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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING

6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)

ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ IJARET.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.8273 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJARET

© I A E M E

DESIGN A LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR A SMALL CAMP SANITARY LANDFILL

Asst. Prof. Dr. Alaa H. Wadie Al-Fatlawi

Environmental Engineering Department, College of Engineering/Babylon University, Iraq,

ABSTRACT

Sanitary landfill is still the most cost-effective and appropriate method for waste disposal in Iraq. The municipal solid waste has high moisture content of about 49.1% and density of 162.6 kg/m3. The organic fraction reaches about 79%. Based on the studies and reports of study area, the average waste generation rate was 0.45 kg/capita/day. The design of the base liner, leachate collection system, and final cover system for the study area landfill is described in this paper. Since the landfill is located in an arid environment, leachate generation is low and potential infiltration through the lining system is minimal. A 250 mm diameter drainage pipes have longitudinal slope 1% to reduce sedimentation and allow adequate flow capacity. Leachate will be collected through 10mm pipe perforations in four rows, set 900 apart on the pipe circumference and spaced 300mm center to center. A minimum 500mm thick high- permeability granular drainage blanket (anticipated to be 25 to 100mm in size) placed across the entire base of the landfill. A leachate collection system is extending over the entire base of a landfill and, if below ground, extends up its sloping side walls. The drainage layer is consisting of granular materials at least 300mm thick and has a hydraulic conductivity of at least 1*10-3 m/s. HDPE liner in bottom liner systems will be exposed to mechanical stress due to loading by the waste body and also thermal, chemical and biochemical effects during the construction phase, the operating phase and the post closure period. Sumps were sized to handle a weekly flow from the maximum average monthly drainage collected from the drainage layer. Two leachate collection and storage pit having a capacity of 520 m3 with dimensions of 10m x 20m x 2.6m. A storm water management unit within a space of 520 m3. This is meant to be a storage facility for the storm water collected during the monsoon month and can be used for landfill operations and maintenance of green belt during the dry months. Two evaporation pond of dimension 100m*100 m*2m with slope (not limit to) 53o (2/1.5) at permanent landfill.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

Key words: Leachate, Collection, Landfill, Drainage Layer, Storage Pit, Sump.

1. INTRODUCTION

More modern landfills in the developed world have some form of membrane separating the waste from the surrounding ground and in such sites there is often a leachate collection series of pipes lay on the membrane to convey the leachate to a collection or treatment location, [1]. Leachate is known as the liquid collected at the bottom of the landfill. It is a liquid consisting of moisture generated from landfill during the waste degradation process. When leachate is produced and moving inside the landfill, it dissolves and transports soluble heavy metals and acids from the waste. Leachate has a high content of iron, chlorides, organic nitrogen, phosphate and sulphate. When this highly contaminated leachate leaves landfill and reaches water resources, it will cause surface water and ground water pollution [2; 3; 4; 5]. In general, leachate is a result of the percolation of precipitation, uncontrolled runoff and irrigation water into the landfill, the water initially contained in the waste and also infiltrating groundwater. It can usually contain both dissolved and suspended material, [6]. As the liquid moves through the landfill many organic and inorganic compounds, like heavy metals, are transported in the leachate [7]. The amount of leachate produced is directly linked to the amount of precipitation around the landfill. The amount of liquid waste in the landfill also affects the quantity of leachate produced. A large landfill site will produce greater amount of leachate than a smaller site. [8] There have been several “generations” of leachate collection systems [1]. Prior to modern landfill engineering, it consisted only of perimeter drains around the edge of the landfill. This was an improvement in that it reduced the potential for lateral migration though the sidewalls of the landfill but was unable to significantly reduce the leachate mound in the landfill and hence the vertical advective migration (leakage) though the base of the landfill [9]. The second generation of leachate collection system involved installing what are commonly called “French drains” or “finger drains” which involved gravel drains, often with perforated drainage pipes (with or without a geotextile wrapping). For modern MSW landfills, the leachate head in leachate collection systems is normally required to less than 0.3m, [10]. Thus the service life of the leachate collection system could be defined as the time it takes before the design head is exceeded.

2. COMPOSITION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN THE STUDY AREA

Organic material forms 50-90% of urban refuse in many cities. The organic fraction in the study area reaches about 79% includes raw kitchen waste generated in the preparation and consumption of food: food leftovers, rotten fruit, vegetables, leaves, crop residues and animal excreta and bones. The bulk quantity of organic wastes is commonly generated by households, restaurants and markets. Analysis of waste composition of study area appears that the biodegradable organic content is very high (Table 1).

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

Table 1: MSW wastes composition of study area, [11]

Component

% By mass

% Moisture content

Dry mass* kg

Density kg/m 3

Volume** m 3

Food wastes

68

66.1

23.05

262.4

2.59

Paper

3.4

9.77

3.06

46.1

0.73

Glass

1.1

0.65

1.09

128

0.08

Plastics

4.7

1.79

4.61

42.67

1.10

Textiles

3.2

12.95

2.78

85.61

0.37

Leather

1.5

11.18

1.33

295.8

0.05

Garden trim

5.8

40.41

3.45

79.56

0.73

Dirt ashes,etc.

12.3

6.48

11.50

253.31

0.48

Total =

 

50.9

 

6.15

*Based on 100kg sample waste for moisture content. ** Based on 1000kg sample waste for density.

Moisture content = (

Density = (

1000kg

6.15m

3

)

100 - 50.9

=

100

162.6

kg

)100

/

3

m

=

49.1%

3. EXISTING LANDFILL LEACHATE SYSTEM

The municipal solid waste composition in study area is mainly organic in nature and has moisture content at about 49.1% and density of 162.6 kg/m3. Due to lack of impermeable capping system and runoff control, the storm water will percolate through the landfill and reach the waste. A sanitary landfill should be constructed with proper liner system and installed with leachate collection system in order to prevent or at least to minimize the negative environmental impacts that caused by the current landfilling practice. Majority of the landfills in study area are without leachate collection facilities. The lack of leachate collection facilities coupled with the fact that most landfills do not have impermeable liner system increases the risk that leachate will contaminate nearby water resources. In study area the contamination of ground water by landfill leachate have been reported by several researchers [12; 13; 14] reported that the landfill is an open dump that does not have a proper leachate collection system and lacks base liner to contain the leachate within the landfill. Leachate problem could be minimized by limiting the water getting into the landfill through surface water diversion to ensure no water can enter the landfill and also to ensure a low water table within the landfill by frequent pumping that should be coupled with the daily soil cover.

4. ESTIMATION OF WASTE GENERATION RATE

The volume of waste generated in any given society, household or community increases with population growth, urbanization, industrialization, economic activities and household consumption levels. The mode of disposal of these wastes has a lot to do with the cultural practices of the people who live within the society. Based on the studies and reports of study area, [12; 13; 14] the average waste generation rate was 0.45 kg/capita/day.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

5. LEACHATE GENERATION AT MSW

The leachate generated in such a landfill can be estimated by the following equations and illustrated in schematic diagrams below:

equations and illustrated in schematic diagrams below: L = P + S + G + R*

L = P + S + G + R* - R + DUs + DUw - ET +b (1)

Where:

L = Leachate generated.

P = Precipitation (actually plus re circulated leachate and surface input). S, G = infiltration from surface water or groundwater.

DUs = Change in moisture storage in top cover. ET = Actual evapotranspiration. R, R* = Surface runoff. DUw = Change in moisture content of refuse.

b = biochemical water production or consumption.

of refuse. b = biochemical water production or consumption. I= P + R* - R +

I= P + R* - R + DUs – ET

Surface runoff, Where:

R = C. P

(2)

R

= surface runoff (mm/d)

C

= runoff coefficient = a.bi

P

= rainfall (mm/d)

a:

depends on the presence of the final cover, on the kind of materials used and on the slope.

b:

depends on soil moisture content in the different months.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

Runoff coefficient,

C = a.bi

Empirical value for "a"

 

Landfill

Type of soil

 

Slope

 

<5%

5-10%

>100%

 

Sandy

0.05-0.10

0.10-0.15

0.15-0.20

Closed

Clayey

0.13-0.17

0.18-0.22

0.25-0.35

 

Sandy

0.08-0.13

0.13-0.18

0.18-0.25

In operation

Clayey

0.16-0.20

0.21-0.25

0.27-0.38

Empirical value for "b"

 

Month

Bi

Month

 

Bi

January

1.60

July

 

0.29

February

1.80

August

 

0.29

March

1.43

September

 

0.46

April

0.97

October

 

1.20

May

0.98

November

 

1.40

June

0.37

December

 

1.60

Evapotranspiration (ET)

• Potential Evapotranspiration (ETp): Maximal ET from surface covered with a homogeneous, green crop with optimal water supply.

Potential evapotranspiration is given by Thorntwaite formula, 1932:

ETp = 16(10Ti/IT) a

Where:

(3)

ETp = potential evapotranspiration of the i-month (mm/month) Ti = monthly average temperature (°C)

IT = annual thermal index = (Ti/5)1.514

a = 6.75 x10-7. IT3 – 7.71x 10-5. IT2 + 1.79 x 10-2. IT + 0.49239 The above equation depend on hypothesis that the number of days in the month (30) days, and the number of hours of sunrise until sunset (12) hours. So can correct potential evapotranspiration by the following relationship:

Actual evapotranspiration

ET = ETp (DT/360)

Where:

(4)

ET: Actual evapotranspiration per month (mm/month) D: Number of days in the month, (30) T: the average number of hours of sunrise (h/day)

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

A rough estimation of leachate production may be given as a percentage of rainfall, as a function of waste density in landfill:

Low compacted landfill: 25 - 50 % of rainfall High compacted landfill: 15 - 25 % of rainfall

The weather conditions stated by study area are shown in table below:

Table 3: Weather conditions of the study area

   

Parameter

Season

Temperature

Relative Humidity

Average Rainfall Intensity

Summer

35 o C – 55 o C

15

% – 35 %

Winter

4 o C – 16 o C

50

% – 85 %

147 mm/year

As a consequence, for an average precipitation of 147 mm/year the leachate production expected is:

• Low compacted landfill: 1 - 2 m³ / (ha.d)

• High compacted landfill: 0.7 - 1 m³ / (ha.d)

6. LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEM

6.1 Hydraulic Calculation of Drainage Systems A leachate drainage system performs two key functions: to allow the leachate to be collected; and to minimize through-liner seepage by controlling head. Various solutions are available in the literature for calculating the head above the liner, depending on the geometry of the leachate drains. A simple, commonly used method is adapted from [15]:

h

max

Where

=

0 .5 L

[

q

k

]

0.5

(5)

h max is the maximum mound height above the drain (m);

k

is the hydraulic conductivity of the drainage media (or waste) (m/year);

q

is the percolation rate to the bottom of the landfill (m3/ m2.year); and

L

is the spacing between drains (m).

A variety of other methods may be used to estimate the head on the liner, including those presented by [16; and 17].

Hydraulic calculations can be performed with a leachate discharge rate of 1 mm/d, because this value covers most of the cases of practical interest. Using this value for steady state calculations longer periods of higher discharges are covered, too. Mound model gives mounding height for “saw-tooth” is given in equation 6:

h max

=

2 L c tan α [ 2 c
2
L
c
tan
α
[
2
c
tan α + 1 − tan 2 α + c ] (6)
tan
α
+
1 −
tan
2 α +
c ]
(6)

c

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

Where:

h max is height of mound [L]

L

is drain spacing [L]

c

= q/k

q

= infiltration rate [L/T]

k = hydraulic conductivity of drainage layer [L/T] α = slope of ground surface between pipes

[17] Used Darcy’s law in conjunction with the law of continuity to develop an equation to predict the leachate head on the liner based on anticipated infiltration rates, drainage material permeability, distance from the drain pipe, and slope of the collection system. McBean’s equation is very cumbersome and requires an iterative solution technique to determine the free surface profile. Several EPA guidance documents have presented equation 7, [18] for use in predicting the maximum saturated depth over the liner.

y max

=

Where:

L

r

K

1

2

KS

2

r

+

1

KS

r

S

2

+

r

K

1

2

(7)

Y

max = maximum saturated depth over the liner,

L

= maximum distance of flow, L.

r

= rate of vertical inflow to the drainage layer, LT-1.

K

= hydraulic conductivity of the drainage layer, LT-1.

S

= slope of the liner, dimensionless

[18] Used the extended Dupuit assumptions for unconfined flow to develop equations (8a, b, and c) for the steady state saturated depth over a liner.

)

1

(

1

A

 

2 R

)(

1

+

A

2 RS

)

2

 

(

1

+

A

 

2 R

)(

1

A

2 RS

)

 

2

R

(

S

 

1

)

 

8b

(

1

2

RS

)(

1

2 R

)

 

B

tan

1

2 RS

B

1

1

B

tan

1

R

2

S

2

exp

 

2

)

1 1

2 exp

1

2 A

Y max

=

(

R

RS

+

For R<1/4

 

Y max

=

R

(

1

2 RS

)

 

1

2 R

For R = 1/4

 

Y max

=

(

R

RS

+

R

2

S

8a

2R

1


 

B

For R>1/4

13

1

2 A

8c

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

Where:

R

= r/(Ksin2α) , unitless

A

= (1-4R)1/2 , unitless

B

= (4R -1)1/2 , unitless

S

= tanα, slope of liner, unitless

Y

max = y max /L, dimensionless maximum head on the linear

ymax = maximum head on the linear, L

L = horizontal drainage distance, L

α = inclination of liner from horizontal, degrees

K = Hydraulic conductivity of the drainage layer, LT-1

r = vertical inflow per unit horizontal area, LT-1

[17] developed in 1993 a dimensionless form of the equation recommended by the US EPA, Equation 6 above. This dimensionless equation has the form shown below in Equation 9. [17] compared Equation 9 to Equation 8 and found that for values of R less than one the EPA equation significantly over-predicted Y max .

Y

max

=

R

1

2

1

(

1

+

R

)

1

2

1

R

(9)

Where all variables were previously defined.

The equations for the calculation of the maximum head on the liner, presented above, may be used by designers to calculate a maximum allowable pipe spacing based on the maximum allowable design head, anticipated leachate loading rate, slope of the liner, and permeability of the drainage materials.

6.2 Design calculations

Runoff coefficient,

a = (0.13 + 0.17)/2 = 0.15 b average = 1.0325

C

= a.bi = 0.15 * 1.0325 = 0.155

Surface runoff,

R = C . P

=

0.155 * 147/365 = 0.4 mm/d

Evapotranspiration (ET) ETp = 16(10T i /I T ) a

I T = (T i /5) 1.514

a = 6.75 x10 -7 . I T 3 – 7.71x 10 -5 . I T 2 + 1.79 x 10 -2 . I T + 0.49239

= 6.75 *10 -7 * 135.7 3 – 7.71* 10 -5 * 135.7 2 + 1.79 * 10 -2 * 135.7 + 0.49239 = 3.19 ETp = 16(10*28/135.7) 3.19 = 162 mm/month

= 135.7

Actual evapotranspiration ET = ETp(DT/360)

= 162 (30*12/360) = 162 mm/month

I= P + R* - R + DUs – ET I= 147/365 + 0 - 0 + 5.1 – 162/30= 0.1

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

L

= P + S + G + R* - R + DUs + DUw - ET +b

L

= I + S + G + DUw +b

L

= 0.1 + 0 + 0+ 0.02 +0.01=0.13mm/d

A rough estimation of leachate production may be given as a percentage of rainfall, as a function of waste density in landfill:

= 0.25 * 147/365 = 0.1 mm/d

As a consequence, for an average precipitation of 147 mm/year the leachate production expected is:

= 0.1 mm/d

from Harr, 1962:

Mound, 2002:h max = 21 mm

U.S. EPA, 1989:

Dupuit

Dupuit R= 1/4

Dupuit R> 1/4

McEnroey max = 17 mm

D = 300 mm from Leachate Collection Pipe Sizing Chart, [18].

h max = 18 mm

y max = 11mm

R< 1/4

mm

Y max =13 Y max =11 mm

mm

Y max =14

The proposed design comprises eight landfill units as per following dimensions:

• The first four cells will be connected with leachate collection and storage tank, etc.

• Construct a storage facility in an area of 1000m2 to facilitate segregation, process and temporary storage for waste during the monsoon months. (This could also be used to house a stationary compactor which will be useful to compact the waste before actually spreading it on the landfill unit.)

• Construct two leachate collection and storage pit having a capacity of 520m3 with dimensions of 10m x 20m x 2.6m. The leachate header pipe of 12" diameter would run along the boundary of the landfill units to reach the Leachate collection pit.

• Construct a storm water management unit on the southern west side of the site within a space of 520m3. This is meant to be a storage facility for the storm water collected during the monsoon month and can be used for landfill operations and maintenance of green belt during the dry months.

6.3 Leachate Collection System

The proposed design comprises five landfill units as per following dimensions:

I. First landfill unit of dimension 90m * 45m*2m for domestic waste disposal

II. Second landfill unit of dimension 90m * 45m *2m for domestic waste disposal

III. Third landfill unit of dimension 90m * 45m * 2m for domestic waste disposal

IV. Fourth landfill unit of dimension 90m * 45m * 2m for plastic material disposal

V. Fifth landfill unit of dimension 90m * 45m *2m for papers & metals disposal

• The first three cells will be connected with leachate collection and storage tank, etc.

• A storage facility in an area of 400m2 to facilitate segregation, process and temporary storage for waste during the monsoon months. (This could also be used to house a stationary compactor which will be useful to compact the waste before actually spreading it on the landfill unit.)

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

• A leachate collection and storage pit on the south-west corner of the site having a capacity of 520 m3 with dimensions of 10m * 20m * 2.6m. The leachate header pipe of 300mm diameter would run along the southern-boundary of the landfill units to reach the Leachate collection pit.

• A storm water management unit on the southern west side of the site within a space of 520 m3. This is meant to be a storage facility for the storm water collected during the monsoon month and can be used for landfill operations and maintenance of green belt during the dry months.

The evaporation ponds with aerator at permanent landfill are as follows:

I. Two evaporation pond of dimension 100m*100*2m with slope (not limit to) 53o (2/1.5) at Permanent Landfill.

• HDPE liner: HDPE with specification (1mm) to cover the exaction of the pond.

7. CONCLUSIONS

The municipal solid waste composition in study area is mainly organic in nature and has high moisture content at about 49.1% and density of 162.6 kg/m3. The organic fraction reaches about 79%. This waste has a high leachate production. Based on the studies and reports of study area, the average waste generation rate was 0.45 kg/capita/day.

Based on the available data it is concluded that:

1. Leachate collection systems should be operated under unsaturated conditions as long as possible to extend the service life of leachate collection systems.

2. A filter-separator layer between the waste material and drainage layer minimizes the physical intrusion of waste material into the upper zone of drainage layer.

3. Management of surface water runoff into the pit by using drainage infrastructure along in pit hauls roads and a temporary holding facility on the waste surface.

4. Minimum 500mm thick high-permeability granular drainage blanket (anticipated to be 25 to 100mm in size) placed across the entire base of the landfill.

5. A leachate collection system is extending over the entire base of a landfill and, if below ground, extends up its sloping side walls.

6. The drainage layer is consisting of granular materials at least 300 mm thick and has a hydraulic conductivity of at least 1*10-3 m/s.

7. The bottom liner has to be profiled to have sufficient gradient to promote efficient drainage to the drainage pipes. A 250mm diameter drainage pipes have longitudinal slope 1% to reduce sedimentation and allow adequate flow capacity.

8. Leachate will be collected through 10mm pipe perforations in four rows, set 900 apart on the pipe circumference and spaced 300mm center to center.

9. Gravity drainage and discharge is much better than pumping and system is inspected regularly and cleaned out accordingly.

10. HDPE liner in bottom liner systems will be exposed to mechanical stress due to loading by the waste body and also thermal, chemical and biochemical effects during the construction phase, the operating phase and the post closure period.

11. In particular, the grain size and shape of the drainage material should not damage the membrane.

12. Therefore it is necessary to construct a durable and effective protective layer between the HDPE liner and the drainage layer.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

13. In hydraulic terms, for a gravity system, the thickness of the protective layer can influence the saturated thickness of leachate above the bottom liner. Therefore the protective layer only is as thick as necessary to provide adequate protection of the HDPE liner.

14. Pipe size is designed based on Manning’s equation. Following design chart gives flow versus slope for range of pipe diameters assuming n = 0.010.

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11. Wadie, AlaaHusaeen, Abbood, JawadKadhim, Hadi, Riyadh Hassan, 2012,"Residential Solid Wastes Characteristics And Energy Content In Al-Mussaib City In The Middle Of Iraq", International Conference on Eco-systems and Biological Sciences (ICEBSS'2012), Penangn (Malaysia)

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16. McBean, E.A., Mosher, F.R., and Rovers, F.A.,"Reliability-Based Design for Leachate Collection Systems", Proceedings Sardinia 93,3rd International Landfill Symposium, Santa Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 1993,Vol.3. pp.433-441.

17. McEnroe, B.M.,"Maximum Saturated Depth over Landfill Liner", Journal of Environmental Engineering, 119(2): 1993, 262-270.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 07-18 © IAEME

18. U.S. EPA,"Superfund Exposure Assessment Manual", EPA/540/1-88/001, 1988,Washington, DC. NTIS No.PB89-135859.157 pp.

19. Sandip T. Mali, Kanchan C. Khare, A.H. Biradar, “Effect of Leachate Recirculation on Organic Waste and Leachate Stabilization In Anaerobic Bioreactor” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 87 - 101, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.

20. Kadhim Naief Kadhim, “Feasibility of Blending Drainage Water with River Water For Irrigation In Samawa (IRAQ)” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 22 - 32, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.

21. Nitish Puri and Deepak Soni, “Utilization of Bentonite-Silt Mixtures as Seepage Barriers in Liner Systems of Engineered Landfills” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 346 - 352, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.

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