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# Pump and Hydraulic Calculation

h = hd hs

hyd =

hm
h

## Overall Efficiency (o) is the ration of theory power

with actual power.

o =

Ptheory
Pactual

Qh m
P

Where
=Specific Weight = g (N/m3)
P = Drive power (W)
Energy Equation (Bernoulis Equation)

P1
V2
P
V2
+ Z 1 + 1 + h p hL = 2 + Z 2 + 2

2g

2g
Suction Head (hs, m) is elevation different from
minimum possibility of water surface level to center
line of suction pump. (- when reference point higher
than suction pump, + when reference point lower than
suction pump)
elevation different from maximum possibility of water
surface level to center line of discharge pump.

has =

Pas ( pa )
g

## Net Head (hnet, m) is power in term of water height.

can create, by checking thought pressure gauge.

hm =

Pout Pin
g

## Which, normally hm < h

Hydraulic Power (HP, W) is the theory power for
liquid transportation.
HP = ghQ

Where
P1 = Pressure from 1st reference point (Pa)
P2 = Pressure from 2nd reference point (Pa)
Z1 = water level from 1st reference point (m)
Z2 = water level from 2nd reference point (m)
V1 = Decreasing velocity of 1st reference point (m/s)
V2 = Increasing velocity of 2nd reference point (m/s)
hP = Power receiving from pump (m)
hL = Power lose from piping and fitting (m)
(if either size of 1st reference or 2nd reference are
larger than 10 times of pipe diameter, V1 and V2 can be
negligible)
Net Head (hnet, m) under Bernoulis equation is the
following.

V 2 V 2
P P
h p = 2 1 + ( Z 2 Z1 ) + 2 1 + hL

2g 2g
Net Positive Suction Pressure (NPSH) is the net
suction pressure after minus suction loss and vapour
pressure.
NPSH consist of NPSHA and NPSHR

Where
Q = Flow Rate (m3/s)
Break Power or Shaft Power (BP, W) is power input
to pump which related with pump efficiency (p)

BP =

HP

## Drive Power (DP, W) is power input to motor drive

which related with motor efficiency (D)

DP =

BP

## NPSHA (available net positive suction head, m) can be

calculated from the actual location.

NPSH

P1
V2
P
+ ( Z 1 Z 2 ) 2 hL V

2g

Basis
1st reference point is bigger than suction pipe more
than 10 times, V1 = 0 m/s and
P2 must more than Pv to protect cavitation (P2 > Pv) then

P2

= NPSH

PV

Where
Pv = Vapour Pressure (Pa)
NPSHR (Required net positive suction head, m) this
value will get from manufacture but, anyway, roughly
a calculation for expedition pump characteristic is;
NPSH

N Q ( m 3 / min)
=3

## Cavitation incase loss suction pump

Where
N = revolution (rpm)
S = Specific suction velocity

rpm m 2
min

NPSH

1.3 NPSH

## From Bernoulis equation

P1
V2
P
V2
+ Z 1 + 1 + h p hL = 2 + Z 2 + 2

2g

2g
Assume that V1 = 0 m/s, Z1 = 0 m (reference point)
and hp is not available.
Then

Vs2
hs =

h fs

2g
Patm

## Cavitation is main problem about pump such as

abnormal sound, vibration, corrosion and less
performance.
Cavitation can be occurred generally two styles, one is
throatting in pipe and the other one is loss suction
pump.
Cavitation in pipe (throatting)
From Bernoulis equation

P1
V2
P
V2
+ Z 1 + 1 + h p hL = 2 + Z 2 + 2

2g

2g
Assume that pipe is in same elevation then Z1 = Z2
Flow rate is constant but velocity is related with pipe
size. And pressure which can cause cavitation is
vapour pressure.
From Pv = Patm + Pgauge which Pgauge = P2
Then P2 = PV Patm

Pv

Where
V2 = Vs = Suction velocity (m/s)
hfs Suction Friction Loss (m)
Note The result, hs is the theory maximum allowable
height (deep) for suction pipe.
The other method for checking the height (deep) and
pump are suitable properly, or not, by checking
Thoma cavitation coefficient ().
Thoma Cavitation Coefficient ()

( Patm PV )
=

V 2

s
2 g + hs + h fs
hm

N
c = 0.103 S
1000

## Criteria Cavitation will happen when < c

Friction loss (hL or hf, m) is loss from pipe length
(main-loss) and any fitting (minor loss). Calculation
method is found many formulas.

## 1- Equivalent pipe length and graph WilliamsHazen

Using method graph Williams-Hazen.
11. Count all the fitting (ex. Valve, elbow, etc)
22. Mark the point on the graph, x-axial presented
flow rate (m3/min) and y-axial present friction
loss per 100 m. (hL)

## 1- Darcy-Weisbach Equation (Moody-Chart or

Colebrook Equation or Haaland Equation)
Using method Moody-Chart (for calculation mainloss)
11. Darcy-Weisbach Equation
LV2
hf = f
d 2g
Where
f= Friction factor which can be found from MoodyChart or Colebrooks equation or Haalands equation.
12. Moody-Chart is presented the relation of
Reynolds number (Re), Relative roughness (/d)
and Friction factor.
Where
Re = Reynolds number =

Vd
vd
or

## = Pipe roughness (ft, mm)

Where
= Dynamic Viscosity (kg/m.s, N.s/m2)
= Kinematics Viscosity =

(m2/s)

10

1.11

1
6
.
9

= 1.8 log d +
1

Re
3 .7
f 2

## Appling method of Moody-Chart (for calculation

main-loss and minor-loss)
14. Darcy-Weisbach Equation will become
2 hf

L N
V 2
= f + Ki
d i 1 2 g

Where
Ki = minor-loss coefficient
V = Velocity (m/s)
N

h f ( min or ) = K i
i =1

V2
2g

## 2Pipe roughness (, ft or mm)

3

4
K-Value can be checked from Resistance
coefficient chart as attachment.
Minimum Required Flowrate (MF, m3/hr)
Min-flow is the required flow rate to pump for
protection the liquid temperature increasing. (Assume
temperature rises less than 15oC)

1
2.51
+
7 1 = 2 log
3.7d Re f 1 2
f 2

## 8But the Colebrooks equation has some difficulty

m3
QMF = 2.10 10 4 Q
hr

h(m)

manufacture.

## Pump Specific Speed (Ns, dimensionless)

Pump specific speed is used for impeller selection or
estimate pump efficiency (%)

Ns =

N (rpm) Q l

min

h 0.75

## Viscosity Correction, This method is applied for high

viscosity pump which can be predicted by multiply
correlation factor with water pump.
Where
QP' = Capacity of pump when use with water

## hP' = Head of pump when use with water

NPSH ' = NPSH of pump when use with water

P'

## = Water pump Efficiency

The correlation equations are following.

QP = CQ QP'
hP = C H hP'
NPSH = C H NPSH

P = C P'

'

## Piping, General recommendations for good design

practice.
1- Branches of suction pipe
This is kind of manifold, to protect the interference the
following criteria should be considered.

## Pump System consists of two type, parallel and series.

1- Parallel System
QT
QT

Q +Q

## 11. Vm = Manifold velocity 0.6 0.9 m/s

22. Suction length (Ls) 10.Ds (suction diameter)
33. Vs = Suction Velocity 1.5 m/s

1- Suction sump
WL = Water Level

1- Series System

## The detail for calculation suction sump is presented

by the other documents.

HT H1+H2
Sometime, total series flow more than parallel flow. It
depends on system loss, mean downstream friction
loss.

## To safe the power consumption, adjusting revolution

is the other choice except pipe loss reduction.

N
Qn = Qo n
No

N
H n = H o n
No
N
Pn = Po n
No

Where
Subscribe n = New and o = Old
The other way to change pump performance is the
cutting impeller. This method might use for reduce
downstream pressure.

D
Qn = Qo 2 n
D2 o

D
H n = H o 2 n
D2 o
D
Pn = Po 2 n
D2 o
Where
D2 = Diameter of impeller (mm)

## Conclusion to get the higher flow

Big pipe (low hf) Parallel is advantage.
Small pipe (high hf) Series is advantage.
System Loss Equation This formula is provided for
head-loss-curve presentation which can be applied for
checking the following.
11. Performance curve, operation point
22. Estimate total flow of parallel or series system
3
1.85

1.85

Affinity Law

4.87

60

End of doc.--