heavy,very stiff,
spun yarn fabric converted from cheese c10th gray goods with adhesivesand fillers.It is
used asan interliningto stiffen pinch pleated window treatm entfabrics.
i.

Taffeta

M adras

Cheese c10th

.
.

(.
ti

Buckram

15.Gauge:It isa sheer,Iight weight,low count,plain orIeno weave balanced fabric m ade
ofspun yarns.Itisoften cotton,rayon,ora blend ofthese fibres.Gauge,w ith a higher
countthan cheese c10th,is used in theatricalcostum esand m edicaldressings,aswellas
for blouses and dresses.Indian gauge has a crinkled Iook and isavailable in a variety of
fabricweights.
16.Ninon:ltisa sheer,slightly crisp,Iightw eight,plain w eave fabric m ade offilam ent
yarns.The warp yarns are grouped in pairs,butit is nota basketweave fabric.It is
widely used in sheercurtainsand draperies.Itis usually 100 percentpolyesterbecause
ofthatfibre'sresistance to sunlight,excellentresiliency,and easy washability.Although
ninon isa plain w eave,warp yarn spacing is notuniform acrossthe fabric.Pairsofw arp

yarnsare spacedcloseto each other.The space betweenadjacentwarp yarn pairsis

259

greaterthan the space between the two yarns in the pair.Ninon hasm edium body and
hangswell.

17 Calico:It is a closely woven and printc10th ofcotton orcotton blend w ith a sm allbusy
pattern.

18.Cam bric:It is a fine,firm ,starched plain weave balanced fabric w ith a slight Iusteron
one side.ltisdifficultto distinguish from percale.
19.N rcale:Percale isa sm 00th,slightly crisp,printed orplain coloured fabric,ltisa closely
woven,plain weave ofcotton orblended fibres,is m ade from yarns ofmoderate twist,
Percale yard goodsare generally carded,butpercale sheetsare finerand m ore luxurious
in feeland are m ade ofcom bed yarns.In percale bedsheets,counts of 160,180,200,

and 25O yarns(warp plusweft)perinch are available.Percale iscalled calico ifithasa


smalf,quaint,printed design;chintz if it has a printed design;and cretonne if i
t has a
large scale floraldesign.W hen a fabricisgiven a highly glazed caiendarfinisln,itiscalled
polished cotton.W hen chintzisglazed,itiscalled glazed chintz.Glazed chirltzis made in
solid colours as wellas prints.These fabrics are often m ade w i
th blendsofcotton and

polyester or rayon.They are used for shirts, dresses, blouses, pajamas, matching
curtainsand bedspreads,upholstery,slipcovers,draperies,and wallcoverings.
20.M uslin:ltis afirm ,m edium to heavy weight,plain weave cotton fabric m ade in a variety
of qualities.It generally woven from cotton or cotton blends,is m ade in b0th heavily
sized, bleached qualities and in better grades for sheets and pillow cases.Any plain
woven, balanced fabric of carded yarns ranging in weight frow Iawn to heavy bed
sheeting m ay be called m uslin.Itis usually available in countsof112,128 or140.M uslin
isalso a name fora m edium weightfabricthatisunbleached orw hite,
21.Flannel:ltisa lightto heaky weight,plain ortw illweave fabric.Flannelisa suiting fabric

ofwoolen yarnsthatisnapped.Itisused forwomen'ssuits,slacks,skirts,and jackets.


Flannelette isa Iightto m edium weight,plain weave cotton orcotton blend fabric Iightly
napped on one side.It can be found as both balanced and unbalanced fabrics. It is
available in severalw eights ranging from 4.Oto5.
7 oz/yd2.Itisdescribed asf1anneIand
is used forsheets, blankets,and sleepwear.Outing flannelis heavier and stifferthan
flannelette,it m ay be napped on one or b0th sides,It is used forshirts,dresses,Iight-

weightjackets,and jacket linings,Some outing flannels are made with a twillweave.


Both fabricsm ay be solid colour,yarn dyed orprinted.

22.Poplin:Poplin is a bottom-weight rib weave (heavy weight ribbed fabrics) is usually


made from cotton orcotton blends,polyester/cotton blends are widely used.It is a
m edium to heavy weight,unbalanced,plain weave,spun yarn fabricthatisusually piece
dyed.The weftyarns are coarserthan the warp yarns.Poplin is sim ilarto broad c10th,
butthe ribsare heavierand m ore pronounced because ofIargerweftyarns.

260

23.Broad c10th:ltisa m edium w'


eighturlbalanced plain weave w ith fine ribs.The rib weave
makesitcrisperthan m edium weight balanced w eaves.Itisoften m ade from cotton or
cotton blends.

24.Bengaline:Itisa Iustrous,durable,warp faced fabric with haavy weftcords com pletely


covered by the warp. It is heavy weight fabrics w ith Iarge ribs, are used mostly in
upholstery and furnishings.
25.Bed ford cord:It is found m ost often in furnishing fabrics such as bed spreads.It has
spun warp varnsthatare Iargerthan the w eftyarns.ltisa sturdy fabric constructed w ith
a pronounced Iengthwise cord.Bed ford cord is a heavy,warp faced,unbalanced pique
weave fabric with wide warp cords created by extra weftyarnsfloating acrossthe back
to give a raised effect,

26.FaiIle:FaiI;e has a prom Inent rib and is r'


nade w ith fine fiiam (
pnt yarns in the '
vhiurp ancl
heavy spun yarns in the weft.It is usualIy heavy weight.aIthough Iighterwt?ighttissue
faillesare also produced.
27.Dimity:Dim ity isa sheerunbaIanced fabricused forappare!arid w inbow treatm ents.It
has heavy warp cords atintervaIs acrossthe fabric.The cords m a
fL
''e form ed b# yarns
1arger than those used elsewhere in the fabric or b?grouping yarns together in that
area.Eithertecilnique prcduces the unique narrow band or stripe indicative of dim ity.
Dim ity isw hite orprinted.

28.Oxford:It is usually a 2x1 or3x2 basketweave,It is mostcom m on as a 2x1 halfbasket


weave,It m ay have a yarn tiyed warp and white weft and be called oxford cham bray.
Oxford looks like a balanced fabric because the w arp yarns are finer and have higher
twist than the weft.Because of softyarns and loose weave,yarn slippage m ay occur.
Oxford fabricsare m edium weight,soft,porous,and Iustrous.lt isoften m ade ofcotton
or cotton blends,that Is used forshirts.Frequently, it is made w ith narrow coloured
stripesin the warp,ora coloured warp,
29.Duck:ltisa strong,coarser,heavy,plain orbasketweave fabricavailable in a variety of
w eightsand qualities.lt is sim ilarto canvas.Duck is m ade w ith single orpIy yarns.

Differenttypesofduckrelateto which yarns(warp orweft)are pliedand how many

plies are used in the pIy yarn.Duck is used for Slipcovers,boat covers,Shoe fabrics,
house and store awnings,tarpaulinsand coversform ilitary and induqtrialuses.
30.Canvas:Itisa heavy,firm ,strong fabric made ofcotton oracrylic and used forawnings,
slip covers,shoe fabrics,tarpaulins,and boatccvers.Itisproduced in m any gradesand
qualities.ltm ay have a softorfirm hanti.jtjsm ade in plain orbasketweave.Canvasis

smoother,more compact,anc!theheat/iestofthe three (Duck,canvasand Sailcloth).It


istightly woven and verr Stiffplain weave fabrics made ofeven yarn forindustrialuse.
They usually have an zneven weave pattern,Bqcause ofthe tightkveave,these fabrics
are often used foroutdoorpurposes.lt.ismacl:?with Single orply yarns,Differenttypes

ofcanvasrelateto whichyarns(warpand weft)are plieclolldhow manypliesareused


in the pIyyarn.

31.Sailc10th:Itisa bottom weighthalfLazketweave (2x1),unbalancedfabricofspun or


textured filam ent yarns that can be pktjce ulyed or printed.Sailc10th is the Iightest

(amongthesailc10th,duckand canvas)inweightand made ofSingleyarns.Itisusedin


slacks,skirts,sum merweightsuits,and furnishipgs.

Fabricbased on Tw illweave:
Serge:lt i: ; popuic!rbasictwillfabrlcm ade from any num berofdifferentfibres.vhen
serge is cqade from wool,it isoften woven from worsted yarns.Serge willtake a crease
2
weil,butwoolserge tcii
ad.
gto becom e shiny with wear.Ittailorswell,Serge isa 2twill

with a subdued waie with combed orworsted yarns arid a clearorhard finish (not
napped orbrushed).Serge with fine yarns,a highcount,ar
nn awater-repellentfinishis
used forjackets,snowsuits,and raincoats.Heavierser
'ge,withcoarseyarns,isusedfor
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workpants.Sergeoftenweighs389.1(10oz,y ,g ,rl'orm ore
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Fabricconstruction: Yarn ji;ity'
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40/34
q To 62 XS8 - -

2, TwillFlannel: l
2 tkvirl.The weft varns are largerIow-twist woofen orworsted
t is a '
2

yarns, made especially foi


- napping,W orsted flannels have Iess nap,take and hold a
sharp crease better, show Iess wear, and Sag Iess than woolen flannels.Even-sided
flannelisused in appareland upholstery.
Yarn sizevarieswith fibre content
FaLricconstruction: --'----'-56X30
-----'
-T
'-'-'- - --'--'o 86 XS2

3. Shark skin:Itisa V2 twillwitha sleekappearance. It has a small-step pattern because


b0th warp anclweftyarnsalternate one white yarn with one coloured yarns.Sharkskin
isuSed prim ariIy forsIacksand suits.
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Serge

4. Herring bone:This fabrics have the twillline reversed at regular intervals across the
warp to produce a design that resem bles the backbone of a fish, hence the nam e
herring bone.Two different colour yarns m ay be used to accentuate the pattern.
Herring bone patterns can be very'subtle orvery pronotlnced,Herring bone is used in
both appareland furnishings.These are com mon in suiting fabrics,
2

5. Houndzst00th:Itis a 2 tw illfabricw ith a unique sm alleight-point pattern.Two yarns


in contrasting colours in the warp and weft are used in groups of fourto create the
distinctive pattern.Hound'st00th fabricsalso are used in appareland furnishings.

6. Denim :Itisa cottonorcotton/poiyesterblend,durableheavyweighttwill-weave,yarndyed fabric.Usually the warp is coloured and the w eft is white.It is often a Ieft-hand

twillwith ablue(indigo)warp and white weftforUse in apparelin avarietyofweights.


Since it is a warp-faced tw ill,the colotlred warp yarns predom inate on the face and the
white weft yarns on the back.lt is available in severalweights,ranging from 203.46
2

gm/m (6 oz/yd )to474.74gm/m (14 oz/yd )ormoreina ?or :interlacingpattern.


Its Iong term popularity has m ade it a fashion fabric in casualwear.It may be napped,
printed,m ade w ith spandex orotherstretch yarns,orotherwise m odified forfashion.

Fabricconstruction:7'Jg-o 16'sX 8'jtp2)'j


60X36to7jkki
.-

- .

7. Drill:lt iSa strong,m edium -to-heavy weight,warp-faced,tw ilIweave fabric.Itis usua1Iy


2

a 2or--l Ieft handed twilland piece dyed (solid colour).It is usually seen in work
clothing and industrialfabrics.

Gabardine

Dam ask

263

8. Jean:Itisa warp faced twillofcarded yarns.ItisIighterweightthan drill,and ithasfiner


yarns but a higher warp-yarn count.It is usually w ith coioured warp yarns and w hite
weft yarns. Jean is a piece-dyed also or printed m edium -w eight twill used for
sportswear,draperies,slipcovers,and work shirts.Jean is not heavy enough forw ork
pants.

Fabricconstruction71.'9!9?.
4-1-?$ @1..
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Gabardine:ltis a tightly woven,m edium to heavy-weight,warp-faced steep orregularangle,twillweave fabric with a very prom inent,distinctwale thatisclosely settogether
and raised.lt alw ays has m any more warp than weftyarns.ltcan be m ade ofcarded or
com bed single orpIy yarns.The Iong-w earing fabric may be heather,striped,plaid,or
solid colour.The fabric can be wool,a woolblend,orsynthetic fabrics that resem ble

wool.Gabardinecanalso be 100% texturizedpolyesteroracotton/polyesterblend.

Fabricconstruction>@'%!:J$?.-?,5'1-$9-26'
1
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10.Dam ask:W oven fabrics m ade from expensive m ercerized cotton forbed clothing and
table cloths.The figured design often ism ade by interchangingsatin and sateen weaves.
twillweavefabricsin w hich lightanclclark coloursalternate in b0th warp and

Brocade:Heavily figured jacquard fabric,often with lusture yarn effects.Used in formal


w earand furnishings.
Corduroy:p.cut pile cord, usually in cotton.The cords m ay be of various w idths,Used
m aInIy in Iei'
Sure and businesswear.
M ulI:Soft,fine,open,plain w eave cotton fabricw ith a very Iow thread density in b0th warp
and weft.Used forblousesand squares.

FiI-)-fil

Brocttde

C.
-ordtlroy

M tlll

264

Pin stripe:W orsted woven fabric w ith fine Iight-coloured Iines in the warp .direction.
Used forsuitsarld costum es.
Ottom an: W arp-faced rib
furnishings.

to 10 ribs per cm for coats,jackets, and

Panam a:Generalterm fora plain-based w eave w here two orm ore w arp and w eftyarns
interlace as one,gi
ving a chequered appearance.M ade from cotton for shirts,tropical
suitsarlclIeisure w ear,orw oolforsuitsand costum es.
Pocketing: Cotton plain w oven fabric m ade sm 00th and dense by calendaring, for
pocketlinings.
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Poc eting

Seersucker fabric:Cotton fabric w ith crinkled Iength-w ay stripes caused by differential


shrinkage. True seersucker is generated by differential warp tensions but finishing
treatm ents can produce a sim ilareffect.Used forblouses,shirts,dresses.
Am azon:Very fine,satin weave forbusiness suitings w ith fine w orsted warp yarns and
woolen w eft.A lightm illing orraising finish m ay be given.
Terry:A soft,volum inous,Ioop pile fabric.The loops are form ed in a second w arp sheet
by a specialw eaving technique.Used forbath robes,tow els,sports and Ieisure w ear.
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Am azon

Terry

W hipcord

265

W hipcord:Generalterm fordensely woven warp-faced fabricswith a steep twillIine.In


worsted yarnswith a clean finishfortrousers,suitsand coats.
Blazerc10th:
Traditionally an all-woolwoven fabricforapparel,in eithersolid col
oursorstripes,that

may be milled and/orraised.Imitation blazercloths introjucecotton inthe weft.The


term may be used Iooselyforotherfabricsforblazers.
Trouser:

Trouserisa Iong pantorfullpant.

Fabric Construction orSpecification:


Thespecification ofsome exportoriented com mercialfabricsthose are produced in Bangladesh
asfollows:
Name of

Construction or

W eight Name of

thefabric Specification

Gabardine 207/22x)4
0 x56'
1
(10

Twill
210GSM fabric
Tw ill

i.
JzGsv fabric

124

x 70
x 56.
1 z4s Gsu
Gabardine 20 + 20 x 16 + 16

G
1O8 x 58
abardine 4042 x 40/2 X 56''

1G

80 X 48

(10+10)X 10 x 56.'
116 x 4O

,,

abardine 2c+ 2c x 7 X cactl

Gabardine

W eight

thefabric ISpecification

Gabardine 110 X 51 x 56,,


20 x 16

Gabardine

Construction or

Twill
fabric

2:o Gsu Slub Twill

20 X 7 X 57-58,,
128 X 42
7x7
,,

jaacGsv

30 x 30
x 57-58'
'
130 x 70

160GSM

16 (sjub)x9

26SGSM

95 x 48

x 57-58.
,

20 X 20
x 5.
2-s8'
'
boneTw illI108 x 58

112 x 54
x s6'
'
16 + 16 x 12 + 12
27OGSM

!
l

M icro
Tw ill

15OD x 15OD
145 x 80 X 57-58.'

T.C. Twill

45/2 x45/2 X57-581'


jzg x 70

cottony/d 80/2 xlooyy-x s8,,/s9,


.

.-

?-.Twill
1

72x40x57-58

30OGSM Herring
28sGsM

298GSM

142 x 84

1,s Gsv

'

266
'

Nameof Constructionor
fabric

Icanvas
Canvas

W eight Nameof

Specification

fabric

10 x10 x57-s8''

26OGSM sheeting

72 x 42

20 x 16

1O0 x 50 x57-58''

11,c Gsv
Calico

Canvas

Panama 16+11
6x12+12 x57/58l
j
08 x 60
Slub
canvas

Light

canvas

Ribstop

16(sIub) x 9 x s7
80 x 48

58''

poplin

20 x 20 x57-58,,

1O8 x 58

Nylon

19OT
xo'
'
7D(24F)y7gD(24r)

95 x 80

yester 7OD x 75D x 60'


,

Fabric

3
X6a
30X 57-581,
60
ax

105GSM

16 X 16

1ac
or
6. Gsu

j60x 60 X57-58,1
i
l
14 X14 x 57-58''
I64
1 x 58
I 30 X 30

x s7-sa''

l 40 x 40

195GSM

Poplin

133 x72 y s7-s8''

Poplin

40/2x 30
.
/4 x72 y s8/5at'

Heavy
193Gsv poplin

40/2X 40/2

,/59,'
l 112 x 50 i 58,

.T/c(65/35) 1
blended j4sx45 ys8''/s9''
poplin
j
laa x72
r
CVC(6O/4O)
bjended

45x45

136 x .
/6 x s8''/59''

poplin
Prem ium
poplin

60 X 50
X 58''
/59''
110 X 76

95 x80
P
olyester 450D x 450D X58'.
Concord

Premium
P0PIin

80/,x 80
128 x X 58''
/59',

Mi
xed

Premium

1oo/2x1o0/2 ,, ,,
144X91 x s8 /s9

Oxford

Oxford
M icro
Shirting

21OT

7OD x 7OD X58''

45s;y16Cotton ys7/s8''
104 X 60

Oxf
(Y ord

7559 )(ICCD
112 )(70 X 57-58''
72 x 62

Cotton

156 X 61

Oxford

r x 80/2

Oxford

40/2 x 40/2 X58/59'

arnDyed) 30 x20 X58/591'

poplin
Bedford
c
ord

Bedford
Cord

X 58/59''

Oxford

1M X 76

('farnDyed) 82/2 x 122/2 X 58/59''

98

07 XO7
x s7- sa''
72 X42
128x 72

40 x 40 X58''
/59'1

40 X 40

Flannel
x 42-4a,,
(yarnDyed) 20 X 10

60 x 68

42 x 44

Flannel
(Printed)
Twill

W eight

iSpecification

1o4 x 81

30 x 30

20 X 16 x 57
96 x 50
58'

Pol

z6c Gsv

1o8 x 80 x 58/59,,

Ribstop

Fabric

calico

jConstructionor

24 x 13 X 42-43'
.

64 X 54
flannelty/d) 21 X21 X 44-45.'

15oz

6.80OZ

267
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268

BRA ID FA BRICS

M ain featuresofBraid Fabrics:


Braiding isa sim ple form ofnarrow fabric construction.Strands are plaited together by crisscrossingthem diagonallyand lengthwise.A familiarillustration ofthe method isthatofbraiding
long hair,Braid forfabric use is form ed on a braiding machine by interlacing three or m ore
strandsofyarn so thateach strand passesoverand underoneormore ofthe others.They have
good elongation characteristicsand arevery pliable,curving around edgesnicely.

The main characteristicsofbraid include the followings:


@ Yarnsare interlaced b0th diagonallyand Iengthwise.
Braid isstretchy and easily shaped.
* Flatorthree-dim ensionalbraid isusedfortrim and industrialproducts.

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TypesofBraid:
Braidsare divided into two types:

1) Flatbraids,intheform ofstripsornarrow flattapes;and


2) Round braids,tubularin form,which may be hollow orhave a centercore ofsome
m aterial.

Both types of braijing are produced from any of the textile fibres,as wellas from metal
threads,tinsel,straw,wire,orleather.

269
Thefollowing figuresshow the exam plesofsom efancy braids:

a) Patternedroundbraid
b) Patternedsoutachebraid
c) Cordededgebraid
d) Patternedflatbraid
e) Patternedflatbraid
f) Ricracbraid
g) Frillbraid

M anufacturing Principle:
The traditionalcircularbraiding m achine contains a series of bobbins of yarn mounted on a
moving track atthe bottom ofthe machine.The braid is produced asthe bobbins move in and
out around the base of the m achine, much as Maypole jancers do.Interweaving yarns by
braiding producesa flexible fabric;the fabric can be stretched in one direction,butitcontracts
in the other.

Braiding m achine

270

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SERPENTINETRACIS(D)F0R

GEARTRAIN8ELOW CARRIERS

CARRIERSWITHS@OOLS

F0R PEOPULS1ON

Schematicifthe basic principleofthe m aypole (round)braider


End Uses:
This principle offabric construction is used formaking shaped articles,such as straw hatsand
sm all rugs; narrow fabrics, such as ribbons and braids for m illinery and accessory dress
materials;cordsand tapes,such asfish Iines,shoe Iaces,wicks,parachute and glidercords,and
elasticofvarioustypes;and cord coveringsfortires,tubing,hose,wires,and cables.
Circularbraidsappearin such everyday item sasshoe Iacesanj insulation forelectric wires,but
braiding techniques are also used to produce rocket nozzles,parachute cords,and structural
com ponentsforotherindustrialproducts.
Flatbraidsare used forsuch products as decorative trim sand industrialbelting,where a high
degree offlexibili
ty isrequired.

271

M ULTICO M PONENT FABRICS

A m ulticom ponentfabric is one in w hich at leasttwo Iayers of m aterialor fabric have been
combined to produce a new product with properties significantly differentfrom those of its

componentparts.Thecomponentsmay be intimatelyjoinedto produce amaterialfrom which


itisdifficultto separatethem,oritmaybea Iooselyjoined materialin whichthecomponents
retain theiroriginalforms.The majormul
ticomponentfabricsare bonded fabrics,laminated
fabrics,foam-backed fabrics,and quilted fabrics.

A.Bonded Fabrics
A bonded fabric isa Iayered structure in which a face,orshelt,fabric isjoined to a
backing fabric with an adhesive thatdoes notsignificantly add to the thickness ofthe
com bined fabrics. Such structures are used for design interest as well as fabric
stabilization. Som e of the artificial Ieather products could be classified as bonded
fabrics.

The bonding m ay be done with an aqueous acrylic adhesive,a Iatex adhesive such asan
acrylate, a vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate, or a therm osetting resin.The end uSe
performance of the bonded product depends on the strength of the bond formed
between the two fabriclayers.A fabric resem bling woven double c10th can be produced

by joining two face fabrics to provide a reversible fabric.ln some instances,a lining
fabricisbonded to aface fabric to sim plify garm entconstruction.Scrim fabricssuch as
tricot knits and gauze are also bonded to face fabrics to provide stability to the face
fabric.This process has been used on Ioosely woven mohair fabrics and on fabrics
constructedfrom bulky noveltyyarns,to preventyarn slippage and fabricdistortion.

Fabricto fabricbonding:

W hen two Iayersoffabric are joined,the purpose isto provide greaterstability and
bodyto theface fabric orto create a sel
f-lined fabric.The underlayerin bonded fabrics

isoften knitted tricotorjersey,used becausethey have good flexibility,are relatively


inexpensive,and slide readily,making them easy to don overothergarm ents,Forthe
m ostpart,fabrics used in bondicg are less expensive and lower-quality fabricsthatcan
be upgraded bythisprocess,

Tw o methods can be used for attaching fabric to fabric.The wet-adhesive method


places an adhesive materialon the backofthe face fabric,and togetherthe fabricsare
passed between heated rollersthatactivate and setthe adhesive.

272

The secenC#rflethf
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foam is rnelted sliflh-2't!,/ by passing it c?v(r'5r a f1
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B. Lam inated Fabrics


Lam icateclf,
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ne 1
. ayer
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e r;rc)C1
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.

of fabric bor)ded to a foam layer (a foa7,)-8Jatked fabric), oi' it m ay be a sandw ich


lam inate,in which the foam layer is bont
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.
t
'
.
j betweer)two fabric layers. The prim ary
purpose ofthe foam Iayeristo provide inst?tctiot
aforw k?rm th, and the end usesforsuch
products include colcl..
z'
v't
:
-atherappareIanci'7zL1I?)ted wirldow coverings.The com pleted
?
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lit8!poordrapi(3g qut
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.

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?,Adhesive sim iIarto those used in fabricto-fabric bor
ndirlg are aIso used. Again tile end-use performance of the Iam inate
depei
ndson the strength ofthe fabric-to-foam bond.
.

A majorconsumercornplaintaboutbonder
.
jand Iam inatedfabricshasbeenthatthey
delam inate during w ashing and dry cleaning. Som e ofthe adhesives used are sensitive
to water,and others are affected by dry-cleaning solvents;som e therm osetting resins

273

are affected by high tem peratures.Read and follow care labelinstructions to prevent
delam ination.
fK efabric

+
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Fabric-to-foam -to-fabric bonding process

C.Quilted Fabrics
Quiltedfabricsarelayeredmaterialsconsistingoftwocloth thatencaseafillingandare
stitched togetherto form a puffy unit.

Com position ofQuilted Fabrics:


The outer Iayers of quilted fabrics used for apparelare generally of cotton,polyester,
nylon,or blends of such fibres.For insulative purposes and to prevent any filling from
w orking through the outerm aterial,the c10th should be closelywoven.

274
The filling m ay be goose down;a down and feathers m ixture;kapok;pol
yesterstaple or
continuous filam ent; resin-bonded polyester; acrylic staple fibre; or pokyester or
polypropylene m icrofiber.Quilted fabric should be com prised of about 90 percent air
and 10 percent fibre.In term s of w eight or m ass in relation to w arm th, dow n is m ore
effective than acrylicand polyesterfibres. W hen hollow m anm ade fibresare used, there
is a slightly greater insulation than offered by the solid fibres of the sam e type. The
m icrofibers,which m ay be as m uch asten tim esfinerthan the staple fibres w ith about
twenty tim es m ore surface area per unit of weight, have a m uch greaterability to trap
air and have been show n to provide stillgreater insulation. Forexam ple,Thinsulate,a
batting of either polyester fibre and polypropylene m icrofiber or of aIIpolypropylene
m icrofiber, is claim ed by its m anufacturer, the BM Com pany,to provide 1.8 tim es as
m uch insulation as a com parable thicknessofdow n.

CharacteristicsofQuilted Fabrics:
All other factors being equal, a fabric with few er quilt lines will provide greater

insulation because there isIittle insulation attheIines. Furthermore,the insulation itself


tends to m ove away from the quiltIinesthusreducing the areasofinsulation.
Itis im portantto note thatw hen a quilted fabric getsw etand m oisture penetrates into
the fillint,its insulative property is m arkedly reduced - as is true for fabrics generally.
However,it has been dem onstrated thata filling of polyesterand polypropylene fibres
particularly m icrofibers, recovers m ore fully from com pression w hen wet than other
,
fillings and therefore provides greater volum e faster w ith th
W
e consequent insulation.
ater-repellent finishes on the outerc10th does heip m aintain dryness,but heavy rain
orothersources ofw atersaturation w illeventually penetrate fab
h
ric pores and stitching
oles.W aterproofing w illovercom e thisproblem , butthat prevents the naturalvapour
flow ofhum idity and body perspiration to escape and w illultim ately cause discom fort
.
Good quilted fabrics for outdoor use should be w ind-resistant for greater
Wi
protection.
nd resistanc: is achieved by weaving fine yarns very com pactiy so as to reduce to a
m inim um the size of the interstices, or pores, of the fabrics
f
. Such f
abrics are very
requentl
y made ofpolyester/cotton blendedyarns, butm ore effective are those m ade
of a1l-cotton. W hen given a w ater-repellent finish all-cotton fabric can be even m ore
,
effective againstrain and snow than a polyester/ cotton fabric. Also effective is an aII
nylon polyester fabric with cir finish which flattens th
i
e yarns and cioses up the
nterstices. W eather conditions and personal considerations shouid affect the
consum er'schoice.

DifferenttypesofQuilted Fabrics:
TraditionalQuilting:

'
I'
w o ormorefabric Iayersmay bejoined by stitchingto produce aquilted fabric.The
t
erm stitching should be broadly defined to include the.

interm ittentjoining offabricsby

275

hand orm achine sew ing,chem icalpoint bonding,and ultrasonic pointbondinj.Fabri


cs
quilted w ith both sim ple and m ore com plex patterns are available.

M achine-stitched quilting

The traditionalquilts stitched by hand had three layers:a face fabric, a fibre batt or
feather filling for warm th,and a backing fabric.Hand-sew n quilts are stillproduced as
craft item s, and m achine-sew n products are also available. Such products are used
prim arify for bed coverings, but quilted apparel, upholstery fabric,and item s such as
pot-holdersare available aswell.
Trapunto:

Trapunto is a type of quilting in w hich a design orpattern is outlined w ith stitches and

then stuffed with fibres (orfiberfiII)to form a high relief effect.Such designs are
periodically fashionable in appareland upholstery.

OutlineQuilting:
Outline quilting is a technique that stitches an outline around a printed design m otifto
form a quilted fabric. Custom bedspreads and com forters of chintz or other printed
fabrics often are m ade in this m anner.Outline quilting isalso called custom quilting.

ChemicalQuilting:

Quilted productscan also be produced byjoiningfabric layersw ith an adhesive ora


therm oplastic bonding agent.This process,called chem icalquiliing,ismore popularfor
joiningtwo fabricsthan forjoiningthree layers.Thetradenam echem stitchisused
processthat produces a fabric by joiningtwo fabri
cswith differenttherm alstabilities.
.

276

The tw o layers are spot welded to produce a design, then subjected to heat,which
shrinks one Iayer m ore than the other and produces a fabric w ith a rippled or crinkled
surface.

Chem stitching quilting

Ultrasonic bonded quilting

UltrasonicBonded Quilting:

Ultrasonic energy can be used to join thermoplastic materials and produce a product
sim ilarin appearance to m achine-stitched quilting.The trade nam e Pinsonic is used for
one such process. Ultrasonic energy is m echanical vibratory energy produced at
frequencies beyond the Ievelof audible cound, usually 20 to 40 kHz.The vibration
produces enough interm olecular m echallical stress to cause polym er m elting and
provide a tacky surface that can adhere to anothersurface.The two layers are pressed
togetherin a pattern thatcan be m ade to resem ble realstitches.Ultrasonic bonding can
be accom plished at high speedsand'is Iessdam aging to fibresthan therm albonding.
M attress pads and bedspreads are frequently produced by ultrasonic quilting. Other
applications inctude upholstery fabrics, quilted apparelfabrics, and nonwoven fabric
websforsom e industrialm arkets.

277

LENO O R GAUZE FABRICS

Features ofthe Leno orGauze Fabric:


Leno orgauze is a w eave in w hich the w arp yarns do not Iie paralpelto each other,W arp
yarns work in groups,usually pairs of tw o; one yarn of each pair is crossed over the
other before the filling yarn is inserted.W hen Iooking ata Ieno fabric, one m ightthink
that the yarns w ere tw i
.
sted fully around each other, but this is not true. Careful
exam ination shows thatthey are crossed and that one yarn ofthe pairis always above
the other.
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The gauze w eave m ust not be confused w ith the weave used in m anufacturing gauze
bandages or cheese cloth; these m aterials are m ade w ith the plain w eave. The true
gauze w eave construction produces a fabric very Iightin w eightand w ith an open-m esh
effect.Curtain m aterialsand som e shirtihg and dress goodsare w oven w ith thisw eave.
Such Iight-w eightfabricshave a strength thatcould not be provided by the plain w eave.
In the gauze w eave, strength is gained by the m anner in w hich the yarns are intertwisted:each w eft yarn is encircled by tw o w arp yarns tw isted about each other. The
gauze w eave is som etim es referred to as the Ierlo w eave because it is m ade on a leno
loom ,butthe true leno weave isa variation ofthe gauze w eave.
On the leno loom , th action ofone w arp yarn is sim ilarto the action ofthe warp in th

plain weave.The doup attachm ent, a hairpin-like device atthe heddle alternately pulls
,
the second w arp yarn up ordow n to the right orieftw ith each pick passage.Thiscauses
the pairofw arpsto be tw isted, in effect,around each w eftyarn
.

278

Gaugeweave (Ieft)and Leno weave (right)


The deno is som etim es used in com bination w ith the plain w eave to produce a stripe or
figure on a plain back ground.Generally, the term 'leno' is used synonym ously w ith
'gauze'.Fabrics m ade w ith the gauze weave are m anifestly sheer. Yet,theirweightsvary
depending upon the thickness of the yarns, w hich could be of spun, filam ent, or
com binations ofthese yarns.

W eaving Principle:

Lenoismadewithadoupattachment,(ItisthedeviceusedonIoomstocreatethedeno
weave,in w hich w arp yarns cross over each other to create an open, stable w oven

structure.)which may be used with a plain ora dobby Ioom.The attachmentconsistsof


a thin needle supported by two heddles.One yarn ofeach pairis threaded through an
eye at the upper end of the needle: and the other yarn is draw n between the two
heddles.Both yarns are threaded through the sam e dent in the reed.During w eaving,
w hen one ofthe tw o heddles is raised,the yarn that is threaded through the needle is
draw n acrossto the Ieft.W hen the otherheddle is raised,the sam e yarn is drawn across
to the right.

End Uses:

Fabricsmade by Ieno weave inciude m arquisette (Itisa sheer,lightweight,Ieno weave

fabric,usually madeoffilamentyarns),mosquito netting,agritextilesto shade delicate


plants,and som e bagsforlaundry,fruit,and vegetables.
Polyester m arquisettes are w idely used forsheercurtains. Casem entdraperies

(Casement(:10thisageneralterm foranyopen-weavefabricusedfordraperyorcurtain
fabrics.ltisusually sheer.)are frequently m ade with leno-weave and novelty yarns.
Therm alblanketsare som etim es m ade ofleno weave. AIIthese fabrics are characterized
by sheerness oropen spaces betw een the yarns.The crossed-yarn arrangem entgives

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279

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Fabricofacetate random slub yarns

LAPPET A ND SW IVEL FABRICS


Features ofLappetW eave:
Lappet weaving is a kind of em broidery, in w hich various effects and patterns are
produced along w ith the ground fabric.The figures are produced by giving horizontal
m otion to a thick end,sim ultaneously upon a fine m uslin orgauze ground.Only sm all
solid loose spot figures can be w oven and the floats cannot be bound in the m iddle.
How ever,extensive figure effects m ay be produced by skilfuldesigning and by the use
ofseveralIappetfram es.

Lappet(rightside)
The Iappetweave isused to superim pose a sm alldesign on the surface ofa fabricw hile
it is being woven.In the Ippet weave,the design isstitched into the fabric by needles
thatoperate at rightanglesto the construction.Thus,the Iappetweave isvery sim ilarto
em broidery.This w eave is em ployed on a variety offabrics w here novelty patterns are
desired.

LappetW eaving Principle:


Lappetpatternscontain extra warp yarnsw oven into a base fabric by m eansofa fram e,

orrack,fastenedtothe Ioom nearthe reed (setinfrontofthe reed).Longneedlesare


carried in the fram e, and the yarns to be used in m aking the design are threaded
through the needles.W hen the rack is lowered,the needles are pressed to the bottom
ofthe shed and held in position w hile a pick is laid.The rack isthen raised,and the pick
is beaten into the c10th.Next the rack is shifted sidew ays to a new Iocation,and the
sam e action is repeated.

281

Each tim e the fram e orrack m oves sidew ays,it carriesthe yarn in the needle across the
surface ofthe fabric and creates a row ofthe pattern.lflong floats are form ed on the
back ofthe fabric,they m ay be trim m ed;if they are short,they are usually left alone.
This presents both an advantage and a disadvantage.Ifthe floats rem ain,the pattern is
durable,but the floats can easily be snagged,causing dam age to the fabric.Ifthe floats
are cut,the design area is w eakened and m ay be gradually rem oved during use and
care. The lappet w eave is considered strong and durable, but it is com paratively
expensive.Currently,no Iappetfabrics are produced in the United states,butsom e are
stillproduced in Europe.

Features ofSw ivelW eave:


The sw ivelw eave is the m ethod by w hich decorative effects,such as dots,circles,or
otherfigures,are interw oven on the surface ofa fabric w hile it is being constrtlcted on
the Ioom .The w eaving of the design requires an extra filling yarn and additionalsm all
shuttlesorinsertion devices.A separate shed is m ade forthem .W hile the fabric is being
constructed,the row of sm allshuttles drops across the w idth of the loom ,and each
interw eaves its separate design w ith a circularm otion on a smallarea ofthe w arp.
The'sw ivelprocess perm its the weaving pf different colours in the sam e row because
each figure has its ow n shuttle;how ever,each colum n consists ofrepeats ofthe same
colour.ln fabrics with sm alldesigns,the sw ivelcan produce prom inent,raised figures
with very Iittle additionalyarn.The pattern yarn is fastened securely as each figure is
com pleted,and itcannotpulloutw ithoutseverely dam aging the fabric.

Sw ivelw eaves can be distinguished by the appearance of an identicalpattern on both


the face and the back ofthe fabric.The decoration produced by the swivelw eave is not
considered durable,because the sw ivelyarns are cutw hen the fabric is com pleted and
cannot be securely fastened.The cutends roughen the undersurface ofthe fabric and
m ay pulloutifit is handled roughly,asm ay happen in laundering.

Swivel(wrongside)

Swivel(wrong side)

Swivel(face side)

282
The sw ivelw eaves is em ployed w ith sheer light-w eights
, such asdot
ted swiss (generally
a voile orlaw n construction w oven w ith eitherclip spots orsw iveldots. The clip spot is
the m ore popular version. The fabric is given a crisp, clear finish, w hich m ay be
perm anentorsem iperm anent.Often yarn dyed dots are w oven on a white ground, or a
dark ground hasw hite dots. M any im itations on the m arkete.g.pi
gmentandflockdots.)
and grenadine (Fine,looselywoven Ieno fabricsim ilarto marquisette. M ay be m ade on
Jacquard loom . Used for curtains, blouses, dresses.) and medi
um -weights, such as

madras (Cotton fabricofplain weave ofcoarse yarns.Usually comesin stripes, checks,


orplaids.Coloursm ay bleed.Used forshirtings ).
a

Sw ivelW eaving Principle:


Sw iveldesigns are produced by winding extra w eft yarns on sm all quills in special
shuttles.These shuttles are strategically located at the points w here the design is to
occur.The pattern m echanism produces a shed, and the shuttle carriesthe yarn through
the shed the distance of the pattern; in som e cases, only a few w arp yarns are
interwoven to form the design.The process is repeated for each row of the design
pattern.Betw een repeats ofthe pattern,the extra w eft yarn floats on the back of the
fabric;itistrim m ed afterw eaving iscom pleted.

Differencesbetw een Lappetand Sw ivelDesign:


The essentialdifference betw een a lappet design and a sw ivelis that in the sw ivelthe
design isdone w ith extra weftyarns, w hich are cut-offshort at the end ofeach design.
The Iappet pattern appears only on the rightside ofthe fabric, since the floats form ing
the pattern are fastened to the ground fabric only attheir extrem ities. Lappet designs
are m ade ofone continuous yarn and are notclipped.
Lappet,swiveland clipped spotare allwoven fabrics;none is em broidered, although the
effectisthatofm achine em broidery.

283

DENIM FABRICS

M ain FeaturesofDenim Fabrics:


Typicaldenim fabricsare woven from coarse,indigo-dyed cotton yarn.Theyare hard-wearing,
high densi
tyfabricswith a high massperunitarea.Today,more denim isproduced in the world
than any othertype ofcfoth.Denim fabricsare made fora variety ofapplicationsand in a wide
range of qualities and shades.Even today,classic denim is stilldyed with indigo.lt isa special
processin which onlythe surface ofthe warp yarn isdyed;the core stayswhite.Thisiswhy the
garm entsubsequently developsthe typical- and desired - signsofwear.

Itisa cottonorcotton /polyesterblend,durable heavyweighttwillweave,yarn-dyed fabric.


Usually the warp s coloured and the weft is w hite.ft is often a (eft-hand twillwith a bfue

(indigo)warpand whi
te weftforuse in apparelin avarietyofweights.Since itisawarp-faced
twill,the coloured warp yarnspredom inate onthe face and the white weftyarnson the back.It

isavailable in severalweights, rangingfrom 203.46gm/m2(6 oz/ydz)to 474.74 gm/m'(14


oz/yd2)ormoreina21or,31interlacingpattern.ltsIongterm popularityhasmadeitafashion
fabric in casualwear.Itm ay be napped,printed,made with spandexorotherstretch yarns,or
otherwise m odified forfashion.

s X 8'sto 16'sx 23's) x Fabricwidth.


Fabricconstruction: (7'

(60X 36to72x44)
Raw m aterialsbfDenim Fabric:
To produce good quality denim ,the conditions have to be optim alregarding the quality ofall

the raw materialsandyarn used.Forraw cotton and the carded OE (rotor)orring spunyarns
m adefrom it,the quali
tycriteria are asfollows:
* M inim um staple Iength:2.7 cm

* Proportionofshortfibres(Iessthan 12mm Iong):under40%


* M icronaire value:4.0 to 4.5
* The Ustervaluesforstrength and elongation,the evenness CV and im perfections must
conform atleastto the25% plot
The usualcountrange ofdenim warp yarnsis50to 90 texand ofweftyarnsis75to 120
tex;fineryarnsasfine as25 tex intwillorplain weaveareoften used in denim shirts
* Twistfactor:4.5to S.0forwarp yarns,4.2forweftyarns
Low yarn hairiness
* Yarn strengthand uniformity.

QIS
;y.
y
.

284
Inthe early 1990s, mostofthe yarns used in denim production were OEyarns.Reently,there is
a strong trend towardsusing m ore carded ring spun yarnsin both warp and weft.Theygivethe
fabric a softerhandle,fulfilling the requirem ents forf'soft denim s''.The following table shows

theacceptablevaluesforringspunand OEcotton yarnswi


thafinenessof84tex(7 Ne)for
successfuldenim production.
Properties

Strength(cN/tex)
Elongation(%)
Uniformity(CV%)
Thinplaces(per1000m)
Slubs(per1000m)
Neps(per1000m)

Ring-spun yarn

OE Rotoryarn

17
8.5
12
1
50
50

13
8.5
12.5
1
20
3

'

TypesofDenim :
Demand forfashion variants ofclassic denim willcontinue to grow.The mostpopularvariants
are:

* Stone-washed and double stone-washed denims


Cham brays
* Fancy m ulticolourdenims
* Denim with metal-effectyarns
Elasticdenims
* Printed denims
Jacquard-patterned denim s
Denimswith fancyyarns

Lightweightcham braysare used forshirtand blouses.Heavy,classicdenim sare made up into


trousers or coats.Besides classic indigo blue,the fabric is dyed in otherfashion shades and
colours,the m ost popularbeing black denim .The fabrics are graded in clearly defined classes

by weight,e.g,Iightdenim 10 to 12oz/sq.yd.orbelow it,heavy denim 14 to 16 oz/sq.yd.At


present time,the following denim fabrics with their specific com mercialname are widely
produced in the denim industry ofBangladesh.
Basicorregulardenim 3
-

b.

Ringdenim

l,there are 7,9,12 countofyarn used

C.

Slubdenim

d.

Crosshatch denim

e.

Stretchdenim

weftyarn(elastomer)

Poly denim

polyesterused in weft.

onlywarpslub(onewayslub)andweftslub(crossslub)

.,.
.

j
17$
)

285

Vvarp Preparation:
ln denim production,warp preparation,dyeing and sizing are cruciaily important.Dyeing with
indigo requires detailed knowledge of the physicai and chem ical processes involved.The
variousdyeing and sizing m ethods,and the corresponding recipesand concentrations,reaction
and oxidation times notonly influence the weaving process;they are also largely responsible
forthe appearance and qualityofthe denim .
Besidesthe classic indigo rope dyeing process,indigo sheetdyeing isalso used.One variantof
sheetdyeing isIoopdyeing.Dyeing and sizing are eitherdone separately,asin rope and double
sheetdyeing,orthe two processes are com bined in a single operation,asin sheetdyeing and
loop dyeing.
lndigo Rope Dyeing:

In warp preparation for rope dyeing,350 - 400 warp yarns are assem bled on the ball
warperto form a rope 10,000 to 15,000 m eters Iong.Between 12 and 36 ropes are
drawn through the dyeing range side by side.After dyeing they are dried on a drum
drier and deposited in cans.The ends are spread out on a rebeamer or Iong chain

beamer(lcb),andtheyarnsheetiswoundontowarpbeams.Thesebeamsthencometo
the sizing m achine,where they are sized,dried and assem bled in accordance w i
th the
totalnum berofendsrequired to m ake upthe weaving warp beam .Thisprocessensures
optim aldyeing ofthe indigo, but with the disadvantages that broken ends are more
frequentand yarn tensions are not always com pensated.M odern indigo dyeing ranges
norm ally operate with six dye vats.Using state-of-the-art methods,the same dyeing

quality can be achieved wi


th just three vats,with a substantialreduction in the
consum ption ofchemicals.The production rate ofthissystem is normally 2 to 3 times
higherthan the sheetdyeing system .
lndigo sheetdyeing and double sbeetdyeing:

In indigo sheetdyeing,warp beam sare broughtto the dyeing and sizing range instead
of ropes.Dyeing, drying,sizing and aer repeated drying, assem bly of the warp is
carried outin a single operation.In the case'ofdouble sheetdyeing,dyeing and sizing
are done in two separate steps.Asfaras indigo dyeing isconcerned neitherprocess is
always ideal,but both have the advantage thatthe numberofbroken ends is Iow and
yarn tension can be extrem ely wellcontrolled.
lndigo Ioop dyeing:
In the Ioop dyeing process,the yarn is dyed in a single bath instead of several.The
desired depth ofcolourisattained by passing the yarn through the vat severaltimes.
Subsequently, as part of the sam e process, the yarn is sized.The advantages and
disadvantagesofloop dyeing are the sam e aswith sheetdyeing.

Sizing recipes:

286

The sizing process plays a key role in further processing of the warps. The choice of
sizing agents used to achieve the sizing effect is crucially im portant here. A relatively
softhandle can be achieved using a combination ofmodified starch with a polyacrylate.
W arps sized in thisway have good running properties, helpingto ensure high efficiency
and an excellentfinalappearance. A practicalexample isgiven below :
Style data:

Warp:OEyarn,84tex(7Ne),24ends/cm
W eft:OEyarn,100tex(6 Ne),16picks/cm
Totalnum berofwarp ends:3942
Size recipe for100 IitersofIiquor:
8.0 kg modified starch
4.0 kgacrylatesize
O.2 kg textile wax
Size concentration:8.0 %
Size temperature:85OC
Squeezing pressure:approx.15 IIN
Size pickup:9 - 10 %

Advantagesofthe denim size recipe:


Sizing room :
Easyseparation ofends
No hard size
Only slightbleeding
No colourm asking
M inim aldustand fibre fly.
W eaving room :
Hi
gh,constantweaving efficiency
Easy warp take-up
M inimaldustand fibrefly.

W eaving:
Forfinished widths of150cm to 156cm,reed w idths of160cm to 167cm are required. Denim s
thatare stretchable in the weftdo notfollow this rule. W hen weavi
ng with projectile weaving

machines,thesefabricsarehenerallywovenintwo panelswithweavingwidthsof360or390
cm.inthisway a high weftinsertion rate of1400 m/min isachieved ata machine speed of
approximately 400 picks/mjn. For the production of heavy denims, leno selvedges are
advisable.Lighterdenims,weighinglessthan13oz/sq.yd,canbewovenwithtuckedselvedges
.

Thefabricscan be inspectedw ith an electronically controlled c10th inspection machine.

287

ThecurrentdemandonsoftdenimsintheUnitedStatesistouseIyocellyarns(e.g.Tencel)in
the weft.Forstructured denims,structured yarnsare used forthe weft.Slub and knob effects
are especially popular.

Diversifitation ofDenim :
Thisfabric became popularat first am ong people ofwestern countries and then gradually all
overthe world.But,consumers'need fornew productsis unlim i
ted.So,to meetthisessential
demand,the fabric designers and m anufacturers were obliged to produce differenttypes of
denim at present, hundreds of derivatives of denim are available.Also new types of denim
products are being developed.The diversification ofdenim has gone so farthatsom e denims
are noteven twillbased.They are being produced on plain-based weave design.
Denim is com paratively heavy fabric com posed ofhigherlineardensity yarn both in warp and
weft.Thisfabric is notvery softin handle.Di
fferentfancy yarn- slub yarn,thick-thin yarnsare

used inthe diversification ofdenim.Wcra (elastomericfibre)yarn isalso introduced inthe


diversified denim .Diversification is also done by the change of EPI, PPland count.Yarn of
different count m ay be used in consecutive insertion for diversification.For increasing the
agreed Ievelofdenim throughoutthe world,diversi
fication isthe mostim portantfactor.Denim
isvery popularam ong theteenagersaswellasolderpeople.

Denim's popularity wasalso on the rise.ltwas strongerand more expensive than jean,and
thoughthe two fabricswere very similarin some ways,they did have one majordifferences:
denim wasmadeofonecolouredthreadand onewhitethread;jeanwaswoven oftwothreads
ofthe sam e colour.

Denim is no Iongera cotton product.Denim scome with eitherpolyamide,Iycra,polypropylene


orw ith polyesterand especialbonding with a 100% nylon netfora more active look.Two way
stretch fabricsand specialcoatingsorrubberized effectscontinueto be astrong trend.

End UsesorProspects:
In m odern world,the apparels made from denim have becom e very popularam ong wearing.
Now days,baby wear,menps trouser,shirt's,ladies wearare also m ade from denim fabric,and
day by day,its acceptability isincreasing am ong consumers.Denim goods are now being used
am ong almostaIItype ofpeopie.Denim wearcrossesthe Iine offashion boundary.In the past,
itwas used by workersasa safety wear.Now i
t isused for making decorative cap and ladies
hand bag,schooland college bag,and travelbag.So,range ofdenim apparelsare widening day

by day.So Denim is used forjacket,pant,shirt,denim wine bags,denim pencilcase,denim


apron,denim pillows,denim quiltetc.

W OVEN PILE FABRICS

Pile fabricshave been defined as ''fabricswith cutoruncutIoopsw hich stand up densely onthe
surface''. Pile fabrics may be created by weaving or through otherconstruction techniques,
such as tufting,knitting,orstitch through.To create the Ioops that appearon the surface of
woven pile fabrics,the weaving process incorporates an extra set ofyarns thatform the pile.
Construction ofwoven pile fabrics,therefore,representsa com plex form ofweaving in which
there are at Ieast three sets of yarns. Exam ple of pile fabrics produced by the pile m ethod
include corduroy,fleece,frieze,fake fur,plush,poodle c10th,terry c10th, velvet,velveteen and
velour.
W oven pile fabrics have an extrasetofwarp orweftyarnsinterlaced w ith the ground warp and
weftin such a m annerthatloops orcutendsextend from the base fabric.The base fabricm ay
be constructed ofeithera plainoratwillweave.

The pile weave is afancy weave thatalso includesa plain ora twillconstruction.In contrastto

thethreebasicweaves(plain,twill,satin)thatproduceaflatsurfaceonafabric,thepileweave
introduces a decorative third dimension, creating an effect of depth. Its construction is
especially desirable when softness,warmth,and absorbency are desired.Pile weave fabricsare
also durable ifthe properyarnsand adequate com pactconstruction are used.
Pile fabrics can be divided into fabrics with Ioop pile and cut pile.W oven carpets,velvet and
terryfabricsare the best-known pile fabrics.

TypesofW oven Pile Fabric:


W oven pile fabricsare divided into two categoriesdepending on whetherthe extra setofyarns
isin the warp direction orthe weftdirection.Pile fabricsare woven by one ofsevvralmethods,
depending on whethertheyare warp pile orweftpile fabrics.W arp pile fabricshave two setsof
warp yarnsand one setofweftyarns.W eftpilefabricshave two setsofweftyarnsand one set
ofwarpyarns.

A.W eftPile Fabrics:


W eftpile fabricsare w oven by the w eftpile m ethod.No specialw eaving m achinesare
needed to weave w eftpile fabrics.In this m ethod there are tw o sets ofweftyarnsand
one setofwarp yarns.Al
though the ground m ay be ofeithertw illorplain w eave,a tw ill
base is preferred forits durability.The extra setofw eftyarnsform sfloatsthatare over

289
three or m ore-frequently five to seven w arp yarns in Iength.The weave used can be a
weft satin ora w arp rib weave.Afterweaving is com pleted,the floating yarnsare cut at
the center ofthe float,and these ends are brushed up on the surface of the fabric to
form the pile surface. W eft pile fabrics usually have a short pile; the pile height is
determ ined by tbe length oftbe floats ofthe pile weftyarns.

In som e w eftpile constructions,the weftyarn thatm akesthe pile isinterlaced w ith the
ground one tim e before itiscut;in others,the filling orweft pile interlacestw ice.Those
fabrics in w hich there are two interlacings are m ore durable than w hen only one
interlacing has taken place.Corduroy,velveteen,and som e plushes are m anufactured
by thism ethod.

Som e w ell-known weftpile fabrics are:


1 Co'rduroy - Fine rib quaiity often used forw om en'swear.
2. Baby roy - Verv fine rib quality,used eag.forw om en blouses.

3. Velveteen - (known from the trousers)there is pile here over the entire
fabricsurface,butthe pile notform s ribson the fabric surface Iike corduroy.
M anchester- This is a weftpile fabric w ith closely w oven w eftoften used for
work trouserj.
Stretch cord - This is a weft pile fabric w ith a great num ber of elastom er
yarns in the warp.Thism akesthe fabricelastic in length direction.

Corduroy Fabrics:

Incorduroyzcharacterized byapilestripeorwalealternatingwithaplainwale(nopile),
a separate cutting knife is necessary forcutting the floats ofeach wale.These fabricsare
woven to produce Iengthw ise colum nsoffloats.The colum nsare form ed with sufficient
space betw een them so that w hen the floats in the Iong colum ns are cut and brushed,
tbe face ofthe fabric has a ribbed effect.The Iengthw ise ribs ofpile are referred to as
wales.
Constructionofcerduroybythe filling pilemethod.
FloatsAreCut

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Cross-sectionofPlleFabric(Corduroy)

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29
The even spacing ofcorduroy floatsproducesa stripe orwale characteristic ofthisfabric

Corduroys are given nam es according to the num bers of wales. Feather w ale orcprd
orduroy has about 20 to 25 Iengthw ise w ales perinch and weight 5: ounces per ydi;
Fine w ale or Pinwale corduroy,about16 to 23 wales perinch and weight 7k ouncesper
yd2;M id, m edium , or regular wale corduroy,about 14 wales per inch and weight 10
ounces per yd2;W ide w aIe corduroy, about 6 to 10 wales per inch and weight 12
ounces peryd2;and Broad w ale corduroy, about3 to 5 ribsperinch.
.

Novelty w ale corduroys are also produced in w hich thick and thin walesare arranged in
varying patterns.Spm e corduroy fabrics are now m ade w ith 100% cotton yarns in the
pile filling and polyesterand cotton blends in the ground yarns.Otherdecorative effects
can be achieved by cutting floats selectively to vary pattern and texture.M ostw eftpile

fa'bricsaremadefrom spun yarns.


Velveteen Fabrics:
Velveteen and w eft plush, how ever, are produced w ith floats of such a Iength and
closeness that w hen cut and brushed they produce an all-over, rather than a ribbed
effect.They are characterized by a uniform ,overallpile.
A tw ill-back velveteen or plush is m ore durable than a plain-back.Another point in
durability is the way in w hich the pile is held to the ground.Ifa pile Ioop is pulled from
the fabric,its shape w illbe a 'V'ora 'W '.A 'V'reveals thatthe pile w eft has interlaced
w ith only one warp yarn,where as 'W 'revealsan interlacem entw ith three warps.'W 'is
m ore durable because itis held to the ground bythree w arps instead ofone.

Velveteen has m ore body and Iess drapeability than velvet. The pile is not higher

than-12'joth corduroy andvelveteen areavailable in solid-colourand printedfabrics.


8

Structurally,the velveteens m ay be classified asfollows:


All-over or plain velveteens - in w hich the surface is uniform ly covered by
the pile.
W eft plushes - sim ilarto above but arranged to produce m uch Iongertufts
and used m ainly forupholstery purposes.
Corded velveteens- also know n as corduroys and fustians in w hich the pile
runs in orderlyverticalcords ofvarying w idth.
.

;'
t'
l
'.

Figured velveteens- inwhich pilefigureisproduced onbareg'


roqqd. .. ';

AIIthe above groupsmay befurthersub-divided into plain-backortwill-backstruduref


dependingonthetypeofweavein whichthe ground picksinterlacewiththewarp.
.

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291

Float Cutting principle:

Cutting the pile is precision work to be carried out in a separate operation afterl

w eaving. Corduroy and velveteen are prepared for cutting in the sam e m anner.The ?
(
floats are treated to give them cutting surface,and the fabric is stiffened so that it will
rem ain sm 00th and firm .At one tim e pile w as cut by hand w ith a thin steelblade;the
practice m ay continue in countries w here Iabor is cheap,but m achine cutting is m ore
prevalent today.ln one process,thin,flexible m etalbands are inserted between the
floats and the base fabric,and then circular m etalknives cut dow n the centers ofthe
floats overthe m etalband.The bladescutthe floatsw ithoutdam age to the base fabric.
The m achine used here is equipped w ith a great num ber of needles w ith knives.For
every rib to be cut,a separate needle w ith knife is used.The needles are pushed as it
were into the tunnels underthe pile w eft.The needles are splitafterthe needle point.
The circular knife turns in this groove thus cutting the pile w eft yarns.After tbe pile
yarns have been cut,the fabric sudace is brushed to bring the cutends ofthe pile yarns
into a position perpendicularto the fabricsurface.

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b)cut

c)brushed

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292
Novelsudace effects can be achieved by having different Iength floats or by shearing
the floats to different Iengths to produce patterns.Cutting som e floats and Ieaving
others uncut is another w ay to create interesting fabric surfaces.W hen w ide-w ale
corduroy iscut,the guides and knives can be setto cutaIIthe floats in one operation.
Fornarrow corduroy and velveteen,the row s are so close togetherthat alternate row s
are cutw ith each passand the fabric m ustbe run through the m achine tw ice.

lt is very im portant that good yarn quali


ties should be used for the pile w eft.Indeed
knots,bulges etc.can block the needles w hich can result in Iong cutting faults.Rotor
yarn cannotbe used aspile yarn.

B. W arp Pile Fabrics:


W arp pile fabrics such as terry c10th, velvet, velour, rug velvet, and W ilton and
Axm insterrugs are m ade using extra warp yarnsto form the pile.One set ofthe warp
yarns interlaces w ith the set ofw eftyarns to form the base orground fabric,and the
extrasetofwarp yarnsis used to create the pilethatcan be cutoruncut.
Three generalm ethodsare used to m ake warp pile fabrics:
1. The W ire method,
2. The DoubIe-cloth orDouble-weave orFace-to-Face m ethod,and
3. The slacktension pile orTerry weave m ethod.

1. The W ire m ethod:


W ire Ioom sallow w eaving ofcarpetsw ith Ioop pile,cutpile ora com bination ofIoop
and cutpile.Carpetswoven on w ire Ioom sare m ainly heavy carpetsforthe contract

market(e.g.forshops,offices,hotels,etc.),eitherwithan all-overstructureorwith
two orthree colours.A two-colourcarpet is indicated asa tw o-fram e carpet.One of
both pile coloursform sthe pile;the otherpile yarn isthe dead pile yarn and iseither
floating atthe backofthe carpetorwoven in.

Metalwire

*
@

*
*

*
*

Pilewarp

weft -*

round
warp

A distinction can be m ade between tw o-and three-pick w ire carpets.The form er

(two-pickwire carpet)meansthataw ire isinserted inthe Ioom afterevery two

1
1
1

293

picks;forthe Iatter (three-pick wire carpet)this is after every three picks.At the '
reed beat-up follow ing the w ire insertion, a Ioop is form ed over the w ire.At the
c10th fell,the w iresstay in the carpetoversom e cycles.Afterinsertion ofa w ire,the
w ire furthestaw ay from the shafts is w i
thdraw n from the carpet.Itis necessary that
the w ires rem ain in the carpet during a num ber of insertions in orderto obtain a
strong binding ofthe cutpile in the ground fabric.

Pile every two picks

Pile every three picks

A distinction is m ade betw een cutting and looping w ires:


Cutting w ires: These w ires have a knife at the top; w hen the w ire is
w ithdraw n,the Ioop is cut,resulting in a cut-pile.
Looping w ires:These have no cutting edge and the Ioops are not cut w hen
the w iresare w ithdraw n.The carpetthen hasa Ioop pile.
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The ground warp yarnsare unw ound from one orm ore w arp beam s.Severalbeam s
are necessary ifthe crim p ofvariousw arp sets in the fabric is greatly different.The
ground w eave can be a plain w eave eitherw ith equalor unequaltensions,ora
com bination ofa 2: weave w ith a 11 weave;this com bination isalso referred to as
English w eave.Otherground w eavescan be used.The ground w arp yarns are
threaded in the back shafts.Shedding ofthe ground warp yarnsisdone by m eansof
cam s.Shedding ofthe pile w arp yarns can be done by m eans ofcam s,dobbies or

294

jacquard mechanisms.The pilewarpyarnsare unwoundfrom oneormore pile warp


beamsorfrom bobbinsinabobbinframe(creel).The waythepileyarn issetup on
the loom depends on the difference in consum ption of the various pile w arp
threads.

In the w ire m ethod,one set of w arps interlaces w ith the weftto form the plain or
twill-weave ground ofthe fabric;the otherset ofw arps form s the pile.W hen a row
of pile is m ade,the w arp yarns to form the pile are first raised by the harness to
form the shed.Then a w ire is inserted through the shed,m uch as weftyarn is shot
through.The size ofthe w ire isdeterm ined by the size ofthe pile to be m ade.W hen'
the set of w arps to form the pile is Iowered, it Ioops overthe w ire and is held in
place by the next weft.The wire is then withdraw n.As this is done,a sm all,sharp
knife attached to the end ofthe wire cuts the pile warp Ioops.The ground is then
woven fora certain num berof picks;then the wire is again inserted to form the pile.
Ifthe pile has not been cut evenly by the w ires,the fabric is sheared again w ith a
device like a law n m ow er.
'

P1LE F()RM ED
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Som etim esthe pile is Ieftuncut:a w ire w ith no knife is used,ora num berofF eft
threadsare substituted forthe w ire and are then w ithdraw n. Friez,a fabriicQpf
ten
''(
used forupholstery isan exam ple ofan uncutIooped pile fabricorcom bintlp of
.
:. .g.gy
cut:'and uncut Iooped
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re m ethd.
Frl
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e the w i
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few ertufts persquare inch than m ostotherpile fabrics. The durabili
ty otF8,
riz
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295

depends on the closeness of the weave.Ifthe fabric is to have a cut pile,the wire
has a knife blade at the end that cuts the yarns as the w ire is w ithdrawn.Velvets
m ay be m ade in this w ay. If the fabric is to have an uncut pile,the w ire has no
cutting edge.Velvet can also be m ade by the over-w ire m ethod.Com plex patterns
using different coloured yarns and Ioops com bined w ith cut pile result in a w ide
variety offabrics.
Advantages ofthe w ire w eaving technique are that:

Both cut and Ioop pile weaving is possible,


There are no problem sto w eave logos;there isno m irrorim age effectason
face-to-face w eaving m achines,

The pile heightiseasilyadjustable bychanging thewire dimensions.


Disadvantageshow everare:
The low production speed,
Over-heating of the w ires w hen they are w ithdrawn. This m ay cause
problem sw hen w eaving syntheticyarns.

On traditionalw ire Ioom s,the w eft is inserted by m eans of a shuttle.On m odern


w ire loom s, rapiers are used w ith transfer in the m iddle according to the Dew asprinciple.The w ires are inserted in and w ithdraw n from the fabric by m eans of a
specialm echanism .The w orking of the m echanism for w ire insertion considerably
Iim its the w eaving speed to 50 to 60 insertions perm inute.In ITM A'1995 itw as 145
insertionsperm inute.

2. The DoubIe-cIoth orFace-to-Face m ethod:


A carpetorvelvetfabric produced on the face-to-face principle isform ed by cutting
through a double c10th orfabric.The pile yarns are perpendicularbetw een tw o
ground fabrics.M any average-grade m illinary and transparentvelvets are w oven
double;thatis,tw o clothsare w oven atthe sam e tim e,face to face.Tw o fabricsare
w oven,one above the other,w ith the extra setof w arp yarns interlacing w ith both
fabrics.There are tw o sheds,one above the other,and one w eftyarn is inserted into
each shed.The fabrics are cutapartw hile stillon the Ioom by a traveling knife that
passes back and forth acrossthe loom thusform in g tw o fabrics w ith facing piles.
W ith the doubIe-cIoth m ethod ofw eaving,the depth of the pile i.e.the pile height is
determ ined by the space betw een the tw o fabrics. The pile heightis changed by

adjusting thisdistance.The interlacing pattern ofthe pile yarnsdeterm inestheir


resistance to shedding,density,and durability.Pile w ith a 'W '-shape interlacesw ith
m ore w eftyarns,is m ore resistantto shedding,is less dense,and is m ore durable.
Pile w ith a 'V'-shape interlacesw ith fewerw eft yarns,is less resistantto shedding,is

296
denser,and is less durable.The plain,rib,twill,orsatin w eave m ay be usd asthe
ground.Velvet,velour,plush and fake furm ay be w oven and cutapart.
* * e

@
Vvarp

* *

* *

@ *

+ *

Filling
W
arp

'+

W - interlacing orbinding
,

V - interlacing orbinding

U- interlacingorbinding

The patterns on b0th fabrics are each other's m irror im age.Once cut through,the
carpets do not greatly differ from carpets produced w ith the aid of w ires from a
w eave-technicalpoint ofview .The loom s are less wide than w ire Ioom s,since there
is no system for w ire insertion.The dead pile yarns can be w oven evenly in both
fabrics.The cutting m echanism m ust cut at high speed w hile the knife m vem ent at
both extrem itiesoverthe grindstones m ustbe slower.ltisvery im portant notto cut
during the reed beat-up because the fabric is notundersufficienttension to be cut.
Cuttingwouldthennotnecessarily bedone inthe middle.
Face-to-face w eaving is the w eaving technique w ith the highest productivity for
carpetand w arp velvetweaving.There are tw o techniques offace-to-face weaving:
Single-shuttle printiple:single shed and only one m echanism for the weft
insertion on the loom ,
Double-shuttle principle: two sheds are form ed and there are tw o
m echanism s for the w eft insertion so that two w efts are inserted
sim ultaneouslyione forthe top and one forthe bottom fabric.

The w eaves used here ihclude:


Plain weave with equalorunequaltension,
2
2
2,

2(hopsackweave),
com bined w ith lz , w ith the w arp yarns of the Iatter w eave highly

tensioned,
3 a com bi
ned w ith 21 , w ith the w arp yarns of the Iat.ter weave
highly
..
tensioned.
W ith the single-shuttle w eaving technique,a Ioop isform ed on every pick.W ith the
dopble shuttle technique,a Ioop isform ed forevery tw o orthre picks.Itis also

possiblq tq work w ith exclusion ofwefton the double-shuttle technique:a w eftyarn

297

is inserted alternately in the top and boytom fabrics while the other insertion
m echanism inserts no weft yarn. ln this w ay,the double-shuttle technique too can l
(
provide a Ioop forevery weftyarn.
@

Single shuttle principle


Traditionally, the weft w as inserted by m eans of shuttles.M odern m achines are
equipped w ith rapiers forthe weftinsertion.The w eave ofthe ground warp yarns is

mostlyformewith acam mechanism.Thesheddingofthe pileyarnscanbe done


by means of cams,dobbies or a jacquard mechanism .For carpet Ioom s, mainly
jacquardsare used.

Double shuttle principle

Un single-shuttleface-to-face Iooms,ajacquard m echanism with two positionsis


enough.Ondouble-shuttle face-to-face Ioom s,ajacquard mechanism mustbe used

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thatallow sthree positions ofthe pile yarns ifthe dead pile yarns are to be w oven in
the ground fabrics.There are two techniquesforthis:
Tw o hooks perharness cord:ifboth hooks are up,the yarn is in top position.
Ifonly one hook is up,the pile yarn w illbe in m iddle posi
tion.The pile yarn is
ofcourse in the bottom position i
f no hook is Iifted.Thissystem isapplied on
face-to-face w eaving m achines by Van De W iele.

One hook per harness tord, but the grid to w hich the pulley yarns are
attached can take tw o positions.Com bining the hook m ovem entand the grid
can give three possible positions forthe pile w arp yarns.These system s can
be applied on faceito-face carpetIoom s by Van De W iele.
Face-to-face velvet can be w oven w ith a m irror w arp w hich results in a plain-

coloured fabric backside.The mirrorwarp can be obtained with ajacquard withtwo


positions. For weaving velvet, 'U' and 'W ' bindings can be used besides the 'V'
bindings.

Velvet is m ade of filam ent yarns with a pile height of Y '


ior Iess. Velvet m ust be
16

handled carefully so thatno folds orcreasesflatten the pile.


Double woven velvetbeforesplitting

Cut

Piletufts

Velvetfabricsare used in avariety ofapplicationssuch asjewelry boxes,film sealing,


bathroom carpets,curtains,upholstew ,autom otive interiors, prayer m ats and'w all
rugs.Long pile velvetisused to im itate furand technicalfabrics.

Velvetfabrics have a fluffy surface due to cutIoops.Tw o Iayers offabricsare woven


together with a yarn binding them . W hen the binder yarn is cut,the Iayers are
separated resulting in a fluffy surface on one side ofeach fabric.The following figure
shows the schem atic of velvet fabric w eaving and form ation. A bent reed and
lancets are used to allow w eaving with m inim al shed dim ensions to reduce the
tension peakson the pile w arp ends.Velvet fabrics are produced by plain,dobby,or

jacquard designvelvetmachine.

299

*
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Schem aticofvelvetweaving
One m ethod to form loop pile is to use Iancets.False picks are inserted above the
Iancets to form the pile; then, the false picks are autom atically rem oved during
weaving.
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By controlling the pile and base warp yarns, various weave structures can be
obtained.Forexam ple,sculptured Ioop pile velvetcan be produced w ith flat woven
weft and w arp effects asshow n in the follow ing figure.
r. '.

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Shadow Ioop pile velvet is obtained by giving a direction to the Ioop pile. Colour
effects can be achieved using a weft selector.Any type of naturaland m anm ade
yarnsare used including cotton,polypropylene,acrylic,polyam ide,etc.
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Velvet and velveteen can be distinguished by fibre length'
vet is usually m ade
with filam ents and velveteen with staple. To identify w arp directions in these

fabrics,raveladjacentsides.In weft-pile fabrics,the pile is pushed outas individual


tuftsw hen a weftyarn is rem oved.Butw hen a warp yarn is rem oved,the pile tufts
cling to it and it Iooks a little like a w oolly cater pillar. ln warp-pile fabrics, the
opposite occurs.Pile tufts cling to weftyarns.
Another w ay to tellw arp direction is to bend the fabric. In velveteen, the pile
'breaks' into Iengthw ise rows because the w eft tufts are interlaced w ith the w arp
yarns. ln velvet, the pile breaks in crossw ise row s because the w arp tufts are
interlaced with the ground-weft yarns.This technique w orks best w ith m edium -to
poor-quality fabrics.Finishing isused to create otherlooks forvelvet.

Crushed velvetis m ade by m echanically tw isting the w etc10th.The surface yarns are
random lyflattened in differentdirections.Pann velvet is an elegantfabric with the
pile pressed flatby heavy pressure in one direction to give it high luster.lfthe pile is
disturbed orbrushed in the otherdirection,the sm ooth,Iustrous Iook isdestroyed.
Velourisa warp-pile cotton fabric used prim arily forupholstery and draperies.It has
a deeper pile than velveteen and is heavier.Plush has a deeper pile than velouror
velvetand is usually Iongerthan t?.
-

4 .

Fur like fabrics m ay be finished by curling, shearing, sculpturing, or printing to


resem ble different kinds of real fur. M ost fur Iike fabrics are m ade by other
processes.
Face-to-face velvet Ioom s usually have Iancets in order to obtain a correct pile
height betw een top and bottom fabrics.This reducesthe tension ofthe ground w arp
yarns w hich decreases the num ber ofground w arp end breakages.The tension of

thepileyarnsishigherwhih reducesthe riskofjoiningorclingingpileyarns.


As on the w ire Ioom s,the concept of 'num beroffram es'ofthe carpet orvelvet is

defined.The dead pileyarnscan be woven in (partlyin the topc10thand partlyin


the bottom cloth),floatbetween both fabrics,orfloatatthe backside ofoneofboth
fabrics. In the second and third cases, the floating yarns m ust be rem oved on
appropriate m achines. The technique w ith bound in pile yarns has the following
advantages:

No supplem entary treatm entisneeded to rem ove the floating pile,


Top and bottom carpetsare equalin w eight,

Thecarpetisthicker(m ore comfort),


Greaterdim ensionalst'
ability.

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301

Disadvantages how everare that:

M orecomplexand hence moreexpensivejacquard m achinesareneeded,


Thejacquard machinesare underheavierstress,
The backing aspectisIess nice than w ith floaters.
Face-to-face fabrics have technicalapplications.The face-to-face fabrics are notcut
through then and are referred to as distance fabrics.The space betw een the two
fabric layers can be filled w ith foam ,sand,cem ent,etc.Application ofsuch products
include:acoustic or therm alinsulation, pipes forw arm and cold air,pipes in heat
exchangers,ground orriverbankfortification,sandw ich boards,etc.
A recent application consists in the use of face-to-face fabrics of glass for the
production of sandw ich boards of com posite m aterials.The double-c1oth fabric is
im pregnated w ith resin w hich is then cured.The space between both fabrics can be

filled forexample with a foam Iayer.Sandwich boards mad offace-to-face fabrics


have a higher peel and shear strength than boards m ade according to other
techniques.

The follow ing figures represent the exam ples of carpet w eave
strud ures:
4

1
3

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Ground w eave:2-and dead pile w oven in the fabric


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Ground weave: z and floatl


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Ground w eave:

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303
6

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Ground weave: 2 + -1,dead pile floating between both fabricsand pile overeverytwo picks.
6
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Ground weave: 3 + 2 , dead pile w oven in the fabricsand pile overevery three picks.
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Exclusion ofw efton a double shuttle loom ,dead pile w oven in the fabric
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1/2V w eave structure w ith dead pilefloating in thecentre

Aftertreatm entofW oven Carpetsand Velvet:


Finishing of velvet depends on the yarn type, the weave structure and the
application area of the fabric. In Europe, a back coating of the velvet fabric is
avoided as m uch as possible, exceptforapplications w here the velvet has to m eet
heavy requirem ents. In the United States, it is com m on practice to apply a back
coating.Furthertreatm ent of velvet consists of brushing, tip-shearing and opening
the pile.

305

Finishing ofwoven carpetsim pliesthe follow ing steps:


Scraperto scrape offthe floating dead pile w here needed,
Inspection tables forthe detection ofw eave faults and possible repairing of
faults,
Tip-shearing and brushing the pile,
Coating Iine to open the pile by m eansof steam and to coatthe carpetback
w ith an adhesive.
The back coating ofthe carpet provides better bindihg ofthe pile and a better hand
asw ellasoffering higherresistance to raveling.

3. The Slack tension Pile orTerry W eave m ethod:


Articles m ade ofterry fabrics are used daily in m any areas.They have Ioops at Ieast
on one side,and usually on both sides.M ost terry fabrics are produced w ith loops
oh both sides ofthe fabric;som e velours are produced w ith Ioopson only one side.
Loop heightis determ ined by the let-offm otion ofthe w arp-pile beam .
The production ofterry fabrics is a com plex process and is only possible on specially
equipped w eaving m achines. Today,terry fabrics w ith exclusive patterns can be
produced on high speed weaving m achines.On average the weight of the fabric is

between 270 g/m 2to 6O0 g/m2.The mostimportantrequirementsinterw weaving


36P *

Low capitalinvestm entbuthigh productivity.


Im peccable fabricquality

Low spare parts consum ption


Easy operation,w ith few m echanicalsettings needed
Shortstyle changing tim es

TypesofTerry Fabric:
There are basically tw o qualitiesofterry, according to the Ioop structure:

a) Classicterry,with uprightIoops(made oftwisted yarns) These terries are


.

usually patterned w ith dyed yarns.

b) Fashion terry,also'known as milted orfulled goods, with spiralIoops (of


singleyarns).Thesearemainlypiecedyedorprintedfabrics.
Ablend ofsingle and twisted yarnsproducesadditionalpattern effects
.

According to the terry aspect,three typescan be distinguished:

a) Terrywithorderedstanding Iooppiles:thisisthetypeofpilefabricswhich is
m ostproduced.M ost ofthe tim e,unsized, bleached ordyed pile warp yarns
are used in w eaving which require no furtheraftertreatm ent. The first wash
afterpurchasing the product m ay cause a considerable change ofthe aspect

(theIooppileappearance).
b) Terry with irregular loop piles:twisting and reversing pf pile Ioops is
prom oted during the production ofthe terry. Sized,ecru ordyed single yarns
are used in the loop w arp.These single yarns stillpossess great liveliness.
Com bined w ith an intensive wash during w hich the fabric is desized, the
fabric isgiven its typicalirregularaspectand soft hand. These terry clothsare
then piece-dyed or printed. The appearance barely changes after the first
dom esticw ash.

c) Terrywith cutpile:velvet-liketerw isobtainedbytip-shearingthelooppile

The pile yarns open up in a brush-like m anner. These fabrics have an even
softer hand and even better water absorbency than terry w ith Ioop pile.
Velvettow eling are high quali
ty, expensive products.

Terry W eaving M echanism :


ln the production ofterry fabrics, tw o w arps are processed sim ultaneously:the
ground w arp,w ith tightly tensioned ends and the pile warp, with Iighyly tensiopmd

vnds.A specialweavingmethodenablesloopstobe perform:dwjth th:Iightly


tensioned warp endson the fabric surface. In traditionalterry weavipg,.bytm qansr
pf
a specialdevice on the w eaving m achine, tw o picks are inserted @A @ varible
. '

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k 9! ' ' ;
'
i''.
'.' ..
disiance-the Ioose pickdistance -from thec10thfell. Thel
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bos:pikdistav idkir;.
te'
d
.

aCCOrdingto the desiredIoopheight.w hentiethii'd'piik ls'y.e


iht
$>,th'
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. y.
,.

,. .

.
.

,y ..
y

307
reed pushes the pick group,on the tightly tensioned ground w arps,tow ardsthe fell
and the Ioose pile w arp ends woven into the pick group are uprighted and form

loops.Depending on the w eave,Ioops are thus form ed on one or b0th sides ofthe
fabric.W ith the basic m ethod, know n as three-pick terry,three picks form a pick
1
group.Itis possible to have pile heights up to 10 m m .Base w eavesare usually 1 ,
2

2
1'

, 3
2 an(1 2 .

The Ioom forterry c10th requirestw o w arp beam s.One is atthe rearofthe w eaving
m achine in a plane w ith the w eaving surface,and the second beam is placed atthe
back but above the w eaving sudace. Both shuttle Ioom s and shuttleless w eaving

machinesare used in making pile fabricsjustasthey are used foralltypesofwoven


fabric. For com plex patterns the weaving m achine has to be equipped w ith a

jacquard machine. For less demanding patterns a dobby is sufficient, and very
sim ple,non-patterned fabricscan be w oven with a cam m otion.The follow ing figure
show sa rapierterw w eaving m achine w ith tw o w arp beam s.

Qualityisdetermined bytheyarntype(cardedorcombed),fibre(pima,Egyptian,or
regularcotton),and the numberofweftyarnsorpicksusqd to createthe weave.

W arp yarns used forthe pile in terry c10th have low tw ist to produce a soft,fluffy,
highly absorbent surface.Com m on varieties include tw o-and tbree-pick terries.For
exam ple, a three-pick terry c10th,the highest quality, has two picks underthe pile
'I
oop and one pick betw een loops.The follow ing figure show sa three-pickterry c10th
with closed Ioopson both sidesofthefabric.
j

308

*
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Loosepickdi
stance

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Npickgroup

* Pile wam yarns * Ground wam yarns

Fabric

Structure and origin ofa three-pick terry fabric

b
*

& e

o e

a = short beatup and

b = fullorIong beat-up.

Fourpickterry w ith norm alw eave

b
e

W eave plan ofthe


above three-pick
terryfabric

a = short beatup and b = fullorIong beat-up.


Fourpick terry w ith exceptionalw eave
ln general,the reed has tw o beat-up positions which do not im pose alternative
movem ents to the warp,fabric and various com ponents of the w eaving m achine.
The sley has a specialm echanism built in w hich allow s different beat-up positions
for pile form ation.Tucked in selvedge or leno selvedge are com m only used. The
warp is evenly Iet-off by a system of constant tension controlfrom fullto em pty
beam ,this is controlled by a highly sensitive electronic device. Air-jetmachinesare
also successfully used in terry m ariufacturing. The individualcom ponents ofan air-

jetterryweavingmachine are shown in the followingfigure.

309

As faras w eaves are concerned,two types ofterry are distinguished;four-pick and


three-pick terry. Three-pick terry is produced m ost. Four-pick terry is m ore costintensive and is only applied for high-quality products. For three-pick terry, the
w eave ofthe ground warp yarns is a 1 rib w eave w hereas the w eave ofthe Ioop
2

warp is a

or

tw illw eave,depending on the side where the Ioop is to be


1

formed.Forfour-pickterry,the basketweave (orhopsackweave)isused forthe


1

ground w arp. The w eave used for the Ioop w arp is a

or

3
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tw illw eave

depending on the side w here the Ioop pile is to be form ed.


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Ground warp beam


arp tensi
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Pile w arp beam
Guide rol
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terw m otion

6 Pileguide roller
7 Servo m otor
8+9 Leversystem
10 Fabrl
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11 Take-up roller

Tension com -

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pensating roll

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. .
Com ponentsofan al
r-letterry w eavl
@ng m acjjI
*ne

Forbothtypesofterryweave(three-andfour-pick)thefollowingrulesapply:
The Ioop w arp yarns always bind around the second weft afterthe fullreed
beat-upz
There m ust be a shed crossing ofthe ground warp yarns afterthe fullreed
beat-up in orderto avoid slipping back ofthe weftyarnsafterthe reed beatup.This rule is som etim es,albeitvew exceptionally,deviated from forfourpickterry.

310
lfthe Ioops m ust be form ed alternately above and under the fabric according to a
certain directive, a specialw eave interchange is necessary. Tw o types of weave
interchangesare used:

South-Germ an pile interchange:a disadvantage here isthatthe pile loopsdo


nothave the sam e height at the interchange. However,these loops are w ell
bound in.

Nv.

* * o
1

o o o p o o o o o o

2 3 $ 5

6 7 8

o o

o o

lc lj 2

Burghard-vossen pile interchange: this pile crossing can be used if the


pattern in the fabric requires sharp outlines.A draw back is the w eak binding
in of the Ioops at the interchange, which makes these Ioops easily
rem ovable.

'
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.

Q e

l o l e o o so

o o

o o

Terry fabrics are often very com plex, w ith different coloured warp ends ill

combinationwith Ioop patterns.Theyare subjectto changingfashions,them arketis


constantly dem anding new qualities and designs. The rapid developm ent of
electronics,with microprocessorcontrols and highly dynam ic stepping motors in
com bination w ith m odern m echanism s, has enabled fabric designers to produce
com pletely new patterns.Three- and four-pick terry, and even fancy types ofterry
can be com bined in the sam e Iength offabric.The follow ing figure show s a special
seven pickw eave com bined w ith fullbeat up atthe sixth and seventh pick. A second
pile height isalso form ed in w eftdired ion, m aking sculptured patterning possible by
the difference in pile heightin w arp and weftdirection.

311
*

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--'v.

<

1 2 34 5

7 12345

k
Specialseven pickterrydesign withtwo-pickgroupsand fullbeat-up

End Uses and Related Properties:


Terry c10th is used for bath tow el, bath m ats, bathrobes, beach robes, and
sportsw ear.Eacb loop acts as a tiny sponge.M oreover,bathrobes are warm cloths
since terry fabrics contain a lot of air.Terry fabrics are easy in m aintenance;they
need no ironing.Sheared Ioops are brushed to loosen and interm esh the fibres of

adjacentyarns.The surface becom esm ore com pact,less porous,and absorbsm ore
slow ly as com pared w ith Ioop-pile terry.
Since terry fabrics are used for applications w here great water absorbency is
required,only fibres from naturalpolym ers can be used.Cotton is by farm ostoften
used.Viscose presentsthe draw back ofsw elling m ore in w et condition,which m akes
viscose fabrics shrink m ore.Besides,viscose presents a considerable Ioss ofstrength
in w et condition and viscose terry fabrics has a less soft hand than cotton terry.

Institutionalcotton / polyesterterry towels have blended ground yarnsand cotton


pile;the cotton pile yarns are forabsorbency and the polyesterground yarns are for
strength and durability, especially in selvedges.There is no up and dow n in terry
c10th unless it is printed. Som e friezs are m ade by this m ethod.Another slacktension fabric,shagbark,has w idely spaced row sofoccasionalloops.

Guidesto the BuyerofPile Fabrics:

Ifpile construction is used forsilk,m an-m ade fibres,orfur,these textiles are presented to the
consumerin their richest,most Iuxurious textures.Pife fabrics feelsoftand downy.Silk pile
takesa rich,deep colour,especially when one looksdirectly into the pile.Ifthe pile is pressed
dow n,thefabrictakeson asilvery,satin cast.
Pile fabricsare warm and hence are bestused forfalland winterwear.Transparentvelvetwith
a Iong pilq and Ioosely woven back is notso warm as a fabric with a shortpile and a tightl
y
woven back.An all-silkvelvetiswarmerthan asilkwith a cotton backorrayon pile.Nylon pile is
veryresilient,resistswaterborne stains,and iseasilym aintained.
'

1
(

312
Forvelvetdresses,dressm akersusually cutthe fabric so thatthe pile runsup.The wearerthen
can appreciate the richnessofthe fabricby Iooking into the pile.Anotherreason forhaving the
pile run up isthatthe pile isIessIikelyto m atfrom friction.Velvetdrapeswell,especially when
itisaIIsilk,and Iooks e/ective in both tailored and feminine lines.Cotton velvetis stifferand
because of its bulkiness is generally more appropriate for sportswear than for'Iightweight

dresses.Velvetsandcorduroyscanbemadespot-resistantandofdurable press.Corduroysare
frequently m adewater-repellentforraincoats.And there are some washable velvets.

ln upholstery,'pile fabrics Iook soft cushiony,and inviting.Pile upholstery is warm-looking in


sum merand so m aybe covered with lighterfabriccovers.

The Care ofPile Fabrics:


Upholsterypilefabricsshould be brushed frequently with a softbrush.Brushingfirstagainstthe
pile and then with the pile willusually remove matted spots.
Itisbestto steam vel
vetsand velveteensto rem ove creasesand matted spots.A good way isto
hang the fabric nearthe showerbath.Very hotwater,hotenough to make steam,should be
run from the showerforaboutten minutes,but at no time should the fabricgetsoaking wet.
.

W hen itisremoved from the steam,itshould be shakengentl


y and hungovera Iine (withzthe
pileout)oronahangertodry.Agarmentshouldnotbewornuntilthepileisthoroughlydry.
W aterspots can usually be rem oved by steam ing,but otherstains can best be removed by a
reliable dry cleaner.Velvetthathas rayon pile can be steamed the same way as silk velvet,but
care should be taken notto shake itw hile itiswet.Two kindsoffinishes are used on velvets:
Spot-and stain-resistantand crush-resistant.No problem sare evidenced on the formertype of
finish;the Iattermay reflectIightdifferently when pile isdistorted.A steam brushing m ay cause
the pileto resume itsoriginaierectposition.
Velvets and vel
veteens m ay be steamed by stillanother method.Stand a hotiron uprighton
the ironing stand;place a dam p cotton c10th overthe iron to generate steam ;pass the vel
vet
slowly overthe damp c10th,with the pile away from the c10th.Velvetsshould neverbe ironed
flat.

The terry weave generally appears in towels,bath mats,and bathrobes.The fibresare usually
cotton.Since the pile is uncutcotton yarn,the fabric washes welland should be fluffed,not
ironed.The more Ioops on the surface ofthe fabric,the more absorbent the c10th.Bathmats
may have rayon pile pnd cotton groundwork.W hile these fabrics are most attractive,their
Iaundering qualityand durabilityare questionable.
Frieze ,an upholstery and drapery fabric,m ay be made in wool,nylon,m ohair,and cotton.ltis
averydurable,uncut-pile fabricthatdry-cleanssatisfadorily,butsince the dirtsettlesbetween
rowsofpile,frequentbrushingsare essential.
'

313

FLOCKqD FABRICS

M ain featuresofFlocked Fabric:


A surface effectthat issim ilarto a nap ora pile may be created by flocking,a process in which
shortfibres are ''glued''onto the surface offabrics by an adhesive m aterial.lf the adhesive
coatsthe entire surface ofthe fabric,the flockin'
g willcoverthe entire surface ofthe fabric,but
iftheadhesive isprinted ontothefabricinapatternofsome sort theflockwilladhereonlyin
the printed aregs.All-overflocked fabricsm ayhave a suedelike appearance.
ShortIengthsoffibre flocking can be made from any genericfibre type.Rayon isoften used for
flocking.Nylon m ay be selected forsituationsthatrequiregood abrasion resistance.

Fibresforflocking are madefrom bundlesoftow fibre (continuousfilamentfibreswithout


twijt).Thetpw isfed throughafinishremovalbathandthen into abankofcuttersthatcut
'

floc1ofthedsiredIength.Thefibresmaybedyedbeforetheyareattachedtothefabric,or
thecompletedfabricmaybedyed.
Applicjion ofFlockto Fabrics:
The flock is applied to the fabric in one oftwo m ethods.The mechanicalflocking processsifts
loose flock onto the surface ofthe fabric to be coated.A series ofbeaters agitate the fabric,
causing mostofthe fibresto be setin an uprightposi
tion,with one end ofeach fibre ''Iocked''
into the adhesive.

'

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314
The second method causesthe fibres to be attached in an upright position by passing them
through an electrostatic field.The fibres pick up the electric charge and align them sel
ves
vertically.One end penetrates into the adhesive,and the flock isform ed.Electrostatic flocking
ensuresmore com plete verticalpositioning,and the resultantfabricsare ofbetterquality.ltis
am ore costlyprocess.W hen buying fabrics,a consumercannottellwhich processwasused.

Durability ofFlocked Fabrics:


The durability offlocked fabrics depends Iargely on the adhesives that hold the flock firm ly
during eitherlaundering ordry cleaning.In some cases,flock m ay be removed by dry-cleaning
solvents. Perm anent care Iabels shoul
d tellthe consumer how to handle flocked fabrics.A
second factorin the durability offlocked fabrics has to do w ith the fibre from which the flock
hasbeen made.

315

TUFTING:TUFTED CARPETS

Introduction:
The tuing technique is a very important technique for the production of floor covering
materialsuch as pile carpets.However,it is also applied for the production ofe.g.blankets,
toweling,coatsand furim itations.
Tufting consists in piercing yarnsthrough a primary supportfabricby meansofneedlesin such

awaythatpiles(cutorIoop piles)areformedonthesupportfabric.Afterfurthertreatmeot
e.g.anchoring the pile by means ofa precoat and applying a secondary backing a com pjetely
finished tufted carpetisobtained.

So,variouselementscan be distinguished in atufted carpet:

1. Thepile(eithercutorIoop),
2. The prim arysupportfabricorprimary backing,

3. Theprecoat(adhesive),
4. The secondary backing.
Allthese elementsare represented in thefollowing figure.

Basitelem entsin a TuRed Carpet:


1. Pile yarn:

Pile yarnsfortufted carpetsare usually m ade ofm an-m ade fibres.However,woolalso


takesa fairly im portantshare.The m an-m ade fibresare mostlythe so-called Bulked
Continuous Filam entYarnsorBCFyarns.These bulked filam entyarnsare usually made


F.. .

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of polyam ide,orsom etim es polypropene orotherm an-m ade fibres.The pile yarn can
,
contain metalorcarbon fibresifantistaticpropertiesare required.
A pile yarn should presentthe follow ing properties:
. ...

Be wellwearresistant,
Have good dyeing properties,
Presentgood resilience,
Difficultsoilability,

Easycleanability(releaseofdirtparticles).
Naturally,other im portant aspects w hich determ ine the choice of a pile yarn include
resistance to m icro-organism s and insects,m oisture absorption capacity,hiding ofdirt
particles,soilresistance,electrostatic properties,flam e resistance etc.
Itgoeswithoutsayingthatthe yarn should have sufficientand uniform strength so asto
avoid as many breakages,and hence m achine jtops,as possible.M oreover,threading of
the yarn through the needle eyesrequiresa uniform cross-section and therefpre regular

thickness.Knots in the yarn mustbe avoided.Hence,yarns mustpreferably be joined.

withlatexorbyair(splicers).
2. Supportfabric(primarybacking):
Duringtufting,pileyarnisstitchedthroughasupportfabric(orprimarybacking).Itcan
eitherbe a woven fabric ora non-woven (actually,a spinning fleece).Fabrics include
jute,polyesterfilamentyarn orstaple fibre,polypropene tapes,glassfibres etc.Nonwovens are mainly based on polyester and polypropene (sometimes blended with
polyethylene).
W hilstbefore the fabric was almost always based on jute,nowadays this has almost
completely disappeared.Indeed,jute contains oils which can penetrate the pile and
thus cause soiling and problems when dyeing.Also,jute is Iess rot resistant and
thereforesubjectto micro-organisms.
Polypropeneisanimportantsubstitutionproductfotjute.Fabricsmadeofpolypropene
tapes,usually in plain weave,have a massof80 to 150 g/m 2.These are thin fabrics,
which can easily be pierced and are sujted for alIneedle gauges.Such materialis

dimensionally stable, but issensitive to high temperatures(> 1700c).Fraying atthe


border can be avoided by applying a butyl coating on the warp and w eft threads.
Exam plesofsuch fabrics ofpolypropene tapes are polybac,politaletc.Polybac FLW is
also a fabric made ofpolypropene tapes butwith a nylon cap needled on it.W ben dyed,
the colourdifference between the polypropene and the pile yarnsw illb: masked bythe
application of this nylon fleec since nylon takes up dyestuff more readily than
polypropene.Fuzzbackisanotherexam ple ofsuch a construction.
Fabricsm ade ofpolyesterfilam entyarn consistofhighly shrinkable yarnsof 1,100 dtex

andwithaweightuptoapprox.120g/m2.Suchfabricsarestrong,notsensitiveto

317
tem perature differences,can be stretched w ell,are notthick and can easily be pierced.

An example is the Tu -fabric by Hoechst (Trevira-TuftingTrger).Some disadvantages


include lessfavourable pile anchoring,a tendency towards bowing (also in case of
POIypropenefabrics)andthefactofnotbeingsuitedforaIIstitchgauges.

1
j

ofpolypropene.AnexampleisTypar(DuPont)whichissuitedforaIlgaugesandhasno

tendency towards bowing.As mentioned above, this material is sensitive to high


temperaturesandcqnnotbestretchedwell.Further,there arethe non-wovensmadeof

partfrom woven fabrics,there are the non-wovensuch asspun-bonded fabricsmade

staple fibres,e.g.Loktuft.ltcan be strengthened w ith polyam ide yarns.The fibre fleece

weightrangesbetween90to 190g/m2.Non-wovenspresentlittleornoresistanceto
the needle when piercing.This furthers uniform pile height and placing of the Ioops

(tufts).
A non-woven used forthe prim ary backing can also be based on polyesterfilam ents.For

exampIe,Reemay and TyvekbyDu Pntwith amassupto 120 g/m2.Such non-wovens


are suited for aII stitch gauges, give good pile anchoring and present no tendency
towards bow ing.These non-w ovens are fairly sensitive to tem perature changes, are
difficul
tto stretch and are notcheap.
3. Pretoat:

The pile which is applied on the prim ary backing,m ust be anchored during a following
operation.Such anchoring improves the dim ensionalstabili
ty,gives better sound and
hetinsulation,good shearresistance,etc.Anchoring is done by applying a precoat.This

is either a Iatex (natural or synthetic rubber) or a dispersion on the basis of


polyvinylacetate, polyvinylchloride, polyurethane or polyacrylate. In m any cases, a
rubberis used as precoat.Afterapplying the dispersion,the Iatex m ustbe polym erized

atthe appropriate temperature and withthe appropriate means(initiators,catalysts,


etc.).
W henapplyingtheprecoat,aconductive material(carbon)canbeaddedto it,evenif
m easures had already been taken to m ake the pile layerconductive.Som etim es,even a
flam e resistantproductisadded.
4. Setondary backing:

Afterthis (first)precoat,a second layeror foam coating can be applied,i.e.the


secondary backing,w hich enhances comfort,strength and dim ensionalstability ofthe
w hole. Applying this Iayer is done in a continuous process after applying and
polym erizing the first Iayer.M ostly,this is a latex of synthetic rubberto w hich a large

amountoffillers(e.g.chalk = CaCOa)isadded.The materialto be applied formsa


'foam '.Applying the right tem perature in an oven causes polym erization and hence
form ation ofthe secondary backing.

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Subsequently, definitive curing is carried out:approx. 140 C for a rubber Iatex and :
approx.1800c fora polyvinylchloride foam backing.

A jute fabriccan also be applied (glued)assecondaw backing,possiblya spun-bonded


based on polyolefin filaments.An example is Action Bac (Amoco Fabrics and Fibre
Company). Further,there is also Milliback (Milliken):the basis is a glass fibre to
strengthenavinyl-based precoat.AnotherpossibilityisU C (ThiocolTenCate).
Tufting process:
Tuftingconsistsinpiercingayarnthrougha primarybackingby meansofneedles(onaneedle
bar).A Ioop isformed atthe bottom side ofthe supportfabricwhen the Ioopercomesinto
operation with the yarn whenthe needle returns.Eventually,the Ioop may be cutwhich givesa

cutpiletuftedcarpetincontrasttoaIooppiletuftedcarpet(notcut).
Tileworking ofa simple tufting machine isdescribed asfollows.The m ovementofthe needles,
which m ust pierce the pile yarn through the primary backing,is controlled by the head shaft
with eccentric discs,via crankshafts and pressure shafts.The fine needles,which are mounted
on the needle bar, are given an up and downward m ovem ent.The pile yarn is supplied

constantlyand regularlyviathefeedrollers.The primarybacking (substrate)isfedbyspiked


roller.
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Stage 1

Stage 2

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Makingatufted carpetwi
thclosed (short-loop)pile
Ifthe needlespierce through the prim ary backing,the resulting Ioops mustbe held underthe
support fabric by the Ioopers fixed on a shaft.The distance between the Ioopers and the
supportfabric determinesthe desired pile height.The tension device ofthe pile yarn keepsthe
pilebacksclose to the bottom side ofthe primary backing.

lfthesupportfabricornon-woven passesoverthereedplate(orsupporttable),theloopers
withdraw and the Ioopscomefree.The needleswith the pile yarn which pierce through the
backing,move up again and the Ioopers return in the pile loopsformed:this gives a Ioop r
closed pile carpet.

319

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M akinga tufted carpetwith open orcutpile


W hen m aking a carpetwith cutpile,the Ioopers are in a direction opposite to the one above

(Iooppile).Heretoo,asupportfabricpassesoverthereedplatewhiletheneedleswiththepile
yarn pierce through the substrate.The loops formed Iie overthe Iooper and must be cut by
meansofinclined knivesm oving up and down.
The following figure gives a schem atic representation ofthe form ation ofa tufted carpetwith
cutpile.
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Tbe pile height of a tufted carpet depends on the delivery ofthe pile yarn,the Iength ofthe
needlesand the distance between the prim ary backing and the Ioopers.The pile height ranges
from 3m m to over40m m .A high cutpile isapplied forso-called shag carpets.ln case ofa noncutpile,pile heightreachesapprox.halfthe heightofthatofa shag carpet.
An im portant concepton a tufting m achine isthe gauge:i.e.the distance betw een tw o
successive needle points expressed in inches.The gauge determ ines,forexam ple,the pile

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tals,hotels,schools,supermarkets,etc.Som etim es they are also used for blankets,fur
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OtherEnd UsesforTufted Fabrics:


Some tufted fabricis m ade in Iightweightsforuse asapparelfabricand home furnishingssuch
as bedspreads and upholstery. The tufted bedspreads often resem ble traditional chenille
bedspreads;the upholstery fabrics have the appearance of woven velvet.Tufted fabrics can
also be used for autom obile interiors.Blanketfabric can be constructed by form ing Ioops on
both sidesofa base fabric and then cuttipg and often napping the loopsto create the blanket's
surface texture.Tufted blanketshave been more popularin Europe than in the United States.

Eare ofTufted Fabries:


Care oftufted fabricsthatcan besafely and convenientlycleaned athom e dependsonthe fibre

typeused,theclosenessorIoosenessofthepileortufts,thetypeofyarnstrudure(simpleor
complex),thepresenceorabsenceofanadhesivebinderonthebackofthefabric,andthesize
ofthe article.M osttufted fabricsfound in household articlesorapparelthatare smallenough
to fitinto hom e laundry equipm entare washable.However,where care labels are provided,it
isessentialto follow aIIdiredionscarefully.

r?,

KNIU ED FA BRIC A N D KN IU ING TECHNO LO GY

INTRO DUCTIO N
AND

HISTORICALBACKGROUND OF KNITTING TECHNOLOGY


Knitted fabric differs vastly from woven fabrics. W oven fabric is formed substantiall
y by
interlacing of a series of Iengthwise and crosswise threads. Knitting, in its simplest form,
consistsin form ing Ioopsthrough those previously form ed. Thisinterloping and the continuous
formation of more Ioops into each other produce the knitted fabric structure. ln m achine
kni
tting,a m ultiplicity ofneedles,needle holdersand yarn feeders replace the pins, hand and
fingersused in hand knitting.

W oven Fabric

A
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Hand knitting byTw o Pins

Knitting is the m ethod ofcreating fabric by transform ing continuous strands ofyarn into a
series of interlocking Ioops, each row of such loops hanging from the one imm ediately
preceding it.The basicelementofa knitfabric structure isthe loop intermeshed with the Ioops

adjacentto itonbothsi
desandaboveandbelow it.
jKnitted fabricsare divided into two main groups,weftand warp knitted fabrics.
The weft knitted structure is very different from the warp knitted one.The difference is
apparentfrom both warp and weftknitted structuresare shown in sim plestform sin below .ltis

seen from thisfigurethatin aweftknitted structure a horizontalrow ofIpop can be made


using one thread andthe thread runsin horizontaldirection.

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knitting

W arp Knitting

In a warp knitted structure,each Ioop in the horizontaldirection is made from a different


thread and the numberofthreadsused to produce such a fabric isatfeastequalto the number
ofloopsin a horizontalrow.One can say thatin a warp knitted fabricthethreadsrun roughlyin
a verticaldirection.

The knitting industry belongsto the branchesofthe textile ihdustrywith Iong tradition and the
knitted goodshave been know n forcenturies.ln the early days they were m ade by hand and
the first hand operated knitting machine was not invented untilthe sixteenth century.This

inventionisusuallyattributedtoacertainEnglishclergyman (1589)W illiam Lee.Sincethattime


knitting m achines have been developed and redesigned so that nowadays they present the

mostcomplicated and mostautomatedmachineryinihetextileindustry.


A skilled hand knitterproduced 120 to 150 stitchesperm inute.In com parison,a m odern high
speed circularknitting machine m akesabout20 m illion stitchesperminute.'

1589:W illiam Lee,the inventorofthe mechanicalstitch form ationtechnique.

1758:JedediahStrutt,theinventorofthedoubleknit(rechts- rechts)technique.Thisinvention
refers to an attachment forthe hand knitting frame,which became world famous underthe
name ''Derby rib machine''
1798:M onsieur Decroix arranges the needles radially into a corona,which rotates and thus
movesthe needlesone afterthe otherthroughthe kni
tting stages.The circularknittingframe is
born.

1805:Joseph Marie Jacquard presented his controlapparatus for shed building on weaving
Ioomsin Lyon.Itisnotclearasto when Jacquard started getting interested in the problemsof
the knitting industry after his success in the weaving field.But today we do encounterthe

jacquard device in differentvariationson knitting machinesforthesame purposes:individual


m ovem entofknittingand transferneedles,sinkersorguide needlesforpatterning.

324
1847:M atthew Townsend obtainsa patentforhis invention ofthe Iatch needle.A new epoch
in the knittingtechnique begins.W ith the help ofthese needlesstitch form ation becam e easier,
because the press was no Ionger necessary.The result was:sim plification ofthe m echanism ,
increase in production speeds,and reduction ofcosts.

1850:The circular kni


tting m achine has been developed from the English circular knitting
frame.ltwas initiallyequipped with stationary bearded needlesin verticalpositi
on.Lateron,it
was built with Iatched needles,which can be individually m oved;this is characteristic for a
circularknitting m achine.
1852:Theodor Groz.Opened his workshop in Ebingen in the Swabian AIb and Ernst Beckert
started m aking needles in Chem nitz. Both of them wanted to assist the m anufacturers of
knitted stockings by presenting them with needles,w hich would not get bentorbroken.This
m eantthatthe needleswere no Iongermade from iron butfrom steel.Today the concern Groz
Beckertdeliversexactlyadapted needlesforevery kind ofknitting machine.
-

1878:D.Griswold gets a patent for a circular knitting m achine,w hich can produce plain or
ribbed fabric tubes in any desired distribution.The verticalcylinderneedles are enhanced by
horizontaldialneedles,also indi
vidually m oveable in radialslots.ThisIeadsforthe firsttime to
two new denotions:smallrib machine and Iarge rib m achine.

1910:The firm RobertW alterScottin Philadelphiawasgranted a patentfor''interlockfabrics'.


The interlockfabric isadoublefaced fabriccom posed oftwo crossed double knitfabrics.
1918:The firstdouble cylinder,smallcircularknitting machine with a double hook needle and

sliders(needlepushers)wasbuiltinEnglandbythefirm Wildt.
1920:Besidesflatknitting machines?increasing use ismade ofcircularknitting machinesforthe
fabrication ofcolourpatterned fabrics.This isdone'with the help ofyarn changerdevicesand
needle selection viapattern wheelsand puncht::1tapesm adefrom steelorpaper.
1935:Afterthe production of circular sinkerwheelm achines was started in 1906,the firm
M ayer& Cie.began producing circularknitting m achines.M ayer& Cie.introduced m ass-line
production ofthese m achinesin 1939.
1946:After this period noteable further developm ents were made in circular knitting with
regard to higherperform ance and new productsasa resultofan increase in feedernumbers,a
raise in the production speeds and the use ofnew needle technologies.The oId pinion feed
w heelunitswerereplaced by new yarn deliverydevicesIike tapefeedersand measuring meters

withyarn reserveforsmoothfabricsand kni


tpatternsaswellasstoragefeedersforjacquards.
These new devices have increasingl
y taken overthe controland monitoring ofyarn delivery.
Such peripheralequipment is continually gaining signi
ficance in order to cope up with the
dem andsplaced on high speed circularknitting m achinesand fabricquality.
1963:The erathe electronicsbegins atthe InternationalTextile M achinery Exhibition ITM A
1963 in Hanover.Thefirstelectronic needle selection isdemonstrated bythe firm M oraton its

325

film-taper-controlled ''M oratronie', which later on gets into serial production. Today a
com puterisused fordata storage and a diskette isthedata carrier.
1967: The Iegendary OVJA 36, w hich is probably world-w ide the most successfulcircular
knitting machine so far,isexhibited atthe ITMA in Basle.M ore than 7000 machinesofthistype
werebuiltinthefollowingyears.

1987:Thefirm Mayer& CiebeginswiththeserialproductionoftheRELANIT,aplain(rechtslinks)circularknitting machine havinga relative movementbetweenneedlesandsinkers.ltwill


be producing morethan 1000 m achinestillthe ITM A 1991.
M odern circularknittingtechnology willbe determ ined by increasesin pedormance,reductions
in setting-up times and flexible utilization.The technicaldesignerwillhave to dealwith this
challenge now and in thefuture..
Kni
tting isthe mostcomm on method ofinterloping and issecond only to weaving asa method
ofmanufacturing textile structures.Itisestimated thatoverseven m illion tonsofknitted goods
are produced annually throughout the world.Although the unique capability of knitting to
manufacture shaped and form -fitting articles has been utilized for centuries, m odern
technology has enabled knitted constructions in shaped and unshaped fabricform to expand
into aw ide rangeofapparel,domesticand industrialend-uses.

Knitted fabrics of a wide variety of types are presently enjoying unprecedented consumer
demand.In m any end-uses,where formerly woven fabricsheld undisputed away,knitted c10th
hastaken a com manding Iead,while in those end-useswherethe knitted fabrictraditionally has
been suprem e,production advanced by Ieapsand bounds.
To m ostpeople,knitted fabricissom ew hatofan unknow n quantity.Few peoplecandistinguish
itreadily from woven fabrics;fewerstillhave anyconception how itisproduced.

GENERALTERM S RELATED TO KNIU ING TECHNOLOGY


Kink ofyarn:
A length ofyarn thathasbeen bentinto a shape appropriate foritstransform ation into a weft
knitted loop.

Knitted Ioop:
A kink ofyarn that is interm eshed at i
tsbase i.e.when intermeshed two kink ofyarn iscalled
loop.

Knitted stitch:
Stitch is a kink ofyarn that is intermeshed at its base and at itstop.The knitted stitch is the
basic unitofintermeshing and usually consists ofthree ormore interm eshed loops,the centre

Ioop having been drawn through the head of the lo/er Ioop which had in turn been
intermeshed through i
tshead by the Ioopwhich appearsabove it.

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Kni
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Knitted Stitch

Closed Ioop

Open Ioop

Top arc:
Theuppercurved portionoftheknitted Ioopiscallidtoparc.

Bottom half-arc:
The Iowercurved portion thatconstitutes in a weftknityed Ioop,halfofthe onnection to the

adjacentloopinthesamecourse.
Legsorside lim bs:
The Iateralpartsofthe knitted Ioopthatconned the top arcto the bottom half-arcs.

327
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SinkerIoop

Needle loop:
The needle Ioop isthe sim plestunitofknitted structure.Needle loop form ed bythetop arcand
the two Iegsoftheweftknitted loop
Needle loop =Top arc+ Two legs

SinkerIoop:

The yarn portion that connects two adjacent needli Ioops belongiig in the same knitted
course.Bottom arclso called sinke'rIoop.

Open Ioop:

A knittedloopofwhichathreaentersandIeavesattheoppositesideswithoutcroFsingover
itself.

Closed Ioop:
A knitted Ioop of which a thread enters and Ieaves at the opposite sides with crossing over
itself.Itismadebyspecialneidle.

Knitted Ioop structure:


The properties ofa knitted structure are Iargely determ ined by the interdependence ofeach

stitchwithitsneighboursoneithersideandaboveandbelow it.Knittedloopsarearrangedin
rows and colum ns roughl
y equivalent to the weft and warp of woven structures termed
''courses''and '
/wales''respectively.

W ale

328

Course:

Acourseisaprejominantlyhorizontalrow ofIoops(inanuprightfabric)producedbyadjacent
needlesduring the same knitting cycle.

In weft knitted fabrics a course is comppsed ofyarn from a single supply termed a course

Iength.A pattern row isa horizontalrow ofcleared Ioopsproduced by one bed ofadjacent
needles.In a plain weftknitted fabricthis isidenticalto a course butin more com plexfabricsa
pattern row may be com posed oftwo ormorecourse lengths.
In warp knitting each Ioop in acourse isnorm allycom posed ofa separate yarn.

W ale:
A wale is a predominantly verticalcolumn of needle Ioops produced by the same needle
knitting atsuccessive knitting cyclesand thusinterm eshing each new loop through the previous
loop.ln warp kni
tting a wale can be produced from the sam e yarn ifa warp guide lapsarund
the same needle at successive knitting cycles thus are m aking a pillar orchain sti
tch Iapping

movement.W alesarejoinedto eachotherbythesinkerloopsorunderlaps.


Stitch density:
The term stitch density isfrequently used in knitting instead ofa Iinearmeasurementofcourses
orwales,itisthe totalnum berofneedle loopsin a square area measurementsuch asa square
inch or square centimeter.It is obtained by multiplying,for exam ple,the numberofcourses
and wales,perinchtogether.Stitch density tendsto be a more accurate measurementbecause
tension acting in one direction in the fabric may,forexam ple,produce a Iow reading forthe
courses and a high reading forthe wales,w hich when m ultiplied togethercancels the effect
out. Usually pattern rows and courses are,for convenience,considered to be synonymous
when counting coursesperunitofIinearm easurem ent.

Stitchdensity=Walesperinch(wpi)xCoursesperinch(cpi).
Interm eshing pointsorcrossoverpointofa needle loop:
AI1needle Ioops oroverlaps have four possible intermeshing or cross-over points,two.at the
head,where the next new Ioop willbe draw n through by that needle and anothertwo atthe
base where the loop hasinterm eshed w i
th the head ofthe previously form ed Ioop.Any one of
the fourpoints at which stitches are intermeshed.The intermeshings atthe head are always
identicalwith eachotherasare interm eshingsatthe base with each otber.

329

Fourinterm eshingpoints

An im possible intermeshing

It is impossible to draw a new Ioop through the oId Ioop so that itstwo feet are alternately
intermeshed.A new Ioop can thusonly be intermeshed through the head ofthe oId Ioop in a
mannerwhich willshow a face Ioop stitch on one side and a reverse Ioop stitch on the other
side,because the needle hook isunidirectionaland can only draw anew Ioop down through an
oId loop.Bottom cross-overpointissituated atthe base and top cross-overpointissituated at
the head.

toop orStitch Iength:


The length ofyarn knitted into one stitch in aweftknitted fabric.Stitch Iength istheoreticallya

singleIengthofyarnwhichincludesoneneedleIoopandhalftheIengthofyarn (hal
fasinker
Ioop)betweenthatneedleIoopandtheadjacentneedle Ioopsoneithersideofi
t.Generally,
the Iargerthe stitch Iength the more elastic and Iighterthe fabric,and the poorer its cover
opacity and bursting strength.
Stitch Length,l= one needle loop+ two halfasinkerIoop.

Extended sinkerIoop:
A sinkerloopthatiswiderthan the othersinkerIoopsin the fabricand thatisproduced when a
needle isinactive orhasbeen removedfrom the needle bed orneedle bar.
'

j!-

t
Stitch Iength

t :',) .
)
) t

)jt
$--j
//,
. -

FpcekKm

'

,h-aI, . k
.

Extended sinkerIoop

Face Ioop

Back Ioop

Face Ioop orstitch:


Also called plainsti
tchorjerseystitchorflatstitch.A stitchthatissointermeshedinthefabric l
th

atitsIegsaresituatedabovethetoparcofthestitchformedinthesamewaleintheprevious j
course.Thissideofthestitchshowsthenew loopcomingthroughtowardstheviewerasit j

passesoverand coversthe head ofthe oId Ioop.Face Ioop stitchestend to show the side Iimbs 1

:.IJ
y;
.4'l
k.
L
s
l
i
. ;1
V

'L
'
L'
*
y.
,
.
y
t
y
;
'

.:. ;;yt..
tf

orIegsofthe needle Ioops oroverIapsasa seriesofinterfitting 'V!


;''.The notation Qf1 e,j
:
'
%,q$,
47
;,zz : i.)
..
Ioopis'
D*-and bygraphpaperisx.
(j
y
s,
,.
.
.

. ..
.

' ..

r
y.;'
)'
!+j
.

Technicalface orrightside:
The undersurface ofthe fabric on the needles willthusonly show the face stitchesin the form
oftheside Iim bsorIegsofthe loopsoroverIapsasa seriesofinterfitting &Vs''.

Reverse orback Ioop orstitch:


Also called purlstitch.A stitch that is so intermeshed in the fabric that the top arc and the
bottom arcsare situated above the Iegs ofthe stitch form ed in the same wale in the previous .
and in the following course.This is the opposite side ofthe stitch to the face loop side and
showsthe new Ioop m eshing awayfrom the viewerasitpassesunderthe head ofthe oId Ioop.
Reversestitchesshow the sinkerIoopsin weftknitting and the underIapsin warp knitting most
prominently on the surface.The reverse Ioop side isthe nearestto the head ofthe needle
because the needle draws the new loops downwards through the oId Ioops. The notation of
backIoop is * and bygraphpaperis0.

TechnicalbackorIeA side:
The uppersurfaceofthefabricon the needleswillonlyshow reverse stitches i
n the formx
.
inf
sinkerIoopsorunderIapsand the headsofthe loops.

Doublethreadstitch:
Also called double Ioop stitch orspliced stitch.A stitch formed from two endsofyarn.

7;r

331

Single faced structures:


Singlefaced structuresareproduced inwarpand weftknitting bythe needles(arrangedeither
in a straightIine orin acircle)operating asa single set.Adjacentneedleswillthushavetheir

:
1
:

hooksfacing towardsthe sam e direction and the headsofthe needlesw illalwaysdraw the new
loopsdownwardsthrough the old Ioopsin the sam e direction so thatinterm eshingpoints3 and
4 willbe identicalwith interm eshing points1 and 2.
.

- .. 'p''X%# , tA.
iyx'
..:F$.r .<x;y.-...>

.
.

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. .'

'

' . .

a'x,- '
',
.uw
.x. - <.. ' ..
*'J
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Technicalface side

Ve.d'#
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Technicalbackside

Double faced structures:


Double faced structures are produced in weft and warp knitting when two sets of

independentlycontrolIed needlesare employed withthe hooksofone setknitting orfacingin


the opposite direction tothe otherset.The two setsofneedlesthusdraw theirIoopsfrom the
sam e yarn in opposite directions,so thatthe fabric,form ed in the gap between the two sets,
showsthe face loopsofone seton one side and the face Ioops ofthe otherseton the opposite
side.The two facesofthe fabricare held together by the sinkerIoops orunderIaps which are
insidethe fabric so thatthe reversestitchestend to be hidden.

Balanced structure:
This isa double faced structure which has an identicalnum berofeach type ofstitch produced
on each needle bed and therefore showing on each fabricsu/ace usuallyin the sam esequence.
These structuresdo notnorm ally show curling attheiredges.

Face and reverse stitcheson the sam e surface:


These are norm ally produced on purl weft knitting machines which have double headed
needles capable ofdrawing a face stitch with one hook and a reverse stitch on the other,so
thatinterm eshing points3 and 4 willnotalwaysbe identicalwith interm eshing points 1and 2.

Fabricdraw -off:
Fabricisalwaysdrawn from the needleson the side rem ote from theirhooks.W hen two setsof
needlesareem ployed,eitherarranged vertically oratsome otherangle to each other,each set
ofhookswillface away from the othersetand the fabricw illbe produced and drawn away in
the gap betweenthetwo sets.

Knitting m achines:
The machinesthose produced fabricsby intermeshing orinterloping ofone orone setofyarn.
Knitting machinesare divided asfollows* W eftknitting machine:
A machine producing a knitted fabric by interm eshing Ioops formed successively
acrossthewidth ofthefabricfrom a yarn fed substantiallycrosswiseto the length of
fabric.
* .W arp knitting machine:
A machine in which the fabric form ation occurs by interlacem ent of Ioops formed
sim ultaneously acrossthe fullwidth ofthe fabric from a system ofyarnsw hich are
fed to the needlessubstantially inthe direction ofthe length offabric.
@ OtherIoop formingand com bined technique m achines:
M achines thatform the fabric by the technique of intermeshing ofyarn Ioopsbut
which cannotbe defined eitherasweftoraswarp knitting machines.

Needles:
Needle isthe principalkni
tting elem ent.Needlesare divided into two categories according tot
theirfunctionsasfollows.

* Independentneedles:

Needleswhichcan slide inthe needle bed and be moved individuallyduring te


stitch orIoop form ing process.
@ United needles:
Needleswhich are fixed in the needle barand w hich can only be m oved in unison
duringthe stitch orIoop form ing process.

Q!

Independentneedle

1
United needle

Needle carrier:
A partof the knitting m achine containing independently m oved needles in a needle bed or
united needlesin a needle bar.The needle carriermay beflatorcircular,cylindricalordialtype.

Fabricface type:
The basictype ofconstruction offabricsproduced on the respective knitting machines:
Rt:Single face fabric,also called right- Ieftfabric;knitted on one row ofneedles.
@ RR:Double face fabric,also called right- rightordouble rightfabric;knitted ontwo
rowsofneedles.
@ LL:Links- Iinksfabric,also called Ieft- Ieft ordouble Ieftfabric;knitted on one or
two rowsofneedles.

Num beroffeed system :


On the circumference gf a circular knitting machine up to 120 knitting cam sets can be
mounted,each cam set fed with a separate yarn.This results in obtaining 120 knitted loop
coursesin one machine revolution.
Numberoffeeders= Num berofcourses

Specification ofknitting m achine:


The needle beds and needle bars, and thus the knitting machines,are specified with three
features,namely:

Theworkingdiameter(Circularneedlebedsand needlebars)
OrTheworkingwidth (FIatneedlebedsand needle bars)
The needle gauge orneedle pitch.

:...
Lq.3

.t.
.t

.. .

.'
-

t
5
0
-'
.
.2
...
;.'

The working diameter:


'qi
t
,.'
s
The diam eter of a knitting machine is m easured at the bottoms of two opposite:yz.y
.

needlegroovesi

r.
nacylinderoratthetopsoftwooppositeneedlesinacircularbar,@-t:.
$.
t)

and isusuallyexpressedin inches.

Theworking width:
The working width ofthe machine should notbe missused withthe 'tadualworking

width''.Theworkingwidth ofa knitting machine isa measure(in cm orinches)


describing the distance between the firstand Iastneedle in aflatneedle bed, whilst
the ''actualworking width'
'isthe distance between the firstand Iastneedle actually
used in theneedl
e bed during knitting.
M achine orneedlegauge:

The needle gauge ofa knitting machine (also called cutorgage)isa measure
expressingthenumberofneedlesperaunitoftheneedlebed(bar)width.
Gauge,N = How manyneedlesare used inone English inch.

N = Num berofneedles
O ne English inch.
Highestneedle gauge isabout60 and lowest needle gauge isabout2 to
2.5.

The needle pitch is the distance between two neighbouring needles in the sam e

needle bed (bar),from the centre ofa needleto the centreofthe neighbouring
needle.

Relationship betweenthe needle gauge and the needl


e pitch isasfollows:
N

eedlepitch(Lengthunits/needle)=N
eedlegauge(Iength unit)

Thepitch ordistancebetweenoneneedleandanotherisproportionaltothe needlegaugeor


thicknessandtherefore to thespace available fortheyarn.Asthe diameterofayarn is
proportionalto itscount,arelationshipexistsbetween the rangeofoptimum countsofyarn
whichmaybeknitted on aparticularmachineand itsmachinegauge.Machinegaugethus
influenceschoice ofyarnandcount,and affectsfabricpropertiessuch asappearance and
weight.Foragiven machinediameterorwi
dth,finergaugemachinestendto kni
tawiderfabric
asmorewalesare involved.Forexampl
e a30*diametercircularmachinem i
ghthave 1716
cylinderneedlesin 18 G and1872cylinderneedlesin 20 G.Coarsegaugemachineshave Iatch
needleswithIargerdimensionsrequiringgreatermovements.Duringknittingthesizeofthe
knitting camsare correspondingly Iarge so Iesscam systemscan be accom modated

335

around a given machine diameter(forexample 30'')so therefore coarsergauge


m achinesoften havefewerfeeders.

Selvedged fabric:
A sel
vedged fabric is one having a ''self- edge''to itand can only be produced on m achines
whose yarn reciprocates backwards and forwards acrossthe needle bed so that a selvedge is
formed asthe yarn risesup to the nextcourse atthe edge ofthe fabric.

Cutedge fabric:
cutedge fabricis usually produced by slitting open a tube offabric produced on a circular
machine.A slittube offabricfrom a302diametermacbinewillhaveanopenwidthof94'
'(#d)
atknitting and before relaxation.

Tubularfabric:
This m ay be produced in double faced orsingle faced structures on circularmachines,orin a
single faced form on straightmachineswith two setsofneedlesprovided each needle setonly
knitsatalternate cyclesand thatthe yarn only passsacrossfrom one needle bed to the other

atthetwosejvedgeneedlesateachend,thusclosingtheedgesofthetubebyjoiningthetwo
singlefaced fabricsproduced on each needle settogether.

W arp knitted Iaps:


Loops are term ed Iaps in warp knitting because the guides Iap the warp yarn around the
needles in orderto form the Ioops,the Iapsm ay be eitheropen orclosed.So,Iap isa Iength of
yarn in a warp knitted fabricthatconsistsofanoverlap and ofan underlap.

Open lap:
An open lap is produced eitherwhen the underlap isin the sam e direction asthe overlap,orit
is om itted so that the next overlap comm ences from the space where the previous overlap
finished.Closed laps are heavier,m ore com pact,opaque and Iess extensible than open laps
produced from the same yarn and atacomparable knittingquality.
/m

?A-->
b

>-$
.
Open lap

j./s, .u .

sr

XU
*

z'a

!
sl @ sl

1
Closed Iap

O = overlap,U = underjap

4?

..j

- ..

3%

Closed Iap:
A closed lap isproduced when an underlap followsin the opposite direction to the overlap and
thusIapsthe thread around both sidesofthe needles.

The overlap:
The overlap is a shog usually across one needle hook by a warp guide which forms the warp
yarn into the head ofthe loop.The swinging movement ofthe guide to the hook side and the
return swing afterthe overlap produce the two side lim bsorlegs ofthe Ioop which has a very

similarappearanceonthefacqsideofthefabrictoaneedle Ioopproducedbyweftknitting.So,
overlap isa Iength ofyarn in a warp knitted fabricthathasbeen placed overthe needle during
loopformation.

The underlap:
The underlap shog occursacrossthe side ofthe needlesrem ote from the hooks,on the frontof

single barand inthe centre ofdouble barneedle machines,itsuppliesthe yarn between one
overlap and the next.So,underlap isa length ofyarn in a warp kni
tted fabricthatconnectstwo
overlapsinconsecuti
ve courses.

Underlapsaswellasoverlapsare essentialin aIIwarp knitted structuresin orderto join the


wales ofIoopstogether,butthey may be contributed by a differentguide barto those forthe
overlaps.

'

337

M ECHANICALPRINCIPLES OF KNIU ING TECHNO LOGY

Basic elem entsofknitting:


There are three basic elem entsofknitting,such as needle,cam and sinker.Thischapterdeals
with the features,functions,usesetc.ofthese knitting elem entsand also focusthe principlesof

knitlingbasedontheseelementsasfollows.
The Needles:
The fundamentalelem entin construction ofknitted fabrics isthe knitting needle.Needle isthe
m ain knitting tools and also the principalelem entofm achine knitting.During yarn feeding the
hook is opened to release the retained old loop and to receive the new loop which is then
enclosed in the hook.The new Ioop is then drawn by the hook through the oId Ioop which
slideson the outside ofthe bridge ofthe closed hook.AIlneedles m usttherefore have some
method ofclosing the needle hookto retainthe new Ioop and exclude theoId Ioop.

There are hundredsand hundredsofdifferentshapesofknitting needlesused forproduction of


kni
tted loopsbutaIIofthem can be grouped in three m ain needle types:
The spring-bearded needles
The Iatch needlesand

The com pound needles.

* The Spring-Bearded Needles:


The spring-bearded needlesmadeofsteelwire consistofthefollowing parts:
a. The Stem:Thestem around which the needle Ioop isformed.
b. The Head:W here the stem isturned into a hook to draw the newloop through
theoId loop.
c. The Beard:W hich isthe curved downwardscontinuation ofthe hookthatisused
to separate the trapped new Ioop inside from the o1d loop as it slides offthe
needle beard.
d. The Eye orgroove:Cutin the stem to receive the pointed tip ofthe beard when
itispressed,thusenclosingthe new Ioop.

338
The Iatch needle is the m ost widely used needle in weft knitting,because itis self- acting or
Ioop controlled.Itis also regarded as more versatile in term softhe range ofm aterialsthatcan
be processed on Iatch needle machines.Bearded needles are Iess expensive to manufacture,
can be produced in finer gauges and supposedly knit tighter and m ore uniform stitches
compared with Iatch needles,buthave Iim itationswith regard to the types ofmaterialthatcan
be processed as wellasthe range ofstructuresthatcan be knitted on them .Bearded needle
machines are fasterthan the equivalent Iatch needle macbipes.The com pound needle has a
short,smooth and sim pl
e action,and because itrequires a very sm alldisplacementto form a

stitch inbothwarp andweftknitting,itsproduction rate istliehighestofthethreemaintypes


of needle.Compound needles are now the m ostw idely used needles in warp knitting and a
num berofm anufacturers also offercircularmachines equipped w'ith com pound needles. The
operation speeds of these machines are up to twice those ofitie equi
valentlatch needle
machines.

The m ain parts of the bearded,Iatch and compound needle are describe and shown in the
above figures respectively.Variations of Iatch neqdles ipclude rib Ioop transfer needles and
double - ended purlneedles,which can slide through the oId Ioop in orderto knitfrom an
opposing bed thusdraw a loop from theopposite direction.

Friction and Frictionless Needles:

There aretwqtypesofIatchneedle,frictionandfrictionless.Frictionneedleshave aslightflex,


cram p orbend in tl:e tailsso thatthey contactthe side - walls ofthe tricks in w hich they are
housed.They are used in open cam system sw here cam s may be introduced ortaken out of
actionto divertthe needle path.
Frictionless needlesare em ployed in closed cam - tracks which have guard orsafety camson
the opposite side to the knitting cams,to produce a com pletely enclosed track through which
the needles run,otherwise the freely m oving needles would be thrown outoftheirtricks at
high speed.

The Needle Bed:

The needlesare disposed in the slots ofneedle bedswhich can be flatorcircular(dialand


cylinder),ormounted on the needle bars.A flat needle bed consists of a steelplate with
grooves.In the grooves the latch needles are inserted in such a way thattheirbutts protrude
above the plane ofthe steelplate.From below in the grooves,the needlesare supported with
specialsprings.Upperpartofthe flatneedle bed isshaped in m illed - offteeth belping in the
processofstitch form ation.
'

Inacylindricalneedlebedtheknittingneedlesareplaced betweenihetricksinsertedincuts
alongthe cylindersurface generator.The dialneedle beds have the needle groovescutradially
' i.e.horizontally.The butts of the needles in circular needle beds, both cylinder and dial,
protrude from theirsurfaces.Thariksto the needle buttsthe needlescan be dtiven along their
groovesbycamslocated in cam boxes.
''

.
;

339

d. Tbe Rivet; W hich m ay be plain or threaded.This has been dispensed with on


m ost plate m etalneedlesby pinching in the slotwallsto retain the Iatch blade.
The SlotorSaw - cut:W hich receivesthe Iatch - blade.
The Cheeks or Slot w alls:W hich are either punched or riveted to fulcrum the
latch blade.
g. The Butt:W hich serving to displace the needle along the needle bed slot.The
butt w hich enables the needle to be reciprocated when contacted by cam
profiles on either side of it form ing a track.Double - ended purltype needles
have a hook ateach end,w hilstone hook knits,the inactive hook is controlled as
a buttby a cam reciprocated elem entcalled a slider.
h. The Tail:W hichvis an extension below the butt giving additionalsupport to the
needle and keeping tBe needle in itstrick.Som etim esused fortbe sam e purpose
asthe butt.

* The Com pound Needles:

The com pound needles are used in weft and w arp knitting m achines.In contrast to
standard spring - bearded needles and latch needlesthe com pound needle consists
oftw o separate parts- the stem and the sliding Iatch.Atthe top ofthe com pound
needle stem there is a hook.The tw o parts rise and fallas a single unitbutatthe top
of the rise the hook m oves faster to open and at the start of the fallthe hook
descends fasterto close the hook.
.

Flook

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ttmk
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FC Tue-t
ygt
The com pound needle stem can be m ade of a U - shaped steelw ire or of a steel

tube.Thesliding Iatch (closingelement)ismadeofasteelwire.Duringthe cycleof


Ioop orstitch form ation the sliding Iatch slides along the groove of the U - shaped
stem or in the tube - shaped stem .Priorto m ounting onto a warp knitting m achine

the stemsand Iatchesofthe com pound needlesarecastin leads(separately,in stem


leadsand latch leads).

340
The latch needle is the m ost widely used needle in weft knitting, because itis self- acting or
Ioop controlled.Itisalso regarded asm ore versatile in terms ofthe range ofm aterialsthatcan
be processed on latch needle m achines.Bearded needles are less expensive to manufacture,
can be produced in finer gauges and supposedly knit tighter and m ore uniform stitches
compared with Iatch needles,buthave Iim itationswith regard to thetypesofm aterialthatcan
be processed as wellasthe range ofstructures that can be knitted on them . Bearded needle
machines are fasterthan the equivalent Iatch needle machines.The com pound needle has a
short,sm ooth and simple action,and because itrequiresa very smalldisplacementto form a
stitch in b0th warp and weft knitting,itsproduction rate isthe highestofthe three m ain types
of needle.Compound needles are now the m ost widely used needles in warp knitting and a
numberof manufacturers also offercircularm achinesequipped with com pound needles. The
operation speeds of these machines are up to twice those of the equivalent Iatch needle
machines.

The m ain parts of the bearded,Iatch and com pound needle are describe and shown in the
above figures respectively.Variations of latch needles include rib Ioop transfer needles and
double - ended purlneedles,which can slide through the old loop in orderto knitfrom an
opposing bed thusdraw a Ioop from the oppositedirection.

Friction and FrictionlessNeedles:


There aretwo typesoflatch needle,friction and frictionless.Friction needleshave a sli
ghtflex,
cram p orbend in the tailsso thatthey contactthe side - wallsofthe tricks in which they are
housed.They are used in open cam system s where cam s may be introduced ortaken outof
actionto divertthe needle path.
Frictionless needlesare employed in closed cam - tracks which have guard orsafety camson
the opposite side to the knitting cams,to produce a completely enclosed trackthrough which
the needles run,otherwise the freely m oving needles would be thrown out oftheirtricks at
high speed.

The Needle Bed:

The needlesare disposed in the slotsofneedle beds which can be flatorcircular(dialand


cylinder),ormounted on the needle bars.A flatneedle bed consistsofa steelplate with
grooves.In the groovesthe Iatch needlesare inserted in such a way thattheirbutts protrude
above the plane ofthe steelplate.From below in the grooves,the needles are supported with
specialsprings.Upperpartofthe flatneedle bed is shaped in m illed - offteeth helping in the
processofstitch form ation.
*

ln a cylindricalneedle bed the knitting needles are placed between the tricks inserted in cuts

talongthecylindersurfacegenerator.Thedialneedlebedshavetheneedlegroovescutradially
j i.e. horizontally.The butts of the needles in circular needle beds, both cylinder and dial,

protrudefrom theirsurfaces.Thankstotheneedlebuttstheneedlescanbedrivenalongtheir
roovesbycamsIocatedincam boxes

j
-g
k
.
.

341

The Cam s:
Cam is the second primary knitting element.The cam s are the mechanicaldevices which
convertthe rotary m achine drive into a suitable reciprocating action forthe needles orother
elem ents.Because aIlneedles have a reciprocating action eitherserially orseriatim,excepton
the bearded needle sinkerwheeland Ioop wheelframeswhere the fixed needle circle merely
revolves.The cams are carefully profiled to produce preciselptim ed movement and dwell
periOds.
'
The cam sare oftwo types,Engineering camsand Kni
tting cam s.
* Engineering Cam :

Itis circularcam.This circularengineering cam sorhigh speed eccentiics indirectly


controlthe motion of bars of elements which move en masse as single units in
cottonsPatentand warp kni
tting m achines.They are attached to a rotary drive shaft
situated parallelto and beiow the needle bar.A num ber of identicalcams are
positioned alopg the shaft to ensure correctly aligned m ovem ent.The drive is
transm itted and adapted via cam - followers,levers,pivots and rockershafts.One
com plete 360 - degree revofution of the drive shaft is equivalentto one knitting
cycle and itproducesaIIthe required m ovementsofthe elementsonce only in their
correcttim ing relationship.

In warp knitting m achines,fourtypesofcam drive have been em ployed:


a. Single acting cams
Cam and countercam s
c. Box cams,and
d. Contourcam s.
Single acting cam s:Thistype requires a powerfulspring to negatively retain the
cam truck orfollower in contact with the cam surface,bounce and excessive

wearoccursatspeed.
b. Cam and countercams:Thisarrangem entprovidesacam and itsfollowerin each
direction ofmovem entbutisobviously more expensiveto m anufacture.
The boxorenclosed cams:Thisem ploysa single cam followerwhich isguided by
the two cam races of a groove on the face ofthe cam .However,change of
contactfrom one face to the othercauses the followerto turn in the opposite
direction producingwearwhich cannotbe compensated.
d. The contour,ring orpotcams:Itisthe reverse ofthe boxcam asthe cam profile

projectsoutfrom one face ofthe cam in the form oflip with acam - follower
placed on eithersijeofit.Thisisa popularand easily adaptable arrangem ent.
Although camsare comparatively cheap,simple and accurate,atspeedsabove 800

coursesperminutetheyaresubjecttoexcessivevibration.Forthisreason,atspeeds
in excessofthatEccentri
cdrive isnow employed.

1
#
'

342

Eccentric:

The eccentric is a form of crank w hich provides a sim ple harm onic m ovem ent with
sm ooth acceleration and deceleration.lts w ide spread use is the result of adapting
this sim ple m otion and m odifying it to the requirem ents of the warp knitting

machine so that even dwell(stationary periods) in the element cycle can be


achieved.Now, how ever,the sim pler single eccentric drive is successfully driving
elem entbars atspeedsof2000 courses perm inute orm ore.
* Knitting Cam :

The angularknitting cam acts directly on to the butts of needles or other elem ents
to produce individuai or seriatim m ovem ent in the tricks of latch needle weft

knitting machines as the butts pass through the stationary cam system (revolving
cylinderm achines)orthe cam spassacrossthe stationary tricks (reciprocating cam
boxflatmachinesorrotating cam - boxcircularmachines).
On weft knitting m achines, yarn feeds m ust m ove if the cam s m ove, in prder to

supply yarn atthe knitting point,and ifthe cam -boxesrotatetheyarn packhjesand


tackle m ust rotate with them .If, however,the yarn carriers reciprocate as on flat
m achines their yarn supply packages m ay be situated in a suitable stationary
position.

Knitting cam s are attached either individually or in unitform to a cam -plate and,

depending upon machine design,arefixed,exchangeable oradjustable.

KnitCam

Tuck Cam

M issCam

The knitting cam s are divided in to three groups, such as knit cam ,tuck cam and

miss cam.At each yarn feed position there is a set of cam s (m ainly knit cam )
consisting ofat least a raising or clearing cam ,a stitch orIowering cam ,guard cam
and an up throw cam whose com bined effect is to cause a needle to carry out a
knitting cycle if required.On circularm achines there is a rem ovable cam section or
doorso thatknitting elernentscan be replaced.

343

3. The Raising Cam :Thiscausesthe needlesto be lifted to eithertuck,clearing loop


transferorneedle transferheightdepending upon m achine design.A sw ing cam
isfulcrum m ed so thatthe butts willbe unaffected w hen it is outofthe track and
m ay also be swing into the track to raise the butts.A bolt cam can be caused to
descend into the cam track and towards the elem enttricks to controlthe butts
orbe withdraw n outofaction so thatthe butts pass undisturbed across itsface,
itis m ostly used on garm ent- Iength m achinesto produce changes ofrib.
b. The Stitch Cam : It controls the depth to which the needle descends thus
controlling the am ount of yarn draw n into the needle Ioop, it also functions
sim ultaneously asa knock- overcam .
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The Up throw Cam :lttakesthe needles back to the rest position and allowsthe

newly- form ed Ioopsto relax.The stitch cam isnormallyadjustable fordifferent


Ioop Iengths and it m ay be attached to a slide togetherwith the upthrow cam so

that the two are adjusted in unison.ln the above figure there is no separate
upthrow cam ,section X - ofthe raising cam isacting asan upthrow cam .
d. The Guard Cam ;These are often placed on the opposite side ofthe cam - race to
Iim itthe m ovem entofthe butts and to preventneedlesfrom falling outoftrack.

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344

The Sinkers:
The sinkeristhe third primary knitting element.It is a thin metalplate with an individualor

collectiveactionapproximatelyatrightanglesfrom thehooksidebetweenadjoiningneedles.

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FunctionsofSinker:

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Itmay perform one orm ore ofthe following functionsdependentupon the m achines knitting
actionand consequentsinkershape and movem ent:
Loopform ation
Holding- down and
Knocking- over.

According to these functions the sinkers are alsc divided into three groups, such as Ioop
form ing sinker,holding-down sinkerand knocking-oversinker.
* The first function ofthe sinker is loop form ation.On bearded needle weft knitting
machines of the strai
ght barfram e and sinker wheeltype the main purpose of a
sinkeris to sink orkinkthe newly Iaid yarn into a Ioop as itsforward edge orcatch

advancesbetween the two adjoining needles.On the bearded needle Ioop wheel
frame,the bladesofburrwheelsperform thisfunction whereason Iatch needleweft
knitting machines and warp knitting machines,Ioop formation is nota function of
thesinkers.
@ A second and m ore com mon function ofsinkers on m odern m achines is to hold
down the oId Ioopsata lowerIevelon the needle stem sthan the new Ioopswhich
are being form ed and preventthe old loopsfrom being fifted asthe needfes rise to
clearthem from theirhooks.The protruding nib or nose ofthe sinkerispositioned
overthe sinkerloopsofthe oId Ioopspreventing them from rising withthe needles.
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345

On tricot warp knitting machines and single bed weft knitting m achines,a slot or
throatis cutto hold and controlthe oId loop.The sole function ofthe sinkerm ay be
as a web holderor stitch com b as on the Raschelwarp knitting machine in which
case only the underside ofthe nose performsthe function.
On latch needle weftknitting m achinesthe holding-down sinkershave a rectangular
gaP CUton theiruppersurface remote from the nose into which the sinkercam race
fitsto positivelycontrolthe sinker'sm ovem ent.
Hoiding-down sinkers enable tighter structures with im proved appearance to be
obtained, the minim um draw-off tension is reduced, higher knitting speeds are
possible and kni
tting can be com menced on em pty needles.

Holding-dow n sinkers may be unnecessary when knitting with two needle beds as
the second bed restrainsthe fabricIoopswhilstthe othersetofneedlesmove.
* The third function ofthe sinker- as a knock-oversurface - where its uppersudace
orbellysupportsthe oId loop asthe new loop isdraw nthrough i
t.
On tricot warp knitting m achines the sinkerbelly is specially shaped to assistwith
Ianding aswellasknock-over.
On Iatch needle machinesthe verge oruppersurface ofthe trick- plate serves as
the knock- oversudace.

The Jack:
Thejackisasecondaryweftknitting eiementwhich may be used to provideflexibility ofIatch
needle selection and movem ent.itisplaced below and in the sam e trickasthe needle and has
itsown operating buttand cam system .The needle may thusbe controlled directly by itsbutt

andcam system orindirectlybythemovementofthejack.


M ethodsofYarn Feeding:
There are two methodsofyarn feeding.Yarn feeding involveseithermoving the yarn pastthe
needlesorm oving the needlespasta stationary yarn feed posi
tion.

W hen the yarn m ovespastthe needles,the fabric willbe stationary because the Ioopshang
from the needles.Thisarrangem entexistson aIIwarp knitting machinesand on weftknitting
m achinesw ith straightbedsorcircularmachineswith stationarycylinderand dials.On straight
machinesofboth weftand warp type the yarn carrierorguide hasa reciprocating traversing
movementwhichtakes i
ttowardsand away from a suitably- placed yarn supply.On stationary
cylinderand dialm achines,how ever,the yarn supply packages m ustrotate in orderto keep
w ith the continuously revolving yarn feeds.Because the Iatch needle bedsofthese flatand
circularweftknittingmachinesarestationary,itisnecessarytoreciprocatethecam - carriages l

346
and revolve the cam - boxes so thatthe needle buttsofthe stationary trickspassthrough and
the needles are thus reciprocated into a knitting action at the exact mom ent when the
traversingfeed suppliesa new yarn.

M ost circular weft knitting m achines have revolving needle cylinders and stationary cams,
feeders and yarn packages.ln thiscase, the fabrictube mustrevolve with the needles asm ust
thefabric rollersand take - up m echanism .

M ethodsofForm ingYarn into Needle Loops:


There are three methodsofform ingthe newsy- fed yarn intothe shape ofaneedse loop:
* M ethod - a:

By sinking the yarn into the space between adjacent needles using Ioop forming
sinkers or other elements w hich approach from the beard side. The action of a
straightbarframe isillustrated buta sim ilaraction occurs on otherbearded needle
weft kni
tting machines.The distance SLofthe following figure which the catch of
the sinkerm oves pastthe hookside ofthe needle is approximately halfthe stitch
length.
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* M ethod - b:
By causing latch needlesto draw theirown needle Ioopsdown through the oid loops
asthey descend one ata tim e down the stitch cam . This method isemployed on aII
Iatch needle weftknitting m achines.The distancq SL ofthe above figure which the
head ofthe Iatch needle descendsbelow the knock- oversurface, isapproximately
halfthe stitch Iength.
M ethod- t:
By causinga warp yarnguideto warpthe yarn loop around the needle. The lapping
movem entofthe guide isproduced from the com bination oftwo separate motions,
a swinging m otion which occursbetween the needlesfrom the frontofthe mahine
to the hook side and return and a lateralshogging ofthe guide parallelwith the
needle baron the hooksideand also the frontofthe machine. The swi
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347

varied from a pattern m echanism .This method is em ployed on allwarp knitting


m achinesand forwrap patterning on w eftknitting macbines.The length ofyarn per
stitch unitisgenerally determ ined bytbe rate ofwarp yarn feed.

Knitting Action orLoop orStitch Form ation on Spring-Bearded Needles:


toop orstitch formation on a single - needle bed weftknitting m achine with spring - bearded
needlesconsistsofthefollowing stages:
1. Yarnfeeding
2. Yarn sinking orkinking
3. Underlapping
4. Pressing
5. Landing
6. Joiningand casting-off
7. Clearing
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Tbe essence ofthesestagesconsistsinthe following operations:

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348

Yarnfeeding(a):ThenewlyfedyarnisIaidunderthethroatsofkinkingsinkers.

2. Yarnsinking(b):The sinkersfalldown betweenthe needles,withtheyarn heldinthe


sinkerthroats.Depth ofsinking determ inesthe Ioop length, i.e,the yarn Iength used to
form a knitted Ioop.

3. UnderIapping (c):Theyarn Iaid on the needle stemsiswithdrawn bythe sinkersin


direction ofneedle hooksand underthe needle beards.

4. Pressing(d):Now,theneedlebeardisimmersedintheneedlegroovebyapresserdisc.
In thiswaythe fed yarn isclosed in the needle hook.

Landing (e):Theknittedfabricrestingon the needlestemsattheneedle bed isnow


pushed by cast-off sinkers tow ards the pressed needle beards, and the fabric loops

(calledoIdIoops)Iandonthebeards.

6. Joining and Casting-off(f):Afterpassing the presserdisc,the cast-offsinkers push


furtherthe knitted fabrictowardsthe tips ofthe needles. Atthe same tim e the kinking
sinkers Ieave the kinked yarn and the cast-offsinkerspush the oId Ioopsoffthe needles
on to the kinked lengthsofyarn.

Clearing (a):Atthisstage the newlyformed loopsare pushed backalongthe needle


stem s,towards the needle bed;the knitted fabric enlarged by a new course ofkni
tted
Ioops,is drawn down by m eans of a take-down mechanism , and the process ofIoop
form ation m ay be started again.

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349

Knitting Action ortoop orStitch Form ation on tatth Needles:


The loop orstitch form ing processin a single needle bed m achine is illustrated in thefoilowing
figure.The loop form ing processisdivided into nine operations:
1. Clearing
2. Yarn laying orfeeding
3. Underlappingoryarn drawing
4. Pressing
5. tanding
6. Joining
7. Casting-offorknocking-over
8. Loop forming and sinking,and
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Knitting Action orknitting cycle on latch needles

1. Clearing (a):The processofstitch formation isstarted bytheclearingoperation.Itsaim


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isto draw the o1d Ioopsbehind the needle Iatch.Clearing is effected during needle lift.
The old loop isretained bythe beak ofthe sinkershifted to the cylindercentre so asto
avoid its dispiacem ent together with the needle.At the time of ciearing,the sinker
remainsim mobile.Clearing iscom pleted whenthe needle reachesitsupperposition.
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2. Yarn Iaying orfeeding (b):In the course ofneedle downward motion,the hooktakes
hold ofyarn com ing from the yarn guide and effects it's laying.Atthe momentw hen
laying isstarted,the sinkerbeak m ustretreata Iittle from the cylindercentre so as not
to furtherim pede the loop form ing process.

3. Underlappingoryarndrawing(c):FurthermovementofyarnjustIaidanditsforwarding
under the needle hook is called under lapping or draw ing. Actually, drawing is
perform ed sim ultaneously with the yarn Iaying when the needle startsto m ove down.

4. Pressing (c):The aim ofpressing isto close the needle hook with the yarn Iaid in it.
W hen the needle Iowers,its Iatch contactsthe oId Ioop Iying nearthe knock- offplane
and retained from lowering by the sinkerchin.The o1d Ioop interacts with the Iatch and
closesit.

5. Landing (d):The essenceofthi.


soperationconsistsinshiftingthe oId Iooponthe closed
Iatch. The Ianding operation'''in Iatch needle machine begins simultaneously w ith
pressing.

6. Joining (d):At joining,the new yarn comes in contact with the oId Ioop.Joining is
accom plished sim ultaneously w ith the beginningofcasting- off.

7. Casting-offorknocking-over(e):Thecasting-offoperation consists in the retreatofthe


oId Ioop from the needle hook.

8. Loop formingand sinking (e & g):Loopform ingconsistsin drawingthe yarngrasped by


the needle through the old Ioop retained by the sinker chin.The Iower the needle
m oves in respectto the knock- off plane at kinking,the Iongeristhe form ed lop and
the lessthe stitch density.

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Consecutive stagesofIoop form ation on Iatch needles

351

9. Loop draw-off(f):The aim ofthisoperation isto draw theoId loop behind the needle
back.Draw-offofnew Ioopsiseffected by sinkerthroats.Atthe sam e time,exercising
theiraction on the knitted fabric,the chinsofsinkers withdraw the oId Ioopsfrom the
knitting zone.The machine take-down mechanism promotesthisoperation.
Loopdraw-offiscompleted when the apexon the interiorside ofthe hookhead reaches
the knock-off plane Ievel,which corresponds to the initialposition for the described
Ioopform ingprocess.

Knitting Action or toop or Stitch Form ation on a W arp Knitting m achine


equipped with Com pound Needles:
The Ioop forming process on single - barwarp knitting m achinesw ith com pound needles may
be divided into ten operations:
1. Clearing
2. Overlapping oryarn Iaying
3. Underlapping
4. Pressing
5. Landing- over
6. Joiningormeshing
7. Sinking
8. Casting- off
9. Loop - forming and
10.Draw - off

The operationsare described asfollows:

1. Clearing (b):The stem ofthe compound needle lifts from the bottom posi
tion.The
newly formed Ioop is under the needle hook.The guide bar is racking over one or

severalneedlespacings(dependingonthekind ofinterlacing)behind the needles,and


occupies the initialposition to form the nextIoop course.The sinkers retain with their
nibs,the knitted fabric from Iifting togetherwith the needles.On furtherrotati
on ofthe
m achinethe needlescome to occupy the initialposition forwarp yarn laying.

2. Overlapping oryarn Iaying (c- g):The needle stem risesand the guide barstartsits
m otion, intersecting the Iine of needles.At the m oment when the guide bar passes

betweenthe needlesthehooksmustreachthebottom hal


foftheguideneedlehole(d).
In the farthest position from the needles, the guide bar m akes a rack for yarn
overlapping,usually forone needle spacing.Figure fillustratesthe position ofthe guide
needle in relation to the needles in the return sw inging ofthe guide bars.On further
rotation of the main shaft, the needle stem starts m oving downward and yarn
overlapping is term inated. The direction of sinker and sliding Iatch motion in
overlapping isshow n by arrowsinfigure cto g.

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352

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Knitting Action orknitting cycle on com pound needles

3. Underlapping(g):Theneedlesstem continuesitsdescent.Theguideneedlehasalready
intersected the Iine ofneedlesand pursuesits m otion.The new ly overlapped yarn does
notm ove togetherw ith the needle stem being retained by the upperedge ofthe sinker
nib.The com bined motionsofthe guide needles and needle stem s bring the new yarns
under the hooks.In underlapping,the sinker starts m oving backward to the m achine
centre.

353

4. Pressing (h):The needle continuesitsdownward motion having risen to its highest

position,the sliding Iatch overlapsthe needle hook so thatthe hooktip engagesinto the
groove in the upperpartofthe Iatch.The sinkercontinuesitsm otion and,with i
tsbelly,
bringstbe old loop along tbe sliding latch to the closed hookofthe needle.

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5. Landing- over(h):Thesinkercontinuesitstraveland,with itsbelly,bringsthe oId loop


on tbe siiding latch.The guide needle continues to retreat.The sliding latch together
w ith the stem m oves downwards.

6. Joining ormeshing (i):The needle stem with the sliding Iatch continuesthe downward
m otion.On the descentofthe needle head to the Ievelofthe upperedge ofthe sinker

belly,the oId loop joinsthe new warp yarn which isunderthe needle hook.The guide
needle continuesto m ove away from the m achine centre.

Sinking(l,j):Thisoperation (i.e.bendingthe new warpyarnwhich isunderthe needle


hook)iseffected byfurtherneedle Iowering.
8. Casting-of'f(i):The needle stem with the sliding latch Iowersbelow the upperedge of
the sinkerbelly.The old Ioop with the sliding latch is cast on to the new ly form ed loop
w hich isunderthe needle hook.

9. Loopforming(i):Theneedlecontinuestomovedownward.
10.Draw - off(j):Draw - offiscarried outonfurtherrotation ofthe machine'smain shak
and needle Iift.Asthe needle Iifts,the yarn m ay be drawn from the newly form ed Ioop
to the guide.

W EFT KNIU ING M ACHINES

M ainfeaturesofa knitting m achine:


A knitting machine is thus an apparatus forapplying m echanicalmovem ent,either hand or
power derived, to primary knitting elements, in order to convert yarn into kni
tted Ioop
structures.The m achine incorporatesand co - ordinatesthe action ofa num berofmechanism s
and devices,each performing specific functions thatcontribute towardsthe efficiency ofthe
knittingaction.
The main featuresofa knitting machine are listed below:
@ Frame:The frame,normally free - standing and eithercircularor rectilinearaccording

to needle bed shape, provides the support for the majority of the machines
mechanisms.
* Powersupply:The machine controland drive system co -ordinatesthe powerforthe

drive ofthe devicesand mechanisms.


* Yarn supply or feeding: The yarn supply consists of the yarn package or beam
accomm odation,tensioning devices,yarnfeed controland yarn feed carriersorguides.
* Knitting action:The knitting system includesthe knitting elem ents,theirhousing,drive
and control, as wellas associated pattern selection and garm ent - Iength control

devices(ifequipped).
@ Fabric Take - away:The fabric take away mechanism includesfabrictensioning,wind up and accom modation devices.
* Quality control:The quality control system includes stop motions, fault detectors,
automaticoilersand Iintrem ovalsystems.
M achines may range from high - production,Iimited - capability modelsto versatile,multi
purpose modelshaving extensive patterningcapabilities.The m ore complexthe structure
being knitted,the Iowerthe knitting speed and efficiency.The sim plest of the knitting
machines would be hand - powered and m anipulated whereas power- driven m achines
may be fully autom atically- program med and controlled from acomputersystem .

Classification ofweftknitting m achines:


W eftknittingm achinesare divided intothe severalwaysasfollows:
A. Accordingto the frame design and needle bed arrangementorconstruction
1.
Circularknitting machine
ll.
Flatknitting m achine

355

B. According to the num berofneedle bed ornum berofneedle setused


1.
Single Jersey knitting m achine
II.
Double Jersey knitting m achine
C. According to the end productofthe weftknitting m achine
1.
Fabric m achine
II.
Garm entIength m achine
D. According to the basic structure ofthe w eftknitting

1.

PlainorSinglejerseycircularknittingm achine

II.
111.
IV.

Rib CircularorFlatknitting m achine


Interlock circularknitting nhachine
Links-linksorPurlflatorcircularknitting m achine

E. According to the typesofneedle used


1.
Knitting m achine equipped w ith Latch needle
a. Circularknitting m achine
One needle bed

Plain,Single-jerseyjacquard,Pifeand Sliverknitmachine

Two needle beds(Dial-cylindermachine)


Rib,lnterlock,Double-jerseyjacquard macbine
Double cylinder
Purlknitting m achine
b. Flat-bed knitting m achine
One needle bed
Dom estic type

Tw o needle beds

Vee-bed,Flat purlknitting m achine


Knitting m achine equipped w ith Spring Bearded needle
a. Circularknitting m achine
O ne needle bed
Sinkerw heel,Loop w heelfram e
b. Straightbarfram e
One needle bed and Two needle beds
Cotton'sPatentorFully-fashioned m achine

FlatKnitting M achine:
Generalstructureofa Flatknitting machine:
The Fram e:
The needle beds
Conceptofmachine gauge
- The c
arriage and yarn guides
- Feedi
ngtheyarn
The take-down device
Selectingthe needles
Selection ofhigh and Iow butts
-

* M ain Features:
Flatknitting machine hastwo stationary needle beds
Latch needlesare used
Angularcamsofa bi-directionalcam system isused
The cam system isattached to the underside ofa carriage,w hichwith
itsselected yarn carriers.
The carriage traversesin a reciprocating manneracrossthe machine
width

There isa separate cam system foreach needle bed


Thetwo cam system sare Iinked togetherby a bridge,which passes
acrossfrom one needle bed to the other.
Normally m achine gauge is3to 18 needlesperinch and m achine
width up to 79 inches.
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ft:)

)*'- Fa- lc

a Diagram ofaV bed,andb Diagram sbowingrelativeposi


ti
onsofneedlesfrom frontandbackbeds

357

AdvantagesofFlatknitting machine:
The flat machine isthe mostversatile ofweftknitting m achines,itsstitch potential
includes needle selection on one orboth beds,racked stitches,needle-outdesi
gns,
striping,tubularknitting,changesofknitting width and Iooptransfer.
A wide range ofyarn counts may be knitted permachine gauge including a ium ber
ofends ofyarn in one knitting system,the stitch Iength range is wide and there is
the possibility ofchangingthe m achine gauge.
* The operation and supervision ofthe machinesofthe sim plertype is relati
vely Iess
arduoustbanforotherweftknitting machines.
* The number of garm ents or panels simultaneously knitted across the m achine is
dependent upon itsknitting width,yarn carrierarrangem ent,yarn path and package
accomm odation.
UsesofFlatknitting machines:
Articlesknitted on flat machines range from trim m ings,edgingsand collarsto garment

panels and integrally knitted garments.The common products:jumpers,pullovers,


cardigans,dresses,suits,trouser suits,hats,scarves,accessories,ribs for straight-bar

machines(fullyfashionedmachines).Cleaningclothes,three-dimensionalandfashioned
productsfortechnicalapplications,multiaxialm achinesare underdevelopment.

ClassificationsofFlatmachines:
M achines range from hand propelled and manipulated m odels to fully-autom ated
electronically controlled power driven machines. The four classes of flat knitting
m achinesare:

a) TheVee-bedflatwhichisbyfartheiargestclass;
b) FlatbedpurlmachineswhichemploydoubleendedordoubleheadedIatchneedles
c) Machineshaving asingle bed ofneedleswhich include mostdomesticmodelsand
the few hand m anipulated intarsia m achines

d) Theuni-directionalmulti-carriagemachinesmadebyonemanufacturer,
a) Vee-bedFlatknittingmachine:
Vee-bed flatknitting m achinesare widely used forthe production ofsweater,collarcuff, etc. This machine describe in details in the following chapter of sweater
knitting.
'

b)FlatPurlknittingmachine:

(
Flat purlorIinks-links m achine with double-headed Iatch needles are Iesscom mon (
than Vee- bed typesto which they aresim ilarin m ethod ofoperation.
k
j

e' :
:

358
* They share with Vee-bed type very good patterning scope, increasing shaping
potentialand relatively Iow productivity.
End-usesand m achinetypesshow slightly lessdiversity than Vee-bed equipmentbut
hand operated typesand circular-flatpurlm achinesexist.

c)DomesticSinglebedFlatmachine:
* These machinesare no longerproduced forindustrialuse.
The needles are actuated by cams mounted in a carriage traversed by hand.
Patterning and abilityto shapethe fabricdepend upon manualoperations.
A typicalm achine hasa36 inch working widthw ith 5to 6 needlesperinch.

Circularknitting m achine;
The term circular covers aII those weft knitting m achines whose needle beds are

arranged in circularcylindersand / ordials,including latch,spring bearded and very


occasionally com pound needl
e m achinery, producing a wide range offabric structures,
garm ents,hosiery and otherarticlesin avariety ofdiam etersand m achinegauges.
Featuresofa Circularknitting machine:
Thecomm on featuresofa circularknitting machine asfollows:

* Circularknittingmachinenormallyhasrotating(clockwise)cylindricalneedle bed (s).


* On circuiar knitting machines latch and com pound needles are used. 0ne seldom
finds bearded needles or other needle types. Norm ally one ortwo sets of Latch
needlesare used.

@ Forsingle-jerseymachine holdingdownsinkersare used,onebetween everyneedle


space.
* Norm allystationary angularcam systemsare used forneedle and sinker.

* Latch needlecylinderandsinkerring(forsingle-jerseymachine)/dial(fordoublejersey rib and interlock machine) revolve through the stationary knitting cam
system .

@ Forsingle-jersey machine,sinkertrickring which issimplyand directlyattached to


the out6ide top ofthe needle cylinderthus causing the sinkersto revolve in unison
with the needles.
Needle retaining spring isalso used
* Stationaryyarn feedersare situated atregularintervalsaround the circumference of
the rotating cylinder,
* Yarn is supplied from cones,placed eitheron an integraloverhead bobbin stand or
on a freestanding creelthrough tensioners, stop m otiohsand yarn guide eyesdow n
to the yarn feederguides.

359
.
.
ide whl
ch I
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.ated w ith itS Ow n setofknitting cam s.
* Yarn feedergu
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achine gauge IS nOrm 3llY used
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to 30 'lnches.U1:1to 60 inch dl
The follow ingfeaturesofa modern circularfabric producing machinethatensure th

high quality fabricis knitted at speed w ith the m inim um ofsupervision:

* The top and bottom stop m otions are spring-loaded yarn supports that pi&
dow nw ards when the yarn end breaks oritstension isincreased.Thisaction relea
the surplus yarn to the feeder, thus preventing a press-off, and sim ultaneou
com pletes a circuit w hich stops the m achine and illum inates an indicator warn

* l
Var
ious
ight
. spring-loaded detector points are carefully positioned around the cylind
according to theirparticularfunction.A pointeris tripped to stop the m achine i
fault orm alfunctioning elem entsuch as a yarn slub,fabric lum p,needle head,ja

etc.
* spoon,
Thetape
positivefeedprovidesthreedifferentspeeds(courselengths)and isdri
nd ccan
be adj
ustedefcrom
etdr
ve
arr
angemen
* a
The
ylinder
needl
am t
sh
ys
emi
for
eac
h feedt.
is contained in a single replace;

sectionand having an exterioradjustmentforthestitchcam slide.

* The autom atic lubrication system .


*
top
and
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@ Star
Thet,
cs
am
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iveninchi
fabr
icbut
w itons.
nding dow n m echanism , which revolves w ith the fj
tube.

OveraIIview ofa M odern Circularknittingm achine

* The revolution counters for each of the three shifts and a pre-set counter for

stoppingthemachineoncompletionofaspecificfabricIength(incourses).
@ Normally side creelisused.
* Lint bloweris used.This reducejthe incidence of knitted-in Iint slubs,to improve
quality when using open-end spun yarns.lt also reduces cross-contam ination by
fibresfrom othermachines.
ProductsofCircularknitting m achine:
Fabric machines:rolls offabric with the following end-uses:jackets,ladi
es'tops,spods
and T-shirts, casual wear, suits, dresses, swim wear, bath robes,

dressing gowns, track suits, jogging suits, furnishing, upholstery,


automotive and technicalfabrics,household fabrics.

Garmentblank machines:Underwear,T-shirts,jumpers,pullovers,cardigans,dresses,
suits, trouser suits, vests, briefs, thermal wear, cleaning cloths,
technicalfabrics.
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361

classifitatidnofiirtularknittingmathines:
There are
- three typesofcircularknitting m achines

a) Revolvingtylinderlattbneedlemachines:
They produce mostweftknitted fabrics.They are oftwo main types-

1.

OpentoporSinkrtoporSinglejerseymachines'

lI.
Dialand cylindermachine
Open top machineshaveone setofneedlesusuallyarranged in the cylinder.
Except in the case ofcertain effed fabric m achines such as pelerine,cylindernd
dialmachinesare ofeitherthe rib orinterlock type.
M achinesofboth typesm ay orm aynothave patterning capabilities.

b) Revolvingcylinderbeardedneedlesingle-jerseyfabritmathine:
There are two types ofcircularbearded needle single-jersey fabric machines still
manufactured,
The SinkerW heelm achine orFrench orTerrottype machine.
The Loop wheelframe orEnglish type m achine.

Both havethe following featuresin com m on:


@ Needlesare fixed in needle bed.
* Revolving needle bed
* Ancillary elem entsm ovingyarn and Ioopsalongthe needle stem s.
Fabrictube knitted with itstechnicalbackfacing outwards.
* Lessnumberoffeedersaccom m odates.
* Com parativel
y Iow productivity com pensated by an ability to produce unusual
and superiorquality knitted structures.

c) CirculargarmentIengthmachines:
* They are generally of body-width size or larger having a cylinder and dial
arrangem entora double cylinder.
@ They are of the sm all-diam eter hosiery type with either a single cylinder, a
cylinderand dialordouble cylinders.

FabricM achine:
The fabricmachine hasthe following main features:

* Circular m achines,knitting tubular fabric in a continuous uninterrupted Iength of


constantwidth.

362

Large diameter,Iatchneedlemachines,knitfabricathigh speed(also known asyard


goodsorpiecegoodsmachines).
The fabric is m anually cut away from the machine; usually in rollform , after a
convenientIength hasbeen knitted.

Mostfabric isknitted on circularmachines,eithersingle-cylinder(single-jersey)or


cylinderand dial(double-jersey),oft'
he revolving needle cylindertype,because of
*

*
*

theirhigh speed and productive efficiency.


Sinkerw heeland loop wheelframes could knit high quality special
ty fabrics, with
bearded needles,although circular machines em ploying bearded needles are now
obsolete.The production ratesofthese machineswere uncom petitive.
Unlessused in tubularbody-width,the fabrictube requiressplitting into open width.
The fabric is finished on continuous finishing equipment and is cut-and-sewn into
garm ents,oritis used forhousehold and technicalfabrics.
The productivi
ty, versatility and patterning facilities of fabric m achines vary
considerably.
Generally cam settingsand needle set-outsare notaltered duringthe knitting ofthe
fabric.

Garm ent-length m achines:


The garm ent-length machine hasthe following main features:

* They include straightbarframes,mostflats,hosiery,Ieg wears and glove m achines,


and circulargarmentmachinesincluding sweaterstrip m achines.
.
They knitting garment-length sequences,which have a tim ing orcounting device to

initiate an additional garment-length programming (collectively termed ''the


machine control/
')mechanism.This co-ordinates the knitting action to produce a
garment-length structuralrepeat sequence in a wale-wise direction.The garm ent
width may ormaynotvarywith inthe garm entIength.
Theyare coarsergauge m achine thanfabric machines.
ltautomayically initiatesany alteration to the otherfacilitieson the machine needed
to knita garm ent-length construction sequence instead ofa continuousfabric.
The m achine controlmay have to initiate correctly-tim ed changes in som e oraIIof
thefollowing:
Cam-settings,needle set-outs,feedersand machine speeds.
Itmustbe ableto override and cancelthe effectofthe patterning m echanism in rib

bordersandbeeasilyadjustablefordifferentgarmentsizes.

The fabric take-down m echanism m ust be more sophisticated than forcontinuous


fabricknitting.
* Thistake-dow n m echanism hasto adaptto varying rates ofproduction dtlring the
knittingofthe sequence and,on som e m achinesbe able to assistboth in the setting

363

up on em pty needles and the take-away of separate garments or pieces on


com pletion ofthe sequence.
* Garm entsm ay be knitted to size eitherin tubularoropen-width;in the lattercase
more than one garm ent panelmay be knitted sim ultaneously across the knitting
bed.
@ Large-diametercircularm achinesand wide Vee-bed flat machinescan knitgarment

blanksthatarelattersplitintotwoormoregarmentwidths(blanket-widthknitting).
* They produce knitwear, outerwear and underwear. Underwear may be knitted
eitherin garm ent-length orfabric form,w hereas knitwearis normally in garm entIength form, w hich is a generic term applied to most weft knitted outerwear

garments such as pullovers,jumpers,cardigans and sweaters,usually knitted in


machine gauges coarserthan E14.Jersey wear is a generic nam e applied to weft

knittedfabric(single-jersey,doublejersey).ltiscutandmade-upfrom fabricusually
knittedonlargecircularmachines(26*or30*diameter),althoughthereareIarger
and smallerdiameterm achinesused.Generally,gaugesarefinerthan E14.

Plain orSingledersey CircularLatch Needle Knitting M achine:


Description ofthe m achine:

Plainfabricisasinglejerseyfabricand isproduced byonesetofneedle.Mostofsingle-jersey


fabric is produced on circular machines whose latch needle cylinder and sinker ring revolve
through the stationary knitting cam system s, which together w i
th their yarn feeders are
situated atregularintervalsaroundthe circum ference ofthecylinder.

The yarn is supplied from cones,placed eitheron an integraloverhead bobbin stand oron a
free- standingcreel,through tensioners,stop motionsand guide eyesdown to the yarn feeder
guides.The fabric,in tube form ,isdrawn downwardsfrom insidethe needle cylinderbytension
rollers and is wound onto the fabric batching rollerofthe w inding down frame.The winding
down m echanism revolves in unison with the cylinder and fabric tube and is rack - Iever
operated via cam -followersrunning onthe undersideofa profiled cam ring.
Asthe sinkercam - plate is mounted outside on the needle circle,the centre ofthe cylinderis
open and the m achine isreferred to asan open top orsinkertop m achine.Com pared with a rib
machine,a plain m achine is simplerand m ore econom icalwith a potentialofm ore feeders,
higherrunning speeds and the possibility of knitting a widerrange of yarn counts.The most
populardiameteris26''givingan approximatefinished fabricwidth of60''to 70''.
n2

An approximatel
y suitable countm ay be obtained usingthe form ula Ne= F-.,where Ne= cotton
-

18

countorEnglish system and G = gauge in npi.Forfinegaugesa heavierand strongercountm ay


be necessary.

Thefollowingfigureshowsacross-sectionofthe knittinghead alIofwhosestationarypartsare


shaded.

1. Yarn feederguide which isassociated with i


tsoWn setofknittingcams.
2. Latch needle
3. Holding - down sinker,one between every needle space

4. Needlecylinder(inthiscase,revolvingclockwise)
5 Cylinderdriving wheel
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7. Sinkeroperating cam sw hich form a raised trackoperating inthe recessofthe sinker
8. Sinkercam - cap
9. Sinker trick ring which is sim ply and directly attached to the outside top ofthe
needle cylinderthuscausing the sinkersto revolve in unison with the needles
10.Needle retaining spring
11.Needle- operating camswhich,likethe sinkercam sare stationary
12.Cam - box
13.Cam - plate
14.Head plate
15.Cylinderdri
ving pinion attached to the main drivingshaft.
Cam system :

The cam system consistsofneedle cam system and sinkercam system .The following figure
show sthe arrangem entand r.elationship betw een the needle cam sand sinkercam sasthe
.

',

365

elem entspassthrough in a Iek to rightdirection with the Ietters indicating the positionsofthe
elem entsatthe variouspointsinthe knittingcycle.
The needle cam race consistsofthefollowings,
1. Theclearing cam orraising cam
2. Stitch orIowering cam
3. Upthrow cam

4. Guardcam ofclearingcam (1)


5. Return cam and

6. Guardcam ofreturncam (5)


Stitch cam (2)and upthrow cam (3)are verticallyadjustabletogetherforalteration of
stitch Iength.
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The sinkercam race consistsofthe followings,


7. The race cam
8. The sinker- withdrawing cam and
9. The sinker- return cam

Thesinker- returncam isadjustableinaccordancewiththestitchlength.


The arrangementofthe knittingelem ents:
The following figuresshow the arrangem entofthe knitting elementsandtheircombined action

duringstitch formation ona plaincircularknittingmachine.Thefigure (a)showsaperspective


ofa cylindercam ofa plain circularknitting machine asseenfrom outside;Figure (b)isa
persped ive ofthe related sinkercam asseen from above.ln both the figures im portantneedle

andsinker(holding-downand knock-overversion)posi
tionsduringsti
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(psition 1toposition6).

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a cam track 5,is responsible forits verticalmovem entneeded forstitch formation. The tam
segments 6 and 7 are fixed to a stationary cylindercam covering 8 and form the cam track.
During the rotary movement of the cylinder the needle obtains its vertical movement

dependingontheshapeofthecam trackinfigure(a).A sinkerring9 isplacedonthetoppart


ofthe needle cylinder3', itrotateswith the cylinder.Holding-down orknocking-pversinkers 11
are housed in radialgrooves10 and theycrosswiththe cylinderneedles.

Figure - a

Fi
gure - b

Position - 1 Restposi
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Position- 4 :Yarn presenting position, Position- 5 :Cast- on position,Position- 6:Knock- overposition
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p3 = sinker cam rin
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367

These sinkers obtained their m ovem ents for stitch form ation by m eans of the sinker cam
segment 12,which is fixed to a stationaw sinkercam ring 13.In the construction shown,the
sinkercam ring 13 is Ioosely housed on the sinkerring 99the holding fixture prevents itfrom
turning round.The sinkerthroat 15 ofthe holding-dow n orknocking-over sinker holds down
the fabric when the needle is moved upwards.The stitchesare knocked overatthe knock-over
edge 16.Thefeeder17 presentsthe yarnto the needles.
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Positi
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Position - 1:The rest position is shown in the following figure.The top edge ofthe
needle head ison levelwitb the knock- overedge ofthe holding - down orknockingoversinker.The latterhasbeen m oved towardsthe cylindercentre to such an extent,
thatitsthroatholdsdown the sinkerloop ofthe kinked yarn Ioop,presentinthe needle
head.
Position -2:Thisposition isshow n in the figure below.The needle has been m oved
upwardsfrom i
tsrestposition,wherebythe fabricwasheld down in the sinkerthroat.

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Position - 3:From the tucking-in position the needle has now been moved into its
highestposition.Since the fabrichad been held down bythe throatofthesinker, the oId
Ioop slideson the needle stem to a position beneath the Iatch. The yarn feederprevents
aclosing ofthe Iatch.The sinkerremainsatrest.
Position - 4:The needle is moved down from the clearing position. Justbefor the old
Ioop begins to close the Iatch the new yarn m ust be Iaid into the needle head by the
yarn feeder.In orderthatthe Iatch can be closed by a furtherdownward m ovementof
the needle, yarn feeding m ust be completed im mediately after crossing the yarn
presenting position.In the figure,the sinkerbegins moving towardsthe rightand away
from the cylinder centre, since the fabric no Ionger needs to be held by the sinker
throat.The verticalposition ofthe needle isthe same in the yarn presenting position
and the tucking-in position.The fundam entaldifference, however,isthatinthe tuckingin position the oId Ioop from the previous row Iies on the needle Iatch, butis beneath
the Iatch forstitch formation inthe yarn presenting position.

* Position - 5:From the yarn presenting position the needle ism oved furtherdownwards
by meansofthe take-down segment18along with the counterguide segm ent19, figure

(a).Now theneedl
e latchisclosedbytheoIdIoopandthenew yarnisheld intheclosed
needle head.The sinkerhasbeen m oved into itsextreme rightposition, so thatthe oId
Ioop Iieson the knock-overedge and the new yarncan be pulled through the old Ioop.
* Position - 6:The needle is moved furtherdow iwards by meansofthe take-down cam

segment 18 and the counterguide segment19,fi


gure (a)and itpullsthe new yarn
through the old Ioop.Thisisnow knocked overasa new stitch. Atthe same time a Ioop
isform ed by the new yarn.The take-down segment 18 and the counterguide segm ent
19 can be shifted diagonally and be exactly setto given valuesw i
th the help ofa scale.

Thusitispossibleto preciselyadjusttheIengthofthenewlyformedIoop

SinkerTim ing:
The mostforward position ofthe sinkerduringthe knitting cycle isknown asthe push pointand
itsrelationshipto the needlesisknown asthe sinkertiming.

Ifthesinkercam ring isadjusted so thatthe sinkersare advancedto the pointwherethey rob


yarn from the new stitches being formed, a lighter-weight fabric with oversized sinker lpops
and smallerneedle Ioopsisproduced.
lfthe ring ismoved in the opposite direction atighter, heavierfabric isproduced having sm aller
sinkerIoopsand Iargerneedle Ioops.Thetim ing isnorm allysetbetween thesetwo extremom

369

Rib CircularKnitting M achine:


Destription ofthe machine:

In thism achinegroup there isone setofneedleson thecircumference ofaverticalcylinderand


a second setof needles,arranged perpendicularto the first setand mounted on a horizontal
dial.On m ostofthe circularknitting machinesthe cylinderand dialrotate,w hereas the cams
with yarn feederguidesare stationary.
The followingfigure showsa cross-sectionalview ofthe region containingthe knitting elem ents

ofa rib (double knit)circularknitting machine.The set-up ofthe cylinder3 with itsknitting.
elements1to9isthesameaswithplaincircularknittingmachines.lnahorilontal(rib)dial10
grooves11 are m illed in.The latch needles12are housed and guided in these grooves.The dial
needle 12 obtainsits motion forstitch formation througb its butt 13,which extendsinto a cam
track 14.Thiscam track 14 isformed by the cam parts 15 and 17,which in turn are fixed to a
dialcam plate 18.During the rotation ofthe cylinder and the dialthe cylinder needle 1 is
moved vertically and tbe dialneedle 12 is m oved horizontally,corresponding to the shape of
the cam trackinthe cylinderand dialcams.

ln agauge rangefrom 5to 20 needleperinch(npi),anapproximatelysuitablecountmaybe


G2

obtained usingtheformulaNe= u ,whereNe=cottoncountorEnglishsystem andG =npi.


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Needle gatingorsetting orCoordination betw een cylinderand dialgrooves:

Depending on the coordination betweenthe cylindergroove and the (rib)dialgroove one


differentiates between the ribsettingforthe production ofdoubleknitfabricsand the interlock

settingfortheproductionofdoubleknitlocked fabrics(interlockfabrics).

* Rib gating:The follow ing figure showsthissetting in a frontview and in a top view.Th

grooves1 to 6 ofthe dial(Y)and the grooves1to 6 ofthecylinder(Z)are alternately


arranged or gated. W ith this arrangement the cylinder and dial needles cross one

another.In any given working point(feeder)aIlthe cylinderand dialneedlescan be


used.The majority of circular knitting machines work with a rib setting.They are
generally called rib m achines;those of them in the gauge range E14 to E20 are also
called fine rib machines.
* Interlotk gating:Frontand top views of this setting or gating are show n in thesfigure

below,whereasfigure (with needles)illustratesitatanangle.Infigurethe grooves1to


6ofthedial(Y)arealigneddirectlyoppositetothegrooves1to 6 ofthe cylinder(Z).As

such,thecylinderand bialneedlesare also directlyoneoppositetothe other,figure


(with needles).Therefore atanygiven working point(feeder),cylinderand dialneedles
opposite to one anothercan neverwork atthe same tim e,because they would-collide

while being cleared,figure (withneedles).Related to aworkingpoint(feeder),itisthus


norm alusagein interlocksettingto work with

'

Dialneedlesin grooves1,3,5,...
Cylinderneedlesin grooves2,4,6,...
Dialneedlesin grooves 2,4,6,...
Cylinderneedlesin grooves 1,3,5,...
Dialneedlesonly
Cylinderneedlesonly.

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371

Wo
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and in the dial,and these have to be controlled and cleared independently.One sortof '
.
needle is normally prejent in the grooves 1,3,5,.. and the other needle sort in the
grooves2,4,6,...However,otherneedle combinationsare also possible.

Infigure (with needles)theneedletypeszland zkinthe cylinder(Z)andtheneedle


types yk and ylin the dial(Y)have differently arranged needle butts.The distance
betweenneedleheadandneedlebutt(workinglength)isnotthesame.0nealsorefers
to a shortdialneedle yk and a Iong dialneedle ylorto a shortcylinderneedle zkand a

Iongcylinderneedlezl.The needle arrangementinfigure(with needle)issuch,thata


Iong cylinderneedle zlisdirectly opposite to a shortdialneedle yk and a shortcylinder
needle zk is directly opposite to a Iong dialneedle yI.As a result,the short dialand
cylinderneedlesare gated towardsone another,and similarl
y the Iong dialand cylinder

needles.Atanygiven working point(feeder)one can work eitherwith aIItheshort


needlesorw ith aIIthe Iong needles.Correspondingly,one also refersto a shortorto a

Iongfeeder.Double knit(rechts- rechts)interlockmachinesare normally builtasrib


m achineswith finergauges.
Conversionfrom Ribto Interlock gating:

As a rule rib machines can be converted into interlock m achines when they have atIeasttwo
different needl: types both in the cylinder and in the dial,whereby these needles can be
independently controlled.A clutch in the drive forthe cylinder and the dialis used to turn
eitherthe cylinderorthe dialoverhalfa needle pi
tch,so thatthe cylinderand dialneedlesare
directly opposite to one another.The working procedure atany given feederis now the same
asin the usualinterlocksetting.Theoretically,interlock machinescan also be converted into rib
m achines in the same manner.Interlock machinesare howevernorm ally in a finergauge range.
W hen cylinderand dialneedlescrossone anotherin rib setting,there would be very Iittlespace

inbetween,andthiscould Ieadtostrainanddamageofyarns.Generallydoubleknit(rechtsrechts)circularknittingmachineswithaninterlocksettinghavegaugesfinerthan224.
Needle Tim ing orCoordination betw een cylinderand dialcam s:
Needle tim ing isthe position ofthe dialneedle knock-overpointrelativeto the cylinderneedle
knock-over point measured as a distance between the knock-over points ofthe two lowering

cams,i.e.thecylinderanddialsti
tch cams,in needles.Collectivetimingadjustmentisachieved
by m oving the dialcam plate clockwise or anti-clockwise relative to the cylinder, individual

adjustmentatparticularfeedersasrequiredisobtainedbymovingorexchangingthestitchcam
profile.Depending on the coordination between the cylinderand dialcam s,one differentiates

betweensynchronizedtiming(alsoknownaspoint,jacquardor2x2timing)anddelayedtiming
(alsoreferredtoasriborinterlocktiming).
Needle timing influence the appearance,the quality and propertiesofthe fabric produced on a
rib circularknitting m achine.

'

372
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Synthronized timing:
The cylinderand the dialneedles knock-overtheirknitted Ioopsatthe sam etim e. ltisthe term

used when the two positionscoincidi withtheyarn being pulled in an alternating mannerin
two directionsbytbe needlesthuscreating a hi
gh tension during loop form ation.
In thiscase the importantthingsthat''the knocking-overdepth ofthe cylinderneedles isequal
tothe knocking-overdepthofthe dialneedles.
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Synchronized tim ing

Delayedtim ing

W hen this tim ing is used the cylinderand dialneedles are pulled in the sam e position. The
knocking-over position is attained at the same point by the cylinder and dial needles.
Synchronizedtimingcanbeused onallmachinesandfoiaIIrib and interlockknittedstrudures
except:
* Thosewith Iaid-in yarns
* Sim ultaneoustuckingatcylinderand dialneedles
* Riband interlockbased pile fabrics.

373

Structures knitted using synchronized tim ing w illbe loose and consistofuneven stitches.
The following figures illustrate the phasesofstitch orIoop form ation on a rib circularknitting
machine workingwith synchronized tim ing.
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Delayed timing:

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Thedialneedlesknock-overtheirknittedIoopsIaterthanthecorrespondingcylinderneles.
?
W ith delayed timingthe dialknock-overoccursafteraboutfourcylindernee'
dleshave drain'
loops and are rising slightly to relieve the strain.The dialIoops are thus com posed bf the

extended Ioopsdrawnoverthedialneedle stemsduiing cylinderknock-oker,plusa little yain


robbed from the cylinderloops.The dialIoops are thus largerthan the cylinderIoopsand the

fabricistighterandhasbettrrijidity,itisalsoheavierandwiderandIessstrainisproducedon
theyarn.Sotheadvantigesofusingdelayedtimingasfollows:
Tightstructure
* Evenlyformqd stitches
*

oodrigidity

* Heavierand widerfabric
@ Lessstrain on theyarn during the sti
tch form ation
Longerdialstitchescom pared to cylinderstitches.

The knocking-overdepth ofthe cylinderneedle m ustbe ktimesthe knocking-overdepth ofthe


(ji1,Irl(,t?($I(, l!,#1(,rtq1:cz1L.;!..............1L.6;.

Ribjacquardorbroad ribscannotbe produced in delayedtimingbecausethere willnotalways


be cylipderneedles knitting eitherside ofthe dialneedlesfrom which to draw yarn.Although
dialknock-overis delayed,it is actually achieved by advancing the tim ing ofthe cylinder
kpock-over.
'

W hen thistiming isset,the dialneedles knockovertheirIoops Iaterthan the cylinderneedles


Iying opposite to them .Based on the synchronous tim ing,the dialcamplate is moved in the
direction ofrotation ofthe machine overa distance equaling aboutfive to six needle pitches.
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Pos.8 Knock-overposition ofdialneedle

'

375
The bove figure showsa cylinderand adialcam setfordelayed timing.The knock-overpointof
the dialneedles,position'8, is shifted in the direction of rotation ofthe machine overthe
distance correspondingto the delayed tim ing,in relationto the knockoverpointofthe cylinder
needles,position 6.On a circularknitting machine setfordelayed timing onlysuch fabrictypes
can be produced,where alIthe cylinder needles work in each feeder.Iffabrics are produced
using only everysecond cylinderneedle,knitting can be carried outin an interm ediate position.

Forthis purpose the knock-overpointofthe dialneedles is shifted overjusttwo orthree


needle pitches with regard to the knock-overpointofthe cylinderneedles.Asa rule,knitting
with delayed tim ing results in fabrics with a more even loop appearance as com pared to
synchronoustiming.
Thefollow ing figuresshow thevariousstitch form ation phasesofa rib circularknitting m achine
with delayed tim ing.They differto some extentascom paredto synchronoustiming.
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Stitch orIoop form ation ofRib circularknitting m achine with delayed timing
Posi
tion - 1:The rest position for the cylinder and dialneedles.The heads of both these
needlesare inthe areaofthe corresponding knock-overedgesofthe cylinderand the dial.
Position - 2:The dialand cylinderneedles move more orlesssimultaneously into theirtucking
positions,ascan beseen in the abovefigure,posi
tion 2.
Position- 3:Afterthelatchesofthe dialand cylinderneedleshave been opened in thetucking
position,the yarn feedercom esinto action in circum ferentialdirection;itstask here isto

376
preventa premature closing ofthe Iatches.The cylinderand dialneedles attain theirclearing
positions,above figure,position 3, roughlyatthe sam etime.
Position - 4:The cylinderand dialneedlesare pulled backagain and they m ove into theiryarn
presenting positions.The newly presented yarn is Iaid in the open needle hooks ofboth the
needles,abovefigure,pqsition4.

Position - 5:Since the dialcams have been shifted in the direction ofrotation ofthe m achine
thecylinderneedlesare pulled earlierthanthe dialneedles. The cylinderneedle Ioop closesthe
latch and lieson the closed head ofthe cysinderneedle. The dialneedle is approximately in its
yarn presenting position,above figure,position 5. The yarn feederstops priorto the cast-on
posi
tion,so thatthe cylinderneedle Iatch can be closed.
Position - 6:The cylinderneedle ispulled furtheruntilitreachesitsIowestpointin the clearing
position,as shown in the above figure, position 6.The dialneedle is stillroughl
y in its yarn
presenting position.The newly presented yarn is pulled through the cylinder needle loop to
form a new Ioop.The oId loop is knocked over as a cylinderstitch. The Iength of this new
cylinderIoop determ inesthe Iength ofthe cylinderand dialsti
tchesto be formed Iater, since
the dialneedle can obtain yarn only from the nei
ghbouring cylinderIoops during knock-over.
Thefefore the drawing-in depth ofthe cylinderneedle issetsom ewhatIongerin delayed timing
ascom pared to synchronoustiming.

Position - 7:The dialneedle is row pulled back and itm oves into the cal on position,above
figure position 7;the loop lies on the closed Iatch of the dialneedle. From its knock-over
positionthe cylinderneedle now beginsto move upwardsin thedirection ofitsrestposition.
-

Position - 8:ln thisposition, the diasneedle attainsits knock-overposition, while the cylinder
needle is stillapproaching its rest position. Here the drawing-in depth ofthe dialneedle m ust
be sufficiently measured so thatthe dialneedle can form a Ioop outofthe yarn Iengthsofthe
cylinder Ioops, drawn in earlier by the neighbouring cylinder needles in their knock-over
positions,position 6.A closerexam ination revealsthat, while being pulled back,the dialneedle
drawsin more yarnfrom the cylinderIoop placed contrary to the direction ofmachine rotation
,
as com pared to the other neighbouring cylinder Ioop, since the Iatter has already given up a
partofitsyarn reserve to the previouslyformeddialIoop.

Due to thedelayed knock-overofthe dialneedle one obtainsmore uniform stitch Iengths, since
the given yarn length,determ ined by the drawing-in depth ofthe cylinder needle, is evenly
distributed overseveralstitches. Thisresultsin a m ore even appearance ofthe fabric. Afterthe
knock-overpositionthedialneedle isguided into itsrestposition.
Advanted tim ing:
This isreverse ofdelayed tim ing in thatthe cylinderIoopsrob from the dialproducing tighter
dialIoops,advancementcan only be aboutone needle, thistype oftim ing issometimes used in

theproduction offigured ripple doublejerseyfabricswhere selected cylinderneedlescan rob


from the aIIknittingdialneedles.

377

lnterlock CircularKnitting M achine:


M ain featuresofInterlock m achine:

lntrlock isproduced mainly on specialcylinderand dialcircularmachinesand on some doublesystem Vee-bed flatmachines.An interlockmachine m ustfulfillthefollowing requirements:

lnterlock gating,the needlesintwo bedsm ustbe exactlyopposite to each otherso only


one ofthetwo can knitatanyfeeder.
Two separate cam systems in each bed,each controllinghalfthe needlesin an alternate
sequence,one cam system controls knitting at one feederand the other at the next
feeder.
* The needlesare setoutalternately,one controlled from one cam system the nextfrom
the other,diagonaland notopposite needlesin each bed knittogether.
The conventionalinterlock machine has needles oftwo differentIengths,Iong needles knitin
one camztrack and shortneedleskni
t in a track nearerto the needle heads.Long needle cams
are arranged forknitting atthe firstfeederand shortneedle cam s atthe second feeder.The
needles are set-outalternately in qach bed with long needlesopposite to shortneedles.Atthe
firstfeederlong needles in cylinderand dialknit,and atthe second feedershortneedles knit
together, needles not knitting at a feederfollow a run-through track.On modern interlock
m achinesthe needlesare ofthe same length.

The knitting action orStitch formation ortoopform ation ofCircularInterlock M athine:


A very popularvariantofa circulartwo needle-bed m achine is the interlock machine.ln the
interlock m achines,the consecutive loop-forming process is effected w i
th distribution.ln this

case,the needlesofboth beds(systems)operateconsecutivelyand then afteracertaindelay


on the passive needle bed (dial).The active needle bed isthat which receivesthe yarn for
forming loopsfrom the yarn carrier.
The following figure illustratesthe loop forming process in the interlock m achine where short
cylinderneedlesare designated with 1,2,3,and so on;the long cylinderneedlesare designated
with 1',2/,3'and so on;shor'
t dialneedlesw i
th 1,11,11!and so on;long dialneedleswith 1',11',111'
and so on;old loopswith C and the new thread with N.

Upon reaching its extreme top position forclearing,the cylinderneedle 7 starts moving down,
as itm ustrecei
ve the yarn which is being laid.In the course ofthisoperation,the loopsofthe
cylinderand the dialneedlesshiftfrom the needle Iatchesonto theirstems.

ThedialneedleVIl,whichhaseffectedclearing,retreatsbackwardsjustenoughto bringtheoId
loop w hicb itcarriesunderitshook.The needle 8 receives a new Ioop,while the needle VI1
rem ainsatdwell.The needle 9 isshown inthe m om entw hen pressing iseffected and needle

10duringtheoperationsofjoining,casting-offand atthebegihningofIoopforming.Thenew
1%:
Ioop
formed ofoncom ingyarn lieson the stem ofthe dialneedlesX and Xl.Atthe sametimeof
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The needle XIffects Ianding over and the needles 12 and 13 Iift,and as a result,the loops
formed by these needles are released.The needles X6land Xl4Ithus acquire the possibility of
form ing new loopsbyrobbing the yarn from the released Ioops.So,forinstance,the needle XII
startsform ing a new Ioop by reducing the new Ioop ofthe needle 12.The needle 13 and 14
continue theirupward m otion.W hile the needlesXlll,XIV from theirIoops,the needles 15 and
XV have already formed new loops.A fullIoop course on the interlock machine isform ed by
two knittingfeeders.
lnterlotk Cam System:

The cam system consists of cylinder needle cam system and dialneedle cam system .The
following figure showsthe necessary cylinderand dialneedle cam mingJto produce one course
ofordinary interlockfabric which is actually the work oftwo knitting feeders.ln this example
the dialhas a swing tuck cam which willproduce tucking ifswung out ofthe cam -track and
.

knittingifin action.

379

fylinder<am system :The cylinderneedle cam system consistsofthe followings,


* A,isa clearing cam which liftsthe needle to clearthe oId Ioops.

B and C,are the stitch and guard cams respectively and are vertically adjustable for
varying stitch length.
* D,isa upthrow cam,to raise cylinderneedlew hilstdialneedle knocksover.
* Eand F,are theguard cams,to com plete the track.
* G and H,provide the trackforthe idling needles.

Dialtam system :The dialneedle cam system consistsofthefollowings,


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* 1,isa raising cam to the tuckposition only.

* 2and3,aretheadjustabledialknock-overcams.
4,isa guard cam to completethe track.
* 5,isan auxiliary knock-overcam to preventthe dialneedle re-enteringoId loop.
6 and 7,provide the trackforthe idling needles.
8, is a swing type clearing cam,w hich may occupy the knitting position as shown at
feeder1 orthetuckposition asshown atfeeder2.

Interlock thus requires eight cam system s or locks in orderto produce one com plete course,
two cam system sforeach feederin each needle bed.Basic cylinderand dialmachinesand flatm achineshavingthisarrangem entare often referred to aseight-lockm achines.

380

Links-tinksorPurlKnitting M achine
stitchformation orIoop formation on a purlknitting m achine:
Links isthe Germ an word forIeftand itindicatesthatthere are Ieftorreverse Ioopsvisible on

each side ofthe fabric.In a similarmanner,the German term forrib is rechts-rechts (rightright).
The following figuresshow the m ain loop-forming elem entsare two headed Iatch needlesand
needle sliders.

L
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Double headed Iatch needle and Slider

In flatIinks-linksm achines,the double headed Iatch needlesare arranged in slotsform ed either

by grinding orby inserting tricks cand d in the following figure (a)into specialslotsofthe
needle bedsa and b.The needlesmay passfrom the slotofone needle bed into the slotofthe

other,astheseslotsaredisposedoneoppositetheother.Th&ribsofthepartitionscanddhave
teeth D and Jwhichform a knock-overbar.
Two sliders M and N correspond to each needfe.The slider M can engage the needle's Ieft
head, while the slider N can engage the right head of the needle, and displace it in a

longitudinaldirection.Thefigure(a)showsthatthe sliderN isengagedwiththe needle'sright


head.On the movementofthe needle from rightto left,the needle Iatch opens and the loop is

transferredtothemiddleoftheneedle,asshowninthefigure(b).
On the forward m ovementofthe sliders,theirheads raise the bossesL and R and both sliders
disengage with the needle.The sliderwhich isfirstto begin its backward m otion Iowers and

engagesthe needle head.Asshown in tbe figure (c),the sliderM,upon engagementwith the


needle'slefthead,movesthe needle in the direction ofthe arrow es while the sliderN remains
free.
The yarn Y is Iaid on the right head ofthe needle.At the tim e ofyarn Iaying onto the needle,
the sam e conditions m ust be satisfied as when knitting in