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Top Electrical Design Questions & Answers

TED - Q&A

Prepared By: Mahmoud Essam Hezzah


Electrical Design Engineer
Cairo - Egypt

TED Q&A
3rd Edition
January 2012


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TED - Q&A
3rd Edition
January 2012

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

Table of Contents
1.

Have you previously done design for electrical work? ............................................................................................................................................................ 11

2.

Have you previously done shop drawing (execution) for electrical (high current) work? ....................................................................................................... 11

3.

Are you familiar and have used the following computer softwares: ...................................................................................................................................... 11

4.

What are the de-rating factors considered in cable installation?.............................................................................................................................................. 12

5.

How can you overcome the problems of voltage drop? .......................................................................................................................................................... 12

6.

What are the precautions to be taken in mind when selecting an emergency feeder running next to another feeder fed from normal supply? ...................... 12

7.

What is the national color code of a three phase circuit?......................................................................................................................................................... 12

8.

What is the meaning and the difference between (AF) & (AT) of C.B? ................................................................................................................................. 12

9.

What are the types of contracts? State the difference among them? ........................................................................................................................................ 13

10.

What is difference between tender drawings, design drawings, shop drawing (Execution) & as built drawings? .................................................................. 16

11.

What are the types of tests required for electrical equipment? What are the differences? ....................................................................................................... 16

12.

What are the types of circuit breakers? State some applications for each? .............................................................................................................................. 17

13.

What is the difference between thermal setting & magnetic setting of C.B? .......................................................................................................................... 17

14.

How can you improve the selection of a system earthing arrangement? ................................................................................................................................. 18

15.

What is the meant by TVSS or SPD? ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

16.

What are the types of Discrimination (Selectivity)? State the difference? .............................................................................................................................. 19

17.

What is Cascading? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20

18.

Estimate the demand load (VA/m2) regarding lighting, sockets, A/C, Equipments...etc for the following type of buildings: Hotels; Residential;
Commercial/Offices; Health Care/Hospitals; Educational/Schools ........................................................................................................................................ 20

19.

What is meant by: IP54; NEMA 3R ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 21

20.

What are codes & standards can be followed in lighting design?............................................................................................................................................ 21

21.

What are the types of earthing systems according to IEC? Explain each & where recommended to be used? Compare among earthing systems. ................ 21

22.

Calculate the grounding conductor size & the grounding resistance according to BS 7430:1998 of grid of length 80m width 40m, 12 rods with separation
distance of 20m where rod length is 3m, rod diameter is 20mm, soil resistivity is 450 .m, grounding conductor laid 0.8m below ground. 10 earth lattices
(600mm x 600mmm) are bonded to the earth loop. Suppose that the symmetrical fault current is 20KA in 1sec duration. Where the grounding conductor is
chosen to be copper conductor and the initial temperature of conductor is 30C & final temperature is 250C. After calculation find out if the grid safe or
not safe? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 26

23.

What is the Dynamic UPS (No Break Generator)? State some applications? Compare with Static UPS. ............................................................................... 31

24.

What are the types of cable trays? State some applications? How can you size a cable tray? What is the difference between cable tray & cable ladder &
which is less expensive? State applications for cable ladders? ............................................................................................................................................... 32

25.

State some applications for using isolating transformers? What is the advantage of using it? ................................................................................................ 36

26.

What are the common types of conduits? State some applications? How can you size a conduit? ......................................................................................... 36

27.

What characteristics does a luminaire need to be a good one? ................................................................................................................................................ 37

28.

What are the SEC standard specifications for LV distribution panels sizes for transformers 500 kVA, 1000 kVA, 1500 kVA from where: ......................... 37
o Incoming CB. Rating
o Incoming Cables for standalone LV panel

29.

What is RGB LED? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 38

31.

What are the different types of Lighting System Controls?..................................................................................................................................................... 38

32.

What is the difference between IP, NEMA, IK, IC & IM?...................................................................................................................................................... 39

Prepared By: Mahmoud Essam Hezzah


Electrical Design Engineer

Best Wishes

TED - Q&A
3rd Edition
January 2012

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

33.

What is the difference between horizontal, vertical illumination & general, task lighting? How can you make calculations for each? State some examples
for each?.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 43

34.

What is color rendering? State the color renderings for sodium lamps, metal halide lamps, fluorescent lamps & halogen lamps? ........................................ 44

35.

What is illuminance? State the recommended illumination level for Office, Surgery operating room, Bed room, Class room, Sitting & Corridors ............. 44

36.

What is Color Temperature? State some of them .................................................................................................................................................................... 44

37.

What is the difference between Fluorescent lamps type T2, T5, T8 & T12? .......................................................................................................................... 45

38.

Can we make interconnection bonding among these systems: ................................................................................................................................................ 46


o Grounding System
o Lightning Protection
o Low current & Communication Grounding System

39.

Give some types of different lamps showing: type, manufacturers, wattage, lumen output, peak intensity, colour temperature, lamp holder (cap), life time
and dimensions? ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 47

40.

What are the recommended IP and IK code specifications for distribution boards? ............................................................................................................... 53

41.

Calculate the number of luminaries required for office (5x6m), height = 3m, consider type fluorescent lighting fixture each have lamps 2x36W. Luminous
flux of each lamp 3200 lm, utilization factor is 0.48 and maintenance factor is 0.75. Notice that the required maintained illumination level is 500 lux. ..... 53

42.

What is the recommended LV system voltage? Give some examples for the system voltages & frquencies in different countries? ...................................... 54

43.

What is LEED & how can you improve your design to match the LEED requirements? ....................................................................................................... 60

44.

Which one could achieve more lumen output prismatic or opal diffusers considering same lamps? Why? State application. ............................................... 60

45.

What are the different types of substations? ............................................................................................................................................................................ 61

46.

Insulation systems are rated by standard NEMA classifications according to maximum allowable operating temperatures. Explain. ................................... 65

47.

Differentiate between: ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 65


o Directional & diffuse lighting.
o Symmetric & asymmetric lighting.
o Direct, indirect lighting & Direct-indirect lighting.

48.

In case of presence of 2 sockets back to back in two different rooms. Can we put them directly back to back or we should leave a distance between them?
................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 66

49.

What is the difference between demand factor & diversity factor? ......................................................................................................................................... 67

50.

What are the different methods of starting motors? State the difference among them? State Applications?........................................................................... 67

51.

If we have a big room & contain many sockets which will need about 5 branch circuits. Can we feed these circuits from different phases? Why? ............. 67

52.

How can you earn LEED certifications for new constructions? What are the LEED ratings? ................................................................................................ 68

53.

If you have a refrigerator or A/C or any other motor equipment that works on 50Hz, can you make it work on 60Hz Power Supply? ................................. 68

54.

You have a project consists of 960 small villas (dwelling units). The connected load for each villa (dwelling unit) is 60 KVA. Estimate the number of
pillars, transformers & distributors required for this project. Considering that only 400A pillars & 1000KVA Transformers ratings are available. System
Voltage is 13..8KV/380-220V. Draw schematic single line diagram to what you obtained. .................................................................................................. 69

55.

What are the IEC Switchboard Forms for Internal Configuration? State the difference? ........................................................................................................ 72

56.

What is distance between down conductors in lightning system design? How can you design the mesh?.............................................................................. 72
o For building less than 15M height
o For building 80M height.

Prepared By: Mahmoud Essam Hezzah


Electrical Design Engineer

Best Wishes

TED - Q&A
3rd Edition
January 2012

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

57.

Give a small brief summary for each of these types of lamps ................................................................................................................................................. 73
o Incandescent
o Halogen
o Fluorescent
o Compact Fluorescent Lamps
o LED (Light Emitting Diodes)
o High-Intensity Discharge Lamps
o Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps

58.

What is DALI? ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 75

59.

Estimate the circuit breaker, disconnecting switch and cable size for: ................................................................................................................................... 76
o Lighting load 3000VA single phase. Feeder wire length is 40 m.
o Outdoor A/C load 3000VA single phase. Feeder wire length is 40 m.
o Panel Board with three single phase loads (3000VA, 4000VA, 2000VA). Feeder cable length is 200 m.
o Where; the system voltage is 380/220V; suppose that total cable de-rating factors is 0.8; suppose cable routing in pipes.
o Use the following cable catalogue cuts for sizing cables.

60.

When we should use a remote radiator for a diesel engine generator? .................................................................................................................................... 80

61.

Calculate capacitor rating required to improve the power factor of a motor P=500KW from P.F1= 0.8 to P.F2= 0.9? .......................................................... 80

62.

What is EIB? ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 81

63.

Calculate the three phase short circuit current at secondary side of a 1 MVA transformer 13.8KV - 480/227V, 60 Hz; impedance is 6 percent and assuming
sustained primary voltage during fault? .................................................................................................................................................................................. 82

64.

What are the basic factors would you take into consideration while making lighting design? ................................................................................................ 83

65.

Calculate the voltage drop of cable with load 32KW - three phase, cu cable C.S.A= 16mm2, Ra.c= 1.38 ohm/km, X= 0.1068 ohm/km, Cos = 0.8, cable
length =120m, system voltage is 380/220V. ........................................................................................................................................................................... 83

66.

What does GFCI & AFCI stands for? What is the difference? State some applications? ........................................................................................................ 83

67.

What are LPD specified in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1? Can you state the methods used for computing LPD & give some examples? Does the
LPD values specified in ASHRAE accepted by LEED? ......................................................................................................................................................... 84

68.

What is power factor? What are the equipments that create poor power factor? How can you improve power factor of your system? ................................. 87

69.

Choose the correct answers if any. What is the purpose of discrimination? ............................................................................................................................ 89
o To ensure continuity of service
o To only trip the device just above the faulty feeder
o To increase servicing time for trouble-shooting
o To increase productivity

70.

Compare between magnetic ballast & electronic ballast. ........................................................................................................................................................ 89

71.

What are the trade sizes of conduits? ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 89

72.

In an installation, circuit breaker CB1 is placed upstream from circuit breaker CB2. A short-circuit current occurs downstream from CB2. CB2 opens and
CB1 stays closed. This is a case of: ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 89

73.

For each of the faults A, B, C in the diagram, say whether or not the protection device opens: ............................................................................................. 90

74.

The fault current downstream from circuit breaker CB5 is 400 A. With total discrimination, which circuit breakers will open? .......................................... 90

Prepared By: Mahmoud Essam Hezzah


Electrical Design Engineer

Best Wishes

TED - Q&A
3rd Edition
January 2012

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

75.

State which statement is true and which is false: Standard IEC 60364: Section-3-32 & 4-48 on premises with a risk of fire ................................................ 90
o Imposes use of a 500mA RCD device.
o Recommends use of a TT or IT system for the electrical installation on such premises.
o Prohibits use of a TN-C system.
o In TT, IT and TN-S systems, a 300mA RCD eliminates the risk of fire.

76.

What are The Main Functions of Earthing/Grounding Systems? ............................................................................................................................................ 90

77.

What is the difference between (Ics) & (Icu) of C.B? Which one is considered in design? .................................................................................................... 91

78.

State the functions of circuit breaker. ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 91

79.

What is more danger on the human body AC current or DC current & why? What is the effect of AC current on the human body? .................................... 91

80.

In order to select the right circuit breaker. What are the Criterias of choice that should be followed? .................................................................................. 92

81.

Compare between earthing systems from the point of: ........................................................................................................................................................... 92


o Protection of people.
o Protection against fire.
o Ease of implementation
o Continuity of service
o Upgradable installation.
o Cost saving

82.

What are the Benefits of improving Power Factor?................................................................................................................................................................. 93

83.

How the penalty on power factor is calculated? ...................................................................................................................................................................... 93

84.

What are the different types of armoured cables which are more expensive, which one can withstand more mechanical load, is the 2 types are accepted by
BS & IEC? .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 93

85.

State the Cable Insulation Temperature Limits (Continuous Operating Temperature, Emergency Temperature & Short Circuit Temperature) for XLPE &
PVC ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 93

86.

What does mean by day lighting? ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 93

87.

Transformers are classified into various categories, according to their: Use, Cooling method, Insulating medium. State & explain each classification. Which
is better & why? ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 94

88.

What are the important factors required for selecting a suitable cable to transport electrical energy from the power station to the consumer? ..................... 95

89.

What is the difference between Rapid-Start and Instant-Start of fluorescent lamp? ............................................................................................................... 95

90.

What is tap changer? ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 96

91.

What is the difference between beam angle & cut-off angle of a luminaire? What are the different beam classifications & State the difference between
them?....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 96

92.

What are the levels of protection (Coordination of protective devices) for the motor starter? ................................................................................................ 97

93.

Calculate maintained illumination level for clinic (4x6m) - height = 3m, consider 4 fluorescent lighting fixture each have lamps 4x36W. Luminous flux of
each lamp 3000 lm, utilization factor is 0.50 and maintenance factor is 0.70. ........................................................................................................................ 98

94.

What is difference between low smoke halogen free cables & fire resistant cables & fire alarm cables? ............................................................................... 98

95.

What is the distance between sockets that should be followed in design?............................................................................................................................... 98

96.

Wrong positioning of desks relative to luminaries could cause reflected glare. ...................................................................................................................... 99
o Define glare.
o Which position of luminaire is right to avoid glare?

97.

When many cables are laid on cable tray, what are the factors that determine the final ampacity of each cable?................................................................... 99

98.

What is the difference between Normal load, Emergency load & Critical load? State an example for each......................................................................... 100

99.

State the Types of static UPS ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 101

Prepared By: Mahmoud Essam Hezzah


Electrical Design Engineer

Best Wishes

TED - Q&A
3rd Edition
January 2012

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

100. If the power factor of a certain electrical installation is low how can the power factor to be improved / corrected? ............................................................ 102
101. What are the devices to be used for earth leakage protection / ground fault protection? ....................................................................................................... 103
102. What is Voltage Drop? What are the factors that determine the Voltage drop of a cable/wire? Write down the V.D equation for single phase cable & 2
phase for 3 phase cable ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 103
103. What are the C.T. & P.T? When do we use each one and why?............................................................................................................................................ 104
104. What does these abbreviations stands for: PVC, XLPE & LSF?........................................................................................................................................... 104
105. Define the Grouping Factor? When does it considered in cable size calculations? Is it applicable for multi core or single core cables? ............................. 104
106. A branch panel board with total connected load 25 KW & P.F. = 0.8. Calculate Main Feeder Cable and Main C.B? ......................................................... 104
107. Mention the different types of conduits used in electrical systems routing inside high rise buildings? What is the common usage for each? ..................... 104
108. Mention the different types of conduits used in electrical systems routing inside high rise buildings? What is the common usage for each? ..................... 105
109. What is the difference between, molded Case Circuit Breaker and miniature circuit breakers? ........................................................................................... 105
110. Suppose you are buying a transformer. You have two options: TR1is 11/0.4KV & Z = 4 %, TR2: is 11/0.4KV & Z = 6 %. Which one you choose & why?
Taking into consideration, you need 380V on the secondary at full load.............................................................................................................................. 105
111. Compare between the following types of lamps according to their Power Range, Efficacy, Lumens, Life Time, Color Temp and CRI. ............................ 105
o Incandescent and Halogen
o Fluorescent
o Compact Fluorescent (CFL)
o Mercury Vapor
o Metal Halide
o High Pressure Sodium (HPS)
o Low Pressure Sodium (LPS)
112. There are new specifications created by SASO to prohibit entry of any plugs or sockets not conforming to the specifications and this should be effective on
(23/02/2010). What are these specifications & what are the types specified for 127V Plugs/Sockets & 220V Plugs/Sockets? ........................................... 106
113. What is meant by UL Listed product? ................................................................................................................................................................................... 106
114. Does the voltage supply fluctuation affects the lamps? How? .............................................................................................................................................. 106
115. What is the ballast? State its function & types of ballasts. .................................................................................................................................................... 107
116. What is the difference between a kW and a kWh? What is measured by electric utility? .................................................................................................... 107
117. What are the different types of conductors according to NEC code? .................................................................................................................................... 107
118. How can you estimate the electrical consumption per month for residential buildings? ....................................................................................................... 108
119. What is star-delta starting? Why is it used? What are the advantages & disadvantages of using this method? Should we immediately install soft starters on
all our existing motors? ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 110
120. How the Electricity Bill is computed? ................................................................................................................................................................................... 113
121. What are the different standards of sockets? Draw them & state the difference? .................................................................................................................. 114
122. What are the international codes, standards, regulations & specifications? State some of them that can be followed in electrical design? ......................... 115
123. What are the different types of local power cables for low & medium voltages? ................................................................................................................. 116
124. When can we use neutral with C.S.A equal to the C.S.A of the phase & when can we use reduced neutral and with C.S.A less than the C.S.A of the phase?
How can we choose the reduced neutral in 3 phase-systems ................................................................................................................................................ 117
125. What are the types of emergency lighting? State the difference? How batteries shall be provided? ..................................................................................... 117
126. State the target areas for Emergency Lighting to be provided? ............................................................................................................................................. 118
127. What are lighting levels & uniformity mentioned in standards for emergency lighting? ...................................................................................................... 119
128. What are the different systems used in central battery system? Compare between them. ..................................................................................................... 120
129. What are the advantages of using Self Contained EM Lighting? .......................................................................................................................................... 122

Prepared By: Mahmoud Essam Hezzah


Electrical Design Engineer

Best Wishes

TED - Q&A
3rd Edition
January 2012

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

130. What are the advantages of using Central Battery System? .................................................................................................................................................. 122
131. How can you calculate the current carrying capacity or the size of busbar? ......................................................................................................................... 122
132. Why you use sine wave for ac power supply why not triangle wave or square wave? .......................................................................................................... 122
133. Do we can put two branch circuits in one conduit? ............................................................................................................................................................... 122
134. Why do 50 Hz transformers cost more than 60 Hz transformers? Does 50 Hz transformer could work on 60 Hz transformers & How? ............................ 123
135. How can you calculate the full load current for different sizes of motors (1-ph, 2-ph & 3-ph)? ........................................................................................... 123
136. State the way of calculating the short circuit at any point within a LV installation according to IEC & Egyptian Code for electrical installation .............. 126
137. Complete ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 129
o Illuminance is measured in footcandles (lumens/square foot) or lux (lumens/square meter). Where one footcandle equals -------- lux.
o Luminous intensity is measured in Candela or Lumen (Lu).where one Candela equals -------- Lumen (Lu).
138. Compare between using Central Battery System and Self Contained EM Lighting. ............................................................................................................. 130
139. What is the difference between circular & sectoral sections in cables?................................................................................................................................. 130
140. How can you size the earthing conductor according to size of phase cable size or according to C.B. size using NEC & IEC?............................................ 131
141. Why CU wires are preferable in indoor distribution while Al cables are preferred in electrical transmission? .................................................................... 132
142. For the following factors. Explain the effect of increasing or decreasing these factors on short circuit. ............................................................................... 133
o Cable length
o Cable CSA
o Conductor Type
o Transformer per unit impedance
o Transformer load.
o System Voltage
o Bus Bars
o Circuit Breakers
143. What are the different types of cables? ................................................................................................................................................................................. 134
144. What are the standards C.S.As for power cables for low, medium & high voltage? ............................................................................................................ 135
145. What is the difference between armoured & unarmoured cables? ........................................................................................................................................ 135
146. Screening of MV cables is used in earthing. Right or wrong? .............................................................................................................................................. 135
147. How can you convert American Wire Gauge (AWG) to square mm cross sectional area? ................................................................................................... 136
148. What is the problem of unloading the transformer? .............................................................................................................................................................. 136
149. For replacing an existing Lighting system of fluorescent lamps 110 Volt, 60 Hz by new fluorescent lamps 220 Volt, 60 Hz, which of the following devices
should be changed Lamp, Ballast and Starter? ...................................................................................................................................................................... 136
150. How can you convert from NEMA to IEC Enclosure? ......................................................................................................................................................... 137
151. What are the different risks on human that caused by electricity? Explain. .......................................................................................................................... 138
152. What are the different tripping characteristics and rated currents for MCBs? ..................................................................................................................... 139
153. What is the obstruction lighting? What are their types? How its designed?......................................................................................................................... 140
154. What specifications must be applied in cable insulation?...................................................................................................................................................... 141
155. Determine how many 6mm2 cu single stranded conductors are permitted in a trade size 1 rigid metal conduit (RMC)?.................................................. 142
156. Does the way of mounting, positioning and orientation of a lamp (Burning Position) affect the burning? ........................................................................... 142

Prepared By: Mahmoud Essam Hezzah


Electrical Design Engineer

Best Wishes

TED - Q&A
3rd Edition
January 2012

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

157. According to NEC. Determine the minimum size rigid metal conduit (RMC) allowed for the 9 mixed conductor sizes and types described as followed: . 143
o 3 single stranded wires cu of 4mm2 each
o 3 single stranded wires cu of 10mm2 each
o 3 single stranded wires al of 16mm2 each
158. What are the most available sizes for LV HRC fuses? .......................................................................................................................................................... 143
159. A 200-ampere feeder is routed in various wiring methods (EMT) conduit & (RMC) conduit from the main switchboard in one building to a distribution
panel board in another building. The circuit consists of muli-core cable 4x70 + 25 mm2 CU - XLPE/PVC unarmoured. Select the proper trade size for the
various types of conduit and tubing to be used for the feeder. .............................................................................................................................................. 144
160. What are the capacities of PVC conduits for different cable sizes (single & multi-core)? .................................................................................................... 145
161. What is the relation between C.B & Busbar? ........................................................................................................................................................................ 145
162. How can you find the cable size with regards to C.B Size? .................................................................................................................................................. 146
163. What are the most available sizes for disconnecting switches? ............................................................................................................................................. 146
164. What are the C.B. ratings & short circuit capacities in American & European standard? ..................................................................................................... 147
165. What is the control gear of a luminaire?................................................................................................................................................................................ 148
166. What are the methods of cooling of transformers? What does ONAN refers to? .................................................................................................................. 149
167. What is the accepted percentage of loading a transformer? Can we increase the percentage of loading the transformer more than 100%? Explain. .......... 149
168. State the advantages of using dry type transformers over oil immersed type? ...................................................................................................................... 150
169. What is the information necessary while selecting the transformer protection system? ........................................................................................................ 150
170. What are the advantages of selecting outdoor distribution transformers kiosks? .................................................................................................................. 150
171. What are the requirements for fire water pump electrical connection as per NFPA 70? ....................................................................................................... 151
172. When shall we use circuit breaker + back-up fuse as switchgear combinations? .................................................................................................................. 153
173. What are the sizing recommendations for fire pump applications including (sizing the generator set, sizing the utility circuit breaker or fuses, sizing the
feeder conductors, sizing the automatic transfer switch, sizing the generator circuit breaker) as per NFPA 70?.................................................................. 154
174. What are the main parts of transformer compartment (Kiosk)? ............................................................................................................................................ 156
175. Using given legend. Draw the wiring diagram for: ............................................................................................................................................................... 159
o 1 Way - 1 Gang Switch.
o 1 Way - 2 Gang Switch.
o 2 Way (3 Way) - 1 Gang Switch.
o 2 Way (3 Way) - 2 Gang Switch.
o Intermediate (4 Way) - 1 Gang Switch.
176. Discuss the construction for LV & MV power cables? ......................................................................................................................................................... 160
177. What are the different distribution losses in industrial facilities? .......................................................................................................................................... 162
178. What are the types of insulations that can be used for cables? .............................................................................................................................................. 163
179. What are the main functions of luminaire?............................................................................................................................................................................ 163
180. How can you calculate the reactive power Capacitor Bank (power factor correction)? How can you choose the capacitor bank according reactive power
from standard? How can you calculate the circuit breaker of capacitor bank? What are the available LV Standad Automatic Capacitor Banks?............... 164
181. What is the difference between AWA and SWA? ................................................................................................................................................................. 165
182. How can you classify lighting according to applications?..................................................................................................................................................... 165
183. State some demand factors for different loads that are being used in American NEC Standards? ........................................................................................ 166
184. What are the different classifications of luminaries? Give brief discussion for each. ........................................................................................................... 168

Prepared By: Mahmoud Essam Hezzah


Electrical Design Engineer

Best Wishes

TED - Q&A
3rd Edition
January 2012

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

185. State the difference in wiring between: ................................................................................................................................................................................. 170


o 2-Way Switch & 3-Way Switch.
o 4-Way Switch & Intermediate Switch.
186. What is the ATS & what are the main different parts of ATS? ............................................................................................................................................. 171
187. Specify different ratings of ATS?.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 173
188. What are the advantages of using Busbar Trunking System (Bus Duct)? ............................................................................................................................. 173
189. What are the different types of ATS Devices? ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174
190. When should we use Busbar Trunking (Bus Duct) System? ................................................................................................................................................. 175
191. What is the acceptable percentage voltage drop that can be reached in L.V. calculations? ................................................................................................... 176
192. State the application & operation of the contactor and circuit breaker based transfer switches (ATS)?................................................................................ 176
193. State the application & operation of the solid state transfer switches (ATS)? ....................................................................................................................... 178
194. When should we use tap-off boxes Busbar Trunking (Bus Duct) System? ........................................................................................................................... 178
195. What is the minimum requirement for transfer switch (ATS) arrangement that should be followed for essential & critical loads of health care facilities? 179
196. What are the applications of using Busbar Trunking (Bus Duct) System? ............................................................................................................................ 179
197. What is Busbar Trunking (Bus Duct) System?...................................................................................................................................................................... 180
198. What are the relations among transformers, main C.Bs and Bus Duct Ratings assuming that the system voltage is 380/220V? ........................................ 181
199. What are the different available standard ratings for Bus Duct? ........................................................................................................................................... 181
200. Which is better in power distribution AC system or DC system? Why? ............................................................................................................................... 182
201. Which is the Cable Bus? What are the applications of using it? What are the advantages & disadvantages of using it? What are the type of conductors &
configurations used? Compare between ampacities using Cable Bus & other normal cables. .............................................................................................. 182
202. What are the different batteries types - technologies? State the difference?.......................................................................................................................... 189
203. Consider a pillar with a 3 phase load 200A. The cable length feeding the pillar from a transformer is 140 meters. This cable is laid directly in ground and is
grouped with another 5 cables in the same trench. Which size of cable below you prefer to use in order not to exceed 2% voltage drop, p.f = 0.8 & why?
.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 190
204. What are the expected room sizes (dimensions) for standby generators with these sizes: 80, 100, 125, 175, 200, 350, 400, 500, 600, 750, 900, 1000,
1500KW................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 191
205. State some diversity factors of different purposes (ex: lighting, sockets, air conditioning . etc) for different type of premises (ex: residential, offices,
hotels... etc) according to Egyptian Code? ............................................................................................................................................................................ 192
206. Can you estimate the demand load of a building using its type & its gross area according to Egyptian Code? .................................................................... 193
207. Compare between LV & MV generators. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 194
208. Calculate the grounding conductor size & the grounding resistance according to IEEE Std 80-2000 of grid of length 80m width 40m, 12 rods with
separation distance of 20m, rod length is 3m, rod diameter is 20mm, soil resistivity is 450 .m, grounding conductor laid 0.8m below ground. Suppose that
expected fault symmetrical current is 20KA in 1sec duration. Where the grounding conductor is chosen to be 40% conductivity copper-clad steel conductor
.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 195
209. What are the IP references preferred for switchboard assemblies? ....................................................................................................................................... 197
210. What are the main aims of tunnel lighting? What is necessary to know about tunnel lighting? When to light tunnel by day? When to light tunnel by night?
How to light tunnel by day? What are the 5 zones of tunnel lighting? Which type of lamps to use? What are the types of tunnel lighting systems? What is
the short tunnel & underpass? How to illuminate tunnels for different lengths in day time 25m, 75m and 125m? What are the tunnel lighting arrangements
and state advantages & disadvantages of each? .................................................................................................................................................................... 197
211. Select the required automatic capacitor bank for a transformer rating: 1600 kVA, Voltage: 13.8/0.38 kV, Connected Load: 1516 kVA = 1289 KW,
Assumed PF/ Target PF: 0.85 / 0.95? What are the minimum & maximum harmonic orders for this capacitor bank? ........................................................ 202
212. What is harmonics? What is the problem of harmonics? What is k- factor? How to calculate K-Factor? What is K-Factor of a transformer? Why we
calculate K-Factor of a transformer? What are the advantages of calculating the K-Factor of a transformer? What are the disadvantages of using the derated
standard transformers instead of K-Factor? What should be remembered when using a K-Factor Transformer? How K-Factor Transformer could be
calculated? ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 203

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213. Consider transformer 1600 KVA feeding an office building with total lighting load 201 KVA, total power load 483 KVA, total HVAC load (AHUS) 386
KVA and total EWH load 54 KVA. Select the k-factor required for this transformer. ......................................................................................................... 209
214. What is difference between prime generator & standby generator? ...................................................................................................................................... 210
215. What is difference between metal-enclosed switchgear & metal-clad switchgear? ............................................................................................................... 210
216. What do you know about metal-enclosed switchgear, metal-clad switchgear and arc resistant switch gear? ....................................................................... 212
217. Compare between Static Transfer Switches (STS) and Automatic Transfer Switches (ATS). .............................................................................................. 213
218. State the difference between the three types of ballasts Magnetic, Rapid start, HF ballasts. What is the recommended ballast for T12, T8, T5 & CFL? ... 214
219. Can we dim LED Light? How? Is there any flickering while dimming? Are there any Changes in color and efficacy with dimming? ............................... 214
220. According to SEC Distribution Materials Specification. What are the available ratings for transformers Pole mounted & Pad mounted? What are the
maximum accepted losses? What are the available tap changer settings? What is the recommended vector group, Impedance Voltage, Temperature Rise,
Noise Level, Short Circuit Level, Degree of Protection, Dimensions, LV bushings/terminals? ........................................................................................... 217
221. Whats the reason of grounding or earthing of equipment?................................................................................................................................................... 219
222. What is difference between power transformers & distribution transformers? ..................................................................................................................... 219
223. What will happen if DC supply connected to 100W bulb?.................................................................................................................................................... 219
224. Can an armoured cable be laid in a PVC conduit for aesthetic purposes? ............................................................................................................................. 220
225. Is it permissible to install PVC/SWA/PVC cable in Zones I and II flammable areas? If so, what is the authoritative document? ....................................... 220
226. Is it permissible to use aluminum twin & earth cables? ........................................................................................................................................................ 220
227. What are the codes of armoured cable glands? What is application for B/W & C/W?.......................................................................................................... 220
228. What are the minimum CSAs for process instrument cables, power cables & control cables? ............................................................................................. 221
229. Is it possible to use armour of a power cable as its earthing conductor? As an example - for 4 x 240mm cable, is it necessary to install separate earthing
cable? Or is the armour of the cable enough for earthing? What is required by BS standards? ............................................................................................ 221
230. What is the filling percentage that should be followed for trunking & conduits & cable trays as per British Standard? ...................................................... 221
231. In order to reduce the size of the sub-main cable, we have installed a separate circuit protective conductor (CPC) with calculations satisfying this.
Terminations have been completed as standard. However, on installation, the contractor has installed the CPC so it is not clipped to the armoured cable as
normal practice, and takes a different route. Is there a standard that requires an armoured cable's CPC to be clipped to the cable? Is there an issue with
running earths in a separate route to the armoured cabling, i.e. different lengths etc? .......................................................................................................... 221
232. We have to pull a 3 X 70mm SWA cable through 80m of 100mm ducting. There will be a bend at each end up to the electrical switch room. The cable run
between is more or less straight. Can you tell me what a reasonable bend radius would be to allow satisfactory pulling of the cable? ............................... 222
233. What power cables are suitable for direct burial in ground which may be prone to water logging? ..................................................................................... 222
234. Calculate the annual savings and payback for installing an occupancy sensors given that: No. of fixtures = 20 x 2 Lamps; Fixture wattage Draw = 88
watt/Fix; Time length needed = 20 min/hr.; Operating hours = 4000 hrs./year; Electricity cost = 0.15 LE/kWh; Sensors cost = 200 LE ........................... 223
235. For replacing an existing Lighting system of Incandescent lamps by a new fluorescent lamps, calculate the annual savings and payback given that: Existing
lighting system . 100 Lamps (200 watt/lamp); 200 watt lamp efficacy 17.5 Lm/watt; Fluorescent lamps 36 watt (44 watt incl. Ballast); Fl. lamps efficacy 70
lm/watt; Fl. lamps cost = LE. 15 (incl. Fixture); Annual operating hours 4000 hrs./year; Electricity cost = 0.15 LE./kWh ................................................. 223
236. A 23,000 square meter high bay facility is presently lit with 800 twin 400 watt mercury vapour fixtures (455 watts per lamp including ballast.) What are the
annual savings of replacing the existing lighting system with 800 single 400 watt high pressure sodium fixtures, (465 watts per lamp including ballast)
Assume 8000 hours per year, an energy cost of $0.05 per kWh, and a demand cost of $6.00 per kW-month. ..................................................................... 223
237. Choose the correct answer:.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 223
o The efficacy of a light source refers to the Color rendering index of the lamp. A) True B) False
o Increasing the coefficient of utilization of the room cavity will in many instances increase the number of lamps required. A) True B) False

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238. :

..................
224................................................................................................................................

:
)(

)(

239. 350 . : .
240. .

................
................................
224

...........................
.........
224
................................................................................................................................................................

241. ) ( :

............................
..........
225
................................................................

242. :
..................
226
................................................................

243. 1250.. 750.. 30
244. ONAN 450.. 250..
245. 600 2 :
246.

..............................
............
229
................................................................................................................................................................

..................
................................
229
................................................................................................................................

248.
249.

..................
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251.

..................
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................................................................................................

252. 1 : 1 ) (5 1750 3/ :
253.

.........................
.......
227

................................
..............
228
................................................................................................................................

247.

250.

................
227

..................
234................................

.............................
...........
235
................................................................................................................................................................

254.

.................
................................
236
................................................................................................................................

255.
256.

..................
236
................................................................................................

..............................
............
236
................................................................................................

257. )(Moving walks and ramps


258.

..................
237................................................................

...............................
.............
238
................................................................................................

259. :
...............................
.............
243
................................................................................................

260.

..................
243
................................................................................................................................................................

261.

..................
................................
244
................................................................................................

262.
263.

..................
245................................................................................................................................................................

264.
265.
266.

..................
................................
244
................................................................

..................
245
................................................................................................

..................
246
................................................................................................................................................................

..................
................................
247
................................................................................................................................

267.
....................
248.. ................................................................................................................................................................................................

268.

..................
251
................................................................................................

269. 3 . 400/230 3
.............................
...........
256
................................................................
. 230.

10

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TED - Q&A
3rd Edition
January 2012

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

1.

Have you previously done design for electrical work?


0B

Yes

o
1B

No

o
2B

If yes, the following two items must be answer


3B

i.

What facilities or buildings you designed?


4B

Commercial

o
5B

Residential

o
6B

Industrial

o
7B

Medical/Health Care

o
8B

Educational/Schools

o
9B

Hotels

o
10B

Power Plant/Stations

o
1B

Sports

o
12B

Exterior Site Work

o
13B

Others: Please specify:

o
14B

ii. What Standards or Norm you used in your design?


15B

American

o
16B

British

o
17B

IEC

o
18B

French

o
o

2.

Others: Please specify:


20B

Have you previously done shop drawing (execution) for electrical (high current) work?
21B

Yes

o
2B

No

o
3.

19B

23B

Are you familiar and have used the following computer softwares:
24B

MS Word

o
25B

MS Excel

o
26B

AutoCAD

o
27B

Revit

o
28B

Lighting Calculation Programs: Please specify:

o
29B

Voltage Drop Calculation Programs: Please specify:

o
30B

Short Circuit Calculation Programs: Please specify:

o
31B

Earthing (Grounding) Calculation Programs: Please specify:

o
32B

Lightning Protection & Risk Assessment Calculation Programs: Please specify:

o
o

3B

Others: Please specify:


34B

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4.

What are the de-rating factors considered in cable installation?


35B

Answer

Ground Temperature de-rating factor


Air Temperature de-rating factor
Burial Depth de-rating factor
Soil Thermal Resistivity de-rating factor
PVC Rated Temperature de-rating factor
Trefoil or Flat Formation de-rating factor for three & single core cables laid direct in ground
Trefoil Formation de-rating factors for multi-core cables laid direct in ground
Reduction factors for groups of more than one multi-core cable in air to be applied to the current carrying capacity for one
multi-core cable in free air
Reduction factors for groups of more than one circuit of single core cables to be applied to the current carrying capacity for
one circuit of single core cables in free air

5.

How can you overcome the problems of voltage drop?


36B

Answer

6.

Using higher system voltages (= lower currents and therefore lower volt drop)
Using larger cables (= lower resistance and therefore lower volt drop)
Using multiple outgoing circuits (= less current per circuit and therefore lower volt drop)
What are the precautions to be taken in mind when selecting an emergency feeder running
37B

next to another feeder fed from normal supply?


Answer

7.

Type of the used designed cable should be taken into consideration regarding its properties & to be of higher fire resistance.
What is the national color code of a three phase circuit?
38B

Answer

8.

Red for phase (A)


Yellow for phase (B)
Blue for phase (C)
Black for neutral (N)
Yellow with green strip for protective earth (PE)
What is the meaning and the difference between (AF) & (AT) of C.B?
39B

Answer

Abbreviation

Stands for

Function

AF

Ampere Frame,

Maximum rated current for the C.B.

AT

Ampere Trip.

Adjusted rated current for the circuit breaker. (Less than or equal AF).

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9.

What are the types of contracts? State the difference among them?
40B

Answer

Some common types of contracts are used in the engineering and construction industry
1.

Lump Sum Contract or Fixed Price Contract:


With this kind of contract the engineer and/or contractor agrees to do the a described and specified project for a fixed
price. You and the contractor agree to a set price, and you pay that price no matter how much the project ends up costing
A Fixed Fee or Lump Sum Contract is suitable if the scope and schedule of the project are sufficiently defined to allow
the consulting engineer to estimate project costs.
Contractor free to use any means and methods to complete work.
Contractor responsible for proper work performance.
Work must be very well defined at bid time.
Fully developed plans and specifications required.
Owners financial risk low and fixed at outset.
Contractor has greater ability for profit.
Requirements:
Good project definition.
Stable project conditions.
Effective competition essential when bidding.
Much longer time to bid and award this type of project,
Minimum scope changes due to higher mark-ups than occurred at bidding.
Advantages:
Low financial risk to Owner.
High financial risk to Contractor.
Know cost at outset.
Minimum Owner supervision related to quality and schedule.
Contractor should assign best personnel due to maximum financial motivation to achieve early completion and
superior performance.
Contractor selection is relatively easy.
Disadvantages:
Changes difficult and costly.
Early project start not possible due to need to complete design prior to bidding.
Contractor free to choose lowest cost means, methods, and materials consistent with the specifications. Only
minimum specifications will be provided.
Hard to build relationship. Each project is unique.
Bidding expensive and lengthy.
Contractor may include high contingency within each Schedule of Value item.
Example:
You hire a contractor to build your home for $300,000. If it ends up costing $215,000 to build, the contractor
keeps the $85,000 difference as additional profit. However, if the project costs $345,000, then the contractor
suffers a $45,000 loss; you still pay the agreed-upon $300,000.

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2.

Unit Price Contract


This kind of contract is based on estimated quantities of items included in the project and their unit prices. The final
price of the project is dependent on the quantities needed to carry out the work.
In general this contract is only suitable for construction and supplier projects where the different types of items, but not
their numbers, can be accurately identified in the contract documents.
It is not unusual to combine a Unit Price Contract for parts of the project with a Lump Sum Contract or other types of
contracts.
Large quantity changes (>15-25%) can lead to increase or decrease in unit prices.
Time and Cost Risk are Shared:
Owner at risk for total quantities
Contractor at risk for fixed unit price
Requirements:
Adequate breakdown and definition of work units
Good quantity surveying and reporting system
Sufficient design definition to estimate quantities of units
Experience in developing bills of quantities
Payment terms properly tied to measured work completion
Owner-furnished drawings and materials must arrive on time
Quantity sensitive analysis of unit prices to evaluate total bid price for potential quantity variations
Advantages:
Complete design definition not required
Typical drawings can be used for bidding
Suitable for competitive bidding
Easy for contractor selection
Early project start possible
Flexibility - Scope and quantities easily adjustable
Disadvantages:
Final cost not known at outset since bills of quantities at bit time are only estimates
Additional site staff needed to measure, control, and report on units completed
Unit price contracts tend to draw unbalanced bidding
Example:
You hire a contractor to build a home for $70 per square foot. You want 2,000 square feet, so you will pay
$140,000 total. Alternatively, you might agree to pay $4 per square foot for framing, $3 per square foot for
electrical and plumbing, and $2 per square foot for painting and finish work.

3.

Incentive Contracts
Compensation is based on the engineering and/or contracting performance according an agreed target - budget, schedule
and/or quality.
The two basic categories of incentive contracts are:

Fixed Price Incentive Contracts


Fixed Price Incentive Contracts are preferred when contract costs and performance requirements are
reasonably certain.

Cost Reimbursement Incentive Contracts


Cost Reimbursement Contract provides the initially negotiated fee to be adjusted later by a formula
based on the relationship of total allowable costs to total target costs. This type of contract specifies a
target cost, a target fee, minimum and maximum fees, and a fee adjustment formula. After project
performance, the fee payable to the contractor is determined in accordance with the formula.

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4.

Cost Plus Contract


A contract agreement wherein the purchaser agrees to pay the cost of all labor and materials plus an amount for
contractor overhead and profit (usually as a percentage of the labor and material cost).
The contracts may be specified as:

Cost + Fixed Percentage Contract


Compensation is based on a percentage of the cost

Cost + Fixed Fee Contract


Compensation is based on a fixed sum independent the final project cost. The customer agrees to
reimburse the contractor's actual costs, regardless of amount, and in addition pay a negotiated fee
independent of the amount of the actual costs

Cost + Fixed Fee with Guaranteed Maximum Price Contract


Compensation is based on a fixed sum of money. The total project cost will not exceed an agreed upper
limit

Cost + Fixed Fee with Bonus Contract


Compensation is based on a fixed sum of money. A bonus is given if the project finishes below budget,
ahead of schedule etc.

Cost + Fixed Fee with Guaranteed Maximum Price and Bonus Contract
Compensation is based on a fixed sum of money. The total project cost will not exceed an agreed upper
limit and a bonus is given if the project is finished below budget, ahead of schedule etc.

Cost + Fixed Fee with Agreement for Sharing Any Cost Savings Contract
Compensation is based on a fixed sum of money. Any cost savings are shared with the buyer and the
contractor.

These types of contracts are favored where the scope of the work is indeterminate or highly uncertain and the kinds of
labor, material and equipment needed are also uncertain. Under this arrangement complete records of all time and
materials spent by the contractor on the work must be maintained.
Example:
You hire a contractor to build a home for the actual cost, and you also agree to pay the contractor an amount
equal to 10 percent of that actual cost. If your home costs $300,000 to build, you would pay the contractor
another $30,000, making your total price $330,000. Alternatively, you could agree to pay actual costs plus a
specified, flat fee for the contractor. For example, if your home costs $300,000 to build and you agreed to pay
the contractor a $20,000 fee, total costs to you would be $320,000.
5.

Percentage of Construction Fee Contracts


Common for engineering contracts. Compensation is based on a percentage of the construction costs.

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10.

What is difference between tender drawings, design drawings, shop drawing (Execution) &
41B

as built drawings?
Answer

11.

Tender:
Studying the nature of project and the client requirements for the level of work.
Make Concept Design, Check List for all Systems to be used and Contract Type.
Make preliminary estimated BOQ and specifications.

Design:
Study the nature of project and the client requirements for the level of work.
Put solution for the project with regard to electrical spaces that optimize the distribution of electrical power and routing
taking into account the voltage drop.
Study lighting for different areas with respect to type of ceiling and illumination levels (Lux) required for different areas
according to their functions. Design should be according to local regulations and international standards and codes.
Make drawings to show distribution and number of (lighting fixtures, fire alarm detectors, socket outlets .etc.) as
well as wiring method and circuits references for each circuit.
Make specifications & exact BOQ for the contractor and suppliers to follow according to the design.

Shop Drawing (Execution):


All detailed drawings including ( installation details & sections, exact dimensions, pull & junction boxes, complete path
to the pull box, hatch & sizes of wires & cables, cable Tray sections & levels, exact routing etc)
Make coordination among different systems & different trades, Details showing relation and spacing between different
systems (electrical, hvac, plumbing, fire fighting .etc.).
Show detail of routing cables inside cable trays or trenches with manholes or without.
Mention and show section show cable distribution inside raceways and capacity inside each one as stated in spare
regulations and standards. Make check of all calculations & drawings.
Make details for every item and specifications for the material and fixation method.
Final BOQ and Specification.

As Built:
Correct all shop drawings in order to match the existing installations that already done
Survey for all existing installations, Collecting data, catalogues, operating manuals & maintenance guides for all existing
installed equipments.
What are the types of tests required for electrical equipment? What are the differences?
42B

Answer

Type of Test

Location & Time of Test

Reports & Certificates

Type Tests

Done one time at the beginning of manufacturing the


equipment for one sample in international laboratories and
must pass all tests according to IEC.

Report & certificate must be given for


that.

Routine Tests

Done each time for all equipments at the factory. Client


deputy should be present in these tests

Report & certificate must be given for


that.

Site Tests

Done in site in order to ensure that the equipment arrived to


site in good condition and working well. Site engineer &
client deputy should be present in these tests

Report must be given for that.

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12.

What are the types of circuit breakers? State some applications for each?
43B

Answer

C.B. Type
MCB:
Miniature Circuit Breaker
MCCB:
Molded Case Circuit
Breaker
RCCB:
Residual Current Circuit
Breaker (Earth Leakage
Circuit Breaker)

Applications
Used for small appliances & small branch
circuits.
Usually used as main circuit breaker where
we need more reliability, more rated
current & short circuit level.
Used to protect people against indirect
contact, to provide protection against fire
hazards due to a persistent earth fault
current, without the operation of the overcurrent protective device.

Ratings & Settings

Max. S.C. Limits

Ratings up to 125A

Up to 25 KA

Ratings from 100A up to


3200A

Up to 200 KA

Settings from 30mA to 1A

ACB:
Air Circuit Breaker

Usually used for transformer protection


due to its high capacity ratings & more
reliability than molded case (micro-logic
can be installed).

Ratings from 400 up to


6300A

SF6 CB:
Sulfur Hexa Flouride Circuit
Breaker

Usually used for medium & high voltage,


smaller than ACB

Used from low voltage


system and up to 1300 kV
(rating 45 GVA).

Vacuum CB:

Usually Used for medium & high voltage


Very small damage to contacts (life up to
30 years). Small mechanical energy
required for tripping.

Wide Range

13.

What is the difference between thermal setting & magnetic setting of C.B?
4B

Answer

Type of Setting
Thermal Setting
Magnetic Setting

Type of Trip
Inverse Time Trip.
Instantaneous Trip.

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Type of Protection
For Overload Protection.
For Short Circuit Protection.

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14.

How can you improve the selection of a system earthing arrangement?


45B

Answer

15.

Six Selection Criteria:


Protection of persons
Protection of equipment
Continuity of the power supply
Effects of disturbances
Easy implementation
Economic analysis
What is the meant by TVSS or SPD?
46B

Answer

SPD: Surge Protection Device


TVSS: Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor
TVSS or SPD is a device that interrupt and divert electrical transient surge events to ground. Surge events can be caused by
electrical storms or bank switching on electrical distribution lines. These events are responsible for over 2 billion dollars of
damage annually in the USA and can effect sensitive electrical equipment, telephone networks, and computer networks.

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16.

What are the types of Discrimination (Selectivity)? State the difference?


47B

Answer

Current Discrimination:
Total Discrimination: if for all fault current values, from overloads up to
the non-resistive short circuit current, circuit breaker D2 opens and D1
remains closed.
Partial Discrimination: if the above condition is not respected up to the
full short circuit current, but only to a lesser value termed the selectivity
limit currents.
No Discrimination: in the event of fault, both circuit breakers D1 and D2
open.

Time Discrimination:

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17.

What is Cascading?
48B

Answer

Cascading:
Is the use of the current limiting capacity of circuit breakers at a given point to permit installation of lower rated and
therefore lower cost circuit breakers downstream. Also, the upstream compact C.B acts as a barrier against short circuit
currents. In this way, downstream C.Bs with lower breaking capacities than the prospective short circuit (at their point
of installation) operates under their normal breaking conditions.
For example: if the calculated SC current at a point is 30KA so in case of not using cascading we should choose C.B
with 35KA SC current. While in case of using the main C.B with cascading technology so we can use C.B of 20KA
above this point.

Cascading Advantages: Reduce C.B cost.


Reduce mechanical effect (Bus bars).
Reduce thermal effects (Cables).
Reduce electromagnetic effect (Measuring devices).

Conclusion
Cascading = Reduction of the installation cost

18.

Estimate the demand load (VA/m2) regarding lighting, sockets, A/C, Equipments...etc for the
49B

following type of buildings:


Hotels

o
50B

Residential

o
51B

Commercial/Offices

o
52B

Health Care/Hospitals

o
o

53B

Educational/Schools
54B

Answer

Type of Buildings
Hotels
Residential
Commercial/Offices
Health Care/Hospitals
Educational/Schools

Demand loads as per type of loads (VA/m2)


Lighting

Sockets

A/C

Equipments

Others

25
30
40
30
30

20
20
40
30
20

120
100
120
120
110

30
25
20
30
20

25
0
10
50
20

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19.

What is meant by:


5B

IP54

o
o

56B

NEMA 3R
57B

Answer

IP54:

Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).


Protection against water sprayed from all directions, limited ingress permitted.

NEMA-3R:

Rain tight, Sleet Resistant Outdoor - undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure

20.

What are codes & standards can be followed in lighting design?


58B

Answer

21.

IESNA:
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
CIBSE:
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers Lighting Code UK norms.
DIN German norms: Deutsches Institut fur Normung
What are the types of earthing systems according to IEC? Explain each & where
59B

recommended to be used? Compare among earthing systems.


Answer

Types of Earthing Systems According to IEC:


TT System:
IT System
TN System
TN-C System
TN-S System
TN-C-S System

Neutral & exposed conductive part connections:


First letter Relationship of the power system to earth:
T:
Direct connection of neutral to earth;
I:
Neutral isolated from earth, or one connected to earth through impedance.
Second letter Relationship of the exposed-conductive-parts of the installation to earth:
T:
Direct electrical connection of exposed-conductive-parts to earth.
N:
Direct electrical connection of the exposed-conductive-parts to neutral.

Arrangement of N & PE conductors:


Subsequent letter(s) (if any) Arrangement of neutral and protective conductors:
S:
Neutral and protective conductor separate (N & PE).
C:
Neutral and protective conductor combined (PEN conductor).
C-S:
TN-C near the source, TN-S near the loads.

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TT system
A system having one point of the source of energy directly earthed, the exposed conductive parts of the installation being
connected to earth electrodes electrically independent of the earth electrodes of the source.
In the case of isolation fault, the potential of the exposed conductive parts will suddenly increase causing a dangerous
situation of electric shock. This can be avoided with the use of RCDs with the proper sensitivity in function of touch
voltage.
To ensure safety conditions in the installation, the earth values shall comply with:
RA x In 50V
RA = Earth resistance value of the installation.
In = Residual operating current value of the RCD.

IT system
A system having no direct connection between live parts and earth, the exposed conductive parts of the electrical
installation connected to an earth electrode.
The source is either connected to earth through deliberately introduced earthing impedance or is isolated from earth.
In case of insulation fault the value of the current is not high enough to generate dangerous voltages.
Nevertheless protection against indirect contact must be provided by means of an insulation monitoring device which
shall provide visual and sonorous alarm when the first fault occurs. The service interruption by means of breakers must
be done in case of a second fault according to the following tripping conditions:
To ensure safety conditions in the installation, it shall comply with:
RA x Id50V
RA = Earth resistance value of the installation.`1`q
Id = Fault current value of the first fault.

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TN system
A system having one or more points of the source of energy directly earthed, the exposed conductive part of the
installation being connected to that point by protective conductors. In case of an insulation fault a short circuit (phase
neutral) is caused in the installation.
There are three types of TN systems: TN-C, TN-S and TN-C TN-C system
A system in which neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor throughout the system.

TN-S system
A system having separate neutral and protective conductors throughout the system.

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TN-C-S system
Part of the system uses a combined PEN conductor, which is at some point split up into separate PE and N lines.

IEC60364-3 Electrical installations in buildings part 3 assessment of general characteristics defines the code used to specify
the earthing of low voltage distribution systems. The code consists of 2 letters and subsequent letter(s) if they are required.
The definitions given hereafter refer to typical industrial applications.
There is no requirement in IEC Standards to implement earth fault protection on the incoming circuit breaker to eliminate
resistive earth faults. According to the above mentioned IEC standard, earth faults can be eliminated by means of phase
protection or sensitive earth fault protection. Should earth fault protection to provide on the incoming circuit breaker and
phase protection be used on outgoing feeders, protection coordination is often not possible. This results in tripping the
incoming circuit breaker for earth faults on outgoing feeders which is normally unacceptable for industrial and commercial
applications. If the application requires that earth fault protection be provided on incoming circuit breakers, sensitive earth
fault protection should also be provided on outgoing feeders to ensure selective tripping.
The system earthing arrangement must be properly selected to ensure the safety of life and property. The behavior of the
different systems with respect to EMC considerations must be taken into account.
European standards (see EN 50174-2 6.4 and EN 50310 6.3) recommend the TN-S system which causes the fewest EMC
problems for installations comprising information-technology equipment (including telecom equipment).
When an installation includes high-power equipment
(motors, air-conditioning, lifts, power electronics,
etc.), it is advised to install one or more transformers
specifically for these systems. Electrical distribution
must be organised in a star system and all outgoing
circuits must exit the main low-voltage switchboard
(MLVS).
Electronic systems (control/monitoring, regulation,
measurement instruments, etc.) must be supplied by a
dedicated transformer in a TN-S system.

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Point of
Comparison
Safety of persons
Safety against
Short circuit
currents

TT
Good
RCD mandatory
Good
Medium fault current
(< a few dozen amperes)
Small values of short-circuit
currents to earth: typically 10 to
100 A

Availability of
energy
EMC
(Electromagnetic
Compatibility)
behavior

Contact-voltage
typical values
Typical
applications

Protection
against earthfaults

Good
Good
Risk of overvoltages
Equipotential Problems
Need to manage devices with
high leakage currents

0.7 to 1.0 * U0
Domestic and small industrial
installations fed by the utilities
directly from the low-voltage
network (Italy and Spain)

Required the installation of


earth-leakage circuit breaker

Neutral
Conductor
Advantages

Drawback &
Disadvantages

The Simplest
To study : little or no calculation
To run: easy to spot the faulty
part.
To modify: no special checking
of maximum cable lengths
To install: RCDs are easy to
install & set.
No continuity of service
Not very: cheap: 5-wires and 4
poles if distributed neutral
extensive use of RCDs
Difficult in some cases to ensure
vertical discrimination of RCDs

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Main Characteristics of System Earthing


IT
TN-S
TN-C
Good
Continuity of the PE conductor must be ensured throughout the installation
Good
Poor
Low current for first fault (< a
High fault current (around 1 kA)
few dozen mA), but high for
Medium-high values of short circuit currents to earth
second fault
Small values of short circuit
currents to earth (1st fault),
typically 1 to 10 A (0.1A/km
cable);
Medium-high values of short
circuit currents to earth (2nd
fault)
Excellent

Good

Poor (to be avoided)


Risk of overvoltages
Common-mode filters and surge
arrestors must handle the phaseto-phase voltages
RCDs subject to nuisance
tripping if common-mode
capacitors are present
Equivalent to TN system for
second fault
very low at the 1st fault, 0.5 * Un
at the 2nd fault
Industrial or utilities installations
(especially chemical,
petrochemical &
telecommunications) for which a
very high level of service
continuity is required
Installations for IT apparatuses
fed by UPS

Excellent
Few equipotential
problems
Need to manage devices
with high leakage currents
High fault currents
transient disturbances)

1st fault: normally no circuit


interruption is required; voltage
or insulation monitoring relays
generate an alarm; earthleakage relays may be employed
for a fast
location and
removal of the fault
2nd fault: protection assured by
circuit breaker with only
overcurrent releases or by fuses
It is strongly recommended not
to distribute the N-conductor

Breakers with only


overcurrent releases or by
fuses; circuit breaker with
earth-leakage or ground-fault
releases (G function) are
required in case of loads fed
by very long cables (TN-S
systems only)

The most efficient


No obligation to trip on first fault
Low fault current (less risk)

More complex
Imperative need for a reliable
and well-trained maintenance
team
Sensitivity to voltage surges
from the MV side
Necessity to permanently
monitor network insulation
Protection of all poles including
neutral, equipment needed for
fault tracking.

Good
Poor (should never be used)
Neutral and PE are the same
Circulation of disturbed currents in
exposed conductive parts (high
magnetic-field radiation)
High fault currents (transient
disturbances)

0.5 * U0
Industrial, utilities or
building installations fed
from the M.V. network

Industrial, utilities or building


installations fed from the M.V.
network
TN-C (Germany,GB and
Scandinavian countries) and TN-CS systems (France) are normally
used for domestic and small
industrial installations fed by the
utilities directly from the lowvoltage network
Breakers with only overcurrent
releases or by fuses

N-conductor may be
PEN-conductor cannot be
interrupted at the same time
interrupted
as the phase-conductors
The cheapest
Less copper or aluminium: 4-wires instead of 5, 3-poles instead of 4.
Use of existing protections against overcurrent for protection of people

No continuity of service
Imperative calculations making study more difficult and modification
more delicate
High value of fault current: a simple insulation fault is a short circuit:
not studied to sensitive load
Necessity to seal the settings of the magnetic unit if adjustable

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22.

Calculate the grounding conductor size & the grounding resistance according to BS
60B

7430:1998 of grid of length 80m width 40m, 12 rods with separation distance of 20m where
rod length is 3m, rod diameter is 20mm, soil resistivity is 450 .m, grounding conductor
laid 0.8m below ground. 10 earth lattices (600mm x 600mmm) are bonded to the earth loop.
Suppose that the symmetrical fault current is 20KA in 1sec duration. Where the grounding
conductor is chosen to be copper conductor and the initial temperature of conductor is 30C
& final temperature is 250C. After calculation find out if the grid safe or not safe?
Answer

Selection of Grounding Conductor & Connection to an Electrode Method Based on BS 7430:1998


S=

It (20x1000)1
=
= 116.85 mm2
k
171.16

Where
I
S
k
T1
T2
K,

+
+

+
+

= . /

is the average fault current, in A r.m.s.


is the conductor cross-sectional area, in mm2;
is the r.m.s. current density, in A/mm2
is the initial temperature, in C;
is the final temperature, in C;
have the values given in Table 13.

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Grounding Resistance Calculations Method Based on BS 7430:1998
1. Rods or Pipes Resistance Calculation:
Rrods =

R1rod (

R1rod =

2L

1 +
n
8L
d

[ln

2R1rodS

1 + 5.48x0.0246
4

= 145.46 (
- 1]

450
2x3.14x2.4

450
2x3.14x145.46x20

)=

8x3
0.02

[ln

-1]

41.27
= 145.46

= 0.0246

Note:
Since;
electrodes are equally spaced around a hollow square
Therefore; we can use table 3
Since;
no. of rods per side is approximately 5 (n = 5)
Therefore; = 5.48, n = (n/4 + 1) = (12/4 + 1) = 4
Surface Area of Vertical Rods = No. of rods x Surface Area of Vertical Rod [2rL] = 12 x [2x3.14x(0.02/2)x3] = 2.26 m2
2. Lattice Resistance Calculation:
Rlattices =
=

1 +
n

R1lattice (

2R1latticeS

1 + 3.81x0.02316
10

81 (

450
2x3.14x129x24

)=

8.81

= 0.02316

Note:
For simplified solution we can use table 2 for rods to get total R for lattice;
Therefore; we can use table 2
Taking; number of lattices 10 (n = 10)
Therefore; = 3.81
Since the Lattice is considered 3 groups connected in parallel then

1
R1lattice

1
=

Relbow

Rstar

1
+

Relbow

243.6

214.2

1
+

243.6

R1lattice

81

Relbow =

Pl

[ ln (

2l
wh

)+Q]

450
4x3.14x0.6

[ ln (

2x0.62
0.025x0.8

) + 0.5 ]

243.6

Rstar =

Pl

[ ln (

2l
wh

)+Q]

450
8x3.14x0.6

[ ln (

2x0.62
0.025x0.8

) + 3.6 ]

214.2

Surface Area of Lattices = No. of Lattices x Surface of Lattice [8x2rL] = 10 x [8x2x3.14x(0.025/2)x0.6] = 3.77 m2
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3. Rectangle Buried Bare Wire Resistance Calculation:


1
Rbare wires

1
Rbare wire-1

Rbare wires

4.26

1
Rbare wire-2

1
6.79

1
11.43

Rbare wire-1 = F1 Rbare wire-1// = 0.596 x 11.39 = 6.79

Rbare wire-2 = F2 Rbare wire-2// = 0.563 x 20.31 = 11.43

Rbare wire-1// =

PL

[ ln (

2L
wh

)+Q]

450
2x3.14x80

S
)-0.307
= 0.5 + 0.078 (
L
(i.e. in this case L = L= 80m & S = S = 40m)

F1 = 0.5 + 0.078 (

Rbare wire-2// =

PL

[ ln (

2L
wh

)+Q]

40
80

450
2x3.14x40

S
)-0.307
= 0.5 + 0.078 (
L
(i.e. in this case L = S= 40m & S = L = 80m)

F2 = 0.5 + 0.078 (

80
40

[ ln (

)-0.307

[ ln (

)-0.307

2x802
0.013x0.8

) - 1.3 ]

= 11.39

) - 1.3 ]

= 20.31

= 0.596

2x402
0.013x0.8
= 0.563

Where cable size is 120mm2 of diameter 13mm


From Table 5
For single length round conductor: P=2 & Q = -1.3
F has the following value:

for two lengths, F = 0.5 + 0.078(S/L) 0.307

for three lengths, F = 0.33 + 0.071(S/L) 0.408

for four lengths, F = 0.25 + 0.067(S/L)0.451


Provided that 0.02 (S/L) 0.3.
Surface Area of Horizontal Conductors = 2r (2L+2S) = 2x3.14x(0.013/2)x(2x80+2x40) = 9.78 m2

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Where
Rbare wire:

is the combined resistance of rectangle bare wire of ground loop where two or more straight
lengths, each of length (L) in (m) and of separation (s) in (m), are laid parallel to each other and
connected together, in ();

Rbare wire-n:

is the resistance of one straight conductor in isolation calculated from the equation and coefficients
given in table 5, in ();

R1rod:

is the resistance to earth of one rod or pipe electrode in isolation, in ( );

Rground:

is the grounding resistance, in ();

L:

is the length of the electrode, in (m);

d:

is the diameter of the electrode, in (m);

is the resistivity of the soil, in ( m) (assumed uniform);

Rrods:

is the combined total resistance of rod electrodes in parallel, in ();

is a factor for electrodes given in Table 2 or Table 3;

S:

is the distance between adjacent rods, in (m);

n:

is the number of electrodes (as given in Table 2 and Table 3);

n:

is the total number of electrodes along each side of the square.

l:

is the length of the strip or conductor, in (m);

h:

is the depth of electrode, in (m);

w:

is the width of strip or diameter of conductor, in (m);

P, Q:

are coefficients for different arrangements of electrode given in Table 5.

L or S:

is the length of straight bare wire, in (m);

S or L:

is the separation distance between two or more adjacent straight lengths conductors or strips laid
parallel to each other and connected together, in (m);

J:

is the maximum permissible current density (A/m2);

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Important Note:
If the rods are equally spaced in a straight line an appropriate value of may be taken from Table 2. In this
case [n = n].
If electrodes are equally spaced around a hollow square, e.g. around the perimeter of a building, value of
may be taken from Table 3. In this case [n = (n/4) + 1)].
4. Total Grounding Resistance Calculation:
1
Rground

1
Rrods

Rground

57.7
)

= 103 (

1
Rlattices

2.68

<5

57.7
)
(450)(1)

= 103 (

1
Rbare wires

1
41.27

1
8.81

1
4.26

OKAY

= 358.08 A/m2

Surface Area of Vertical Rods, Horizontal Conductors & Lattices = 2.26 + 9.78 + 3.77 = 15.81 m2
Short Circuit Ground Grid Withstand = 358.08x 15.81 = 5.66 kA < (Fault Current 20 kA)
Therefore; the grid is not safe.

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23.

What is the Dynamic UPS (No Break Generator)? State some applications? Compare with
61B

Static UPS.
Answer

At normal conditions the fly wheel is fed from the main electric source and continues rotating.
When loss electricity, the flying wheel continue rotates due to inertia helping the generator to feed critical loads.

Conditioning Mode

Applications
Satellite communication (Internet data centers (IDC))
Aviation and Airports (Air traffic control towers,
Runway lighting, Reservation centers)
Hi-tech industry (Semiconductor, TFT-LCD flat screens,
Mobile phones)
Hospitals
Industry (Process industry, Pharmaceutical industry, Car
industry)
Defence (Radar, Intelligence centers)
Finance/Banking/Stock Exchange (Data centers)
Telecom/Internet (Telecom centers)

Advantages of Dynamic UPS


One system powering critical and non-critical loads.
Lower initial investment.
Lower installation and building construction costs.
Reduced floor space.
Lower maintenance costs.
Provides additional protection for the critical loads by
means of the choke coil.

Disadvantages Chemical Batteries


Connected in strings; in case one cell fails, one complete
string fails.
Special fire code regulations.
Increasing installation and insurance costs.
Air-conditioning requirements.
Short real life-time.
Large floor space requirements.
High maintenance.
Increasing disposal costs.
Limited short circuit acceptance.

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Independent Mode

Static UPS Room Layout

Dynamic UPS Room Layout

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24.

What are the types of cable trays? State some applications? How can you size a cable tray?
62B

What is the difference between cable tray & cable ladder & which is less expensive? State
applications for cable ladders?
Answer

Types of Cable Trays


Cable Tray hot deep galvanized before perforation
Cable Tray hot deep galvanized after perforation
Cable Tray hot deep galvanized after perforation with cover
Steel Wire Cable Tray.
Cable Ladders.

Comparison & Applications


Cable Ladder is less expensive than cable tray.
Cable ladders are more reliable to be used for cables with large CSA (ex. Medium voltage cables).
Cable Tray hot deep galvanized before perforation usually used in dry areas.
Cable Tray hot deep galvanized after perforation usually used in wet areas & technical rooms.
Cable Tray hot deep galvanized after perforation with cover usually used at roof (outdoor).

Steel Wire Cable Tray

Perforated Cable Tray

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Cable Ladder

Perforated Cable Tray with cover

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Typical Cable Tray Types As per NEMA VE 2-2006

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25.

State some applications for using isolating transformers? What is the advantage of using
63B

it?
Answer

Applications
Swimming pools.
Surgery operating rooms.

Advantage
Isolating transformers protect people from electric shock due to its low voltage.

26.

What are the common types of conduits? State some applications? How can you size a
64B

conduit?
Answer

Common types of conduits


PVC: Poly Venyle Chloride Conduit.
UPVC: Ultra Venyle Chloride Conduit.
RGS: Rigid Galvanized Steel Conduit.
EMT: Electrical Metallic Tubing.
FMC: Flexible Metal Conduit.
IMC: Intermediate Metal Conduit.

Sizing of conduits can be done according to NEC Tables Chapter 9

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27.

What characteristics does a luminaire need to be a good one?


65B

Answer

To minimize Glare
Focus lamps light onto the working surface
Ensure that the lamp does not overheat
28.

What are the SEC standard specifications for LV distribution panels sizes for transformers
6B

500 kVA, 1000 kVA, 1500 kVA from where:


Incoming CB. Rating

o
o

67B

Incoming Cables for standalone LV panel


68B

Answer

According to SEC Distribution Materials Specification (31-SDMS-01)

Components

300 kVA
231/133V 400/231V

Transformer Rating
500 kVA
1000 kVA
231/133V 400/231V 231/133V
400/231V

1500 kVA
231/133V 400/231V

1600

4000

2500

750/5
2 / ph
1/N

750/5
2 / ph
1/N

1500/5
2 / ph
1/N

750/5
2 / ph
1/N

3000/5
4 / ph
2/N

1500/5
2 / ph
1/N

4000/5
6 / ph
3/N

3000/5
4 / ph
2/N

Number of cables single core

Detailed number of cables single core

For LV panle used in unit package


substations
Number of outgoing MCCBs
Minimum Spacing MCCBs
Phase Busbars min. cross section (mm2)
Phase Busbars min. Raring (A)
Neutral Busbar min. size (mm2)
Neutral Busbars min. Raring (A)
Ammeter Scale
Symmetrical short circuit rating for 2
sec. (RMS). kA

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[2 x{3x(1x630mm2)} 3ph]
+
[1 x(1x630mm2)-N]

CT Rating on incoming busbars (A)


Incoming Cables for standalone LV
panel

14x(1x630mm2) cu

3000

[4 x{3x(1x630mm2)} 3ph]
+
[2 x(1x630mm2)-N]

800

21 x(1x630mm2) cu

1600

[6 x{3x(1x630mm2)} 3ph]
+
[3 x(1x630mm2)-N]

500

7 x(1x630mm2) cu

800

[2 x{3x(1x630mm2)} 3ph]
+
[1 x(1x630mm2)-N]

Incoming C.B. rating (A)

14 x(1x630mm2) cu

2500

[4 x{3x(1x630mm2)} 3ph]
+
[2 x(1x630mm2)-N]

4000

7 x(1x630mm2) cu

1600

[2 x{3x(1x630mm2)} 3ph]
+
[1 x(1x630mm2)-N]

3000

7 x(1x630mm2) cu

800

[2 x{3x(1x630mm2)} 3ph]
+
[1 x(1x630mm2)-N]

1600

7 x(1x630mm2) cu

500

[2 x{3x(1x630mm2)} 3ph]
+
[1 x(1x630mm2)-N]

800

7 x(1x630mm2) cu

LV Panel incoming busbar link rating


(A)

Incoming connection shall be through copper busbar links from back of the panel
4

10x50
800
5x50
400
0-1000

10x50
500
5x50
250
0-750

10x100
1600
10x50
800
0-1800

25

25

25

4
12
Not less than 10mm
10x50
2x10x100
800
3000
5x50
10x100
400
1600
0-1000
0-3000
25

40

12

10

10x100
1600
10x50
1000
0-1800

3x10x100
4000
2x10x100
2500
0-4000

2x10x100
2500
10x100
1600
0-3000

25

65

40

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29.

What is RGB LED?


69B

Answer

RGB LED = Red Green Blue Light Emitting Diode.

Its the abbreviation of Red, Green, and Blue. The three colours of light which can be
mixed to produce any other colour. In fact its an additive colour model in which red,
green and blue light is combined to create colours, combining full intensities of all three
colours makes white.
30.

Can we dim Fluorescent or Metal Halide lamps?


70B

Answer

Fluorescent lamps
Dimming of fluorescent using a simple wall potentiometer.
0V to 10V Dimming of fluorescent.

Metal Halide lamps


Most HID lamps can be dimmed using Step-level dimming.
Savings of 50% or more might be obtained where available daylight is used with photo sensor and dimming control
system.
HID lamps should be started at full power and the dimming delayed until the lamp is fully warmed up.
HID lamps respond to changes in dimmer settings much more slowly than incandescent or fluorescent sources: delay
between minimum and maximum light output varies 3 to 10 min.
Instantaneous dimming is available over a limited range for some lamps.
Clear metal halide lamps can experience a shift in color temperature of over 1000 K and a drop of 35% in CRI when
dimmed to 50% of rated output. Convenience and simplicity.

31.

What are the different types of Lighting System Controls?


71B

Answer

Manual Control
Normal on/off switches
Manual Dimmers

Manual / Automatic control (On by user/Off Automatic)


Timer Switches
Infra Red sensor / Ultrasonic Switches

Automatic Controls
Time of Day [ Sensor : Timer]
Dimming [ Sensor : Photocell ]
Occupancy Detectors

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32.

What is the difference between IP, NEMA, IK, IC & IM?


72B

Answer

IP:
NEMA:
IK:
IC:
IM:

Ingress Protection (or Index of Protection)


National Electrical Manufacturers Association Protection
Mechanical Impact Protection.
International Cooling
International Mounting Arrangements

--- According to IEC 60529.


--- According to NEC.
--- According to IEC 62262.
--- According to IEC 60034-6.
--- According to IEC 60034-7.

NEMA

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IK Code
Standard IEC 62262 defines an IK code that characterises the aptitude of equipment to resist mechanical impacts on all
sides.

IC Code

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IM Code

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33.

What is the difference between horizontal, vertical illumination & general, task lighting?
73B

How can you make calculations for each? State some examples for each?
Answer

Horizontal illuminance:
The average luminance values produced at 90.
For example, the illumination on floor of a room.

Vertical illuminance:
The average luminance values produced at 0.
For example, the illumination on the switchgear
& breakers must be vertical.

General lighting:
Lighting designed to provide a substantially uniform level of
illuminance throughout an area, exclusive of any provision for
special local requirements.

Task lighting:
Lighting directed to a specific surface or area that provides illumination for visual tasks.
For example a typical office, the general lighting often is designed to provide an
illuminance of 75 fc (750 lux) at desk height, the middle value from category E. In
partitioned workspaces, it is difficult for general lighting to deliver this illuminance to the
desk surfaces, because shadows from shelves, cabinets, partitions, and the workers own
body can block light from the ceiling mounted luminaires. Therefore, in an office that
requires 75fc (750 lux), a fluorescent under-shelf task light can provide 40 fc (400 lux),
which allows the general lighting to be reduced to 35 fc (350lux). Even greater energy
savings can be achieved if the task lights are switched off when not in use.

Note:
Calculations can be done for each using point by point calculation or using lighting program (calculation surfaces).

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34.

What is color rendering? State the color renderings for sodium lamps, metal halide lamps,
74B

fluorescent lamps & halogen lamps?


Answer

Color Rendering Index (CRI):


A method for describing the effect of a light source on the color appearance of objects being illuminated, with a CRI of
100 representing the reference condition (and thus the maximum CRI possible). In general, a lower CRI indicates that
some colors may appear unnatural when illuminated by the lamp.
Type of Lamp
Metal Halide
Fluorescent
Halogen
Sodium

Color Rendering (%)


90-93%
75-85%
95-100%
20-25%

35. What is illuminance? State the recommended illumination level for Office, Surgery operating
75B

room, Bed room, Class room, Sitting & Corridors


Answer

Illuminance:
The amount of light that reaches a surface. Illuminance is measured in footcandles (lumens/square foot) or lux
(lumens/square meter). One footcandle equals 10.76 lux, although for convenience the IESNA uses 10 lux as the
equivalent.
Application
Office
Surgery operating room
Bed room
Class room
Sitting
Corridors

36.

Recommended Illumination level (Lux)


From 300 lux (General) to 750 lux (Task)
From 2000 lux (General) to 20000 lux (Task)
From 200 lux (General) to 500 lux (Reading)
From 500 lux (General) to 1000 lux (Task)
200-300 lux
100-200 lux

What is Color Temperature? State some of them


76B

Answer

Correlated Color Temperature (CCT):


A description of the color appearance of a light source in terms of its warmth or coolness. The CCT relates the color
appearance of the light emitted by a lamp to the color appearance of a reference material heated to a high temperature
(measured on the Kelvin scale, abbreviated K). As the temperature rises, the color appearance shifts from yellow to blue.
Thus, lamps with a low CCT (3000 K or less) have a yellow-white color appearance and are described as warm; lamps
with a high CCT (4000 K and higher) have a blue-white color appearance and are described as cool.
Color Appearance
Yellow
Warm White
White
Cool White
Daylight

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Color Temperature (k)


2000K
3000K
3500K
4200K
6500K
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37.

What is the difference between Fluorescent lamps type T2, T5, T8 & T12?
7B

Answer

Lamp Type
T 12 T38
TL

Diameter

Type of Gas

38mm

Mercury + Argon

Less Efficacy

T 8 T26
TL-D

26mm

Mercury + Krypton

More Efficacy
than T12

T 5 T16
TL5

16mm

Mercury + Krypton

T2

7mm

Mercury + Krypton

Watt

T 12 T38 TL
lm
mm

15
16
18
1200

3000

650

950
1250
1350

Type of Ballast
Work with magnetic
ballast
Work with magnetic
ballast, rapid-start &
electronic ballast
Work with electronic
ballast only
Work with electronic
ballast only

Watt

Life Time (hours)

Today Usage
Almost
Disappeared

Magnetic = 8000 hr
Rapid Start = 11000 hr
Electronic = 16000 hr

Most Popular

20000 hr

Fast Growing
Rare

T 5 T16 TL5
lm
mm

Watt

T2
lm

mm

6
8

330
540

220
320

11
13

750
930

422
525

470

14

1200

550

21

1900

850

24
28

1950
2400

550
1150

35

3300

1150

39

3400

850

49
54

4300
4600

1150
1150

80

6450

1150

440
720
590

590
23

40

More Efficacy
than T8
More Efficacy
than T5

T 8 T26 TL-D
Watt
lm
mm

10

20

Efficacy

1900

970

30

2400

900

36
38

3350
3300

1200
1050

1200

58
65

4800

1500

115

6850

1200

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1500

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T-12 Fluorescent Lamps:


Until the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), the most commonly applied fluorescent lamp was the T-12, 40W, 4-ft (1.22-m), rapid-start lamp with a cool white or warm white phosphor. EPACT banned the production of these
type lamps after 1995. EPACT also impacted the T-12, 8-ft (2.44 m) lamps. As with 4-ft lamps, only reduced wattage or
improved color rendition lamps are currently produced for U.S. consumption. For many new installations, the more
efficient T-8 lamps are often specified.

T-8 Fluorescent Lamps:


T-8 fluorescent lamps are a family of 1-in.-diameter (25.4 mm) straight tube lamps manufactured in some of the same
lengths as T-12 lamps. The 4-ft version of the lamp is designed to consume approximately 32 W. It is also available in 2, 3-, 5- and 8-ft. (0.16-, 0.91-, 1.52-, and 2.44-m) lengths. The smaller diameter makes it economical to use the more
efficient and more expensive rare-earth phosphors. Although the T-8 and T-12 lamps are physically interchangeable,
they cannot operate on the same ballast. T-8 lamps are designed to operate on line-frequency rapid-start ballasting
systems at approximately 265 mA, or on high-frequency electronic ballasts at slightly less current. Due to the higher
efficacies that can be reached with T-8 systems, they have replaced the conventional T-12 lamps in many applications.

T-5 Fluorescent Lamps:


T-5 fluorescent lamps are a family of smaller diameter straight tube lamps employing triphosphor technology. Available
only in metric lengths and mini bipin bases, the T-5 lamps provide higher source brightness than T-8 lamps and better
optical control. The lamps provide optimum light output at an ambient temperature of 35C (95F) rather than the more
typical 25C (77F), allowing for the design of more compact luminaires. Also available are high-output versions
providing approximately twice the lumens at the same length as the standard versions. T-5 lamps are designed to operate
solely on electronic ballasts. Their unique lengths, special lamp holder, and ballast requirements make them unsuitable
for most retrofit applications. These lamps are used in shallower luminaries than the T-8 lamps, which are more efficient
overall than luminaries for T-8 lamps

38.

Can we make interconnection bonding among these systems:


78B

Grounding System

o
79B

Lightning Protection

o
o

80B

Low current & Communication Grounding System


81B

Answer

According to NEC Article 250.94:


The Code requires that separate systems be bonded together to reduce the differences of potential between them due to
lightning or accidental contact with power lines. Lightning protection systems, communications, radio and TV, and
CATV systems must be bonded together to minimize the potential differences between the systems.
Lack of interconnection can result in a severe shock and fire hazard.

According to NEC Article 250.106:


The lightning protection system ground terminals shall be bonded to the building or structure grounding electrode
system.

According to NEC Article 930.100:


A bonding jumper not smaller than 6 AWG copper or equivalent shall be connected between the network-powered
broadband communications system grounding electrode and the power grounding electrode system at the building or
structure served where separate electrodes are used.

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39.

Give some types of different lamps showing: type, manufacturers, wattage, lumen output,
82B

peak intensity, colour temperature, lamp holder (cap), life time and dimensions?
Answer

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40.

What are the recommended IP and IK code specifications for distribution boards?
83B

Answer

The degrees of protection IP and IK of an enclosure must be specified as a function of the different external
influences defined by standard IEC 60364-5-51, in particular:
Presence of solid bodies (code AE)
Presence of water (code AD)
Mechanical stresses (no code)
Capability of persons (code BA)

Unless the rules, standards and regulations of a specific country stipulate otherwise, Schneider Electric recommends
the following IP and IK values.
Schneider Electric IP Recommendations for distribution boards

Schneider Electric IK Recommendations for distribution boards

41.

Calculate the number of luminaries required for office (5x6m), height = 3m, consider type
84B

fluorescent lighting fixture each have lamps 2x36W. Luminous flux of each lamp 3200 lm,
utilization factor is 0.48 and maintenance factor is 0.75. Notice that the required
maintained illumination level is 500 lux.
Answer

= (E x A) / ( x n x U.F x M.F)
= (500*30) / (3200*2*0.48*0.75)
= 6.71 8 Luminaries
Where:
E= Average maintained illumination level (lux)
A= Room area (m2)
= Lamp luminous flux (lm)
N= number of lighting fixtures (luminaries)
n= number of lamps in each luminaire
U.F= Utilization factor
M.F= Maintenance factor

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42.

What is the recommended LV system voltage? Give some examples for the system voltages &
85B

frquencies in different countries?


Answer

An international voltage standard for 3-phase 4-wire LV systems is recommended by the IEC 60038 to be 230/400 V.
Voltage of local LV network and their associated circuit diagrams

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43.

What is LEED & how can you improve your design to match the LEED requirements?
86B

Answer

44.

LEED: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design


LEED is the brainchild of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). The Leasership in
Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System is the accepted
benchmark for the design, construction and operation of high performance Green
Building.
Although there is other rating systems available, LEED is the most used worldwide
because it is not too difficult to understand and apply.
When asked to design a Sustainable development the first question is what
sustainability is and what constitutes a Green Building.
We can use day lighting controls, lighting controls, occupancy sensors, EIB, BMS foe
HVAC. etc.
Which one could achieve more lumen output prismatic or opal diffusers considering same
87B

lamps? Why? State application.


Answer

Prismatic:
An optical component of a luminaire that is used to distribute the emitted light. It is usually a sheet of plastic with a
pattern of pyramid-shaped refracting prisms on one side. Most ceiling-mounted luminaires in commercial buildings use
prismatic lenses.

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45.

What are the different types of substations?


8B

Answer

Substations may be classified according to metering arrangements (MV or LV) and type of supply (overhead line or
underground cable).
The substations may be installed:
Either indoors in room specially built for the purpose, within a building, or
An outdoor installation which could be :
Installed in a dedicated enclosure prefabricated or not, with indoor equipment (switchgear and transformers)
Ground mounted with outdoor equipment (switchgear and transformers)
Pole mounted & with dedicated outdoor equipment (switchgear and transformers)
i.e: Prefabricated substations provide a particularly simple, rapid and competitive choice.
1.

Indoor substation

1.1. Conception
Figure B32 shows a typical equipment layout recommended for a LV metering substation.
Remark: the use of a cast-resin dry-type transformer does not use a fireprotection oil sump. However, periodic cleaning
is needed.

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1.2. Service connections and equipment interconnections


1.2.1. At high voltage
Connections to the MV system are made by, and are the responsibility of the utility
Connections between the MV switchgear and the transformers may be:
By short copper bars where the transformer is housed in a panel forming part of the MV switchboard
By single-core screened cables with synthetic insulation, with possible use of plugin type terminals at the
transformer
1.2.2. At low voltage
Connections between the LV terminals of the transformer and the LV switchgear may be:
Single-core cables
Solid copper bars (circular or rectangular section) with heat-shrinkable insulation
1.2.3. Metering (see Fig. B33)
Metering current transformers are generally installed in the protective cover of the power transformer LV terminals, the
cover being sealed by the supply utility
Alternatively, the current transformers are installed in a sealed compartment within the main LV distribution cabinet
The meters are mounted on a panel which is completely free from vibrations
Placed as close to the current transformers as possible, and
Are accessible only to the utility.

1.2.4. Earthing circuits


The substation must include an earth electrode for all exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment in the substation
and exposed extraneous metal including:
Protective metal screens
veinforcing rods in the concrete base of the substation
1.2.5. Substation lighting
Supply to the lighting circuits can be taken from a point upstream or downstream of the main incoming LV circuitbreaker. In either case, appropriate overcurrent protection must be provided. A separate automatic circuit (or circuits) is
(are) recommended for emergency lighting purposes.
Operating switches, pushbuttons, etc. are normally located immediately adjacent to entrances.
Lighting fittings are arranged such that:
Switchgear operating handles and position indication markings are adequately illuminated
All metering dials and instruction plaques and so on, can be easily read
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1.2.6. Materials for operation and safety


According to local safety rules, generally, the substation is provided with:
Materials for assuring safe exploitation of the equipment including:
Insulating stool and/or an insulating mat (rubber or synthetic)
A pair of insulated gloves stored in an envelope provided for the purpose
A voltage-detecting device for use on the MV equipment
Earthing attachments (according to type of switchgear)
Fire-extinguishing devices of the powder or CO2 type
Warning signs, notices and safety alarms:
On the external face of all access doors, a DANGER warning plaque and prohibition of entry notice,
together with instructions for first-aid care for victims of electrical accidents.
2.

Outdoor substations

2.1. Outdoor substation with prefabricated enclosures


A prefabricated MV/LV substation complying with IEC 62271-202 standard includes :
Equipment in accordance with IEC standards
A type tested enclosure, which means during its design; it has undergone a battery of tests (see Fig. B37):
Degree of protection
Functional tests
Temperature class
Non-flammable materials
Mechanical resistance of the
enclosure
Sound level
Insulation level
Internal arc withstand
Earthing circuit test
Oil retention,
Main benefits are :
Safety:
For public and operators thanks to a high reproducible quality level
Cost effective:
Manufactured, equipped and tested in the factory
Delivery time
Delivered ready to be connected.

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2.2. Outdoor substations without enclosures (see Fig. B39)


These kinds of outdoor substation are common in some countries,
based on weatherproof equipment exposed to the elements.
These substations comprise a fenced area in which three or more
concrete plinths are installed for:
A ring-main unit, or one or more switch-fuse or circuitbreaker unit(s)
One or more transformer(s), and
One or more LV distribution panel(s).

2.3. Pole mounted substation


2.3.1. Field of application
These substations are mainly used to supply isolated rural consumers from MV overhead line distribution systems.
2.3.2. Constitution
In this type of substation, most often, the MV transformer protection is provided by fuses.
Lightning arresters are provided, however, to protect the transformer and consumers as shown in Figure B40.
2.3.3. General arrangement of equipment
As previously noted the location of the substation must allow easy access, not only for personnel but for equipment
handling (raising the transformer, for example) and the maneuvering of heavy vehicles.

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46.

Insulation systems are rated by standard NEMA classifications according to maximum


89B

allowable operating temperatures. Explain.


Answer

Insulation systems are rated by standard NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) classifications
according to maximum allowable operating temperatures as follows:

Temperature
Tolerance Class

Maximum Operation Temperature


Allowed
o

Allowable Temperature Rise at full Allowable Temperature Rise load - 1.0 service factor motor 1)
1.15 service factor motor 1)
o

105

221

60

70

130

266

80

90

155

311

105

115

180

356

125

T(oF) = [T(oC)](9/5) + 32
1) Allowable temperature rises are based upon a reference ambient temperature of 40oC. Operation temperature is reference temperature + allowable temperature rise + allowance for "hot
spot" winding. Example Temperature Tolerance Class F: 40oC + 105oC + 10oC = 155oC.
In general a motor should not operate on temperatures above the maximums. Each 10oC rise above the ratings may reduce the motor's lifetime by one half.

47.

Temperature Tolerance Class B is the most common insulation class used on most 60 cycle US motors. Temperature Tolerance Class F is the most common for international and 50 cycle
motors

Differentiate between:
90B

Directional & diffuse lighting.

o
91B

Symmetric & asymmetric lighting.

o
o

92B

Direct, indirect lighting & Direct-indirect lighting.


93B

Answer

Directional lighting:
Lighting provided on the work plane or on an object that is predominantly from a preferred direction.

Diffused lighting:
Lighting provided on the work plane or on an object that is not incident predominantly from any particular direction

Symmetric & asymmetric lighting:

Direct lighting:
Lighting involving luminaries that distribute 90 to 100% of the emitted light in the general direction of the surface to be
illuminated. The term usually refers to light emitted in a downward direction

Indirect lighting:
Lighting involving luminaries that distribute 90 to 100% of the emitted light upward.

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Direct-indirect lighting:
A variant of general diffuse lighting in which the luminaires emit little or no light at angles near the horizontal.
For example -a room of dimensions: Length: 4.0 m, Width: 6.2 m, Height: 3.0 m and Reflection factor: 70% / 50% /20%

48.

Direct Lighting

Indirect Lighting

Direct-indirect Lighting

Luminaries Type used:


Matt louver 2/35, T16

Luminaries Type used:


Uplight 3/55, TC-L

Luminaries Type used:


ID matt louver 2/35, T16

In case of presence of 2 sockets back to back in two different rooms. Can we put them
94B

directly back to back or we should leave a distance between them?


Answer

There should be a horizontal distance not less than 150 mm between the 2 sockets placed back to back in 2 different rooms
in order to ensure that no sound will transfer between the 2 rooms through them.

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49.

What is the difference between demand factor & diversity factor?


95B

Answer

Demand factor:
Is the ratio of the maximum demand of a system, or part of a system, to the total connected load on the system, or part
of the system, under consideration. This factor is always less than unity.

Diversity factor:
Is the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of the various subdivisions of a system, or part of a system,
to the maximum demand of the whole system, or part of the system, under consideration. This factor generally varies
between 1.00 and 2.00.

50.

What are the different methods of starting motors? State the difference among them? State
96B

Applications?
Answer

Horse Power
Line Voltage
Starting Current
Peak Starting
Torque as % of
DOL equivalent
Peak Starting
Torque

Direct Online (DOL)


<= 20hp
100%
Istarting = 5 to 6 In

Star- Delta
> 20hp & <= 80hp
33%
Istarting = 2.5 to 6 In

Auto Transformer
> 20hp & <= 100hp
40/65/80%
Istarting = 2In

Soft Starter
> 50hp
Adjustable, 25 to 75%
Istarting = 1.5 In

100%

33%

40/65/80%

Adjustable 10 to 70%

0.6 to 1.5 Tn

0.2 to 0.5 Tn

0.4 to 0.85 Tn

Adjustable, 0.1 to 0.7 Tn

- Good starting
torque/current
performance
- Possibility of adjusting
starting parameters
- No break in supply to
motor during starting
- High Inertia machines
where a reduction of
starting current/torque
is required

- Parameters are fully


adjustable during
ommissioning
- Compact
- Solid State (Electronic)
- Easily adapted to the
application
- Machines requiring very
smooth starting (centrifugal
pumps & fans, conveyors,
etc)

- Simple Starter
- Low Cost
- High Starting Torque
Advantages

Applications

51.

-Simple Economic
Starter
-Good Starting
Torque/current
performance

- Small machines may - Machines starting on


often be started on full no load
load
- Good starting (small
centrifugal pumps,
fans etc)

If we have a big room & contain many sockets which will need about 5 branch circuits.
97B

Can we feed these circuits from different phases? Why?


Answer

For any room with area 50 m2 or less. All branch circuits for sockets must be fed from the same phase in order not to obtain
380V between two sockets in case of touching to different phases.
In case of room more than 50 m2 and it is necessary to use different phases. So we can, but in this case we should divide the
rooms into areas and each phase will feed separate area in order to decrease the probability of obtaining 380V.

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52.

How can you earn LEED certifications for new constructions? What are the LEED ratings?
98B

Answer

To earn LEED for New Construction certification, the applicant project must satisfy all of the prerequisites and a minimum
number of points to attain the established LEED for New Construction project ratings as listed below.
Having satisfied the basic prerequisites of the program, applicant projects are then rated according to their degree of
compliance within the rating system. All projects will need to comply with the version of LEED for New Construction that
is current at the time of project registration.

LEED for New Constructions Ratings:

53.

Certified
Silver
Gold
Platinum

26-32 points
33-38 points
39-51 points
52-69 points

If you have a refrigerator or A/C or any other motor equipment that works on 50Hz, can
9B

you make it work on 60Hz Power Supply?


Answer

Effect of Change in Supply Frequency on Torque and Speed


The change in supply frequency hardly occurs in large distribution systems used on land. If there are some major
disturbances or very heavy load fluctuating continuously, then there might be a minimal frequency variation. But large
frequency variations are possible on electrical systems used on board ships and emergency supply systems for factories
and hospitals. Such large frequency variations are possible on low power systems where diesel engines and gas turbines
are used as prime movers.
The relation between the speed of the motor and its frequency is given by the expression N = 120f/P.
From this expression, it is evident that the speed of the motor is directly proportional to the supply frequency. Thus any
decrease or increase in frequency will affect the speed of the motor. Let us now analyze what exactly happens when a
motor of 50Hz made to run with 60Hz supply and vice-versa.

Analysis 1: When a 50 Hz motor is made to run on 60 Hz supply:


It is general practice in several countries to have all house-hold items and equipments rated for 50 Hz supply. So when
such small domestic devices are connected to a 60 Hz supply, they cause a severe problem. For better understanding, let
us visualize this small calculation:
[(60Hz 50 Hz)/ 50 Hz] * 100 = 20 %.
Thus all such equipments run 20 % faster than their normal rated speed. This is not safe for the equipment as the
insulations may be rated for lesser capacity and windings may burn-out. To run safely, we either require a reduction gear
or an expensive 50 Hz source.
Also this 50 Hz motor will operate perfectly on a 60 Hz supply provided its supply voltage is stepped-up.
60 Hz/ 50 Hz = 6/5 * 100 = 120 %.

Analysis 2: When a 60 Hz motor is made to run on 50 Hz supply:


It is same as the above, but instead of stepping-up the supply voltage, it is necessary to step-down the supply voltage.
50Hz/ 60 Hz = 5/6 * 100 = 80 %

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54.

You have a project consists of 960 small villas (dwelling units). The connected load for each
10B

villa (dwelling unit) is 60 KVA. Estimate the number of pillars, transformers &
distributors required for this project. Considering that only 400A pillars & 1000KVA
Transformers ratings are available. System Voltage is 13..8KV/380-220V. Draw schematic
single line diagram to what you obtained.
Answer

1. Using SCECO Method:

According to SEC Distribution Materials Specification DPS


Demand Factor D.F.

SEC Distribution Materials Specification


DPS

= 0.5 (For Residential Customers).

Therefore;
Demand load for each villa (dwelling unit)
= Connected load of one villa x 0.5
= 60 x 0.5 = 30 KVA.

Consider 4 customers to be fed by one pillar


Therefore;
Connected load for one pillar
For check: 240 x 1000 / (380 x 3)

= 4 x 60 = 240 KVA.
= 365A < 400A (OKAY).

Therefore;
Total number of pillars required

= 960 / 4 = 240 Pillar.

According to SEC Distribution Materials Specification DPS


Diversity Factor DvF

= 1.25 / (0.67 + (0.33/ ( N)).

Consider 48 customers in the group on one transformer


Therefore;
Diversity Factor DvF

= 1.25 / (0.67 + (0.33/ ( 48)) = 1.74

Total Demand load on transformer

= (number of villas x demand load for one villa) / DvF


= (48 x 30) / 1.74 = 825KVA (82.5% of 1000KVA Transformer) (OKAY)
Therefore; Total number of transformers required = 960 / 48 = 20 Transformer.
Therefore; Total number of pillars per transformer required = 240 / 20 = 12 Pillar.

Consider 10 Transformers per loop


Therefore;
Total number of loops required = 20 / 10 = 2 Loops.
Therefore;
Only one-four loop distributor (i.e: with 2 spare loops) is required. Consists of 12 cubicles:
2 incoming.
8 outgoings (4 C.Bs for the 2 loops & 4 C.Bs for 2 spare loops for other loads).
1 bus-riser.
1 bus-coupler.

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2. Using NEC Method:

According to NEC demand factors for different loads


Demand Factor D.F.

= 0.5

Therefore;
Demand load for each villa (dwelling unit)
= Connected load of one villa x 0.5
= 60 x 0.5 = 30 KVA.

Consider 4 customers to be fed by one pillar


Therefore;
Connected load for one pillar

= 4 x 60 = 240 KVA.

For check: 240 x 1000 / (380 x 3)

= 365A < 400A (OKAY).

Therefore;
Total number of pillars required

= 960 / 4 = 240 Pillar.

Consider 48 customers in the group on one transformer


According to NEC Table 220.32
Therefore;
Demand factor for 48 dwelling unit is 26%
Total Demand load on transformer

= Total Connected load for 48 villas x DF


= (48 x 60) x 0.26 = 748KVA (74.8% of 1000KVA Transformer) (OKAY)

Therefore; Total number of transformers required = 960 / 48 = 20 Transformer.


Therefore; Total number of pillars per transformer required = 240 / 20 = 12 Pillar.

Consider 10 Transformers per loop


Therefore;
Total number of loops required = 20 / 10 = 2 Loops.
Therefore;
Only one-four loop distributor (i.e: with 2 spare loops) is required. Consists of 12 cubicles:
2 incoming.
8 outgoings (4 C.Bs for the 2 loops & 4 C.Bs for 2 spare loops for other loads).
1 bus-riser.
1 bus-coupler.

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Pillars (Typical to 240 nos.):

Package Substation Ring Main Unit (Typical to 20 nos.):

Distributor Loops:

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55.

What are the IEC Switchboard Forms for Internal Configuration? State the difference?
10B

Answer

Separation of functional units within the assembly is provided by forms that are specified for different types of operation.
The various forms are numbered from 1 to 4 with variations labeled a or b. Each step up (from 1 to 4) is cumulative,
i.e. a form with a higher number includes the characteristics of forms with lower numbers.
The standard distinguishes: Form 1, Form 2a, Form 2b, Form 3a, Form 3b, Form 4a, Form 4b
Form 1: No separation
Form 2: Separation of bus-bars from the functional units
Form 3: Separation of bus-bars from the functional units and separation of all functional units, one from another, except
at their output terminals
Form 4: As for Form 3, but including separation of the outgoing terminals of all functional units, one from another

56.

What is distance between down conductors in lightning system design? How can you design
102B

the mesh?
For building less than 15M height

o
o

103B

For building 80M height.


104B

Answer

As per BS 6651 (Protection of structures against lightning):


A mesh of 10m x 20m is considered sufficient, giving a maximum
distance from any part of the roof to the nearest conductor of 5m.
On high risk structures such as explosive factories, no part of the
roof should be more than 2.5m from an air termination conductor.
This is generally achieved by applying a 5m x 10m mesh to the
roof.
There should be one down conductor for every 20m of the
building perimeter at roof or ground level.
If the building is above 20m in height or of an abnormal risk this
distance should be reduced to 10m.

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57.

Give a small brief summary for each of these types of lamps


105B

Incandescent

o
106B

Halogen

o
107B

Fluorescent

o
108B

Compact Fluorescent Lamps

o
109B

LED (Light Emitting Diodes)

o
10B

High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

o
o

1B

Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps


12B

Answer

Incandescent:
These are the standard bulbs that most people are familiar with. Incandescent bulbs work by
using electricity to heat a tungsten filament in the bulb until it glows. The filament is either in
a vacuum or in a mixture of argon/nitrogen gas. Most of the energy consumed by the bulb is
given off as heat, causing its Lumens per Watt performance to be low. Because of the
filament's high temperature, the tungsten tends to evaporate and collect on the sides of the
bulb. The inherent imperfections in the filament causes it to become thinner unevenly. When a
bulb is turned on, the sudden surge of energy can cause the thin areas to heat up much faster
than the rest of the filament, which in turn causes the filament to break and the bulb to burn
Traditional
out.
Incandescent Bulbs
Incandescent bulbs produce a steady warm, light that is good for most household applications.
A standard incandescent bulb can last for 700-1000 hours, and can be used with a dimmer. Soft white bulbs use a special
coating inside the glass bulb to better diffuse the light; but the light color is not changed.

Halogen:
Halogen bulbs are a variation of incandescent bulb technology. These bulbs work by
passing electricity through a tungsten filament, which is enclosed in a tube containing
halogen gas. This halogen gas causes a chemical reaction to take place which removes the
tungsten from the wall of the glass and deposits it back onto the filament. This extends the
life of the bulb. In order for the chemical reaction to take place, the filament needs to be
hotter than what is needed for incandescent bulbs. The good news is that a hotter filament
produces a brilliant white light and is more efficient (more lumens per watt).
The bad news is that a hotter filament means that the tungsten is evaporating that much
faster. Therefore a denser, more expensive fill gas (krypton), and a higher pressure, are
used to slow down the evaporation. This means that a thicker, but smaller glass bulb
Various types of halogen
(envelope) is needed, which translates to a higher cost. Due to the smaller glass envelope
bulbs
(bulb), the halogen bulb gets much hotter than other bulbs. A 300 watt bulb can reach over
300 degrees C. Therefore attention must be paid to where halogen bulbs are used, so that they don't accidentally come in
contact with flammable materials, or burn those passing by.
Care must be taken not to touch the glass part of the bulb with our fingers. The oils from our fingers will weaken the
glass and shorten the bulbs life. Many times this causes the bulb to burst when the filament finally burns out.
To summarize, the halogen has the advantage of being more efficient (although not by much) and having longer life than
the incandescent bulb. They are relatively small in size and are dimmable. The disadvantages are that they are more
expensive, and burn at a much higher temperature, which could possibly be a fire hazard in certain areas.

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Fluorescent:
These bulbs work by passing a current through a tube filled with argon gas and mercury. This
produces ultraviolet radiation that bombards the phosphorous coating causing it to emit light
(see: How Fluorescents Work). Bulb life is very long - 10,000 to 20,000 hours. Fluorescent
bulbs are also very efficient, producing very little heat. A common misconception is that all
fluorescent lamps are neutral or cool in color appearance and do not have very good colorFluorescent tube
rendering ability. This is largely due to the fact that historically the "cool white" fluorescent
bulbs
lamp was the industry standard. It had a very cool color appearance (4200K) and poor CRI
rating (62). This is simply no longer the case. Regarding color, a wide variety of fluorescent
lamps (T12, T8, T5, etc.), using rare-earth tri-phosphor technology, offer superior color rendition (as high as 95) and a
wide range of color temperature choices (from 2700K to 5000K and higher). Fluorescent bulbs are ideal for lighting
large areas where little detail work will be done (e.g. basements, storage lockers, etc.). With the new type bulbs, and
style of fixtures coming out, fluorescents can be used in most places around the home. Most fluorescent bulb cannot be
used with dimmers.
Note that fluorescent bulbs need components called ballasts to provide the right amount of voltage. There are primarily
two types - magnetic and electronic. Electronic ballasts solve some of the flickering and humming problems associated
with magnetic ballast, and are more efficient, but cost more to purchase. Some ballasts need a starter to work along
with it. Starters are sort of small mechanical timers, needed to cause a stream of electrons to flow across the tube and
ionize the mercury vapor
On tube type fluorescent bulbs, the letter T designates that the bulb is tubular in shape. The number after it expresses the
diameter of the bulb in eighths of an inch.

Compact Fluorescent Lamps:


Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) are a modern type of light bulbs, that work like
fluorescent bulbs, but in a much smaller package. Similar to regular fluorescent bulbs,
they produce little heat and are very efficient. They are available to fit screw type base
fittings and pin type (snap-in). Most CFLs either consist of a number of short glass sticks,
or two or three small tubular loops. Sometimes, they are enclosed in a glass bowl, made
to look similar to a regular incandescent bulb. Most CFLs cannot be used with dimmers.
They normally last up to 10,000 hours.
Compact Fluorescent (CFL)
Approximate Equivalents to Incandescent Bulbs
CFL
Incandescent
710 Watts
40 Watts
15-18 Watts
60 Watts
20 Watts
75 Watts
20-25 Watts
100 Watts
32 Watts
150 Watts

PL type bulb (CFL)


LED (Light Emitting Diodes):
Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are bulbs without a filament, that are low in power consumption
and have a long life span. LEDs are just starting to rival conventional lighting, but
unfortunately they just don't have the output (lumen) needed to completely replace
incandescent, and other type, bulbs just yet. Never the less, technology is advancing everyday,
and it will not be long until the LED bulb will be the bulb of choice for most applications in the
home and work place.

Light Emitting Diodes


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High-Intensity Discharge Lamps:


High Pressure Sodium (HPS), Metal Halide, Mercury Vapor and Self-Ballasted Mercury Lamps
are all high intensity discharge lamps (HID). With the exception of self-ballasted lamps, auxiliary
equipment such as ballasts and starters must be provided for proper starting and operation of each
type bulb. Compared to fluorescent and incandescent lamps, HID lamps produce a large quantity
of light from a relatively small bulb.
HID lamps produce light by striking an electrical arc across tungsten electrodes housed inside a
specially designed inner glass tube. This tube is filled with both gas and metals. The gas aids in
the starting of the lamps. Then, the metals produce the light once they are heated to a point of
Mercury Bulb
evaporation.
Standard high-pressure sodium lamps have the highest efficacy of all HID lamps, but they
produce a yellowish light. High-pressure sodium lamps that produce a whiter light are now
available, but efficiency is somewhat sacrificed. Metal halide lamps are less efficient but produce
a whiter, more natural light. Colored metal halide lamps are also available. HID lamps are
Metal Halide Bulb
typically used not only when energy efficiency and/or long life are desired, but also when high
levels of light are required over large areas. Such areas include gymnasiums, large public areas, outdoor activity areas,
roadways, pathways, and parking lots. Lately, metal halide is successfully being used in residential environments.

Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps:


Low-pressure sodium lamps have the highest efficacy of all commercially available lighting sources. Even though they
emit a yellow light, a low-pressure sodium lamp shouldn't be confused with a standard high-pressure sodium lamp. Lowpressure sodium lamps operate much like a fluorescent lamp and require a ballast. There is a brief warm-up period for
the lamp to reach full brightness.
With a CRI of 0, low-pressure sodium lamps are used where color rendition is not important but energy efficiency is.
They're commonly used for outdoor, roadway, parking lot, and pathway lighting

58.

What is DALI?
13B

Answer

DALI stands for Digital Addressable Lighting Interface.


DALI is an industrial standard for the digital control of
dimmable electronic ballasts, LV Halogen transformers and
other technical lighting components.
Up to 64 ballasts or luminaires can be individually controlled via
a two-wire line/DALI line.
DALI can provide Flexible Lighting management.
DALI is fully compatible with building management systems.
DALI is standardised digital interface for dimmable luminaires.

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59.

Estimate the circuit breaker, disconnecting switch and cable size


14B

for:

Lighting load 3000VA single phase. Feeder wire length is 40 m.

o
15B

Outdoor A/C load 3000VA single phase. Feeder wire length is 40 m.

o
16B

Panel Board with three single phase loads (3000VA, 4000VA, 2000VA). Feeder cable

o
17B

length is 200 m.
Where; the system voltage is 380/220V; suppose that total cable de-rating factors is

o
18B

0.8; suppose cable routing in pipes.


o

Use the following cable catalogue cuts for sizing cables.


19B

120B

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Answer

1. Lighting load 3000VA single phase. Feeder wire length is 40 m.


In = Active Power / Voltage

= 3000 / 220 = 13.6 Amp.

As per NEC Article 210.20: Conductors - Minimum Ampacity & Size


Wire Ampacity
Wire Ampacity with de-rating factors

= 13.6 x 1.25 = 17 Amp.


= 17 / 0.8 = 21.25Amp.

Therefore, from cable catalogue.


The required wire size is 4 mm2 CU single core cable PVC insulated.
Check:
VD% = {Load Current (Amp) x Wire Length (Meter) x V.D (mv/Amp/Meter)} /
{Single phase service voltage x1000 /100}
VD% = {13.6 x 40 x 7.83} / {220 x 1000 / 100} = 1.93% (Accepted).

As per NEC Article 215.3: Over-current Protection


Circuit breaker size

= 13.6 x 1.25 = 17 Amp.

Therefore, from C.B & switches catalogues


The Required C.B size is 20A (single phase).
20A normal single pole switch can be used for this lighting load.
2. Outdoor A/C load 3000VA single phase. Feeder wire length is 40 m.
In = Active Power / Voltage

= 3000 / 220 = 13.6 Amp.

As per NEC Article 440.32 Single Motor-Compressor


Wire Ampacity
Wire Ampacity with de-rating factors

= 13.6 x 1.25 = 17 Amp.


= 17 / 0.8 = 21.25Amp.

Therefore, from cable catalogue.


The required wire size is 4 mm2 CU single core cable PVC insulated.
VD% = {Load Current (Amp) x Wire Length (Meter) x V.D (mv/Amp/Meter)} /
{Single phase service voltage x1000 /100}
VD% = {13.6 x 40 x 7.83} / {220 x 1000 / 100} = 1.93% (Accepted)

As per NEC Article 440.22(A) Rating or Setting for Individual Motor-Compressor


Circuit breaker size

= 13.6 x 1.75 = 23.8 Amp.

Therefore, from C.B catalogue


The required C.B size is 25A (single phase).

As per NEC Article 430.110: Ampere Rating and Interrupting Capacity


Disconnecting switch size

= 13.6 x 1.15 = 15.64 Amp.

Therefore, from D.S catalogue.


The required fusible D.S size is 30A, (2 Pole), [NEMA-3R]. (i.e. smallest size for fusible D.S)
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3. Panel Board with three single phase loads (3000VA, 4000VA, 2000VA). Feeder cable length is 200 m.
In = Active Power / Voltage

= (3000 + 4000 + 2000) / 3 x 380 = 13.6 Amp.

As per NEC Article 210.20: Conductors - Minimum Ampacity & Size


Cable Ampacity
= 13.6 x 1.25 = 17 Amp.
Cable Ampacity with de-rating factors = 17 / 0.8 = 21.25Amp.
Therefore, from cable catalogue.
The required cable size is 4x4 mm2 CU multi core cable PVC/PVC insulated.
Check:
VD% = {Load Current (Amp) x Wire Length (Meter) x V.D (mv/Amp/Meter)} /
{Three phase service voltage x1000 /100}
VD% = {13.6 x 200 x 7.741} / {380 x 1000 / 100} = 5.54% (Not Accepted).
Using 4x6 mm2 CU multi core cable PVC/PVC insulated.
VD% = {13.6 x 200 x 5.199} / {380 x 1000 / 100} = 3.72% (Not Accepted).
Using 4x10 mm2 CU multi core cable PVC/PVC insulated.
VD% = {13.6 x 200 x 3.101} / {380 x 1000 / 100} = 2.22% (Accepted).

As per NEC Article 215.3: Over-current Protection


Circuit breaker size

= 13.6 x 1.25 = 17 Amp.

Therefore, from C.B catalogue


The required C.B size is 20A (3phase).
60.

When we should use a remote radiator for a diesel engine generator?


12B

Answer

61.

When there is no location to put radiator beside generator or no good ventilation. For example: if the generator is located in
a small room at basement floor where no good ventilation exists.
Calculate capacitor rating required to improve the power factor of a motor P=500KW from
12B

P.F1= 0.8 to P.F2= 0.9?


Answer

Qc = P (tan1- tan2) = 500 (tan 36.86 - tan 25.84) = 133 KVAR

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62.

What is EIB?
123B

Answer

EIBA is the (European Installation Bus Association) merged with two other European organizations to form the Konnex
Association, KNX.

Bus Structure & Topology / Technology: (i-bus EIB)

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Applications:
Lighting/Dimming Control - Audio/Video Control - Curtains/Shutters Control - Temperature Control - Security control Visualization and display - Door Access.

Utilization Area:
Stadiums / Leisure parks - Hotels / Resorts - Shopping Malls - Public Buildings / Museums - Industrial Facilities - Banks
/ Offices - Schools / Universities - Hospitals / Elderly homes - Residential - Buildings/Towers - Villas / Luxury
Condominium.

Energy Savings with EIB:


Longer lamp life - Fewer maintenance costs - Lesser lamp replacements - Lesser heat output to the air-conditioning load
- Marketing advantage as a green-energy conservation building.

63.

Operating Costs per Year:

Calculate the three phase short circuit current at secondary side of a 1 MVA transformer
124B

13.8KV - 480/227V, 60 Hz; impedance is 6 percent and assuming sustained primary


voltage during fault?
Answer

In a simplified approach, the impedance of the MV system is assumed to be negligibly small, so that:
In = P x 103 / 3 Uo = 1000 x 103 / 3 (480) = 1202.8 A
Isc = In / Usc = 1202.8 / 0.06 = 20 KA
Where:
P:
Uo:
In:
Isc:
Usc:

kVA rating of the transformer.


phase-to-phase secondary volts on open circuit.
nominal current in amps.
short-circuit fault current in amps.
short-circuit impedance voltage of the transformer in %.

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64.

What are the basic factors would you take into consideration while making lighting design?
125B

Answer

65.

Average illumination
Uniformity
Color rendering
Type of control
Heat dissipation
Calculate the voltage drop of cable with load 32KW - three phase, cu cable C.S.A= 16mm2,
126B

Ra.c= 1.38 ohm/km, X= 0.1068 ohm/km, Cos = 0.8, cable length =120m, system voltage is
380/220V.
Answer

V
V.D%
66.

= 3* I*L(R cos + X sin)


= 1.732*[(32000/0.8)/380/1.732]* [120/1000]* [(1.38)*0.8 + 0.1068)*0.6] = 14 volt.
= (14/380) * 100 = 3.68%

What does GFCI & AFCI stands for? What is the difference? State some applications?
127B

Answer

GFCI Circuit Breaker


The ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) is required on certain
residential receptacles, such as bathroom receptacles, receptacles located
within six feet of a kitchen sink, and outdoor receptacles. The GFCI is
designed to interrupt a circuit when a ground fault occurs. Often the GFCI
is mounted at the receptacle.

AFCI Circuit Breaker


GFCI devices are designed to protect a person from getting a shock
when touching an ungrounded appliance. Arc Fault Circuit
Interrupters (AFCI), in comparison, protect against a fire being
started from an unintended arc. An arc fault occurs when a currentcarrying conductor has an arching condition to ground or another
conductor. An AFCI device is intended to provide protection from
the effects of arc faults by recognizing the characteristics unique to
arcing and de-energizing the circuit when an arc fault is detected.
The arc generated will cause the AFCI to trip. Arcs normally
generated from electric equipment such as a light switch or power
drill will not cause the AFCI to trip.
Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupter protection was first introduced in the 1999 National Electrical Code. NEC Article
210.12 and has an effective date of 2002. This requirement applies to all branch circuits that supply 125-volt, singlephase, 15- and 20-amp receptacle outlets installed in dwelling unit bedrooms.

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67.

What are LPD specified in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1? Can you state the methods
128B

used for computing LPD & give some examples? Does the LPD values specified in ASHRAE
accepted by LEED?
Answer

Lighting power density (LPD):


Is the maximum lighting power per unit area of a building classification of space function.

According to LEED reference guide, it recommends LPD


values specified in ASHRAE.

According to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007


There are two methods for computing LPD:

1. Lighting Power Densities Using the Building Area Method

The building area method is a simplified approach for


demonstrating compliance which shall be used only in the
following cases:
a- Projects involving the entire building or
b- Projects involving a single, independent, and separate
occupancy in a multi-occupancy building. Use the
following steps to determine the interior lighting power
allowance by the building area method:
I.Determine the appropriate building type from Table
9.5.1 and the allowed lighting power density (watts per
unit area) from the building area method column. For
building types not listed, selection of a reasonably
equivalent type shall be permitted.
II.Determine the gross lighted floor area (square feet) of
the building.
III.Multiply the gross lighted floor areas of the building
area type(s) times the LPD.
IV.The interior lighting power allowance for the building is
the sum of lighting power allowances of all building
area types. Trade-offs building area types are
permitted provided that the total installed interior
lighting power does not exceed the interior lighting
power allowance.

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2. Lighting Power Densities Using the Space-by-Space Method

Alternative approach that allows greater flexibility. Use the following steps to determine the interior lighting power
allowance by the space by- space method:
I.Determine the appropriate building type from Table 9.3.1.2. For building types not listed, selection of a reasonably
equivalent type shall be permitted.
II.For each space enclosed by partitions 80% or greater than ceiling height, determine the gross interior floor area by
measuring to the center of the partition wall. Include the floor area of balconies or other projections. Retail spaces
do not have to comply with the 80% partition height requirements.
III.Determine the interior lighting power allowance by using the columns designated space-by-space method in Table
9.3.1.2. Multiply the floor area(s) of the space(s) times the allowed lighting power density for the space type that
most closely represents the proposed use of the space(s). The product is the lighting power allowance for the
space(s). For space types not listed, selection of a reasonable equivalent category shall be permitted.
IV.The interior lighting power allowance is the sum of lighting power allowances of all spaces. Trade-offs among spaces
are permitted provided that the total installed interior lighting power does not exceed the interior lighting power
allowance.

Additional interior lighting power.


When using the space by space method, an increase in the interior lighting power allowance is allowed for specific
lighting functions. Additional power should be allowed only if the specific lighting is installed and automatically
controlled separately from the general lighting to be turned off during non business hours. This additional power should
be used only for the specified luminaries and shall not be used for any other purpose.
An increase in the interior lighting power allowance is permitted in the following cases:
I.For spaces in which lighting is specified to be installed in addition to the general lighting for the purpose of
decorative appearance such as chandelier type luminaries or sconces or for highlighting are or exhibits provided
that the additional lighting power shall not exceed 10.8W/m2 of such spaces.
II.For lighting equipment installed in sales areas and specifically designed and directed to highlight merchandise,
calculate the additional lighting power as follows:
Additional Interior Lighting Power Allowance = 1000 watts + (Retail Area 1 x 11W/m2)
+ (Retail Area 2 x 18W/m2)
+ (Retail Area 3 x 28W/m2)
+ (Retail Area 4 x 45W/m2)
Where

Retail Area 1 = the floor area for all products not listed in Retail Area 2, 3 or 4.
Retail Area 2 = the floor area used for the sale of vehicles, sporting goods and small electronics.
Retail Area 3 = the floor area used for the sale of furniture, clothing, cosmetics and artwork.
Retail Area 4 = the floor area used for the sale of jewelry, crystal and china.

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68.

What is power factor? What are the equipments that create poor power factor? How can you
129B

improve power factor of your system?


Answer

Definition of Power Factor:


Power factor is the percentage of electricity that is being used to do useful work. It is defined as the ratio of active or
actual power used in the circuit measured in watts or kilowatts (W or KW), to the apparent power expressed in voltamperes or kilo volt-amperes (VA or VA).

The apparent power also referred to as total power delivered by utility company has two components.
Productive Power that powers the equipment and performs the useful work. It is measured in KW (kilowatts)
Reactive Power that generates magnetic fields to produce flux necessary for the operation of induction
devices (AC motors, transformer, inductive furnaces, ovens etc.). It is measured in KVAR (kilovolt-AmpereReactance). Reactive Power produces no productive work.

Equipment Creating Poor Power Factor


Lighting:
Incandescent Lamps: The power factor is equal to unity.
Fluorescent Lamps: Usually have a low power factor, for example, 50% power factor would not be unusual.
They are sometimes supplied with a compensation device to correct low power factor.
Mercury Vapor Lamps: The power factor of the lamp is low; it can vary between 40% to 60%, but the lamps
are often supplied with correction devices.
Distribution Transformer:
The power factor varies considerably as a function of the load and the design of the transformer. A completely
unloaded transformer would be very inductive and have a very low power factor.
Electrical Motors:
Induction Motors: The power factor varies in accordance with the load. Unloaded or lightly loaded motors
exhibit a low power factor. The variation can be 30% to 90%.
Synchronous Motors: Very good power factor when the excitation is properly adjusted. Synchronous motors
can be over excited to exhibit a leading power factor and can be used to compensate a low power system.
Industrial Heating:
With resistance, as in ovens or dryers, the power factor is often closed to 100%.
Welding:
Electric arc welders generally have a low power factor, around 60%.

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Other types of machinery or equipment those are likely to have a low power factor include:

Methods of Power Factor Correction:


Power factor correction can be made in two ways:
1. Reduce the amount of reactive energy
i. Eliminate unloaded motors and transformers
ii. Avoid supplying equipment with voltage in excess of the rated voltage
2. Compensate artificially for the consumption of reactive energy with power factor capacitors. In practice,
two type of equipment are available for power factor correction:
i. Rotary Equipment: Phase advancers, synchronous motors and synchronous condensers. Where autosynchronous motors are employed the power factor correction may be a secondary function.
ii. Capacitors: Power factor correction is achieved by the addition of capacitors in parallel with the
connected motor circuits and can be applied at the starter, or applied at the switchboard or
distribution panel. Capacitors connected at each starter and controlled by each starter is known as
"Static Power Factor Correction" while capacitors connected at a distribution board and controlled
independently from the individual starters is known as "Bulk Correction".

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69.

Choose the correct answers if any. What is the purpose of discrimination?


130B

To ensure continuity of service

o
13B

To only trip the device just above the faulty feeder

o
132B

To increase servicing time for trouble-shooting

o
o

13B

To increase productivity
134B

Answer

70.

To ensure continuity of service


To only trip the device just above the faulty feeder
To increase productivity
Compare between magnetic ballast & electronic ballast.
135B

Answer

Magnetic Ballast
Flickering ignition
Disturbing lamp flicker
No light regulation
Annoying humming of the coil
Not controlled end of life of lamps
Energy costs relatively high compared to HF
Low initial cost
Very high operating cost
71.

Electronic Ballast
Smooth rapid start
Flicker free
Light regulation
Silent
Automatic switch-off of lamps at end of life
Energy savings compared to conventional
High initial cost
Low operating cost

What are the trade sizes of conduits?


136B

Answer

Trade Size (inch)


Trade size (mm)
72.

10

16

20

1
25

1
32

1
40

2
50

2
63

3
75

3
90

4
110

5
130

6
150

In an installation, circuit breaker CB1 is placed upstream from circuit breaker CB2. A
137B

short-circuit current occurs downstream from CB2. CB2 opens and CB1 stays closed. This is
a case of:

Answer

Discrimination.

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73.

For each of the faults A, B, C in the diagram, say whether or not the protection device
138B

opens:

139B

Answer

74.

The fault current downstream from circuit breaker CB5 is 400 A. With total discrimination,
140B

which circuit breakers will open?

Answer

75.

CB5
State which statement is true and which is false: Standard IEC 60364: Section-3-32 & 414B

48 on premises with a risk of fire


Imposes use of a 500mA RCD device.

o
142B

Recommends use of a TT or IT system for the electrical installation

o
143B

Prohibits use of a TN-C system.

o
o

on such premises.

14B

In TT, IT and TN-S systems, a 300mA RCD eliminates the risk of fire.
145B

Answer

76.

All statements are true.


What are The Main Functions of Earthing/Grounding Systems?
146B

Answer

Protection for human against any leakage current


Protection for equipment against any leakage current

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77.

What is the difference between (Ics) & (Icu) of C.B? Which one is considered in design?
147B

Answer

As per IEC 60947-2:


Icu: rated ultimate short circuit breaking capacity.
The rated breaking capacity (Icu) is the maximum fault-current a circuit breaker can successfully interrupt
safely for only one time. After that C.B should be tested. For MCBs and MCCBs the C.B should be replaced.
While, for ACBs only the contacts or damaged parts should be replaced.
The probability of such a current occurring is extremely low, and in normal circumstances the fault-currents are
considerably less than the rated breaking capacity (Icu) of the CB. On the other hand it is important that high
currents (of low probability) be interrupted under good conditions, so that the CB is immediately available for
reclosure, after the faulty circuit has been repaired.
Ics: rated service short circuit breaking capacity.
Ics is expressed as a percentage of Icu, viz: 25, 50, 75, 100% for industrial circuit breakers.
Its the short circuit value that C.B could with stand for three successive times (disconnect 3 minutes among
each). But, after that C.B should be tested. Whenever, Ics percentage of Icu is increased. The ability of C.B to
withstand more short circuit values is increased.
We consider Ics as short circuit capacity in design.

78.

State the functions of circuit breaker.


148B

Answer

79.

Protect cables against overloads and short circuits


Let the nominal current flow without problems.
Open and close a circuit under rated current.
Protect against insulation faults (with an integrated earth leakage device).
What is more danger on the human body AC current or DC current & why? What is the
149B

effect of AC current on the human body?


Answer

AC current is more danger than AC current because the


human heart is affected more by fluctuation in frequency
(i.e sine wave of AC current) rather than DC current which
is constant (frequency is zero).

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80.

In order to select the right circuit breaker. What are the Criterias of choice that should be
150B

followed?
Answer

"Basic" Criteria:
Rating I, U, F, ...
Breaking capacity
Number of poles (grounding system).
Standards (IEC, UL, JIS, ...)
Type of loads to be protected (cable, bus-bar, generator, motor, direct current devices).
"Dependability" Criteria:
Earth leakage protection
Isolating function
Positive break indication
Front face double insulation
Locking
Interlocking
Limiting technology
"Continuity of Service" Criteria:
Selectivity
Draw-out possibility
Maintainability
"Performing" Criteria:
Cascading
Reverse feeding without de-rating
Field installable auxiliaries
"Comfort" Criteria:
Simple to install, easy to work with
Evolutive network (modular system)
Network monitoring, communication

81.

Compare between earthing systems from the point of:


15B

Protection of people.

o
152B

Protection against fire.

o
153B

Ease of implementation

o
154B

Continuity of service

o
15B

Upgradable installation.

o
o

156B

Cost saving
157B

Answer

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82.

What are the Benefits of improving Power Factor?


158B

Answer

83.

Reduce Utility Cost.


Optimize Equipment Utilization.
Improve Reliability:
Avoids the overload of the network.
Decreases Voltage Drops.
Masters polluted networks level of harmonics and avoids resonance cases.
How the penalty on power factor is calculated?
159B

Answer

For 0.9 < cos () < 0.92


For cos () > 0.92
For cos () < 0.9

84.

------- No penalty No Bonus.


------- Bonus. (For a maximum of 0.95).
------- Penalty (The company will be charged for reactive power).

What are the different types of armoured cables which are more expensive, which one can
160B

withstand more mechanical load, is the 2 types are accepted by BS & IEC?
Answer

Tag
SWA
STA
AWA
ATA
85.

Stands for
Steel Wire Armoured.
Steel Tape Armoured.
Aluminum Wire Armoured.
Aluminum Tape Armoured.

Cost
More
expensive.
Less
expensive.
More
expensive.
Less
expensive.

Mechanical Strength
Withstand about twice
mechanical load of STA.
Withstand less mechanical
load than SWA.
Withstand about twice
mechanical load of STA.
Withstand less mechanical
load than SWA.

Standards
Accepted by BS (BS5467 and
BS6724) & IEC.
Accepted by BS only.
Accepted by BS (BS5467 and
BS6724) & IEC.
Accepted by BS only.

State the Cable Insulation Temperature Limits (Continuous Operating Temperature,


16B

Emergency Temperature & Short Circuit

Temperature) for XLPE & PVC

Answer

Cable Insulation Temperature Limits


Type of Insulation
PVC
70 C
Continuous Operating Temperature (C)
105 C
Emergency Temperature (C)
160 C
Short Circuit Temperature (C)
86.

XLPE
90 C
130 C
250 C

What does mean by day lighting?


162B

Answer

The luminous flux from sun plus sky at a specific location, time, date, and sky condition

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87.

Transformers are classified into various categories, according to their: Use, Cooling method,
163B

Insulating medium. State & explain each classification. Which is better & why?
Answer

1. Classification of transformers according to the use


1.1. Distribution Transformers:
They are used in the distribution networks in order to transmit energy from the medium voltage (MV) network to the low
voltage (LV) network of the consumers. Their power is usually ranging from 50 to 2000 kVA.
1.2. Power Transformers:
They are used in the high-power generating stations or voltage step up and in the transmission substations for voltage
step up or step down. Usually their power is bigger than 2 MVA.
2. Classification of transformers according to the cooling method
2.1. For dry type transformers which are air cooled, ANSI/IEEE Standard C57.12.01 provide the following
designations:
2.1.1. Ventilated self-cooled class: Class AA
2.1.2. Ventilated forced-air-cooled class: Class AFA
2.1.3. Ventilated self-cooled / forced-air-cooled class: Class AA/FA
2.1.4. Non-Ventilated self-cooled class: Class ANV
2.1.5. Sealed -self-cooled class: Class GA
2.2. Liquid filled transformers offer a few more options for cooling. ANSI/IEE Standard C57.12.00 defines a 4 digit code
to describe the cooling attributes of the transformer.Where
2.2.1. First Letter:

2.2.2. Second Letter:

2.2.3. Third Letter:

2.2.4. Fourth Letter:

Internal Cooling medium in contact with the winding.


O = mineral oil or synthetic insulation fluid with a fire point 300C
K = insulating fluid with a fire point > 300C
L = insulating liquid with no measurable fire point.
Circulation mechanism for internal cooling medium.
N = Natural convection flow through cooling equipment and in windings
F = Forced circulation through cooling equipment and natural convention flow in the
windings (also called "directed flow")
D = Forced circulation through cooling equipment, directed from the cooling equipment
into at least the main windings
External Cooling medium.
A = Air
W = Water
Circulation mechanism for external cooling medium.
N = Natural convection
F = Forced circulation (Fans (air cooling), pumps (water cooling))

2.2.5. Examples

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ONAN:
ONAF:
KNAF:
OFAN:
OFAF:
OFWF:
Combinations:

Oil Natural Air Natural.


Oil Natural Air Force
Insulating fluid with a fire point Natural Air Force
Oil Forced Air Natural.
Oil Forced Air Forced.
Oil Forced Water Forced.
ONAN/ONAF, ONAN/OFAN or ONAN/OFAF is also applicable.
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3. Classification of transformers according to the insulating medium:


3.1. Oil-Immersed Type Transformers:
The insulating medium is mineral oil.
3.2. Silicon Liquid Transformers:
This type is used when the technical requirement of plants need oil immersed type
transformers, and in the mean while for the ambient there is the necessity of fire proof and
security requirements. Synthetic (silicon) oil or Vegta is new technology.
3.3. Dry Type Transformers:
The cooling is implemented with natural air circulation and the
windings are usually insulated with materials of H or F class.
The materials of H class are designed in order to operate, in
normal conditions, under temperatures up to 180C and the
materials of F class under temperatures up to 155C.
3.4. Cast Resin Type Transformers:
The resin type transformer is a dry type transformer insulated
with epoxy resin cast under vacuum. Their power is usually
ranging from 5 to 2500 kVA.
88.

What are the important factors required for selecting a suitable cable to transport electrical
164B

energy from the power station to the consumer?


Answer

89.

Maximum Operating Voltage


Insulation Level
Frequency
Load to be carried
Magnitude & duration of possible overload
Magnitude & duration of short circuit current
Voltage drop
Length of line
Type of installation (underground direct or in duct in air)
Chemical & physical properties of soil
Maximum & Minimum ambient air temperatures and soil temperature.
Specification & requirements to be met
What is the difference between Rapid-Start and Instant-Start of fluorescent lamp?
165B

Answer

Rapid-Start: A method of starting fluorescent lamps in which the ballast supplies voltage to heat the lamp electrodes for 1
to 2 seconds prior to starting and, in most cases, during lamp operation. A rapid-start system starts smoothly, without
flashing.
Instant-Start: A method of starting fluorescent lamps in which the voltage that is applied across the electrodes to strike the
electric arc is up to twice as high as it is with other starting methods. The higher voltage is necessary because the electrodes
are not heated prior to starting. This method starts the lamps without flashing; it is more energy efficient than rapid or
preheat starting, but results in greater wear on the electrodes during starting. The life of instant-start lamps that are switched
on and off frequently may be reduced by as much as 25 percent relative to rapid-start operation. However, for longer
burning cycles (such as 12 hours per start), there may be no difference in lamp life for different starting methods.

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90.

What is tap changer?


16B

Answer

The applying medium voltage to the primary winding of transformer is not stable and depends upon the transformer
position in the distribution network. Therefore, taken the primary voltage as granted, the tap changer is used in order to
keep the secondary voltage of the transformer as stable as possible.
91.

What is the difference between beam angle & cut-off angle of a luminaire? What are the
167B

different beam classifications & State the difference between them?


Answer

1. Cut- Off Angle :


1.1. Cut-off angle (lamp)
Angle above which no direct reflection from the light source is visible in the reflector.
In the case of darklight reflectors the cut-off angle of the lamp is identical to the cut-off
angle of the luminaire. In other forms of reflector it may be less, so that reflected glare
occurs in the reflector above the cut-off angle.
1.2. Cut-off angle (luminaire)
The angle taken from the horizontal to the line from the inner edge of the luminaire to the edge of the light source.
Together with the cut-off angle (lamp), this angle is used to identify the glare limitation of a luminaire.
2. Beam Angle :
It is the angle, in a plane which contains the axis of the beam, on
which luminous intensity decreases to reach a certain percentage
(generally 50% or 10%) of its peak value.
2.1. Narrow Beam:
Beam that concentrates the light within the cone of a
comparatively large solid angle
Narrow beam: Imax< 20o
2.2. Medium Beam:
Beam that concentrates the light within the cone of a
comparatively large solid angle
Medium beam: 20o < Imax< 40o
2.3. Wide Beam:
Beam that concentrates the light within the cone of a comparatively large solid angle
Wide beam: Imax> 40o

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92.

What are the levels of protection (Coordination of protective devices) for the motor starter?
168B

Answer

A circuit supplying a motor may include one, two, three or four switchgear or control gear
devices fulfilling one or more functions.
When a number of devices are used, they must be coordinated to ensure optimum operation of
the motor. The starter combination should be able to clear the current fault quickly, without any
damage to the installation or risk to personnel.
(UL508E) and an IEC 60947 provide a method to measure the performance of these devices
should a short circuit occur. They define two levels of protection (coordination) for the motor
starter:
Type 1 Coordination
It is acceptable that in the case of short-circuit the contactor and the thermal release may
be damaged. The starter may still not be able to function and must be inspected; if
necessary, the contactor and/or the thermal release must be replaced, and the breaker
release reset.

Without risk for the operator. It is the most standard solution used.
Before to restarting, the replacement of parts can be necessary.
Qualified maintenance service.
Low cost of switchgear and control gear.
Continuity of service is not imperative or may be ensured by simply replacing the
faulty motor drawer.

Type 2 Coordination
In the case of short-circuit, the thermal
release must not be damaged, while the
welding of the contactor contacts is allowed,
as they can easily be separated (with a
screwdriver, for example), without any
significant deformation.
It is the high performance solution.
The risk of fusion of contacts is
possible. In this case, the contacts
must be easier separated.
Continuity of service is imperative.
Limited maintenance service.
Specifications stipulating type 2.

Type 1 Coordination

Type 2 Coordination

Without Coordination
The risks are important for the personnel, the
physiques and materials damages can be also
important.
Total Coordination (Continuity of service)

Total Coordination
(Continuity
of service)
It is the higher performance solution.
No damage and no risk of fusion. Once the fault has been fixed, the motor starter must be able to restart
immediately.
Without Coordination

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93.

Calculate maintained illumination level for clinic (4x6m) - height = 3m, consider 4
169B

fluorescent lighting fixture each have lamps 4x36W. Luminous flux of each lamp 3000 lm,
utilization factor is 0.50 and maintenance factor is 0.70.
Answer

= (N x n x x U.F x M.F) / A
= (4 x 4 x 3000 x 0.5 x 0.7) / (4 x 6) = 700 lux

Where:
E:
A:
:
N:
N:
U.F:
M.F:
94.

Average maintained illumination level (lux)


Room area (m2)
Lamp luminous flux (lm)
number of lighting fixtures (luminaries)
number of lamps in each luminaire
Utilization factor
Maintenance factor

What is difference between low smoke halogen free cables & fire resistant cables & fire
170B

alarm cables?
Answer

Low Smoke Halogen Free Cables


In a fire accident some people die because of the fire, other die because of the smoke.
Halogen-free cables are increasingly specified for public buildings and areas where large numbers of people may be
present. Such as; Theaters, hotels, hospitals and closed public places.
Halogen-free cables contain no halogens. The insulation and sheath materials of these cables are composed of polymers
of pure hydrocarbons. Burning these materials, produce no corrosive compounds or toxic gases, only water vapor and
carbon dioxide gas.
Fire Resistant Cables
These cables are used in fire fighting alarm systems in hazardous area where the safety is highly required during fire
condition.
A cable can be described as fire resistant when it complies with the severe test in IEC 60331 in which the middle portion
of a sample of cable 1200 mm long is supported by two metal rings 300 mm apart and exposed to the flame from a tube
type gas burner at 750oC. Simultaneously the rated voltage of the cable is applied continuously throughout the test
period. Furthermore, not less than 12 hours after the flame has been extinguished, the cable is reenergized. No electrical
failure must occur under these conditions.
Testing of this property is conducted according to IEC 60331 which requies one meter of cable to be hanged and
subjected to flame at 750oC for 90 minutes and also according to BS 6387 which required one meter cable to be hanged
and subjected to flame at 750oC for 180 minutes.
Fire Alarm Cables
These cables are used for communication and signaling in fire alarm systems.

95.

What is the distance between sockets that should be followed in design?


17B

Answer

The distance between 2 sockets should not exceed 3.65 m and 1.8 m between
sockets & vertical wall taking into consideration the furniture requirements.
No point on the floor is more than 1.8m from an outlet.

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96.

Wrong positioning of desks relative to luminaries could cause reflected glare.


172B

Define glare.

o
o

173B

Which position of luminaire is right to avoid glare?


174B

Answer

Glare:
When excessive brightness as against the general brightness in the interior appears in the visual field directly or as a
reflection, glare is experienced. The direct glare is a result of brightness from luminaries, windows or bare lamp. The
reflection of that brightness or glossy materials, mirrors and VDU monitors is known as reflected glare.
Separately or simultaneously, direct glare and reflected glare can impair usual performance or cause visual discomfort.
Today, indirect lighting system (floor mounted, wall mounted and pendant mounted) is widely used to minimize the
glare. It has to be, however, properly designed to coordinate with the architecture of the interior. Selection of light
controllers is definitely the responsibility of the designer to ensure that desirable cut-off light angle is met.

Right positioning:

Wrong positioning:

97.

When many cables are laid on cable tray, what are the factors that determine the final
175B

ampacity of each cable?


Answer

Load current depends on load wattage.


Derating factor - Variation in Air Temperature.
Grouping factor.

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98.

What is the difference between Normal load, Emergency load & Critical load? State an
176B

example for each.


Answer

Normal Loads:
Loads that electricity supplying it could be loosed without big danger.
Example for these loads: normal sockets, normal air conditioning, normal lighting, irrigation pumps . Etc.
These loads are usually fed from normal electric power utility through transformer.

Emergency Loads:
Loads that electricity supplying it could not be loosed for long time else big danger could occur.
Example for these loads: some lighting, exhaust & ventilation equipments, fire fighting pumps . Etc.
These loads are fed from normal electric power utility through transformer + Standby generator (in case of failure of
normal power supply from transformer)

Critical Loads:
Loads that electricity supplying it could not be loosed for any else big danger could occur.
Example for these loads: important computers, fire alarm & CCTV systems, security systems, safety & emergency
lighting, Hospitals surgical equipments & rooms, Air traffic control towers, Runway lighting, Reservation centers .
Etc.
These loads are fed from normal electric power utility through transformer + Standby generator (in case of failure of
normal power supply from transformer) + UPS (in case of failure of normal power supply from transformer + Standby
generator still didnt work)
Normal power supply ON.

Normal + Emergency + Critical Loads


are fed from electric utility

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Normal power supply FAILURE

Normal power supply FAILURE.

Normal + Emergency Loads are not


fed from electric utility.
Standby generator starts to feed
emergency & critical loads (but after
some minutes).
Critical Loads are fed instantaneously
from UPS.

Normal Loads are not fed from. electric


utility.
Emergency + Critical Loads are fed
from standby generator.

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99.

State the Types of static UPS


17B

Answer

1. UPS operating in passive-standby (off-line) mode:


1.1. Operating principle:
The inverter is connected in parallel with the AC input in a standby.
1.1.1. Normal mode:
The load is supplied by utility power via a filter which eliminates certain
disturbances and provides some degree of voltage regulation.
1.1.2. Battery backup mode:
When the AC input voltage is outside specified tolerances for the UPS or the
utility power fails, the inverter and the battery step in to ensure a continuous
supply of power to the load following a very short (<10 ms) transfer time. The
UPS continues to operate on battery power until the end of battery backup
time or the utility power returns to normal.
1.2. Usage:
It can be used only with low power ratings (< 2 kVA).
It operates without a real static switch, so a certain time is required to transfer
the load to the inverter. This time is acceptable for certain individual
applications, but incompatible with the performance required by more
sophisticated, sensitive systems (large computer centers, telephone
exchanges, etc.)
The frequency is not regulated and there is no bypass.
Note: In normal mode, the power supplying the load does not flow through the inverter, which explains why this type
of UPS is sometimes called Off-line. This term is misleading, however, because it also suggests not supplied
by utility power, when in fact the load is supplied by the utility via the AC input during normal operation. That
is why standard IEC 62040 recommends the term passive standby.
2. UPS operating in line-interactive mode:
2.1. Operating principle:
The inverter is connected in parallel with the AC input in a standby
configuration, but also charges the battery. It thus interacts (reversible
operation) with the AC input source.
2.1.1. Normal mode:
The load is supplied with conditioned power via a parallel connection of the AC
input and the inverter. The inverter operates to provide output-voltage
conditioning and/or charge the battery. The output frequency depends on the
AC-input frequency.
2.1.2. Battery backup mode:
When the AC input voltage is outside specified tolerances for the UPS or the
utility power fails, the inverter and the battery step in to ensure a continuous
supply of power to the load following a transfer without interruption using a
static switch which also disconnects the AC input to prevent power from the
inverter from flowing upstream. The UPS continues to operate on battery power
until the end of battery backup time or the utility power returns to normal,
which provokes transfer of the load back to the AC input (normal mode).
2.1.3. Bypass mode:
This type of UPS may be equipped with a bypass. If one of the UPS functions fails, the load can be transferred to the
bypass AC input (supplied with utility or standby power, depending on the installation).
2.2. Usage:
This configuration is not well suited to regulation of sensitive loads in the medium to high-power range because
frequency regulation is not possible. For this reason, it is rarely used other than for low power ratings.
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3. UPS operating in double-conversion (on-line) mode:


3.1. Operating principle :
The inverter is connected in series between the AC input and the
application.
3.1.1. Normal mode:
During normal operation, all the power supplied to the load passes
through the rectifier/charger and inverter which together perform a
double conversion (AC-DC-AC),
3.1.2. Battery backup mode:
When the AC input voltage is outside specified tolerances for the
UPS or the utility power fails, the inverter and the battery step in to
ensure a continuous supply of power to the load following a
transfer without interruption using a static switch. The UPS
continues to operate on battery power until the end of battery
backup time or utility power returns to normal, which provokes
transfer of the load back to the AC input (normal mode).
3.1.3. Bypass mode:
This type of UPS is generally equipped with a static bypass, sometimes referred to as a static switch.
The load can be transferred without interruption to the bypass AC input (supplied with utility or standby power,
depending on the installation), in the event of the following:
UPS failure
Load-current transients (inrush or fault currents)
Load peaks
However, the presence of a bypass assumes that the input and output frequencies are identical and if the voltage levels
are not the same, a bypass transformer is required.
For certain loads, the UPS must be synchronized with the bypass power to ensure load-supply continuity. What is more,
when the UPS is in bypass mode, a disturbance on the AC input source may be transmitted directly to the load because
the inverter no longer steps in.
Note: Another bypass line, often called the maintenance bypass, is available for maintenance purposes. It is closed by
a manual switch.
3.2. Usage:
In this configuration, the time required to transfer the load to the inverter is negligible due to the static switch. Also, the
output voltage and frequency do not depend on the input voltage and frequency conditions. This means that the UPS,
when designed for this purpose, can operate as a frequency converter.
Practically speaking, this is the main configuration used for medium and high power ratings (from 10 kVA upwards).
Note: This type of UPS is often called on-line, meaning that the load is continuously supplied by the inverter,
regardless of the conditions on the AC input source. This term is misleading, however, because it also suggests
supplied by utility power, when in fact the load is supplied by power that has been reconstituted by the double
conversion system. That is why standard IEC 62040 recommends the term double conversion.
100. If the power factor of a certain electrical installation is low how can the power factor to be
178B

improved / corrected?
Answer

By using Capacitor (or Capacitor Bank if several loads are grouped) which should be calculated according to the value
equal to reactive VARS to be neutralized by the capacitor to reach the desired final power factor.

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101. What are the devices to be used for earth leakage protection / ground fault protection?
179B

Answer

Earth leakage is protected by using ELCB, RCD, GFCI or E.L. relay.


Ground fault is protected by using Fault indicator to detect line /ground fault.

102. What is Voltage Drop? What are the factors that determine the Voltage drop of a cable/wire?
180B

Write down the V.D equation for single phase cable & 2 phase for 3 phase cable
Answer

V.D. is the reduction of voltage from the supply side till load side due to cables resistance.
Factors: Ampere, length, and conductor size, type of insulation of the cable /wire.

IB:
L:
R:

The full load current in amps


Length of the cable in kilometres
Resistance of the cable conductor in /km

Note: R is negligible above a c.s.a. of 500 mm2


X:

inductive reactance of a conductor in /km


Note: X is negligible for conductors of c.s.a. less than 50 mm2. In the absence of any other information, take X
as being equal to 0.08 /km.

: phase angle between voltage and current in the circuit considered, generally:
Incandescent lighting: cos = 1
Motor power:
At start-up: cos = 0.35
In normal service: cos = 0.8
Un: phase-to-phase voltage
Vn: phase-to-neutral voltage

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103. What are the C.T. & P.T? When do we use each one and why?
18B

Answer

C.T.: is Current Transformer to provide current transformation ratio.


Used for measuring (instrument) like Voltmeters, Ameters. Because the load current is big or large that the measuring
instrument can not safely pass it.

P.T.: is Potential (voltage) Transformer to provide voltage transformation ratio.


Used for any usage requires reduction in voltage. Because instrument coil can not be connected to HV or MV.

104. What does these abbreviations stands for: PVC, XLPE & LSF?
182B

Answer

PVC:
XLPE:
LSF:

Polyvinyl Chloride
Cross Linked Polyethylene
Low Smoke Fume

105. Define the Grouping Factor? When does it considered in cable size calculations? Is it
183B

applicable for multi core or single core cables?


Answer

Grouping factor is a derating factor for the ampacity of the cable when installed near several cables/wires within defined
distances.
It is considered when several cables are used on same routing inside the raceway or cable tray.
It is applicable for three single core cables in tree foil/flat formation and for multi-core cables formation if they are used in a
group.

106. A branch panel board with total connected load 25 KW & P.F. = 0.8. Calculate Main Feeder
184B

Cable and Main C.B?


Answer

I=

(5 *10) / (3 * 380 * 0.8) = 47.50 A

Apply Derating & Correction. Factors I 56 A


Applying factor 125% allowable ampacity.
(C. B. 80Amp. MCB) & Cable (4*35) +16 mm cu.

107. Mention the different types of conduits used in electrical systems routing inside high rise
185B

buildings? What is the common usage for each?


Answer

PVC:
R.S.C & I.M.C & EMT:
Flexible:

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for embedded.
for exposed.
for connection to motors.... etc.

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108. Mention the different types of conduits used in electrical systems routing inside high rise
186B

buildings? What is the common usage for each?


Answer

Excess voltage drop can cause the following conditions:


Low voltage to the equipment being powered, causing improper, erratic, or no operation - and damage to the equipment.
Poor efficiency and wasted energy.

109. What is the difference between, molded Case Circuit Breaker and miniature circuit
187B

breakers?
Answer

The ratings & short circuit of the MCCB is higher and discrimination could be achieved using the MCCB.

110. Suppose you are buying a transformer. You have two options: TR1is 11/0.4KV & Z = 4 %,
18B

TR2: is 11/0.4KV & Z = 6 %. Which one you choose & why? Taking into consideration, you
need 380V on the secondary at full load.
Answer

111.

TR1:
TR2:

at no load Vn.l = 400V


at no load Vn.l = 400V

&
&

at full load Vf.l = 400/1.04 = 384.6 > 380V


at full load Vf.l = 400/1.06 = 377.3 < 380V

(Accepted)
(Not Accepted)

Compare between the following types of lamps according to their Power Range, Efficacy,
189B

Lumens, Life Time, Color Temp and CRI.


Incandescent and Halogen

o
190B

Fluorescent

o
19B

Compact Fluorescent (CFL)

o
192B

Mercury Vapor

o
193B

Metal Halide

o
194B

High Pressure Sodium (HPS)

o
o

195B

Low Pressure Sodium (LPS)


196B

Answer

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112. There are new specifications created by SASO to prohibit entry of any plugs or sockets not
197B

conforming to the specifications and this should be effective on (23/02/2010). What are
these specifications & what are the types specified for 127V Plugs/Sockets & 220V
Plugs/Sockets?
Answer

Plug 127V / Socket 127V according to SASO specifications 2204

Plug 220V / Socket 220V according to SASO specifications 2203

113. What is meant by UL Listed product?


198B

Answer

Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) is an independent product safety certification organization that was established in
1894. Based in Northbrook, Illinois, UL develops standards and test procedures for products, materials, components,
assemblies, tools and equipment, chiefly dealing with product safety. UL also evaluates and certifies the efficiency of a
companys business processes through its management system registration programs.

UL does not approve products. Rather it evaluates products, components, materials and systems for compliance to
specific requirements, and permits acceptable products to carry a UL certification mark, as long as they remain compliant
with the standards. UL offers several categories of certification. Products under its listing service are said to be UL
Listed, identified by the distinctive UL mark. In some cases, a component may be UL Recognized, meaning UL has
found it acceptable for use in a complete UL Listed product. Other products may be UL Classified for specific hazards or
properties. UL maintains a directory of more than 3 million products through a publicly available, online database.

A manufacturer of a UL-certified product must demonstrate compliance with the appropriate


safety requirements, many of which are developed by UL. A manufacturer must also
demonstrate that it has a program in place to ensure that each copy of the product complies
with the appropriate requirements.

114. Does the voltage supply fluctuation affects the lamps? How?
19B

Answer

The required voltage supply of a lamp must be maintained in order to achieve the rated lumen output and lamp life. When
fluctuation occurs, say 1 volt, the luminous flux of a light source decreases by about 5 lumens. Likewise, the lamp life is
shortened when this is not prevented

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115. What is the ballast? State its function & types of ballasts.
20B

Answer

All Discharge lamps requires an external device to regulate power. This device is the Ballast
Ballast Function :
Provide Proper Voltage to establish an Arc
Regulate Electric current flowing through the lamp
Supply proper voltage for lamp operation
Ballasts may be Electromagnetic or Electronic

116. What is the difference between a kW and a kWh?


201B

What is measured by electric utility?

Answer

There is a big difference between a kW and


a kWh
A kW is a measure of power being used
A kWh is a measure of energy being
used
A Good Analogy for kW and kWh is the
automobile dash board which provides a
nice way to understand the difference
between the kW and kWh
A kW is like the speed that is measured
by the speedometer.
A kWh is like the distance that is
measured by the odometer
The electric utility does not measure
instantaneous values of the kW a facility
uses. Instead, they always average the
value of the kW over a short period of
time- usually 15, 30 or 60 minutes 900,
1,800 or 3,600 seconds.

117. What are the different types of conductors according to NEC code?
20B

Answer

NEC conductor types:


R :
Rubber insulated conductor
T :
Thermoplastic (or PVC) insulated conductor.
X :
Cross-linked polyethylene insulated conductor.
H :
Letter which is used for heat-resistant qualities.
W:
Letter which is used for water-retardant qualities.
HH :
Cable is recommended for dry locations.
HW :
Cable is recommended for both wet & dry locations.

Recommended conductor temperature:


T & R:
70oC
X :
90oC

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118. How can you estimate the electrical consumption per month for residential buildings?
203B

Answer

1. We should divide the residential building area into three areas:


Living areas, Sleeping areas & Service areas.
2. We should classify the residential building loads into four types:
Home appliances loads, Lighting loads, Air conditioning loads & Hot water loads.
3. We should divide the weak in two categories:
Weekday, Weekends.
4. We should divide the year into four seasons:
Summer, Winter, Autumn & Spring.
5. We should divide the day into twenty four hours.
6. We should estimate the occupancy as a percentage per day.

Each one of the previous divisions should be taken as a factor or percentage.


Here down is a table for small example for residential building in KSA.

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119. What is star-delta starting? Why is it used? What are the advantages & disadvantages of
204B

using this method? Should we immediately install soft starters on all our existing motors?
Answer

Definition:
Star Delta starting is when the motor is connected (normally externally from the motor) in STAR during the starting
sequence. When the motor has accelerated to close to the normal running speed, the motor is connected in DELTA.
Pictures 1 and 2 show the two connections for a series connected three phase motor

The change of the external connection of the motor from Star to Delta is normally achieved by what is commonly
referred to a soft starter or a Star Delta starter. This starter is simply a number of contactors (switches) that connect the
different leads together to form the required connection, i.e. Star or Delta.
These starters are normally set to a specific starting sequence, mostly using a time setting to switch between Star and
Delta. There can be extensive protection on these starters, monitoring the starting time, current, Voltage, motor speed
etc.
The cost of the soft starter will depend on the number of starts required per hour, run-up time, Voltage, power rating, and
protection devices required.

Usage:
Lets consider an example motor: 120kW, 4 Pole, 380 Volt, Delta connected, 3 Phase, 50 Hz.
First we will examine the normal running condition, i.e. when the motor is connected in Delta.Then, lets have a look
what happens when the motor is connected in STAR.
To truly grasp the differences between these two starting methods, we will list the values next to each other in table 3,
and on graphs 5 and 6.

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Immediately we notice the primary reasons for using star delta starters on electric motors: The starting power is reduced
from 98 kW to 33 kW (by approximately 67%), the starting current is reduced from 1495 A to 500 A (by approximately
67%). Because the motor is not intended to actually run in this connection, the reduction in full load speed, power factor
and efficiency is not significant for this discussion.
One major disadvantage of the star delta starting is the reduction in the starting torque from 1038 Nm to 343 Nm (by
approximately 67%). This will be discussed in depth later on.
The reason for these 67% changes becomes clear when we examine the phase voltage on the motor, we see that the
phase voltage when the motor is connected in Delta is 380 Volt. When the motor is however connected in Star, the Phase
Voltage will be 219.3 Volt. The relations for star and delta connections are as listed in Table 4:

Thus, when the motor is started in the star connection, the phase voltage of the motor is reduced by a factor of 3.
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The reductions in starting current, starting power, and starting torques for a reduced Voltage can each be calculated by
using equation 1 (This ignores other factors like saturation, etc.):

If we apply this equation for the star delta starting, we see from equation 2 where the 67% reduction comes from:

Advantages:
The most significant advantage of using Star-Delta starting is the huge reduction in the starting current of the motor,
which will result in a significant cost saving on the size of the circuit breakers, the size of the fuses, the size cables, as
well as the transformers and switch gear.
Requiring 67% less starting current can have a tremendous cost saving implication!

Disadvantages:
The most significant disadvantage of using Star-Delta starting is the huge reduction in the starting torque of the motor,
which will result in a significantly increased run-up time, and may even result in a stall condition. Eventually this may
lead to serious damage to the motor.

The red arrow indicates what is called a Stall condition. At this point, the motor cannot accelerate, because it does not
have sufficient torque to overcome the load requirement!

Does that mean that we should immediately install soft starters on all our existing motors?
Firstly: No! The cost reductions will only result when a new installation is done! If the transformers, switch gear, cables
and protection were initially selected for the high starting currents, there would not be a significant cost saving by
installing a soft starter.
Secondly: Let us first further explore the 67% reduction in the motors starting torque.

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120. How the Electricity Bill is computed?


205B

Answer

In KSA 2009
) :
(

( - ) :

In Egypt 2007 - 2008

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121. What are the different standards of sockets? Draw them & state the difference?
206B

Answer

Socket Outlets
Standards
European - German
Standard SCHUOKO
With Ground
CEE7/4

Shapes

Socket Outlets
Standards
Europe - Russian
Standard
Without Ground
CEE7/16

Shapes

Socket Outlets
Standards
Italian Standard
With Ground

European - French
Standard
SCHUOKO
With Ground

Japanese Standard
Without Ground
JIS C 8303

Euro - US Standard
With Ground

Chinese Standard
With Ground

Spanish Standard
Without Ground

Euro - US Standard
Without Ground

UK - British Standard
With Ground
BS-1363
SASO No LIC 203181

UK - British Standard
Shaver Socket
BS-4573

Switzerland Standard
With Ground
SEV-1011

North America - UL
Standard
With Ground
NEMA 5-15
SASO No LIC 203182

Spanish Standard
Without Ground

South Africa Indian


British Standard
round pin
With Ground
BS-546

North America - UL
Standard
Without Ground

Israel Standard
With Ground
SI 32 (IS 16AR)

Denmark Standard
With Ground
SRAF 1962/DB

Universal
UK - Euro-US Standard
With Ground
BS-5733

Australian Argentina - South


America Standard
With Ground
AS-3112
Egypt Standard
Without Ground

Spanish Standard
With Ground

Universal
UK - Euro-US Standard
With Ground

Chinese - Euro - US
Standard
With Ground

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Shapes

UK - British Standard
Shaver Socket
With Insulating
Transformer

Italian Standard
With Ground
CEI 23-16

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122. What are the international codes, standards, regulations & specifications? State some of
207B

them that can be followed in electrical design?


Answer

Standards
Are guidance documents developed by groups that have (hopefully) studied the area and are making recommendations.
Thus, standards are not legal requirements unless something or someone else has made them a requirement.
Legislation & Rregulations
Is a law and thus the subject matter covered is required legally. Legislation must be passed by some governmental authority
to be a law. Often legislation is somewhat vague and the manifestation or full explanation of the requirements must be
written in "codes.Laws are passed leading to regulations
Codes
Are the manifestation (or written legal requirements) of legislation.
Different International Codes, Standards, Regulations & Specifications
CSI:
Construction Specifications Institute.
BICSI:
Building Industry Consulting Service International.
IEC:
International Electro-technical Commission.
BSI + EN:
British Standards Institute Electrical Code + European Norm
IEEE:
The Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers.
NEC (NFPA-70):
National Electrical Code.
NFPA-70:
National Fire Protection Association. (National Electrical Code).
NFPA-72:
National Fire Protection Association. (National Fire Alarm Code).
NFPA-92:
National Fire Protection Association. (Recommended Practice for Smoke-Control Systems).
NFPA-101:
National Fire Protection Association. (Life Safety Code).
NFPA-110:
National Fire Protection Association. (Emergency & Standby Power Systems).
NFPA-780:
National Fire Protection Association. (Lightning Protection Systems).
ANSI:
American National Standard Institute.
ICC:
International Code Council.
EIA:
Electronic Industries Alliance.
UL:
Underwriters Laboratories Standards.
NEMA:
National Electrical Manufacturers Association.
IESNA:
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
SEC (SCECO):
Saudi Consolidated Electric Company Distribution Standard.
SASO:
Saudi Arabian Standard Organization.
SBC:
Saudi Building Code.
GSBC:
General Specifications for Building Construction.
SAES:
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards.
IEE Wiring Regulations: The Institution of Electrical Engineers.
DIN German norms:
Deutsches Institut fur Normung.
VDE:
German standards.
CIBSE:
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers Lighting Code UK norms.
QCS:
Qatar Construction Specification.
DEWA Regulations:
Dubai Electricity & Water Authority.
SEWA Regulations:
Sharjah Electricity & Water Authority.
LEED + USGBC:
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design +U.S. Green Building Council.
ASHRAE :
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating & Air Conditioning Engineers.
OSHA:
Occupational Safety & Health Administration Standard.
ASTM:
American Society for Testing and Materials.
KAHRAMAA:
Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation Regulations
Saudi Lighting Code
Egyptian Lighting Code
Egyptian Electrical Codes & Specification
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123. What are the different types of local power cables for low & medium voltages?
208B

Answer

Low Voltage Cables - 450/750 V


Description

Cable Type

Application

Photo

Single core cables with solid Soft annealed solid or stranded copper conductors insulated
For indoor fixed installations in dry locations,
or stranded copper conductors
with PVC compound rated 70C or 90C.
laid in conduits, as well as in steel support
PVC insulated.
brackets.
Cables are produced According to IEC 60227 & BS 6004.
Single core cables with
Soft annealed copper fine wires bunched together in subunits or For indoor fixed installations in dry locations,
flexible copper conductors.
stranded bunched groups into a main unit, which forms the
where particular flexibility is required.
PVC insulated.
flexible conductor. Insulated with soft PVC 70C or 90C
For electrical panels connection or for
compound.
electrical apparatus they can laid in groups
Cables are produced According to IEC 60227 & BS 6004.
around steel sheets.

Low Voltage Cables - 0.6/1 (1.2) KV


Description

Cable Type

Application

Photo

Single core cables with


Soft annealed stranded copper or aluminum conductors.
For outdoor & indoor installations in damp &
stranded circular copper
Insulated with PVC (or XLPE) compound rated 70 C and
wet locations. They are normally used for
conductors.
covered & sheathed with PVC compound layer to form the
power distribution in urban networks,
PVC (or XLPE) insulated and
overall jacket.
industrial plants, as well as in thermo power
PVC sheathed.
Cables are produced according to IEC 60502 or BS 6004 (or BS and hydropower stations.
5467).
Multi-core cables with flexible Soft annealed copper fine wires bunched together in subunits or For indoor movable installation in dry location
copper conductors.
stranded bunched groups into a main unit, which forms the
connecting to source power portable electrical
PVC insulated and PVC
flexible conductor. These conductors are insulated with PVC
appliances operating under unfavorable
sheathed.
compound rated 70C and sheathed with PVC compound layer.
conditions such as portable lamps, fans,
refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum
Cables are produced According to IEC 60227 & BS 6500.
cleaners, TV & house hold heating and
ventilating apparatus.
Multi-core cables with
Multi-core cables with stranded copper (or aluminum)
For outdoor & indoor installations in damp &
stranded copper (or
conductors are insulated with PVC (or XLPE) compound
wet locations.
aluminum) conductors.
assembled together, covered with overall jacket of PVC
They are normally used for power distribution
PVC (or XLPE) insulated and
compound.
in urban networks, industrial plants, as well as
PVC sheathed.
Cables are produced According to IEC 60502 & BS 6346 (or
in thermo power and hydropower stations.
BS 5467).
Multi-core cables with
Multi-core cables with stranded copper (or aluminum)
For outdoor installations in damp & wet
stranded copper (or
conductors are insulated with PVC (or XLPE) compound
locations, where mechanical damages are
aluminum) conductors.
assembled together, armoured with steel tape (or Wire) and
expected to occur.
PVC (or XLPE) insulated,
covered with overall jacket of PVC compound.
Steel Tape (or Wire)
Cables are produced According to IEC 60502 & BS 6346 (or
Armoured and PVC sheathed.
BS 5467).

Medium Voltage Cables - 6 /10 (12) KV, 8.7/15 (17.5) KV, 12/20 (24) KV &18/30 (36) KV
Cable Type
Description
Application
Single & three cores copper
(or aluminum) conductors
XLPE insulated and PVC
sheathed.

Photo

Stranded circular compacted copper (or aluminum) conductor, These cables are generally sutibale for direct
semi conductor layer as conductor screen, XLPE insulated, semi burial or for installation on trays or in ducts.
conducting layer as nonmetallic insulation screen copper tape or
wire as metallic insulation screen, three cores assembled
together with non hygroscopic polypropylene fillers, wrapped
with binder tape & PVC sheathed.
Cables are produced According to IEC 60502 & BS 6622.

Three cores copper (or


Stranded circular compacted copper (or aluminum) conductor, For outdoor installations in damp & wet
aluminum) conductors
semi conductor layer as conductor screen, XLPE insulated, semi locations, where mechanical damages are
XLPE insulated, Steel Tape
conducting layer as nonmetallic insulation screen copper tape or expected to occur.
(or Wire) Armoured and PVC
wire as metallic insulation screen, three cores assembled
sheathed.
together with non hygroscopic polypropylene fillers, wrapped
with binder tape covered with a layer of PVC compound as
bedding, steel tape (or Wire) armoured & PVC sheathed.
Cables are produced According to IEC 60502 & BS 6622.

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124. When can we use neutral with C.S.A equal to the C.S.A of the phase & when can we use
209B

reduced neutral and with C.S.A less than the C.S.A of the phase? How can we choose the
reduced neutral in 3 phase-systems
Answer

We use neutral with C.S.A equal to the C.S.A of the phase in case of single phase loads or in case of three phase loads that
have a great probability of occur of big unbalance on the three phase wires due to different P.Fs or due to harmonics. For
example: the neutral wire of the main cable of 3 phase panel board, the 3 phase lighting circuit with discharge lamps.
We use neutral with C.S.A less than the C.S.A of the phase in case of three phase loads that have very small probability of
occur of big unbalance on the three phase wires.
Choice of the reduced neutral in 3 phase-systems is according to followed:
For cables with 3 phases of CSA 16mm2 or less, the neutral should have CSA as phases.
For cables with 3 phases of CSA 25mm2 or 35mm2, the neutral should have the next lesser CSA than CSA of phases.
For cables with 3 phases of CSA 50mm2 or more, the neutral should have CSA of not less than half CSA of phases.
125. What are the types of emergency lighting? State the difference? How batteries shall be
210B

provided?
Answer

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126. State the target areas for Emergency Lighting to be provided?


21B

Answer

According to EN 1838 & NFPA101:


Emergency escape lighting
Safe exit from any location (All escape corridors, Passages and Stairs)
Open area lighting
Reducing the likelihood of panic and enabeling safe movements towards escape routes. (Lobby, Arrival & Dept
Halls, Ball rooms, Retail etc)
High risk task area lighting
Illumination for the safety of people involved in a potentially dangerous process. (Mech Plants, Conveyor,
Substations etc)
Public Safety and Anti-panic
Illumination for the safety of people who is visiting the premises (Hotel rooms, Offices & Public Toilets etc.)
Minimum of 10 Lux or 1 Ft Candela at these points:

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A luminaire to illuminate the area must be installed at these points

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127. What are lighting levels & uniformity mentioned in standards for emergency lighting?
21B

Answer

According to NFPA 101


Emergency illumination shall be provided for not less than 1.5 hours in the event of failure of normal lighting.
Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is not less than an average of 1 ftcandle (10.8 lux) and, at any point, not less than 0.1 ft-candle (1.1 lux) measured along the path of egress at floor level.
Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to not less than an average of 0.6 ft-candle (6.5 lux) and, at any point ,
not less than 0.06 ft-candle (0.65 lux) at the end of the 1.5 hours.
A maximum to minimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40:1 shall not be exceeded.

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128. What are the different systems used in central battery system? Compare between them.
213B

Answer

AC/AC Systems: (Input AC & Output AC)


A static inverter runs conventional mains luminaires at full brightness during both mains healthy and mains failure
conditions.
However, there is usually a requirement for local switching of the luminaires during mains healthy conditions, with
automatic illumination in the event of mains failure.
Local switching with automatic illumination in the event of mains failure can be easily achieved by use of the ACM1
module, which is purpose-designed for this application.

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AC/DC Systems: (Input AC & Output DC)

Maintained AC/DC central battery with conversion luminaires


With this option, the normal mains luminaires are fitted with a conversion module, enabling them to also operate as
emergency luminaires in the event of mains failure.
Each conversion module includes a changeover relay which, under normal circumstances, is energised by a permanent
supply from the unswitched side of the normal lighting circuit.
Whilst energised, it connects the lamp to the conventional mains control gear within the luminaire allowing it to operate
as a standard mains fitting, powered via a switched live connection to the mains ballast.
Should the normal lighting fail, the relay within the conversion module drops out, disconnecting the lamp from the
conventional control gear and connecting it to the inverter within the conversion module. This illuminates the lamp at
reduced brightness.
In multi-lamp luminaires, the conversion module only operates a single lamp in the emergency mode. All other lamps
will extinguish upon mains failure.

Comparison
AC/AC Systems
Usually 110V DC Battery Set
Static Inverter converts 110V-230V AC
2.5 KVA Inverter Blocks
Communication via additional Data Cable
Use of Conventional ballast possible
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AC/DC Systems
24V to 216V Battery Set
Modular Converters or Switchoverunits
Max. 6A Modules / circuit
Communication on same power cable
Use of Electronic ballast only
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129. What are the advantages of using Self Contained EM Lighting?


214B

Answer

High Availability
Low installation cost
Easy extension
No fire protection necessary
Decentralised installation, therefore high safety level

130. What are the advantages of using Central Battery System?


215B

Answer

Higher Battery Life with 10 Years Sealed Lead Acid Battery.


Modular system with every Fitting is Individually Addressed.
Fully monitored Charger and Electronic circuitry.
Higher Light output from light fittings.
Solution using wide range of Light fitting.
Interfacing Switching, Dimming & Lighting Controls.
Integration with BMS and Central Monitoring via Ethernet.

131. How can you calculate the current carrying capacity or the size of busbar?
216B

Answer

A very approximate method of estimating the current carrying capacity of a copper busbar is to assume a current density of
2 A/mm2 (1250 A/in2) in still air. This method should only be used to estimate a likely size of busbar, the final size being
chosen after consideration has been given to the calculation methods and experimental results.
J (current density in A/mm) =

I (busbar current rating in Amp)


A (busbar c.s.a. in mm {width x thickness})

132. Why you use sine wave for ac power supply why not triangle wave or square wave?
217B

Answer

AC power comes from an electrical generator, which is a set of stationary coils (the stator) around a rotating magnetic field
(the rotor). This configuration produces a sine wave output. We use a sine wave on the power grid because that's the way
the electricity is generated, and it is a "natural" thing to do. It's a "pain" to have to convert it to another wave shape.
There is also the fact that some nasty harmonics will appear on the power grid if we try to use triangular or square waves.
Particularly with a square wave. The electrical loss will be higher, too. See the generator link below.
Additionally, the sine wave is the 'purest' waveform, being the root of all other period waveforms.

133. Do we can put two branch circuits in one conduit?


218B

Answer

We can put two branch circuits in one conduit in case they are of the same phase.

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134. Why do 50 Hz transformers cost more than 60 Hz transformers? Does 50 Hz transformer


219B

could work on 60 Hz transformers & How?


Answer

According to Steven Ensign of Ensign Power Volt, a producer of transformers and power supplies: Back in high school
physics class we observed the circular patterns, called magnetic flux lines, made by sprinkling iron filings over a magnet.
An energized transformer is an electromagnet and therefore creates similar magnetic flux line patterns.

When dealing with flux lines and transformers, two laws of physics are particularly significant:
Each magnetic material has a limit on how many flux lines it can handle; and
The lower the operating frequency, the more flux lines that are generated. ( 1/f)

Operating a transformer at 50 Hz generates 20% more flux lines than at 60 Hz. As the number of flux lines approaches the
magnetic materials limit, the heat in both the magnetic core and the internal coil wires increases, and under certain
circumstances, unpredictably so. This can result in a transformer that exceeds safe temperature levels. Therefore, a
transformer designed to run at 50 Hz will simply run cooler at 60 Hz. But one designed only for 60 Hz may overheat at 50
Hz.

In order to accommodate 50Hz operation, the transformer must employ a magnetic core material that can handle the added
flux lines. Such materials are readily available, but they are significantly more costly than the normal core materials. Using
high-grade core materials when they are not required results in transformers that are over-designed and not competitively
priced.

135. How can you calculate the full load current for different sizes of motors (1-ph, 2-ph & 320B

ph)?
Answer

The full-load current Ia supplied to the motor is given by the following formulae:
3-phase motor:
1-phase motor:
Where:
Ia:
Pn:
U:
:
cos :

Ia = Pn x 1,000 / (3 x U x x cos )
Ia = Pn x 1,000 / (U x x cos )

current demand (in amps)


nominal power (in kW)
voltage between phases for 3-phase motors and voltage between the terminals for single-phase
motors (in volts). A single-phase motor may be connected phase-toneutralor phase-to-phase.
per-unit efficiency, i.e. output kW / input kW
power factor, i.e. kW input / kVA input

The current supplied to the motor, after power-factor correction, is given by:
I = Ia (cos / cos )
Where:
cos :
cos :

is the power factor before compensation


is the power factor after compensation, Ia being the original current.

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Rated operational power and currents (concluded):


According to NEC:

Table 430.248 Full-Load Currents in Amperes, SinglePhase Alternating-Current Motors

Table 430.249 Full-Load Current, Two-Phase AlternatingCurrent Motors (4-Wire)

Table 430.250 Full-Load Current, Three-Phase Alternating-Current Motor

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According to IEC:

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136. State the way of calculating the short circuit at any point within a LV installation
21B

according to IEC & Egyptian Code for electrical installation


Answer

3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation according IEC

Is.c =
Where
Is.c:
Zt:
Us:
Un:

U S 1.05U n
=
Zt
Zt

Short Circuit Current at any point (in KA).


Total impedance per phase of the installation from upstream supply to the fault location (in ).
Phase voltage at power supply terminals in case of no load (in volts).
Phase voltage at power supply terminals in case of load (in volts).

Step (1): Upstream Network Power Supply For Medium Voltage


Upstream S.C. (kVA) is the short circuit of the protection devices at the medium voltage side and is specified by the
electric utility.
Zs.c is calculated using down formula.
Xs.c = 0.98 Zs.c.
Rs.c = 0.15 Xs.c (Rs.c is almost negligible value, so its neglected)

Z s .c =
Where
Zs.c:
S.C.:
Us:

2
3U s2
3(1.05 220 )
=
S .C.(kVA)
S .C.(kVA)

Impedance of the medium voltage network (in m).


3-phase short circuits fault level of the protection devices at the
medium voltage side and is specified by the electric utility (in KVA).
Phase voltage at power supply terminals in case of no load (in volts).

For Example:
S.C (K.VA)

Us (Volts)

Rs.c (m)

Xs.c (m)

Zs.c (m)

250,000
350,000
500,000

231
231
231

0.095
0.0675
0.047

0.633
0.4515
0.316

0.64
0.4574
0.319

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Step (2): Transformers For One Transformer or n Transformers in Parallel


The impedance, resistance & reactance of transformer are usually given by manufacturer.
If not known, we can calculate the impedance Ztr of a transformer, viewed from the LV terminals, is given by the
formula:
2
3U s2
3(1.05 220 )
Z T .R =
U s .c =
U s .c
kVA
kVA

Pcu = 3I n2 RT .R
RT .R =

Pcu 10 3
3I n2

X T . R = Z T2. R X T2. R
Where
KVA:
Pcu:
Us:
Us.c:
In:
Rtr:
Xtr:
Zt.r:

Transformer rating (in KVA).


Transformer Total losses (in watts).
Phase voltage at power supply terminals in case of no load (in volts).
Short-circuit impedance voltage of the transformer (in %). Its value is (0.04, 0.05 or 0.06).
Nominal full-load current (in amps).
Resistance of one phase of the transformer (in milli-ohms). (Rtr can be ignored, Rtr 0).
Reactance of one phase of the transformer (in milli-ohms). (Xtr Ztr).
Transformer equivalent impedance viewed from the LV terminals (in m).

Resistance, reactance and impedance values for typical distribution 400 V transformers with HV windings 20Kv

Notice that in case of using (n) typical transformers in parallel, so the values of given reactances, resistances &
impedances should be divided by (n) to obtain the total equivalent values.

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Step (3): Bus Ducts Between Transformer and MDB or in High Rise Buildings
For prefabricated bus trunking and similar pre-wired ducting systems, the manufacturer should be consulted.
If not known, so the resistance of bus ducts is generally negligible, so that the impedance is practically all reactive,
and amounts to approximately 0.15 m/metre length per phase for LV bus ducts (doubling the spacing between the
bars increases the reactance by about 10% only).

RB . D =

Z B.D
Where
:
:
A:

X B.D [0.15 (m meter )] [length(meter )]

Resistivity constant of the bus duct material at 70oC (in m.mm2/m).


= 21 m.mm2/m.
For copper:
For aluminum: = 33 m.mm2/m.
Length of the bus duct (in m).
c.s.a. of bus duct (in mm2).

Step (4): Circuit Breakers For Main C.B & Branch Circuits C.B
In LV circuits, the impedance of circuit breakers upstream of the fault location must be taken into account.
Values of resistance & reactance of C.B can be found in catalogues.
If not known, the reactance value conventionally assumed is 0.15 m per CB, while the resistance is neglected.

RC . B 0

Z C .B X C .B 0.15m
Step (5): Bus Bars For Final Distribution Boards
The resistance of bus bars is generally negligible, so that the impedance is practically all reactive, and amounts to
approximately 0.15 m/metre length per phase for LV bus bars (doubling the spacing between the bars increases the
reactance by about 10% only).

RB . B =

Z B.B
Where
:
:
A:

X B.B [0.15 (m meter )] [length(meter )]

Resistivity constant of the bus duct material at 70oC (in m.mm2/m).


= 21 m.mm2/m.
For copper:
For aluminum: = 33 m.mm2/m.
Length of the bus duct (in m).
c.s.a. of bus duct (in mm2).

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Step (6): Cables


Cable reactance values can be obtained from the manufacturers. For c.s.a. of less than 50 mm2 reactance may be
ignored.
In the absence of other information,
For 50 Hz systems
For Single Core:
For Multi Core:
For 60 Hz systems

Xs.c = (0.07 m/metre) x


Xs.c = (0.15 m/metre) x

For Single Core:

Xs.c = (0.09 m/metre) x

For Multi Core:

Xs.c = (0.17 m/metre) x

The resistance of Cable is given by the formula

X L [0.07 (m meter )] [length(meter )]

RL =

Where
:

Resistivity constant of the bus duct material at 70oC (in


m.mm2/m).
For copper:
= 21 m.mm2/m.
For aluminum: = 33 m.mm2/m.
Length of the bus duct (in m).
c.s.a. of bus duct (in mm2).

:
A:

In case of using n typical cables in parallel, the equivalent resistance will be the
resistance of one cable divided by n.
At
Point
a
b
c
d

Resistances (m)

Reactances (m)

Impedances
(m)

Ra=RSC+RTR
Rb=RSC+RTR+RBD+RMCB
Rc=RSC+RTR+RBD+RMCB+RBB1+RCB1
Rd=RSC+RTR+RBD+RMCB+RBB1+RCB1+RL1+RCB4

Xa=XSC+XTR
Xb=XSC+XTR+XBD+XMCB
Xc=XSC+XTR+XBD+XMCB+XBB1+XCB1
Xd=XSC+XTR+XBD+XMCB+XBB1+XCB1+XL1+XCB4

Zt(a)=(Ra +Xa )
2
2
Zt(b)=(Rb +Xb )
2
2
Zt(c)=(Rc +Xd )
2
2
Zt(d)=(Rc +Xd )

Notice That:

Short Circuit
Current (KA)
ISC(a) = Us/Zt(a)
ISC(b) = Us/Zt(b)
ISC(c) = Us/Zt(c)
ISC(d) = Us/Zt(d)

S.C. @ (a) > S.C. @ (b) > S.C. @ (c) > S.C. @ (d)

137. Complete
2B

Illuminance is measured in footcandles (lumens/square foot) or lux (lumens/square

o
23B

meter). Where one footcandle equals -------- lux.


o

Luminous intensity is measured in Candela or Lumen (Lu).where one Candela equals 24B

------- Lumen (Lu).


Answer

1 footcandle

10.76 lux

1 Candela

12.6 Lumen (Lu)

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138. Compare between using Central Battery System and Self Contained EM Lighting.
25B

Answer

Features
Individual light monitoring
Range and Wattage of fittings
Light Output
Automatic function Test
Automatic Duration Test
Maintenance Cost
Data Access/ Control at central location
BMS Interface
Battery Life
Maximum height of mounting
Electronic Log Book Facility
Environment friendly

Central Battery System


Self Contained EM Lighting
Standard
No
Extensive
Limited
Up to 100%
15-20%
Yes
No
Yes
No
Negligible
High
Yes
No
Yes
No
10 Years
1.5 to 2.5 years
Maximum 16 Meters with CEAG lights
Maximum 8 Meters
10 Years
None Available
Maintenance Free Sealed Lead acid
Ni-Cd batteries stress the
batteries are 99% recyclable. Green Li- environment and safe disposal is
on battery option is available
an issue
Note: Some features can be incorporated in Self contained system, but costs are comparably higher.

139. What is the difference between circular & sectoral sections in cables?
26B

Answer

Circular Sections

Sectoral Sections

Shape
Usage

LV & MV

Electrical sharp edge


Diameter
Space of installation
Cost

Not present. Good


Larger for same C.S.A. Bad
More Bad
More Bad

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LV only because of Electrical sharp edge in


MV which causes high electrical strengths.
Present.
Smaller for same C.S.A. Good
Less. Good
Less. Good

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140. How can you size the earthing conductor according to size of phase cable size or according
27B

to C.B. size using NEC & IEC?


Answer

According to NEC :

Table 250.66 Size of Alternating-Current Grounding Electrode Conductor


Size of Largest Ungrounded Service-Entrance Conductor or
Size of Grounding Electrode Conductor
Equivalent Area for Parallel Conductors
Aluminum or Copper-Clad
Aluminum or CopperCopper
Copper
Aluminum
Clad Aluminum
(AWG/kcmil)
mm
(AWG/kcmil)
mm
(AWG/kcmil) mm (AWG/kcmil) mm
2 or smaller
35 or smaller
1/0 or smaller
70 or smaller
8
10
6
16
1 or 1/0
50 or 70
2/0 or 3/0
70 or 95
6
16
4
25
2/0 or 3/0
70 or 95
4/0 or 250
120 or 150
4
25
2
35
Over 3/0
Over 95
Over 250
Over 150 through
2
35
1/0
50-70
through 350
through 185
through 500
(240- 300)
Over 350
Over 185
Over 500
Over (240- 300)
1/0
50-70
3/0
95
through 600
through 300
through 900
through (400-500)
Over 600
Over 300
Over 900
Over (4003500)
2/0
70
4/0
120
through 1100
through 500
through 1750 through (800-1000)
Over 1100
Over 500
Over 1750
Over (800-1000)
3/0
95
250
150
Table 250.122 Minimum Size Equipment Grounding Conductors for Grounding Raceway and Equipment
Rating or Setting of Automatic Overcurrent
Copper
Aluminum or Copper-Clad
Device in Circuit Ahead of Equipment,
Aluminum
Conduit, etc., Not Exceeding (Amperes)
(AWG/kcmil)
mm
(AWG/kcmil)
mm
14
2.5
12
4
15
12
4
10
6
20
10
6
8
10
30
10
6
8
10
40
10
6
8
10
60
8
10
6
16
100
6
16
4
25
200
4
25
2
35
300
3
25-35
1
50
400
2
35
1/0
50-70
500
1
50
2/0
70
600
1/0
50-70
3/0
95
800
2/0
70
4/0
120
1000
3/0
95
250
120-150
1200
4/0
120
350
185
1600
250
120-150
400
185-240
2000
350
185
600
300
2500
400
185-240
600
300
3000
500
240-300
800
400
4000
700
300-400
1200
630
5000
800
400
1200
630
6000

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According to IEC:

IEC 60364-5-54. This table provides two methods of determining the appropriate c.s.a. for both PE or PEN conductors

(1) Data valid if the prospective conductor is of the same material as the line conductor. Otherwise, a correction factor must be applied.
(2) When the PE conductor is separated from the circuit phase conductors, the following minimum values must be respected:
o 2.5 mm2 if the PE is mechanically protected
o 4 mm2 if the PE is not mechanically protected
(3) For mechanical reasons, a PEN conductor, shall have a cross-sectional area not less than 10 mm2 in copper or 16 mm2 in aluminium.

The two methods are:


Adiabatic (which corresponds with that described in IEC 60724)
This method, while being economical and assuring protection of the conductor against overheating, leads to
small c.s.a.s compared to those of the corresponding circuit phase conductors. The result is sometimes
incompatible with the ecessity in IT and TN schemes to minimize the impedance of the circuit earth-fault
loop, to ensure positive operation by instantaneous overcurrent tripping devices. This method is used in
practice, therefore, for TT installations, and for dimensioning an earthing conductor.
Simplified
This method is based on PE conductor sizes being related to those of the corresponding circuit phase
conductors, assuming that the same conductor material is used in each case.
Note:
When, in a TT scheme, the installation earth electrode is beyond the zone of influence of the source earthing
electrode, the c.s.a. of the PE conductor can be limited to 25 mm2 (for copper) or 35 mm2 (for aluminium).
The neutral cannot be used as a PEN conductor unless its c.s.a. is equal to or larger than 10 mm2 (copper) or 16
mm2 (aluminium).
Moreover, a PEN conductor is not allowed in a flexible cable. Since a PEN conductor functions also as a
neutral conductor, its c.s.a. cannot, in any case, be less than that necessary for the neutral.
This c.s.a. cannot be less than that of the phase conductors unless:
The kVA rating of single-phase loads is less than 10% of the total kVA load, and
Imax likely to pass through the neutral in normal circumstances, is less than the current permitted for the
selected cable size.
Furthermore, protection of the neutral conductor must be assured by the protective devices provided for phaseconductor protection.
141. Why CU wires are preferable in indoor distribution while Al cables are preferred in
28B

electrical transmission?
Answer

CU wires are preferable in indoor distribution because it is more flexible in bending & branching & smaller c.s.a for the
same current.
Al cables are preferred in electrical transmission because its cheaper, straight distances (no large bending) & causes no
problem in its large c.s.a

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142. For the following factors. Explain the effect of increasing or decreasing these factors on
29B

short circuit.
Cable length

o
230B

Cable CSA

o
231B

Conductor Type

o
23B

Transformer per unit impedance

o
23B

Transformer load.

o
234B

System Voltage

o
235B

Bus Bars

o
o

236B

Circuit Breakers
237B

Answer

Equations required:

U
Is.c = S
Zt

Zt = R + X
2
t

RL =

2
t

Z T .R =

3U s2
U s .c
kVA

1. Cable length
If

RL Zt ISC

While If

RL Zt ISC

While If

A RL Zt ISC

2. Cable CSA
If

A RL Zt ISC

3. Conductor Type
If

RL Zt ISC

While If

RL Zt ISC

Since

AL > CU

Therefore

ISC(AL) < ISC(CU)

While If

USC ZT.R Zt ISC

While If

kVA ZT.R Zt ISC

While If

USC ISC

4. Transformer per unit impedance


If

USC ZT.R Zt ISC

5. Transformer load.
If

kVA ZT.R Zt ISC

6. System Voltage
If

US ISC

7. Bus Bars
Increasing or decreasing the rating of B.Bs has neglected effect on short circuit current.
8. Circuit Breakers
Increasing or decreasing the rating of C.Bs has neglected effect on short circuit current.
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143. What are the different types of cables?


238B

Answer

1. Power Cables: For Lighting, Sockets, Motors, Distribution Boards, Distribution Networks, Transmission Networks Etc
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.

Indoor Wiring:
Low Voltage Cables:
Medium Voltage Cables:
High Voltage Cables:
Extra High Voltage Cables:

300/500V & 450/750V.


Up to 1KV.
> 1KV 36KV.
> 36KV 170KV.
170KV.

2. Telecommunication Cables: For Telephones & Communications


3. Special Cables: For Data & Signals
3.1. LAN and Telephone Cables:
3.1.1. Data Cable Cat 5e: The cable is used for Local Area Computer Networks mainly in office or business
environments
3.1.2. Data Cable Cat 6: The cable is used for Local Area Computer Networks where performance greater than that
available from category 5 specification is required
3.1.3. Instrumentation Cables: These cables are used in the chemical and etrochemical industries for the transmission
of analogue and digital signals for measurements and process control purposes
3.2. Coaxial Cables:
3.2.1. MATV Cables: TV patented coaxial cables for satellite and digital installations
3.2.2. RG Cables: Cables used for transmitting and receiving high frequency signals in radio frequency devices and
connections
3.2.3. PVC Insulated Multipairs: The cable is used for Indoor installation and interconnection of Transmission,
Telephone, Telegraph and Electronic equipment
3.3. Fire Resistant Cables: These cables are used in fire fighting alarm systems in hazardous area where the safety is highly
required during fire condition
3.4. Fire Alarm Cables: These cables are used for communication and signaling in fire alarm systems
3.5. Control Cables: For outdoor and indoor installations in damp and wet locations, connecting signaling and control units
in industry, in railways, in traffic signals, in thermopower and hydropower stations. They are laid in air, in ducts, in
trenches, in steel support brackets or direct in ground, when well protected
3.6. Automotive Wires: This wire is used in the manufacture of electrical harnesses for cars and other automotive products
3.7. Appliance Cables and Cords: These cables can be used for domestic premises, kitchens, cooking, offices and heating
appliances or light duties for light portable appliances provided that the cable does not come into contact with the heating
elements
3.8. Fiber Optic Cables: Cables are particularly suitable for placing and pulling into cable conduits and shafts inside
buildings and in the building riser between floor distributors
3.9. Optical Ground Wire: These cables suitable for installation as optical ground wire in powerline installations. The cable
acts as a normal ground wire protecting phase wires from lightning strikes and carries earth fault currents. The cable
provides also an optic path in powerline installations for telecommunication need
3.10. Low Smoke Halogen: Power Cable but Halogen-free cables are increasingly specified for public buildings and areas
where large numbers of people may be present. Such as; Theaters, hotels, hospitals and closed public places
3.11. Submarine Cables: Power Cable but water blocked can carry power & data
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144. What are the standards C.S.As for power cables for low, medium & high voltage?
239B

Answer

Low Voltage Cables


Single Core - mm2
1.5
2.5
4
6
10
16
25
35
50
70
95
120
150
185
240
300
400
500
630
800
1000

Multi Core - mm2


1.5
2.5
4
6
10
16
25
35
50
70
95
120
150
185
240
300
400
500

Medium Voltage Cables


Single Core - mm2

Multi Core - mm2

25
35
50
70
95
120
150
185
240
300
400
500
630
800
1000

25
35
50
70
95
120
150
185
240
300

High Voltage Cables


Only Single Core - mm2

150
185
240
300
400
500
630
800
1000
1200
1600
2000
2500

145. What is the difference between armoured & unarmoured cables?


240B

Answer

Armoured Cables are used for outdoor installations in damp & wet locations, where mechanical damages are expected to
occur.
Armoured Cables costs about (10-15%) more than unarmoured cables.

146. Screening of MV cables is used in earthing. Right or wrong?


241B

Answer

Right

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147. How can you convert American Wire Gauge (AWG) to square mm cross sectional area?
24B

Answer

American Wire Gauge (AWG) is a U.S.


standard set of wire conductor sizes. The
"gauge" is related to the diameter of the
wire.
The higher the gauge number, the smaller
the diameter and the thinner the wire.
Conductors larger than 4/0 AWG are
sized in circular mils, beginning with
250,000 circular mils.
Prior to the NEC 1990 edition, a 250,000circular-mil conductor was labeled 250
MCM. The term MCM was defined as
1000 circular mils (the first M being the
Roman numeral designation for 1000).
Beginning in the 1990 edition, the
notation was changed to 250 kcmil to
recognize the accepted convention that k
indicates 1000. UL standards and IEEE
standards also use the notation kcmil
rather than MCM.

American Wire
Gauge Size AWG
#
Kcmil
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
3
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000

Equivalent Metric Conductor


Size mm2
Actual Size Equivalent Size
0.519
0.5-0.75
0.823
1
1.31
1.5
2.08
2.5
3.31
4
5.26
6
8.37
10
13.3
16
21.15
25
26.67
25-35
33.62
35
44.21
50
53.49
50-70
67.43
70
85.01
95
107.2
120
127
120-150
152
150
177
185
203
185-240
228
240
253
240-300
304
300
354
300-400
380
400
507
500
633
630
760
800
886
800-1000
1013
1000

148. What is the problem of unloading the transformer?


243B

Answer

The transformer must not be unloaded for large duration, since the transformer will be exposed to humidity. Under such
conditions the transformer must be loaded, to remove the humidity formed inside the insulating materials.
In highly polluted area, the turns and core are completely enclosed inside a sealed tank to protect the transformer.

149. For replacing an existing Lighting system of fluorescent lamps 110 Volt, 60 Hz by new
24B

fluorescent lamps 220 Volt, 60 Hz, which of the following devices should be changed Lamp,
Ballast and Starter?
Answer

Ballast Only

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150. How can you convert from NEMA to IEC Enclosure?


245B

Answer

Converting from NEMA enclosure classifications to IEC enclosure classifications

NEMA enclosure classifications: are developed by NEMA and used in the U.S./American market.

Ingress Protection (or Index of Protection) - IP - ratings: are developed by the European Committee for Electro
Technical Standardization (CENELEC) (described IEC/EN 60529), and specifies the environmental protection and
enclosure provided.
NEMA Enclosure Types

IEC Enclosure Classification Designation


Protected against solid objects up to 50mm, e.g. accidental touch by
IP10
hands.

Indoor - General Purpose

Indoor -Drip proof (limited amounts of falling water )

Protected against solid objects up to 50mm, e.g. accidental touch by


IP11 hands. Protection against vertically falling drops of water e.g.
condensation.

3R

Outdoor - Rain tight, Sleet Resistant- (undamaged by the


formation of ice on the enclosure )

Protected against solid objects up to 50mm, e.g. accidental touch by


IP14 hands. Protection against water sprayed from all directions, limited
ingress permitted.

Outdoor - Dust tight, Rain tight, Sleet tight (Same as 3R


plus windblown dust)

Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).


IP54 Protection against water sprayed from all directions, limited ingress
permitted.

Outdoor - Dust tight, Rain tight, Sleet tight (Same as 3R


3S plus windblown dust; external mechanisms remain
operable while ice laden)

Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).


IP54 Protection against water sprayed from all directions, limited ingress
permitted.

Indoor & Outdoor - Watertight, Dust tight, Sleet Resistant


(splashing water, windblown dust, hose-directed water,
IP56 Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).
undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure)
Indoor & Outdoor - Watertight, Dust tight, CorrosionResistant (Same as 4 plus resists corrosion)

IP56 Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).

Indoor - Dust tight, Drip-Proof (provide a degree of


protection against settling airborne dust, falling dirt, and
dripping noncorrosive liquids)

IP52

Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).


Protection against direct sprays of water up to 15o from the vertical.

Indoor & Outdoor - Occasionally Submersible,


Watertight, Sleet Resistant (Same as 3R plus entry of
water during temporary submersion at a limited depth)

IP67

Totally protected against dust. Protected against the effect of


immersion between 15cm and 1m.

4X

Totally protected against dust.

Indoor & Outdoor - Watertight, Sleet Resistant6P Prolonged Submersion (Same as 3R plus entry of water
during prolonged submersion at a limited depth)

IP67

12 Indoor - Dust tight and Drip tight- Indoor

IP52

Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).


Protection against direct sprays of water up to 15o from the vertical.

IP52

Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).


Protection against direct sprays of water up to 15o from the vertical.

12K Indoor - Dust tight and Drip tight, with Knockouts

13 Indoor - Oil tight and Dust tight

Protected against the effect of immersion between 15cm and 1m.

Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).


IP54 Protection against water sprayed from all directions, limited ingress
permitted.

This table can be used to convert from NEMA Enclosure Types to IEC Enclosure Types
Note! NEMA standards meet or exceed IEC standards. The conversion does not work in the opposite direction.

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151. What are the different risks on human that caused by electricity? Explain.
246B

Answer

All electrical installations produce earth leakage currents. Even small values of these leakage currents present man risks
which can cause serious injuries and damages to the human life and property
A few milliamps suffice to seriously harm the human body. The risk of the person not letting go, breathing arrest or cardiac
fibrillation increases proportionally to the time the person is exposed to the electric current.

Different Risks that caused by electricity:

Direct contact:
With a live conductor.

Indirect contact:
If the person touches a conductive parts that are normally not live, but
may become live by accident due to failure of insulation of a device or
conductor.

Fire hazard:
40 % of fire accidents in industrial & domestic buildings are the result of an electrical
fault, which happens due to one of two main causes.
Deterioration of cable insulation due to ageing or overloading and the presence of
dust and humidity create electrical arcs & arc tracking. Very little energy is sufficient
to ignite a fire; an insulation fault current 300 mA represents a real risk of fire.
Incorrectly set protective devices or incorrectly calculated fault loop impedances lead
to excessive temperature rise with overloads or short circuits.

Destruction of loads:
Electrical devices deteriorate over time and may present insulation faults. A minor
insulation fault can rapidly develop and turn into a short circuit causing major damage and
even the total destruction of the load.

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152. What are the different tripping characteristics and rated currents for MCBs?
247B

Answer

Tripping characteristics and rated currents

B-, C- and D-Characteristic:


The new characteristics acc. EN 60 898 are for line protection. They all have the same thermal settings and
differ only in their magnetic tripping values.
The higher magnetic settings of the C- or D-characteristics are for applications with start or high inrushcurrents.
Characteristic
B-Characteristic
C-Characteristic
D-Characteristic

Thermal Tripping
1.13..1.45 x In
1.13..1.45 x In
1.13..1.45 x In

Electromagnetic Tripping
3...5 x In
5..10 x In
10..20 x In

K-Characteristic:
For cable and appliance protection.
Rated currents 0.5 to 63 A. Motor protection can be achieved by the selection of the M.C.B. with the correct
rated current corresponding to the motor data. The electro-magnetic trip is set in such a way that the motor
starting current does not lead to tripping.
Due to the higher magnetic non tripping current, in circuits with incandescent lamp groups, mains parallel
operated fluorescent lamps or other discharge lamps, the conductor cross-section to be protected can be more
economically utilized as compared to a M.C.B. of the same rated current in tripping characteristic B.

Z-Characteristic:
For protection of semiconductor devices and voltage transformer circuits.

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153. What is the obstruction lighting? What are their types? How its designed?
248B

Answer

Obstruction Aircraft Warning Lights:

Lamp types:

They are high-intensity lighting devices that are attached to tall structures and used as collision avoidance
measures. Such devices make the structure much more visible to passing aircraft and are usually used at night,
although in some countries they are used in the daytime also. These lights need to be of sufficient brightness in
order to be visible for miles around the structure

In the United Kingdom, there are two types of lights:


Red lamps that are either constantly illuminated or turn on and off slowly in a cycle of a few seconds.
White xenon discharge flashers. (However new regulations stipulate the use of red lamps at nighttime only.
Xenon flashers are therefore gradually being phased out).
In the United States and Canada, there are several types of lights:
Obstruction lights (that are constantly illuminated)
Red Beacons/Red strobes
High Intensity White (Strobe) Lights
Medium Intensity White (Strobe) Lights

Application for Design:

Traditionally, red lamps (or beacons) use incandescent filament bulbs. In order to improve the otherwise quite short
lifespan, they are made with a ruggedised design and are run below normal operating power (under-running). A
recent development has been the use of arrays of high power red LEDs in place of incandescent bulbs, which has
only been possible since the development of LEDs of sufficient brightness. LED based lamps have a significantly
longer lifespan than incandescent bulbs, thus reducing maintenance costs and increasing reliability. Several
manufacturers have also developed medium intensity white strobes based on LED technology to replace Xenon.
Xenon flashers, whilst more visually impressive, tend to require frequent replacement and so have become a less
favored option. However, with the advent of LEDs, white strobes are still somewhat desired.
It is common to find structures with white xenon flashers/white strobes during the daytime, and red lights at night.
Red lights are commonly found to be used in urban areas, since it is easier for pilots to spot them from above.
White strobes (that flash 24/7) may also be used in urban areas. However, it has been recommended that flashing
white strobes should not be used in densely populated areas; the lights usually merge with background lighting at
nighttime, making it difficult for pilots to spot them and thereby aggravating the hazard. In addition, residents near
the lit structure will complain of light trespass.
In rural areas, red beacons/strobes may also be used during nighttime. However, white strobes are (sometimes)
preferred since it reduces maintenance cost (i.e. no maintenance of painting, no red side lights) and there are no
background lights that would blend with the strobes.
For white strobes, there is a medium intensity white strobe and a high intensity white strobe. Medium Intensity
White Strobes are usually used on structures that are between 200500 feet (61-152.4 meters). If a medium white
strobe is used on a structure greater than 500 feet (152.4 meters), the structure must be painted.
The common medium white strobe flashes 40 times in a minute, at an intensity of 20,000 candelas for
daytime/twilight, and 2,000 candelas at nighttime.
A high intensity white strobe light is used on structures that are greater than 500 feet (152.4 meters). These lights
provide the highest visibility both day and night. Unlike a medium strobe, a high intensity strobe doesn't provide
360 coverage; this requires the use of at least 3 high strobes at each level. On the other hand, it reduces
maintenance costs (i.e. no painting). If the structure has an antenna at the top that is greater than 40 feet, a
medium intensity white strobe light must be placed above it rather than below.
The common high white strobe flashes 40 times in a minute, at an intensity of 270,000 candelas for daytime, 20,000
candelas at twilight, and 2,000 candelas at night-time.

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Dual lighting is where a structure is equipped with white strobes for daytime use, and red beacons/strobes for
nighttime use. In urban areas, these are commonly preferred since it usually exempts a structure from the
requirement of having to be painted. One advantage to the dual system is that when the uppermost red lights fail,
the lighting switches onto its Backup lighting system, which uses the white strobes (at its night intensity) for
nighttime. In the United States and Canada, red beacons are slowly going out of commission and being replaced
with red strobes. In addition, some medium strobes are equipped to flash the white light for daytime and red light
for night in a single strobe (unlike the old type which had two different lights).
For high tension power lines, the white strobes are equipped to flash 60 times per minute, using the same intensities
as stated above. Unlike the common white strobes, these strobes are specified not to flash simultaneously. The flash
pattern should be middle, top, and bottom to provide "a unique system display

Structure using high intensity


white lights and a medium
intensity white strobe

Structure using a
Red/White strobe

Structure using a red warning beacon

Structure using a white stobe

Closed up aircraft warning light on top of a


high-rise

Antenna Tower 446 feet


with its red and white
aircraft warning paint
clearly visible in the
setting sun.

154. What specifications must be applied in cable insulation?


249B

Answer

The following specifications must be applied in cable insulation:

High specific resistance.


High dielectric strength.
It should be tough and flexible.
Capable of standing high temperatures without failure.
It should be non-flammable.
It should not be exposed to acids or alkalis.
It should be capable of withstanding high rupturing voltages.

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155. Determine how many 6mm2 cu single stranded conductors are permitted in a trade size 1
250B

rigid metal conduit (RMC)?


Answer

As per NEC Code


Table 1 permits 40 percent fill for over two conductors.
From Table 4, 40 percent fill for trade size 11 4 RMC is 394mm2, and from cables catalogue the diameter of a 6mm2 cu
single stranded conductor is 4.7 mm. therefore cross-sectional area is r2 = 3.14(4.7/2) 2 = 17.36 mm2 the number of
conductors permitted is calculated as follows:

394mm 2
17.36mm 2 per conductor

= 22.7conductors

Based on the maximum allowable fill of 40 percent from Table


1, the number of 6mm2 cu single stranded conductors in trade
size 1 RMC cannot exceed 22.

Table 4

156. Does the way of mounting, positioning and orientation of a lamp (Burning Position) affect
251B

the burning?
Answer

There are light sources which can be operated in any position (Universal Burning). There are those which have specific
limits. This characteristic must be given proper attention to avoid system failure and costly maintenance. The tolerances
provided by the manufacturers must not be exceeded. In determining lumiaires mounting position and orientation, this
information is taken into account.

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157. According to NEC. Determine the minimum size rigid metal conduit (RMC) allowed for the 9
25B

mixed conductor sizes and types described as followed:


3 single stranded wires cu of 4mm2 each

o
253B

3 single stranded wires cu of 10mm2 each

o
o

254B

3 single stranded wires al of 16mm2 each


25B

Answer

Quantity

Wire Type and Size

Diameter of each wire from catalogue


(mm)

C.S.A. of Each Wire


(mm2)

Total C.S.A. of each type


(mm2)

CU - 4mm2

38.5

115.5

CU - 10mm

8.9

62.2

186.6

AL - 16mm2

9.9

77

231

Total c.s.a for all types (mm2)

533.1

As per NEC Code


The Over 2 Wires column in Table 4 indicates that 40 percent of a trade size 1 RMC is 533 mm2. Therefore, trade size
1is the minimum size RMC allowed for this combination of 9 conductors.
Table 4

158. What are the most available sizes for LV HRC fuses?
256B

Answer

According to IEC 269-2-1 Standards


Rated Current Range A
2

10

16

20

25

32

35

40

50

63

80

100

125

160

200

224

250

315

355

400

500

630

Rated Breaking Capacity kA


AC {120KA}

DC {100KA}
Rated Voltage V

AC {500V}

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159. A 200-ampere feeder is routed in various wiring methods (EMT) conduit & (RMC) conduit
257B

from the main switchboard in one building to a distribution panel board in another
building. The circuit consists of muli-core cable 4x70 + 25 mm2 CU - XLPE/PVC
unarmoured. Select the proper trade size for the various types of conduit and tubing to be
used for the feeder.
Answer

All the raceways for this example require conduit fill to be calculated according to Table 1 in Chapter 9 in NEC Code
which permits conduit fill to a maximum of 40 percent where more than two conductors are installed in the conduit or
tubing.
Wire Size and Type

Overall Diameter (mm)

C.S.A. (mm2)

31.4

774

11

95

4x70 mm2 CU - XLPE/PVC


2

25 mm CU - XLPE/PVC
Total c.s.a for all types (mm2)

869

The Over 2 Wires column in Table 4 indicates that 40 percent of a trade size 2 EMT is 1513 mm2. Therefore, trade
size 2is the minimum size EMT allowed for this feeder.
The Over 2 Wires column in Table 4 indicates that 40 percent of a trade size 2 RMC is 879 mm2. Therefore, trade size 2
is the minimum size RMC allowed for this feeder.

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160. What are the capacities of PVC conduits for different cable sizes (single & multi-core)?
258B

Answer
Capacity of PVC Conduits Single Core Cables (1C PVC)
Cable Size
(mm2)
1.5
2.5
4
6
10
16
25
35
50
70
95
120
150
185
240
300
400

20

25

32

10
6
4
3
2
1
1
1

16
10
6
5
3
2
1
1
1
1

28
18
12
8
6
4
3
2
1
1
1
1

Conduit Size (mm)


40 50 63 75

22
16
10
8
5
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1

15
12
8
6
4
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1

6
5
4
3
3
2
1
1
1

4
3
3
2
2
1

90

Capacity of PVC Conduits Multi Core Cables (4c-XLPE/PVC)


110

Cable Size
(mm2)
2.5
4
6
10
16
25
35
50
70
95
120
150
185
240

4
3
2

20

25

32

1
1
1
1

Conduit Size (mm)


40 50 63 75
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

4
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

6
5
4
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
2
1
1
1
1
1

90

110

2
1
1
1
1
1

2
1
1
1

5
4

161. What is the relation between C.B & Busbar?


259B

Answer

C.B ( AF )
6000A
5000A
4000A
3200A
2500A
2200A
2000A
1600A
1500A
1200A
1000A
800A
630A
400A
250A

The Relation Between C.B & Busbar


Busbar Cross section (mm2)
6
152*6.4
6
127*6.4
4
127*6.4
4
102*6.4
2&4
63.5_ 1276*6.4
2
102*6.4
2
102*6.4
2
76.2*6.4

For current less than 1600 A busbar rating calculation


by 1.55A/mm2

Note: All circuit breaker ampere frame according to Schneider Electric & all bus bars cross section according to NEC.

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162. How can you find the cable size with regards to C.B Size?
260B

Answer

The Relation Between C.B & Cables Size


C.B ( AT )
( 3 x L + N ) + E (mm2)
( 3 x 300 + 150 ) + 95
400A
( 3 x 240 + 120 ) + 95
300A
( 3 x 185 + 95 ) + 95
250A
( 3 x 150 + 70 ) + 70
225A
( 3 x 120 + 70 ) + 70
200A
( 3 x 95 + 50 ) + 50
175A
( 3 x 70 + 35 ) + 35
150A
( 3 x 50 + 25 ) + 25
120A
( 3 x 35 + 16 ) + 16
100A
( 3 x 25 + 16 ) + 16
80A
( 3 x 16 + 10 ) + 10
63A
( 3 x 10 + 6 ) + 6
50A
( 3 x 10 + 6 ) + 6
40A
(3x6+4)+4
32A
(4x4)+4
20A
163. What are the most available sizes for disconnecting switches?
261B

Answer

Disconnecting Switches
Safety Switches Ampere
Fuse Size Ampere
30
15, 20, 25, 30
60
35, 40, 45, 50, 60
100
70, 80, 90, 100
200
110, 125, 150, 175, 200
400
225, 250, 300, 350, 400
600
450, 500, 600
800
700, 800
1200
1000, 1200
1600
1600
2000
2000
2500
2500
3000
3000
4000
4000
5000
5000
6000
6000

5A
40 A

10 A
50 A

16 A
60 A

Standard of Disconnected Switch


16 A
20 A
26 A
63 A
80 A
100 A

26 A
125 A

30 A
800 A

32 A
1000 A

Standard of Fuses and Fixed-Trip Circuit Breakers


35 A
40 A
45 A
50 A
110 A
125 A
150 A
175 A
400 A
450 A
500 A
600 A
2000 A
2500 A
3000 A
4000 A

60 A
200 A
700 A
5000 A

70 A
225 A
800 A
6000 A

The table refer to Schneider Electric

20 A
80 A
250 A
1000 A

25 A
90 A
300 A
1200 A

30 A
100 A
350 A
1600 A

Additional standard ampere ratings for fuses shall be 1, 3, 6, 10, and 601. The use of fuses and inverse time circuit breakers with nonstandard ampere ratings shall be permitted.
The table refer to NEC , Schneider Electric

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164. What are the C.B. ratings & short circuit capacities in American & European standard?
26B

Answer

C.B Ratings Ampere


American (NEC)
European (IEC)
AT
AF
AT
AF
6
63
10
60
10
63
15
60
16
63
20
60
20
63
25
60
25
63
30
60
32
63
35
60
40
60
40
63
45
60
50
60
50
63
60
60
63
63
70
100
80
100
80
100
90
100
100
100
100
100
110
250
125
250
125
125
150
250
160
250
160
160
175
250
200
250
225
250
250
250
250
250
00
400
400
400
400
400
600
600
630
630
800
800
800
800
1000
1200
1000
1000
1200
1200
1250
1250
1600
1600
1600
1600
2000
2000
2000
2000
2500
2500
2500
2500
3200
3200
4000
4000
4000
4000
5000
6300
5000
6300
6000
6000
6300
6300

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Short Circuit Capacities KA


American (NEC)
European (IEC)
5
6
8
10
14
15
16
22
25
30
35
40
50
65
65
70
85
100
100
120
200

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165. What is the control gear of a luminaire?


263B

Answer

It is essential to provide suitable to operate discharge lamps. These lamps have electrical requirements to ensure efficient
operation, as designed, which are provided by these control gears.
Ballast:

A major component of a luminaire which control and limit electrical energy necessary to operate discharge lamps is
series impedance, known as ballast. Its major function is to:
Pre-heat the electrodes of a discharge lamp.
Supply controlled surge of high voltage and current necessary to initiate an arc between lamp electrodes and
sustain it.
Fluorescent lamps requiring a starter are operated by normal power factor ballast or choke. To improve the power
factor, a capacitor is connected across the AC Supply. Ballast manufacturers specify the P.F. of the ballast to
determine the capacitors value enough to attain a 0.85 lagging circuit.
Other fluorescent lamps are designed to be used with a rapid start ballast whish have a heater winding unit. Thus,
eliminating the use of a starter and ensure continuous current to the lamps. The lamp starts immediately reducing
flickers. Rapid start ballasts are of High Power Factor (P.F = 0.95) and reliable in starting lamps in cold weather
operation (-20F)
A more efficient, lightweight and wider voltage range Electronic Ballast is widely used today. These ballasts are
favored by many because of the advantages which are:
Immediate start.
No stroboscopic effects (flicker free).
Reduced electricity consumption.
High power factor.
No humming sound.
No magnetic fields.
Automatically shuts-off defective lamps.
Suitable for energy saving lamps.
Reduced temperature generation.
AC and DC operation.
To control light output of fluorescent lamps from say 100% down to 30% dimming ballast is used with dimmer
switch.
For HID lamps, the ballast (core and coil) may be of open type or encased and potted depending on the luminaire
construction and intended application.

Starters:

The basic function of a starter is the necessary pre-heating of the electrodes of a fluorescent lamp with a limited
current flow from the fluorescent lamp ballast. The starting switch will open automatically once the electrodes
reach the required temperature to emit electrons. With the application of starting high voltage from the ballast, the
starting is completed resulting to a fully lighted lamp.
Today, these starters may be equipped with reset buttons which automatically cut-off failing lamps. Other starters
have cold weather operation advantage. Electronic starters are widely used as well.

Ignitors:.

Voltage pulses which are higher than the mains supply are necessary to start discharge lamps. Ignitors provide
required high voltage pulser until the lamp is ignited. Some high pressure sodium lamps have built-in ignitors
which may be operated with high pressure mercury ballast.
A high pressure mercury lamp need not be assisted by these devices during ignition.

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Emergency Back:

Luminaires may be equipped with an emergency pack comprising of converter/charger and NICD batteries. The
system can be maintained, non- maintained or sustained depending on the requirement. During power failure of the
mains supply the system is automatically switch-on to keep the lamp lighted for 1.5 or 3.0 hours. Charging starts
once the mains supply is restored.

Capacitor:

To improve the power factor of the circuit, a P.F capacitor is connected across the AC supply. The value of which
is dependent on the wattage and voltage rating from 8 F to 25 F
Another type of capacitor is used to suppress radio interference which is connected across the AC supply and
usually of low capacitance value 0.1 F to 0.5 F

166. What are the methods of cooling of transformers? What does ONAN refers to?
264B

Answer

Methods of cooling are symbol with 4 letters. The first 2 letters refers to the type of fluid used & way of flow in cooling the
transformer internal winding. The other 2 letters refers to the type of fluid used & way of flow in cooling the transformer
outer case.
Type of Fluid
Way of Flow of the Fluid
Letter
Description
Letter
Description
Oil
O
Natural
N
Air
A
Lubricant
Air Blast
L
B
Gas
G
Forced (using pumps)
F
Water
W
Example: ONAN refers to Oil Forced Air Natural (transformer internal wiring is cooled using forced oil by pump
& the transformer outer case is naturally cooled by air

167. What is the accepted percentage of loading a transformer? Can we increase the percentage of
265B

loading the transformer more than 100%? Explain.


Answer

The accepted percentage of loading a transformer is 80% for the 24 hours.


We can increase the percentage of loading the transformer more than 100% but not all the time (24 hours). This percentage
loading increase depends on:

Type of transformer: (dry type can be loaded more than oil type for the same conditions).

Time of loading:

Percentage of loading: (if the percentage of loading increase the withstand time of transformer will decrease &
vice versa).

Ambient temperature: (if the ambient temperature in the site is less than the ambient temperature that transformer
is designed for its rated power so we can increase percentage load for more time & vice
versa)

(if the time of loading increase the ability of transformer to withstand more load will
decrease & vice versa).

The transformer manufacturer gives data on the percentage of loading increase & time of loading & temperature.

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168. State the advantages of using dry type transformers over oil immersed type?
26B

Answer

Advantages of dry type transformers over oil immersed type:

The cheapest fire proof transformers.


Can be easily installed in buildings with complete security.
Need less maintenance and cyclic testing other than fluid immersed transformers.
Need no accessories, such as valves, breather and measuring devices of fluid immersed transformers.
Light, so can be easily installed on the roof of the building.
Completely secure from the view of fire, environment pollution.
Can with stand an acceptable amount of overload.
High efficiency with good voltage regulation and noiseless.
Large Reliability index, and nowadays used in the form of complete substation inside a metallic enclosure having
cable-connecting box in both the H.V. & L.V. sides.

169. What is the information necessary while selecting the transformer protection system?
267B

Answer

The following information is necessary while selecting the protection system:

Particulars of Transformer
KVA.
Voltage ratio.
Connections of windings.
Percentage reactance.
Neutral point earthing.
Value of system earthing resistance.
Whether indoor or outdoor, dry or oil filled.
With or without conservator.
Fault level at Power Transformer Terminals.
Network Diagram-Showing Position of Transformer.

170. What are the advantages of selecting outdoor distribution transformers kiosks?
268B

Answer

Advantages of outdoor transformer kiosks selection:

Compact dimensions and low installation space (i.e. it can be easily located close to load centers.).
Trouble free operations with energy supply to the customers without interruption.
Personal safety.
Minimum maintenance.
Simple installation.
Reliability.

So, the location of the kiosk should be selected such that the transportation & installation and maintenance are easily done.

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171. What are the requirements for fire water pump electrical connection as per NFPA 70?
269B

Answer

The Requirements for Fire Water Pump Electrical Connection As Per NFPA 70 ( NEC 695) and NFPA 20 Chapter
6, 7, A6 & A7.
1. The supply conductors point (B) shall directly connect the power source (A) to either a listed fire pump controller or
listed combination fire pump controller and power transfer switch.
2. A single disconnecting means and associated overcurrent protective device shall be permitted to be installed between a
power source and one of the following:
a) Listed fire pump controller.
b) A listed combination fire pump controller and power transfer switch.

The overcurrent protective device shall be selected or set to carry indefinitely the sum of the locked rotor current of
the fire pump motor and pressure maintenance pump motor and the full load-current of the associated fire pump
accessory equipment.

The disconnecting means shall be lockable in the closed position and be marked " Fire pump disconnecting means"

The disconnecting means shall be supervised in the closed position by central station or remote station signal device
or local signaling service that causes the sounding of an audible signal at a constantly attended point.

A placard shall be placed adjacent to the fire pump controller, stating the location of this disconnecting means and
the location of the key.

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3. A fire pump shall be permitted to be supplied by a separate service or by a tap located ahead of and not within the same
cabinet, enclosure, or vertical switchboard section as the service disconnecting means.
4. A tap ahead of the on-site generator disconnecting means shall not be required.
5. Where reliable power cannot be obtained from a service or on-site electrical power production facility and cannot be
arranged to minimize the possibility of damage by fire from within the premises and exposing hazards, one more of the
following shall also be provided:
a) An approved combination of two or more of the power sources.
b) One of the approved power sources and an on-site standby generator.
c) An approved combination of feeders constituting two or more power sources, but only as permitted to multi
building campus-style complexes.
d) An approved combination of one or more feeders in combination with an on-site standby generator, but only as
permitted to multibuilding campus-style complexes.
e) A redundant diesel engine-driven fire pump.
f) A redundant steam turbine-driven fire pump.
6. The power sources shall be arranged so that a fire at one source will not cause an interruption at the other source.
7. Supply conductors shall be physically routed outside a building and be installed as service entrance conductors. Where
supply conductors cannot be physically routed outside building, they shall be permitted to be routed through building.
Fire pump supply conductors on the load side of the final disconnecting means and overcurrent device shall be kept
entirely independent of all other wiring. They shall be permitted to be routed through a building using one of the
following methods:
a) Be enclosed in a minimum 50mm (2 inch) of concrete.
b) Be within on enclosed construction dedicated to the fire pump circuit and have a minimum of a 1-hour fire
resistive rating.
c) Be a listed electrical circuit protective system with a minimum 1-hour fire rating.
8. Conductors supplying a fire pump motor, pressure maintenance pump and associated fire pump accessory equipment
shall have a rating not less than 125 percent of the sum of the fire pump motor and pressure maintenance motor full
load currents and 100 percent of the associated fire pump accessory equipment.

Power circuits shall not have automatic protection against overloads, shall be protected against short circuit only.

The voltage at the controller line terminals shall not drop than 15 percent below normal (controller-rated voltage)
under motor starting conditions, the voltage at the motor terminals shall not drop than 5 percent below the voltage
rating of the motor when the motor is operating at 115 percent of the full-load current rating of the motor.
9. External control circuits that extend outside the fire pump room shall be arranged so that failure of any external circuits
(open or short circuit) shall not prevent the operation of a pump from all other internal or external means. Breakage,
disconnecting, shorting of the wires, or loss of power to these circuits could cause continuous running of the fire pump
but shall not prevent the controller from starting the fire pump due to causes other than these external control circuits.

No under voltage, phase-loss, frequency sensitive, or other sensors shall be installed that automatically or
manually prohibit actuation of the motor contactor.

A phase loss sensors shall be permitted only as a part of a listed fire pump controller.

No remote devices shall be installed that will prevent automatic operation of the transfer switch.

Control conductors installed between the fire pump transfer switch and standby generator supplying the fire pump
during normal power loss shall be kept entirely independent of all other wiring. they shall be protected to resist
potential damage by fire or structural failure. They shall be permitted to be routed through a building encased in
50mm (2 inch) of concrete or within enclosed construction dedicated to the fire pump circuits and having a
minimum 1-hour fire resistance rating or circuit protective system with a minimum of 1-hour fire resistance.
10. The isolating switch shall be a manually operable motor circuit switch or a molded case switch having a horsepower
rating equal or greater than the motor horsepower and having an ampere rating not less than 115 percent of the motor
rated full-load current and also suitable for interrupting the motor locked rotor current.

The following warning shall appear on or immediately adjacent to the isolating switch:DONT OPEN OR CLOSE SWITCH WHILE THE CIRCUIT
BREAKER (DISCONNECT MEANS) IS IN CLOSED POSITION.

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11. The motor branch circuit shall be protected by a circuit breaker that shall be connected directly to the load side of the
isolating switch.

The circuit breaker shall have the following electrical characteristics:a) A continuous current rating not less than 115 percent of the rated full-load current of the motor.
b) Overcurrent-sensing elements of the non thermal type.
c) Instantaneous short-circuit over current protection.
d) An adequate interrupting rating of provide the suitability rating of the controller.
e) Capability of allowing normal and emergency starting and running of the motor without tripping.
f) An instantaneous trip setting of not more than 20 times the full-load current.

When current limiter are integral parts of the circuit breaker, shall have the following requirements:a) The breaker shall accept current limiters of one rating.
b) The current limiters shall hold 300 percent of full-load motor current for minimum of 30 minutes.
c) The current limiters, where installed in the breaker, shall not open at locked rotor current.
d) A spare set of current limiters of current rating shall be kept readily available in a compartment or rack within
the controller enclosure.

The only other overcurrent protective device that shall be required and permitted between the isolating switch and
the fire pump motor shall have the following characteristics:a) Of the time-delay type having a tripping time between 8 seconds and 20 seconds at locked rotor current.
b) Calibrated and set at a minimum of 300 percent of motor full-load current.
c) It shall be possible to reset the device for operation immediately after tripping with the tripping characteristics
thereafter remaining unchanged.

Where the motor branch circuit is transferred to an alternate source supplied by an on-site generator and is
protected by an overcurrent device at the generator, the locked rotor overcurrent protection within the fire pump
controller shall be permitted to be by passed when that motor breaker circuit is so connected.
12. The motor contactor shall be horsepower rated for electrical operation of reduced-voltage controllers, timed automatic
acceleration of the motor shall be provided, and the period of motor acceleration shall not exceed 10 seconds.

For controllers 600 volt or less, the operating coil of the main contactor shall be supplied directly from the main
power voltage and not through a transformer.

No under voltage, phase-loss, frequency-sensitive, or other sensors shall be installed that automatically or manually
prohibit actuation of the motor contactor.

Sensors shall be permitted to prevent a three-phase motor from starting under single-phase condition.
172. When shall we use circuit breaker + back-up fuse as switchgear combinations?
270B

Answer

The prospective short circuit current level may exceed the rated breaking capacity of the circuit breaker installed, if a back
up fuse is connected on the line side of the breaker. To ensure that the fuses and the circuit breaker will operate together in
such a way, that the breaker and its contacts are not damaged during the interruption of large short circuit currents.
The fuses assist the C.B in the interruption of currents which marginally exceeds its breaking capacity. For higher shortcircuit currents, the fuse performs the interruption alone, and the breaker opens under no-load.
A careful matching of the properties of the protective elements is required. Figure shows the time current characteristics
curve of the fuses lies a sufficient distance X above the tripping curve of thermally delayed overload release. The breaker
alone is responsible for overload protection.

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173. What are the sizing recommendations for fire pump applications including (sizing the
271B

generator set, sizing the utility circuit breaker or fuses, sizing the feeder conductors,
sizing the automatic transfer switch, sizing the generator circuit breaker) as per NFPA 70?
Answer

The building code includes special requirements for generators and transfer switches supplying fire pumps.
Where a generator set supplies power to an electric fire pump there are special sizing considerations outlined in the National
Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and National Electrical Code (NEC) requirements.

The generator feed to a fire pump is typically one of two circuit arrangements.

One arrangement uses a transfer switch integral to a fire


pump controller (not shown).
The second arrangement uses a listed fire pump transfer
switch separate from a fire pump controller (refer to
FIGURE 1). For fire pump service, both an automatic
transfer switch and a bypass-isolation transfer switch
are available from generators suppliers. This sizing
recommendation covers sizing the generator set for
either arrangement and sizing the transfer switch for the
second arrangement, where separate from the fire pump
controller.

Sizing the generator set

Background: NEC 695-7 requires that voltage dip no more than 15% of rated controller voltage at the fire pump
controller line terminals (includes cable drop) during normal starting of the fire pump motor. This may translate to
oversizing the generator set by a factor of two or three times to provide required motor starting kVA compared to
when a 30-35% starting voltage dip is permitted.
Where the fire pump is the only significant load on the generator set, the starting kVA required will be much
greater than the required running kVA. Since there are practical limits to the alternator capacity in a generator set, a
larger genset may be required, resulting in a light load running condition for the engine (less than the recommended
minimum of 30% of rated kW). To alleviate this, consider adding additional loads with low starting requirements,
such as lighting, or the application of supplemental load banks, especially during normal routine system testing.
All fire pump controllers, whether reduced-voltage or DOL (direct-on-line), full voltage, include an emergency
manual mechanical means to start the fire pump under full voltage should the starting circuit or contactor coil
malfunction. The exception to NEC 695-7 states that the 15% voltage dip limit does not apply when using manual
starting emergency means.
Caution: its recommended that an analysis of generator set voltage and frequency dip performance when using the
manual DOL starting. This analysis may indicate a larger generator is required to achieve desired performance
during this condition. This may be desirable to get assurance that the fire pump controller does not drop out when
automatic reduced voltage transition from start to run occurs prior to when the pump achieves near rated speed or
when the pump cannot be accelerated during reduced voltage due to high operating head pressure.
Note: It is not necessary to size the generator set for locked rotor current continuously.

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Sizing the utility circuit breaker, CB1 (or fuses)

Sizing the feeder conductors

Size the feeder conductors at a minimum of 125% of the motor full load current or next higher ampacity. Feeder
conductors run from the circuit breaker at the generator (CB2) to the fire pump controller line terminals, and from
the load side of CB1 to the fire pump controller line terminals.
The voltage drop requirement of NEC 695-7 also applies, so if the motor is large and the run is long, the feeder
conductors may require oversizing. The facility designer is responsible for cable drop calculations.

Sizing the automatic transfer switch

Size any over current device upstream of the fire pump controller on the utility line side to hold locked rotor current
of the fire pump motor continuously, typically a minimum of 600% of motor FLA (Full Load Amps).
Because the maximum allowable current-limiting fuse for a given size transfer switch is higher than the maximum
allowable molded case circuit breaker, using current-limiting fuses in lieu of a circuit breaker may allow a smaller
transfer switch to be used.

Initially, size the ampere rating of the transfer switch to be equal to or next size greater than the required feeder
conductors.
Verify that the over current device used on the utility line side, CB1, does not exceed the maximum allowable
circuit breaker or fuse size allowed for the transfer switch. If it does, increase the transfer switch rating to one that
includes CB1 as an allowable upstream breaker.

Sizing the generator circuit breaker, CB2

The objectives for sizing and selection of this over current device are:
Complying with code requirements,
Using a standard automatic molded case circuit breaker,
Selectively coordinating this breaker with locked rotor protection within the fire pump controller, and
Having sufficient available fault current from the generator to clear a faulted fire pump circuit without opening
other ranches of the generator supplied emergency system.
The circuit breaker should be a standard molded case circuit breaker; magnetic-only breakers and non-automatic
molded case switches are not recommended.
A magnetic-only (instantaneous trip) circuit breaker is not recommended. These breakers are UL Component
Recognized, but not UL Listed devices. They are only suitable for use in a UL listed assembly, and are typically
included with overloads as part of a UL listed combination motor starter. They are not UL listed for feeder
conductor protection.
A non-automatic molded case switch with integral high instantaneous self-protection is not recommended. If the
fire pump circuit is faulted, the generator may have insufficient available fault current to trip the switch. If the fire
pump branch is not interrupted during a fault, an upstream device may trip, leaving other emergency branches
without power.
Size molded case breaker CB2 greater than 125% but less than 250% of the motor full load current. NFPA 20,
6-6.5, requires this breaker to pick up the instantaneous load. NEC 695-6 (d) prohibits overload protection, but
requires short circuit protection. With a minimum rating of 125%, by exclusion, the breaker is not providing
overload protection according to NEC 430-32. With a maximum rating of 250%, for the breaker, by definition,
qualifies as short-circuit protection as shown in Table 430-52 of NEC.
Within the range of 125% to 250%, select the smallest over current device that will allow pump motor locked
rotor current to flow longer than the 20 seconds allowed by the fire pump controller integral protection.

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174. What are the main parts of transformer compartment (Kiosk)?


27B

Answer

General Description:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Roof mounted lifting eyes.


Double roof with neutral ventilation.
Ventilation louvers.
MV compartment door.
Heavy-duty door hinges.
Earth fault indicator.
Transformer compartment door.
LV compartment door.
Opening handle.
Base for Kiosk.

The housing is assembled as an integrated unit from


sheet steel built on heavy channel steel skid frame to
withstand the weight of the kiosk with its components.

To reduce the equipments ambient temperature and


prevent heating through the roof due to sun radiation,
the roof is made of double layers with foam installation
in between, the upper layer is made of a solid Alu-Zinc
alloy to give the advantage of corrosion resisting in
different climates.

The MV and LV compartments are arranged at both


sides of the substations with the transformer
compartment in between.

The MV and LV compartments are provided with double doors. All doors are equipped with stainless steel rigid
hinges and rigid locking devices. Also all doors are equipped with rubber gaskets to keep a high degree of
protection.

Dimensions in (mm):
Kiosk Description
Rating up to 500 KVA
Voltage 12 KV
Rating up to 1000 KVA
Voltage 12 KV

Height (mm)

Width (mm)

Length (mm)

Weight without Transformer

2050

1680

3200

= 2.4 ton

2370

2000

4110

= 3 ton

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Medium Voltage Compartment

It comprises a Ring Main Unit (RMU) including up to three cable load


break switches and one automatic fused load break switch for transformer.
All circuit arrangement may be provided with earth fault indicators.

Transformer Compartment (Kiosk)

The transformer compartment is designed for a 3- phase oil immersed


power transformer with power up to 2000 KVA at rated MV 12KV and up
to 1000KVA at rated MV 24KV.

The transformer is connected to the LV distribution board via copper


busbars or cables based on the transformer capacity, and to the MV
equipment via XLPE screened cables, each of the XLPE cables is equipped
with two cable end box for three single phase connection.

For service purposes, sufficient space is provided to the personnel to go in


and work freely, necessary opening are provided for air entry and exhaust, so
that the temp. Rise is kept to a minimum.

In substations up to 500 KVA / 12 KV the transformer could be placed into its


compartment either from dismarrtable or from the longitudinal side door. For
above rating it is preferable to place the trans. from the roof side.

Dust-rejecting ventilating louvers, are situated at both ends of the


transformer compartment and dimensioned for self - cooling.

The lower part of this compartment functions as an oil collection pit with
a sufficient volume to contain all the transformer oil.

Two doors in both longitudinal sides of the transformer compartment provide


maximum flexibility to inspect and maintain the transformer.

Low Voltage Compartment

The LV compartment contains the LV distribution board. It is built on a steel


frame mounted on the compartment floor and fixed to the back wall of the
compartment.

The main incoming apparatus is usually moulded case automatic air circuit
breaker (open frame type is also available) complete with overload and short
circuit protection with rating up to 3200A. The incoming unit is equipped
with voltmeter and selector switch, 3 ammeters, 3 signal lamps and space
for optional K.W.H meter.

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There are 3 basic types available for providing the outgoing feeders of the LV distribution board:
Moulded Case Circuit Breakers
As an example for the capacity of the 500 KVA/12KV substations, the number of the outgoing feeders with
moulded case circuit breakers (MCCB) may be one of the following:

Nine frame size 250A MCCB.


Six frame size 400A MCCB.
Four frame size 630A MCCB.

Fused Load Break Switches


For the same example of the 500KVA/12KV substation, the number of the outgoing feeders using fused
load break switches (SF Switch Fuse) may be one of the following:

Six (SF) up to 400A.


Four (SF) up to 630A.

3PH HRC Fuses


For the same example of the 500KVA substation, the number of the outgoing feeders with high rupturing
capacity fuses may be one of the following:

Four with H.R.C. fuses up to 630A.


Five with H.R.C. fuses up to 250A.

As an example for a substation 1000KVA with MV side 24KV or 2000KVA with MV side
12KV, the outgoing feeders with moulded case circuit breakers may be one of the following:

Six frame size MCCB1250A.


Eight frame size MCCB 400A.
Twelve frame size MCCB 250A.

It is available to provide the LV compartment optionally with:


K.W.H. & K.V.A.R.H. for incoming feeder.
Control equipment for street lighting line.
Other specifications for the L.V compartment could be supplied but with special dimensions.

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175. Using given legend. Draw the wiring diagram for:


273B

1 Way - 1 Gang Switch.

o
274B

1 Way - 2 Gang Switch.

o
275B

2 Way (3 Way) - 1 Gang Switch.

o
276B

2 Way (3 Way) - 2 Gang Switch.

o
o

27B

Intermediate (4 Way) - 1 Gang Switch.


278B

Answer

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176. Discuss the construction for LV & MV power cables?


279B

Answer

The general construction of the LV cables is (0.6/1.2kV):


1. Core (Conductor)
All cables have one central core or a number of solid, stranded or flexible - copper or aluminum conductors having
highest conductivity with round or sectoral shaped conductors.
2. Insulation
An extruded layer of different types of insulators used to insulate the conductors are paper, varnished cambric,
XLPE or PVC which are applied over the conductor for low voltages. But mostly impregnated paper is used which
is an excellent insulating material. PVC insulated cables are suitable for maximum conductor operating temperature
of 70C or 85 C and 90 C for XLPE.
3. Metallic Sheath (Assembly)
In case of multicore cables. Cores are assembled together using non hygroscopic filler (if needed) to fill space
between cores, wrapped with suitable binder tape toform a round cable. A metallic sheath is provided over the
insulation so as to prevent the entry of moisture into the insulating material. The metallic sheath is usually of lead
and in case of cables having a copper conductor sometimes aluminum is used for providing metallic sheath. The
metallic layer provided must be electrically continuous, thus, the sheath used not only provide water proof
protection, but also provides an electrical earth shield the potential of the conductor is referred to this.
4. Bedding
In case of armoured cables over the metallic sheath comes a layer of bedding that consists of PVC or paper tape, the
function of providing the bedding is to protect the metallic sheath form mechanical injury from the armouring.
5. Armouring
Armouring is provided to avoid mechanical injury to the cable and it consists of one or two layers of galvanized
steel wires or steel tapes which are applied helically.
6. Serving (Sheath)
Over armoring, a layer of fibrous material or PVC is again provided as an outer sheath which is similar to that of
the bedding but is called serving or sheath.

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The general construction of the MV cables is (from 6/10 kV up to 18/30 kV):


1. Conductor
Stranded, round and compacted Copper or Aluminum conductors, according to IEC 60228 class 2.
2. Conductor Screen
An extruded layer of semiconducting material applied over the conductor as voltage stress control layer
3. Insulation
An extruded layer of, XLPE, rated 90 C which are applied over the inner semiconductor with thickness as
specified in IEC 60502.
4. Insulation Screen (NonMetallic part)
An extruded layer of semiconductive compound firmly bonded to insulation. Conductor screen, XLPE insulation
and insulation screen are applied at the same time using triple head extruder. (Semi conductive compound easily
strippable from insulation available on request).
5. Metallic Screen (Metallic Part)
a. Copper Tape: an annealed copper tape is applied helically with a suitable overlap.
b. Copper Wire: helically applied and binded with a copper tape to achieve electrical contact.
6. Assembly and Filling
In case of multicore cables. Cores are assembled together with suitable lay length, non hygroscopic filler is applied
during assembly to fill spaces between cores then wrapped with suitable binder tape.
7. Bedding
In case of armoured cables an extruded layer of PVC or MDPE or LLDPE is applied as bedding.
8. Armouring
Armouring is provided to avoid mechanical injury to the cable and it consists of one or two layers of galvanized
steel wires or steel tapes which are applied helically.
9. Serving (Sheath)
Over armoring, an extruded layer of fibrous material or PVC is applied with thickness as specified in IEC 60502.

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177. What are the different distribution losses in industrial facilities?


280B

Answer

There is a dramatic difference in an AC power distribution system between the simple DC resistance values of the various
conducting elements, and the actual apparent AC resistance, under heavy current load, of these same elements. Motors,
lighting systems, wiring, mechanical terminations, distribution panels, protective devices, transformers, switchgear, and all
end of circuit equipment experience a variety of resistance increasing inefficiencies that combine to create an average
wattage loss in a typical industrial facility of from 10% to 25% of total demanded power. Identifying and calculating the
sum of the individual contributing loss components is a challenging engineering specialty, requiring extensive experience
and knowledge of all the factors impacting the operating efficiencies of each of these components.
The following list is a simplified overview of several of the more important loss factors in an industrial facility, including a
broad range estimate of reasonable loss values attributable to each stated effect. Note that all of these are current dependent,
and can be readily mitigated by any technique that reduces facility current load.

Hysteresis Losses:
Hysteresis loss is a heat loss caused by the magnetic properties of the armature in an AC motor. When an
armature core is in a magnetic field, the magnetic particles of the core tend to line up with the magnetic field.
When the armature core is rotating, its magnetic field keeps changing direction. The continuous movement of
the magnetic particles, as they try to align themselves with the magnetic field, produces molecular friction.
This, in turn, produces heat. This heat is transmitted to the armature windings. The heat causes armature
resistances to increase.
Typical hysteresis losses as a percentage of building demand: 2% to 5%.

Skin Effect Losses:


The apparent resistance of a conductor is always higher for AC than for DC. The alternating magnetic flux
created by an alternating current interacts with the conductor, generating a back EMF which tends to reduce the
current in the conductor. The center portions of the conductor are affected by the greatest number of lines of
force, the number of line linkages decreasing as the edges are approached. The electromotive force produced in
this way by self-inductance varies both in magnitude and phase through the. Cross-section of the conductor,
being larger in the center and smaller towards the outside. The current therefore tends to crowd into those parts
of the conductor in which the opposing EMF is a minimum; that is, into the skin of a circular conductor or the
edges of a flat strip, producing what is known as 'skin' or 'edge' effect. The resulting non uniform current
density has the effect of increasing the apparent resistance of the conductor and gives rise to increased losses.
Harmonic loading increases skin effect losses by the square of the increase in frequency above nominal line
frequency, and so is responsible for a substantial lost wattage in any facility with large populations of nonlinear
equipment loads, such as DC drives, rectifiers, induction heating or other arcing or switching power supply
devices.
Typical skin effect losses as a percentage of building demand: 2% to 8%.

Proximity Effect Losses:


Proximity effect is a property existing when conductors are close together, particularly in low voltage
equipment, where a further distortion of current density results from the interaction of the magnetic fields of
other conductors.
In the same way as an EMF may be induced in a conductor by its own magnetic flux, so may the magnetic flux
of one conductor produce an EMF in any other conductor sufficiently near for the effect to be significant.
If two such conductors carry currents in opposite directions, their electromagnetic fields are opposed to one
another and tend to force one another apart. This results in a decrease of flux linkages around the adjacent parts
of the conductors and an increase in the more remote parts, which leads to a concentration of current in the
adjacent parts where the opposing EMF is a minimum. If the currents in the conductors are in the same
direction the action is reversed and they tend to crowd into the more remote parts of the conductors.
This effect, known as the 'proximity effect' (or 'shape effect'), increases the apparent AC resistance. If the
conductors are arranged edgewise to one another proximity effect increases. In most cases the proximity effect
also tends to increase the stresses set up under short-circuit conditions and this may therefore have to be taken
into account.
Typical proximity effect losses as a percentage of building demand: 1.5% to 3%.

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Line Losses:
In addition to I2R losses and dielectric losses, cables have other losses such as skin-affect and proximity-effect
developed by magnetic induction. For single conductor cables, however, where conductors are not operating
close to each other, proximity effect is negligible. Skin-effect loss is caused by the reversing magnetic field,
about the cable, which tends to concentrate the current toward the periphery of the conductor. This affect then
reduces the effective carrying capacity of a conductor in its central portions. Proximity-effect loss is caused by
the opposing force of magnetic fields set up by neighboring conductors. This displaces the points of maximum
reactance to a maximum distance from each other, resulting in maximum current density at the nearest surfaces
of the two conductors. Operating together in a typical industrial conduit enclosed distribution system; these
various loss factors can sufficiently increase the building wiring's apparent AC resistance to more than an order
of magnitude above nominal DC resistance values. Thus, typical I2R wiring losses are often far greater than
simple chart-based values.
With the above, recall that I2R losses occur in ALL distribution system conducting components, not only the
wire.
Typical line losses as a percentage of building demand: 1 % to 3.
Eddy-Current Losses:
With any electrical system component comprising an iron or steel frame and an electrical coil, flux will flow in
the steel as a result of the alternating current in the coil. The flux in the steel will itself induce an EMF in the
material following the basic laws of induction. Since the material is essentially an electrical circuit closed on
itself, the induced EMF will cause a circulating electrical current called an eddy-current. Its value is dependent
on the value of EMF and on the resistivity of the path of current. As in any other electrical circuit the power
loss is the product of the square of the current times the resistance. In a similar manner to hysteresis losses, the
eddy-current loss manifests itself as heat, contributing to the maximum operating temperature limit of the
device.
Eddy current losses occur in protective circuit breakers, lighting ballasts, power supply transformers, magnetic
motor starters, voltage reducing or isolation transformers, current overload relays, control contactors and relays,
all motor windings, and even building wiring, when the wiring is in circular proximity to steel or iron
structures, such as electrical enclosures, distribution panels, or terminal or distribution blocks.
Typical eddy current losses as a percentage of building demand: 1.5% to 4%.

178. What are the types of insulations that can be used for cables?
281B

Answer

The following are the chief types of insulation groups that can be used:

Rubber.

Cross Linked Polyethylene (XLPE).

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

Fibrous material.

Silk, cotton, enamel.

179. What are the main functions of luminaire?


28B

Answer

The functions to which the design of a luminaire are based are as follows:

To efficiently control and re-direct the light emitted by a light source.

To protect and provide support for the light source, necessary control gears and other components.

To adequately absorb and dissipate heat emitted from the light source and control gears.
Other requirements considered vital in luminaire design imcludes:

Ease in maintenance

Appearance and finishings.

Cost effectiveness.
Note: A luminaire may have optional features to suit the need of a lighting system. It may be equipped with universal mounting accessories, photocell,
through-wiring and other electrical or optical systems.

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180. How can you calculate the reactive power Capacitor Bank (power factor correction)? How can
283B

you choose the capacitor bank according reactive power from standard? How can you
calculate the circuit breaker of capacitor bank? What are the available LV Standard
Automatic Capacitor Banks?
Answer

For example if we modified the power factor from 0.80 to 0.95


S = P + jQ
P (const)
S (old)
Q (old)

= xx
= xxx
= S sin

P (const)
S (new)

Q (new)
Q (capacitor bank)

= xx
at pf = 0.95
= P/0.95
= cos-1 (pf)
= S (new) sin
= Q (old) - Q (new) = xxxx

at

Choose the capacitor bank according reactive power from standard. If the standard has not the needed capacitor
bank so we choose the nearest one and calculate the new power factor.
P (const)
S (old)
Q (old)
Q (capacitor bank)

= xx
= xxx
= S sin
= xxxx

Q (new)
Q (new)
P

= Q (old) - Q (capacitor bank)


= S sin (1)
= S cos (2)

at

Dividing equation 1, 2
Q (new) / P
= tan
(new)
= xxxxx
pf (new)
= cos (new)
S (new)
= P/ pf (new)

pf = 0.80

Calculate the circuit breaker of


capacitor bank:
S (capacitor bank) = P jQ
Where (P = 0), so the angle equal
(-90) pure reactance.
Q (capacitor bank) = S sin
Q (capacitor bank) = 3 VI sin
Where
Q (capacitor bank) = -ve
I = (- Q) / ( 3 V sin )
I = (- Q) / ( 3 V sin (-90))
I = (- Q) / (- 3 V)
I = Q / ( 3 V)
So I (CB) = I X 1.25

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pf = 0.80

LV Standard Automatic Capacitor Banks


AV500 series 3 / 60Hz
AV500 series 3 / 60Hz
AV400 series 3 / 60Hz
KVAR
KVAR
KVAR
Steps
Steps
Steps
Rating
Rating
Rating
(Qty x
(Qty x
(Qty x
@ 240 V
@ 480 V
@ 480 V
KVAR)
KVAR)
KVAR)
2 x 25
2 x 25
2 x 25
50
50
50
3 x 25
1 x25, 1 x50
1 x25, 1 x50
75
75
75
4 x 25
2 x25, 1 x50
2 x25, 1 x50
100
100
100
5 x 25
1 x25, 2 x50
1 x25, 2 x50
125
125
125
6 x 25
3 x 50
2 x25, 2 x50
150
150
150
1 x25, 3 x50
1 x25, 3 x50
1 x25, 3 x50
175
175
175
2 x25, 3 x50
4 x 50
4 x 50
200
200
200
1 x25, 4 x50
1 x25, 4 x50
225
225
5 x 25
5 x 50
250
250
1 x25, 5 x50
1 x25, 5 x50
275
275
6 x 50
6 x 50
300
300
1 x50,3 x100
350
2 x50,3 x100
400
1 x50,4 x100
450
2 x50,4 x100
500
1 x50,5 x100
550
6 x 100
600
The table refers to Digest - Squared (Schneider Electric)
The AV400 and AV500 are suitable for use where harmonic generating loads are less than 15% of the
total connected load.

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181. What is the difference between AWA and SWA?


284B

Answer

A single core armoured cable will always have a layer of aluminium wire armour (AWA) instead of steel wire armour
(SWA). This is because the steel in SWA has a much lower conductivity and therefore higher resistance than
aluminium. If it were used in a single core cable the magnetic field generated would induce an electric current in the armour
(eddy current) and combined with the increased resistance would have a heating effect. AWA is non-magnetic and has a
much better conductivity (lower resistance), so can conduct these induced currents to earth more efficiently than steel. SWA
is used in multicore armoured cables because the electromagnetic fields from the neighbouring cores effectively cancel each
other out, meaning less current is induced into the armour.Armouring by non-magnetic material either aluminum tape or
aluminum wire armouring to reduce the magnetic losses. If its required for single core cable to be armoured by steel wire
armouring the magnetic circuit around the single core cable should be onterrupted by inserting insulating copper wires
between the steel wires as shown in the figure below.

Armouring of Single Core LV Cables (0.6/1.2 kV)

Armouring of Single Core MV Cables (from 6/10 kV up to 10/30 kV)


182. How can you classify lighting according to applications?
285B

Answer

Indoor lighting
Office lighting
Conference halls lighting
Industrial lighting
Hazardous areas lighting
Indoor sports lighting
Hospitals lighting
Merchandise lighting
Hotels lighting
Outdoor lighting
Area Flood lighting
Faade lighting
Landscape and Amenity lighting
Outdoor sport lighting
Road lighting
Tunnel lighting

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183. State some demand factors for different loads that are being used in American NEC
286B

Standards?
Answer

Table 220.42 Lighting Load Demand Factors


Portion of Lighting Load to Which
Demand Factor
Type of Occupancy
Demand Factor Applies (Volt-Amperes)
(Percent)
First 3000 or less at
100
Dwelling units
From 3001 to 120,000 at
35
Remainder over 120,000 at
25
First 50,000 or less at
40
Hospitals*
Remainder over 50,000 at
20
First 20,000 or less at
50
Hotels and motels, including apartment houses without
provision for cooking by tenants*
Remainder over 100,000 at
30
First 12,500 or less at
100
Warehouses (storage)
Remainder over 12,500 at
50
All others
Total volt-amperes
100
Table 220.44 Demand Factors for Non-dwelling Receptacle Loads
Portion of Receptacle Load to Which Demand Factor
Demand Factor (Percent)
Applies (Volt-Amperes)
First 10 kVA or less at
100
Remainder over 10 kVA at
50
Table 220.54 Demand Factors for Household Electric Clothes Dryers
Number of Dryers
Demand Factor (Percent)
1-4
100
5
85
6
75
7
65
8
60
9
55
10
50
11
47
12 - 22
% = 47 - ( number of dryers - 11 )
23
35
24 - 42
% = 35 - 0. 50 ( number of dryers - 23 )
43 And over
25
The table refer to NEC chapter 2 article 220.11 & 220.12 & 220.13 & 220.18
Demand Loads for Household Electric Ranges, Wall-Mounted Ovens, Counter-Mounted Cooking Units, and Other Household Cooking
Appliances over 13/4 kW Rating See article And table no 220.19
Demand Loads for Kitchen Equipment Other Than Dwelling Unit(s) See article And table no 220.20.
Demand Loads for Appliance Load Dwelling Unit(s). See article no 220.17

Table 220.56 Demand Factors for Kitchen Equipment Other Than Dwelling Unit(s)
Number of Units of Equipment
Demand Factor (Percent)
1
100
2
100
3
90
4
80
5
70
6 and over
65

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Table 220.55 Demand Factors and Loads for Household Electric Ranges, Wall-Mounted Ovens, Counter-Mounted Cooking
Units, and Other Household Cooking Appliances over 134 kW Rating (Column C to be used in all cases except as otherwise
permitted in Note 3.)
Demand Factor (Percent) (See Notes)
Column C
Number of Appliances
Maximum Demand (kW) (See
Column A
Column B
Notes) (Not over 12 kW Rating)
(Less than 3 kW Rating)
(3 kW to 8 kW Rating)
1
80
80
8
2
75
65
11
3
70
55
14
4
66
50
17
5
62
45
20
6
59
43
21
7
56
40
22
8
53
36
23
9
51
35
24
10
49
34
25
11
47
32
26
12
45
32
27
13
43
32
28
14
41
32
29
15
40
32
30
16
39
28
31
17
38
28
32
18
37
28
33
19
36
28
34
20
35
28
35
21
34
26
36
22
33
26
37
23
32
26
38
24
31
26
39
25
30
26
40
26-30
30
24
15 kW + 1 kW for each range
31-40
30
22
41-50
30
20
51-60
30
18
25 kW + kW for each range
61 and over
30
16
Table 220.88 Optional Method - Permitted Load Calculations for Service and Feeder Conductors for New Restaurants
Total Connected
All Electric Restaurant
Not All Electric Restaurant Calculated
Load (kVA)
Calculated Loads (kVA)
Loads (kVA)
0-200
80%
100%
201-325
10% (amount over 200) + 160.0
50% (amount over 200) + 200.0
326-800
50% (amount over 325) + 172.5
45% (amount over 325) + 262.5
Over 800
50% (amount over 800) + 410.0
20% (amount over 800) + 476.3
Table 220.86 Optional Method - Demand Factors for Feeders and Service-Entrance Conductors for Schools
Connected Load
Demand Factor (Percent)
First 33 VA/m (3 VA/ft2) at
Over 33 to 220 VA/m (3 to 20 VA/ft2) at
Remainder over 220 VA/m (20 VA/ft2) at

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100
75
25

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Table 220.84 Optional Calculations - Demand Factors for Three or More Multifamily Dwelling Units
Number of Dwelling Units
Demand Factor (Percent)
3-5
45
6-7
44
8-10
43
11
42
12-13
41
14-15
40
16-17
39
18-20
38
21
37
22-23
36
24-25
35
26-27
34
28-30
33
31
32
32-33
31
34-36
30
37-38
29
39-42
28
43-45
27
46-50
26
51-55
25
56-61
24
61 and over
23
184. What are the different classifications of luminaries? Give brief discussion for each.
287B

Answer

Decorative:

A general lighting or accent lighting, decorative luminaries are designed to satisfy the aesthetic need of an interior.
In most cases the luminaire from as an integral part of the architecture.

The finishing of this type of luminaries usually matches or blends well with the furnitures or finishing of an
interior. The shape of the luminaire is irregular, linear or curved.

Light sources employed vary from the incandescent candle lamp to linear HID lamp. With the availability of energy
saving compact flourcsent lamps, compact HID lamps and efficient optical system decorative luminaries
construction are compact and aesthetically pleasing.

Commercial:

These are the most common type of luminaries used in offices, shops, supermarkets, etc., from a simple batten to a
modular, multi-lamp, equipped with reflector and light controller.

The light sources employed are usually tubular fluorescent lamps and energy saving compact fluorescent lamps.
The size of the housing depends on the number of light source to be employed and control the gears.

The light from a bare lamp need to be re-directed and shielded in order to reduce the luminance of the luminaire in
directions where glares probable. A reflector is used to direct the light where needed most. The control of light with
a highly polished (mirror) reflector is more effective than a white enameled shell sheet.

This control of light is further improved by using diffusers and louvers of various kinds. The shielding of the lamps
from a direct view reduces the glare to be experienced. With these light controllers a wide range of light
distribution will help the lighting designers to select the effect that will satisfy the objective. For example, a mirror
double- parabolic louver is preferred in a working interior where VDU screens are present to avoid reflected glare.
The light distribution it provides is within the desirable cut-off angle.

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Commercial luminaries may be mounted in so many different ways. Except for he type intended to be recessed on
the suspended ceiling system, most of the types can be suspended (rod, wire or chain), surface mounted and bracket
mounted.
Protection class (IP) of these luminaries is usually, IP20. Some types intended for washrooms, stairways and other
areas where dust and water may present, IP23 or IP44.

Industrial:

In industrial lighting applications, the use of fluorescent fixture is still preferred. However, due to the
environmental conditions of the working space, other materials and construction of a lumiaire is needed.

Industrial fluorescent luminaries are usually made of materials that could withstand an environment where dust,
corrosion and fumes may be present. Reflectors are widely used, but in some applications bowl diffusers (gasketed)
are proffered. Luminaires protection class varies from IP23 to IP67 depending on area of use.

Mounting may be on surface, suspended (rod, wire or chain) and brackets.

Applications where fluorescent lamps are no longer practical to use, low and high bay luminaries employing HID
lamps will provide the lighting. For the same illumination level, fewer lighting points will be needed; therefore,
cost of installation and maintenance will be less.

The reflectors and refractors used for these luminaries are designed for specific mounting limits. Most low bay
luminaries are recommended for a mounting height up to 6 meters while high bays are used for above 6 meters.

Where flammable gasses and vapors are present, occasionally or for a long period, the area is classified
hazardous. Thus, luminaries to be provided must be safe to operate. Similarly, a room with presence of easily
ignitable fiber area. In addition to the usual classification requirements of an industrial luminaire, this type designed
for hazardous areas has to be tested and certified by testing laboratories.

Luminaries for hazardous areas as in petrochemical plants, chemical laboratories, oil platforms, etc. are of higher
degree of protection compared to other types, usually IP57 or IP67.

Aside from the high IP class, the luminaire is labeled according to the explosion category, temperature class and
area of use (Zone or Class and Division). The electrical components are tested and certified confirming the
protection from excessive heat, areas and sparks. The luminaries maximum surface temperature (T class) as marked
must be less than the ignition temperature of the gases present where it will be installed.

Some luminaries are robust and made of cast iron aluminum alloy or heavy gauge steel sheets materials and
designed to withstand and suppress internal explosion. The maximum surface temperature of these luminaries is
also used as basis of applicability. The cover is usually hard, shock resistant tempered glass and tightly sealed to the
corrosion resistant body.

A wide range of lamp types are used in these luminaries except for low pressure sodium.

Exit and Emergency:

Safety is the primary objective in providing egress lighting especially in public buildings. The occupants will find it
difficult to reach a door or stairway in total darkness. In the absence of normal power supply, temporarily or for a
long period, an alternative source must be available. The supply from a control battery or stand by generator is
common. Today, however, self contained emergency system is becoming more practical (for short periods).

In practice, there are three systems which are employed as part of the lighting system, namely;
Maintained:
A lamp is operating during normal supply and will be lighted, instantly, in case of power
failure.
Non Maintained: A lamp is lighted when the normal supply fails.
Sustained:
Two lamps are employed: one is operating during normal supply, the other during power
failure.

A self contained emergency luminaire has its battery pack (NICD) and charger/inverter units in the luminaire
housing. Usually, the duration of the emergency pack is 1.5 hours or 3 hours. There are requirements, however, for
a longer duration.

Exit and other directional luminaries oftentimes are equipped with these emergency units. These luminaries are
installed on the wall or ceiling leading to the exit points or stairways. The texts and symbols are usually bold and in
red or green color.

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Flood lights:

The materials and construction of floodlights depend on the light source to be employed. A PAR amp, for example,
will require a lamp holder which is protected from penetration of water. The unit can be installed on the surface or
with built-in spike. In some applications, buried floodlights made of stainless steel with heat toughened glass are
preferred.

Floodlights intended for area lighting, security lighting, sports and the like to be equipped with HID lamps are
constructed with the housing, usually, die-cast aluminum with the lamp holder, optical assembly covered wit
tempered glass and mounting unit. Most types are designed to have an integrated control gear box made of the same
materials; others are intended to have separately mounted control gear.

There are floodlights which are equipped with graduated scale for orientation and aiming purposes especially in
sports lighting application. Internal or external glare control assembly is standard accessories for some floodlight.

The mounting unit is usually, a bracket with mounting holes and slip filter, on some. The windage area and weight
of these luminaries are vital data to design the mounting structure. Example: pole and mast.

Road and Tunnel Lighting Luminaires:

The optical assembly and control gears of these road lighting luminaries may be together in one or in separate
housing made of aluminum pressed, die-cast or extruded. A tunnel luminaire is usually in one piece housing. The
light sources which are widely used in these luminaries are mercury vapor, metal halide, low pressure sodium and
high pressure sodium lamps. For tunnel luminaries, fluorescent lamps are also employed.

The reflectors are of high purity anodized aluminum to provide a high degree of light control. The materials of
commonly used diffusers are borosilicate glass wit prismatic pattern, clear polycarbonate and high thermal and
impact resistant lens. Tunnel luminaries equipped with asymmetrical reflector and frosted glass are common as
well.

The mounting on lighting poles of these luminaries could either be top mount or side entry (poles with arm).
Relamping and minor trouble shooting can be done on these luminaries mounted on the pole since the covers and
diffusers are hinged and secured to the housing.

A tunnel luminaire may be installed directly on a surface using galvanized bracket or on the mounting rails. There
are installations where the luminaries are flush mounted on the concrete.

Bollards, Post Top Mounted and Wall Mounted Luminaires.

The design of these luminaries varies in shape, color and mounting system. The most widely used housing material
is aluminum. As other types, efficient optical system is a major concern in the selection of these luminaries.
Reflector and refractor designs vary in shape and finish to achieve the desired light distribution. Intended mounting
method is also a factor in the final design of these luminaries.

Most of these luminaries, today are designed to satisfy architectural considerations. For example, the shape and
finish of a bollard head matches the type intended for wall and ceiling mounted luminaries.

Light sources employed are incandescent, compact fluorescent and HID.

185. State the difference in wiring between:


28B

2-Way Switch & 3-Way Switch.

o
o

289B

4-Way Switch & Intermediate Switch.


290B

Answer

The 3 way & 4 way switches (as per American standards) is same as 2 way & intermediate switches respectively (as per
British standards).
On the three way switch, there are three screws. So it is called like this.
On the 2 way switch, also there are three screws. But, its called 2 way because you can switch on or off from 2 positions.
On the four way switch, four are three screws. So it is called like this.
On the intermediate switch, also there are four screws. But, its called intermediate because you can switch on or off from
many positions.
Always the first & the last switch should be (2way/3way switches) while all the intermediate switches should be
(intermediate/4way switches).

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186. What is the ATS & what are the main different parts of ATS?
291B

Answer

Summary:

ATS systems stands for the phrase automatic transfer switch system. The specified system shall be a dual-position
transfer switch designed to automatically and manually switch between two synchronized AC power sources
without an interruption of power to the load longer than 6 milliseconds. The input power shall be supplied from
two different AC power sources, which are nominally of the same voltage level, phase sequence, and frequency.
The primary purpose of the ATS shall be to allow virtually uninterrupted transfer from one source to the other in
case of failure of one source or by manual initiation for test or maintenance. The switching action shall switch all
phases and neutral conductors of the sources and shall not connect together the two sources of power which would
allow back-feeding one source to the other. The ATS shall allow for either source to be designated as the
"preferred source" to which the switch will automatically transfer to and remain transferred to until manually
initiated to transfer or until the selected source fails, at which time, the ATS shall transfer without interruption
greater than 6 milliseconds to the other source. The ATS shall be furnished with an integral isolation and bypass
switch which allows uninterrupted manual transfer to and from either source for maintenance or replacement of the
ATS electronics module without de-energizing the load equipment.

System Description:

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Modes of Operation:

The specified system shall be a two, three, or four-pole, double-throw, automatic transfer switch that switches all
branch circuit conductors, including phase and neutral conductors, that are supplied from the two AC power
sources. One source shall be designated as the preferred source while the other is the alternate source. Selection of
which input source is preferred shall be user selectable without de-energizing the load equipment or reconnecting
the input power sources. All transfers shall be a fast break-before-make with no overlap in conduction from one
source to the other. All transfers, including sense and transfer times, shall have less than a 6 millisecond
interruption in power to the load.

Normal Mode:
In normal operation, the load shall be connected to the preferred source as long as all phases of the
preferred source are within the acceptable limits. Upon failure of the preferred source, the load shall be
transferred to the alternate source until such time as the preferred source returns to within the acceptable
limits. Transfer voltage limits shall be +/- 10% of the nominal input voltage for steady state conditions,
with low voltage transfer limits having an inverse time relationship that is within the IEEE Std. 446
computer voltage tolerance envelope. After the preferred source returns to within the acceptable voltage
limits for at least the user-adjustable retransfer time delay (1 to 60 seconds, 3 seconds typical) and is in
phase with the alternate source within the adjustable phase synchronization window (1 to 15 or 20 degrees,
10 degrees typical), the load shall be retransferred automatically to the preferred source. The automatic
retransfer to the preferred source can be disabled if so selected by the user from the service port. When the
automatic retransfer is disabled, emergency transfers from the alternate source to the preferred source shall
not be disabled upon alternate source failure.

Load Current Inhibit:


The system shall sense the load current and, if the load current exceeds an adjustable preset level deemed
to represent a load inrush or fault condition, the system shall disable the automatic transfer even if the
voltage on the selected source exceeds the transfer limits to keep from transferring the load inrush or fault
current between the two input sources. The load current transfer inhibits reset shall be user-selectable from
the service port for manual or automatic reset. In the automatic reset mode, the transfer inhibit shall be
automatically reset after the current returns to normal to allow for continued protection against a source
failure. In the manual reset mode, the transfer inhibit shall require that the unit be transferred to
maintenance bypass or the unit powered off to reset the transfer inhibit and restore normal operation.

Manual Transfer:
The system shall allow manually initiated transfers between the two sources, provided that the alternate
source is within acceptable voltage limits and phase tolerances with the preferred source. Allowable phase
differences between the sources for manually initiated transfers shall be user-adjustable from the service
port. The user-adjustable phase synchronization window shall be limited to +/- 15 or 20 degrees. If the
transfer is manually initiated, the system shall transfer between the two sources without interruption of
power to the load greater than 2.5 milliseconds provided that both sources are available and synchronized
within the user-adjustable phase synchronization window. For sources where the two frequencies are not
exactly the same (as would be the case between a utility and standby generator source), manually initiated
transfers shall be delayed by the system until the two sources are within the user-adjustable phase
synchronization window.

Maintenance Bypass:
The system shall be furnished with key-locked maintenance bypass switch, which allows the system
electronics to be bypassed to either input source for maintenance without interruption of power to the load
greater than 2.5 milliseconds. The packaging of the system shall have all electronics isolated from the
input, output, and bypass connections to allow the electronics module to be removed and replaced while the
unit is in maintenance bypass without interruption of power to the load.

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187. Specify different ratings of ATS?


29B

Answer

UL Listed (American Standards)


30

IEC (European Standards)


63

70
80
100
125

125
160

200
250
260
320
400
600
800
1000
1200
1600
2000

400
630
800
1000
1250
1600
1800
2000
2500

2600
3000
3200
4000
188. What are the advantages of using Busbar Trunking System (Bus Duct)?
293B

Answer

Busbar Trunking (Bus Duct) System has several advantages ensured

Higher capacity of system (5000A at maximum) and excellent insulation of conductor.


Take up smaller space, light, economy and pleasant to eyes.
Lower impedance, voltage drop, interference and energy consumption. (i.e. The sandwich type assembly makes it
possible to obtain lower reactance therefore lower voltage drops).
Convenient, easy and quick for installment.
The excellent properties of system are fire and pest prevention, endurance and safe.
Higher short-circuit rating (up to 100 kA for 1sec).
With reliable plug-in box and safety joint. (Feeder and plug-in types are available and interchangeable without any
adapter or special parts).
Easy to add an additional system and make a branch for the system as well as change the setting.
Easy to make maintenance and check.
Excellent heat dissipation by a direct conduction of the bars to the housing.
Thermal expansion of the Busbar system is accomodated within the joint system.
Integral aluminum housing offers standard earth busbar of full cross section.
Integral design enable flames, gases, smokes,vapour or warm air to pass unobstructive.

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189. What are the different types of ATS Devices?


294B

Answer

A commonly available transfer switching device on the market is called Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS). An ATS is a
device, which automatically transfers one or more load conductors from the Normal power source to an Emergency
power source and back.
All ATS consist of a Power Switching Assembly (PSA), Control Unit Assembly (CUA) and the enclosure.
Three most common types of ATS by the type of the Power Switching Assembly used are: contactor based, circuit breaker
based and solid state.

Contactor Based ATS


Contactor based ATS is the most common type by the number of
units installed. Some of the advantages of the contactor based ATS
are low cost and availability. The contactors are known as the
devices designed for frequent switching of the load current and
commonly used as a part of the motor starters. However many
contactor based ATS manufacturers do not use traditional contactors
in their PSA. Therefore most contactor based ATS are not rated for
the number of switching operations (with or without load) as
traditional contactors.
Majority of the contactor based ATS manufacturers design their PSA
to meet the requirements of the UL 1008 standard.
Traditional contactor base ATS is neither capable nor intended to interrupt a fault current. Therefore UL 1008
standard specifies the minimum fault currents the switch should be able to withstand without damage for a
time period of at least 3 cycles. (50 ms).
Power systems with the contactor based ATS must have a circuit breaker or a fuse upstream from the ATS
(for each power source: normal and emergency) for the purpose of short circuit protection.
If the ATS is rated to be able to withstand the available fault current for only 3 cycles, the upstream
protective device shall interrupt the fault in less than 3 cycles. This means that there is no practical way of
coordinating the upstream short circuit protective device with any of the short circuit protective devices
downstream from the ATS. As a result, a short circuit anywhere in the critical circuit fed by the ATS will
cause operation of the upstream short circuit protective device with the consequent loss of power all the
critical circuits fed by the ATS.
At the same time, if the fault is in one of the critical circuits protected by a feeder circuit breaker with the
instantaneous protection, the feeder circuit breaker may clear the fault.
Operation of the short circuit protective device upstream from the ATS will look to the ATS as a loss of the
present source and will cause the ATS to transfer the critical load to the alternative power source. If the fault
in the critical load circuit was cleared by the down stream feeder circuit breaker, than the remaining critical
load circuits will be energized by the alternate power source. . If the fault in the critical load circuit was not
cleared by the downstream feeder circuit breaker due to the fault location, tripping time, uncoordinated
tripping setpoints or feeder circuit breaker malfunction, transferring of the faulted critical load circuit to the
alternate power source will cause further damage to the faulted circuit as well as tripping of the alternate
power source upstream from the ATS.

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Circuit Breaker Based ATS


Circuit breaker based ATS typically uses two interlocked, electrically
operated circuit breakers as the heart of its PSA. The circuit breaker
types, typically used in the ATS PSA are designed to comply with
the UL 489. There are two major types of the circuit breakers, which
fall in this category. The industry calls them molded case circuit
breakers and insulated case circuit breakers. Molded case circuit
breakers are the most basic type of circuit breakers, commonly found
in low voltage power systems. The trip units typically include
overload protection and short circuit protection (instantaneous setting
of approximately 5 to 10 times frame rating). Insulated case circuit
breakers are designed with stored energy mechanism and spring
charging motor for remote closing, and are commonly available in
draw-out construction.
The circuit breakers used in the PSA assembly may be with or without the trip unit. Even when used without
the trip unit, most circuit breakers will trip and interrupt the fault, when the level of fault current exceeds the
withstand rating of the circuit breaker. This self-protecting feature is one of the advantages of a circuit
breaker based PSA over a contactor based PSA.
Generally, a circuit breaker based ATS acts the same as a contactor based ATS. Circuit breaker based ATS
can integrate the functions of an ATS and normal and alternate sources short circuit protective devices when
supplied with the trip units.
If the time delays to transfer setpoints are short, and under certain power system conditions it is possible that
the ATS will try to transfer during a fault. In that case a circuit breaker type ATS will be able to successfully
disconnect the faulted load and complete the transfer, since the circuit breakers are rated to interrupt fault
current. A contactor based ATS is likely to fail under the same scenario, since the PSA contactors are not
rated to interrupt fault.

Solid State ATS


Solid state ATS PSA is based on the use of the heavy duty Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCR). Use of SCRs
in conjunction with the microprocessor based control unit allows the solid state ATS manufacturers to sense
the failure of the normal source and transfer to the alternate source in less than of a cycle. This transfer
time is fast enough to not affect the operation of the common computer equipment.
Due to the solid state nature of the SCR based PSA it is common to see an isolation and bypass circuit
breakers on each source side and load side of the ATS. The isolation circuit breakers allow for visible
disconnection of the SCR units from each source and load in case of the SCR units failure or need for
maintenance. After the SCR unit has been fully disconnected by the isolation circuit breakers, one of the
bypass circuit breakers can be closed to directly energize the load by the selected power source.

190. When should we use Busbar Trunking (Bus Duct) System?


295B

Answer

Paralleled sets of conductors are almost always more expensive than a busway of similar current capacity because of the
high installation cost of multiple conduits.

When it is necessary to carry large amounts current (power).

When it is necessary to tap onto an electrical power conductor at frequent intervals along its length.

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191. What is the acceptable percentage voltage drop that can be reached in L.V. calculations?
296B

Answer

According to NEC Article 215.2:

Conductors for feeders as defined in Article 100, sized to prevent a voltage drop exceeding 3 percent at the farthest
outlet of power, heating, and lighting loads, or combinations of such loads, and where the maximum total voltage
drop on both feeders and branch circuits to the farthest outlet does not exceed 5 percent, will provide reasonable
efficiency of operation.

Reasonable operating efficiency is achieved if the voltage drop of a feeder or the voltage drop of a branch circuit is
limited to 3 percent. However, the total voltage drop of a branch circuit plus a feeder can reach 5 percent and still
achieve reasonable operating efficiency

According to Saudi Electricity Company - SEC


(Distribution Planning Standard - DPS) - Table-1.3:

For LV Customers. The Utility voltage drop allocations


listed in Table-1.3 shall be used as guideline voltage
drops over the power system components supplying a
low voltage customer. The additional voltage drop in
the customer's wiring shall not exceed the value
indicated.

Distribution Transformers have a built-in voltage boost


of 5% by virtue of the transformation ratio. Note that
this does not extend the voltage drop to the service
point beyond 10% however.

192. State the application & operation of the contactor and circuit breaker based transfer
297B

switches (ATS)?
Answer

A. Transfer from normal source to emergency source (Transfer between live & dead sources):
The most common application of the contactor and circuit breaker based transfer switches is when they are used in
conjunction with the emergency generator. In this case the
utility is connected to the normal side of the ATS; the generator
is connected to the alternate (emergency) side of the ATS.
Upon utility failure, the ATS will issue a start signal to the
emergency generator set after a typical time delay of 1 to 5
seconds. This time delay is intended to avoid starting of the
generator set during very short interruptions of the normal
power supply. These short interruptions are typically corrected
by the upstream utility source reclosing, within 2 seconds.
Once the generator set receives a start signal from the ATS, it
takes approximately 10 seconds for the generator to build up
voltage and frequency to become available to energize the load.
At this time the transfer from the normal to the emergency
source will occur. The load is now energized by the emergency
source.
Upon utility return, the ATS will activate the time delay return to normal source. This time delay is typically set anywhere
between 5 minutes and 30 minutes. This allows ensuring that the utility source has returned to stay as well as gives the
generator set some minimum time to run under load as well as allows some minimum time to recharge the generator set
engine cranking batteries in case the utility was to fail again, shortly after the transfer to the normal source. Upon expiration
of this time delay the transfer from the emergency source to the normal source will occur.
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B. Transfer from emergency source back to normal source (Transfer between two live sources):
Upon utility return, the ATS will activate the time delay return to normal source. This time delay is typically set anywhere
between 5 minutes and 30 minutes. This allows to ensure that the utility source has returned to stay as well as gives the
generator set some minimum time to run under load as well as allows some minimum time to recharge the generator set
engine cranking batteries in case the utility was to fail again, shortly after the transfer to the normal source. Upon expiration
of this time delay the transfer from the emergency source to the normal source will occur.
Most of the time the transfer between the two live sources will occur when transferring from the emergency source back to
the returned normal source, therefore all our discussion bellow will be based on this transition. However the phenomenas
described below apply to any load transfer between the two live sources.
There are two ways to transfer load between the two live sources:
1. Open Transition

During the open transition transfer from the emergency source back to the returned normal source, the emergency
source will be disconnected before the normal source will be connected. This will cause a brief outage to the load.

We know that when the voltage to the running electric motor suddenly decays, the electric motor begins to act as
the generator for a short period of time. The duration of the generator action depends on the type of the motor,
inertia of the driven equipment as well as the amount of the passive load on the same circuit. This phenomena
causes the engineers to consider motor contribution when they calculate the available fault current. During the open
transition load transfer, the independent sources are likely not to be synchronized. Fast open transition motor load
transfer, can cause connection of the generating motor to the power source out of synchronism. The consequences
of this connection are similar to the closing the generator out of synchronism: high line currents (with possible
operation of the overcurrent devices) and mechanical stress to the equipment shafts and gears (with possible
mechanical damage). Transformers are also known to cause high line currents during fast open transition load
transfers, due to the stored magnetic field.
There are three most common ways to accomplish open transition transfer:
1.1. Non-Delayed Transition.
o In case of non-delayed transition, the normal source
will be connected to the load as soon as the emergency
source is disconnected from the load, without any
intentional time delay.
Advantages:
The duration of the outage is minimized;
lowest cost.
Disadvantages:
(Motors, transformers.etc.) Problems.
1.2. In-Phase Transition.
o In case of in-phase transition, the normal source will be
connected to the load as soon as the emergency source
is disconnected from the load, but the transfer will only take place when the two sources are in
synchronism.
Advantages:
The duration of the outage is minimized.
Disadvantages:
Relies on the generator to passively fall into synch with the utility, which is not always possible. In
this case the transfer may not occur until the generator runs out of fuel. If the substantial passive
load is connected to the motor during the transfer, the motor my fall out of synch faster than the
transfer time of the ATS. The time of transfer is not predictable. Does not eliminating inrush during
transfer of the heavy transformer loads.
1.3. Time Delayed Transition.
o In case of time delayed transition, the normal source will be connected to the load after the emergency
source is disconnected from the load, and after an adjustable time delay.
Advantages:
The most reliable and flexible operation suitable for reliable transfer of any loads.
Disadvantages:
The duration of the outage during transfer is increased.
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2. Closed Transition

During the closed transition transfer from the emergency source


back to the returned normal source, the emergency source will
be disconnected after the normal source is connected. This will
not cause an outage to the load during the transfer. Typically
the duration of the connection of the two sources is less than
100 ms. since the incoming and the running power sources
connect while in synchronism, any type of load can be reliably
transferred in this manner.
The synchronizing of the sources for the closed transition
transfer can be accomplished via active synchronizing and
passive synchronizing. In both cases the paralleling of the two
sources is supervised by a synchronizing check relay.
In case of passive synchronizing, the system control relies on the
generator to randomly fall in to synchronism with the utility
source. In case of passive synchronizing there is no way to be sure
that the transfer will occur.
In case of active synchronizing, the system control monitors the
voltage and frequency of both sources and provides a speed
correction signal to the prime movers (engine, turbine, etc.)
governing system to bring it in to synchronism with the running
source (utility).

193. State the application & operation of the solid state transfer switches (ATS)?
298B

Answer

The main advantage of the solid state ATS over the contactor or circuit breaker based transfer switch is its ability to detect
the failure of the normal source and transfer to the available alternate source within of a cycle. At the same time the solid
state ATS are much more expensive and generally less reliable as compared to the contactor or circuit breaker based ATS.
Since the emergency generator set is, typically not available for the first 10 seconds of the normal source outage, the
advantages of the solid state ATS would not be utilized when used with the emergency generator set.

Solid state ATS are typically used in the systems with two constantly available separately derived and synchronized power
sources, and where the nature of the load is such that brief power outage is not acceptable.

194. When should we use tap-off boxes Busbar Trunking (Bus Duct) System?
29B

Answer

When a line has to be fed by cables, feed-in boxes can be installed.

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195. What is the minimum requirement for transfer switch (ATS) arrangement that should be
30B

followed for essential & critical loads of health care facilities?


Answer

As per NEC - Article 517; Essential electrical systems for hospitals shall be comprised of two separate systems capable of
supplying a limited amount of lighting and power service, which is considered essential for life safety and effective hospital
operation during the time the normal electrical service is interrupted for any reason. These two systems shall be:

Emergency Systems
The emergency system shall be limited to circuits essential to life safety and critical patient care. These are
designated the life safety branch and the critical branch.

Equipment System
The equipment system shall supply major electrical equipment necessary for patient care and basic hospital
operation.
The number of transfer switches to be used shall be based on reliability, design, and load considerations. Each branch of the
emergency system and each equipment system shall have one or more transfer switches.
One transfer switch shall be permitted to serve one or more branches or systems in a facility with a maximum demand on
the essential electrical system of 150 kVA.

196. What are the applications of using Busbar Trunking (Bus Duct) System?
301B

Answer

Busbar trunking systems are used to advantage wherever higher currents need to be transmitted. They can be used as
transmission lines between transformers and main switch boxes or as a connection between main switch boxes and
subsidiary switch boxes of heavy consumers. They can also be used in factory buildings, electric power stations, power
plants, water treatment, airports, commercial installations, hospitals, office Buildings, sewage stations, clinics, food
processing industries etc., or as riser in multi-store high-rise buildings.
A typical application of heavy-duty busduct might be a vertical feeder in a high-rise building, connecting the basement
switchboard to the penthouse machine room.
The same building might also use heavy-duty plug-in busducts vertical risers with taps feeding individual floors.
Typical applications for light-duty plug-in busduct (70 to 100 A) could be any machine shop or workshop.

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197. What is Busbar Trunking (Bus Duct) System?


302B

Answer

The bus duct system is one of for effective and efficient supply of electricity borne of valuable resources. Copper or
aluminum is used for the conductor of bus duct that be insulated and enclosed completely for protection against mechanical
damage and dust accumulation.
The system comprises feeder bus dust, plug-in bus duct, flatwiseelbow and tee et al; therefore the system is a safe,
economic, beautiful, enduring system.
Busduct is a kind of wiring material provided with a small size and a large current capacity compared with power cables.
The busduct system consists of insulated flat conductors of aluminum or copper, which are closely arranged and
accommodated in a metal duct.
The system enables branching at arbitrary places on the conductor line using a class of connectors called plug-in-hole.
Busduct is specified by type, material, number of buses, current capacity, and voltage (e.g., aluminum feeder busduct, 4wire, 1000 A, 600 V, or copper plug-in busway, 100A, 3-wire, 600 V).
A wide variety of fittings and joints are available for all buswaysto permit easy installation. Designs are available for indoor
and outdoor application.

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198. What are the relations among transformers, main C.Bs and Bus Duct Ratings assuming
30B

that the system voltage is 380/220V?


Answer

Transformer
Pn
(kVA) at
380V
500
630
800
1000
1250
1600
2000
2500

Main C.B.

Ucc (%)

In (A)

Icc (kA)

Rating (A)

Rating (A)

4
4
5
5
5
6.25
6.25
6.25

722
9090
1155
1443
1804
2309
2887
3600

18
22.7
23.1
28.9
36.1
37
46.2
57.7

800
1250
1250
1600
2000
2500
3200
4000

1250
1250
1250
2500
2500
2500
3200
3600

Bus Duct
Phase Size (mm2) Thickness (mm) x
Width (mm)
5x120
5x120
5x120
5x250
5x250
5x250
5x400
5x500

Rated Breaking Capacity


(KA) - Peak Value
105
105
105
165
165
165
220
220

199. What are the different available standard ratings for Bus Duct?
304B

Answer

225

400

600

800

1000

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Standard Nominal Capacity ( Ampere ) for Bus Duct


1200
1250
1350
1600
2000
2500
3000

3200

3600

4000

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5000

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200. Which is better in power distribution AC system or DC system? Why?


305B

Answer

AC has at least three advantages over DC in a power distribution grid:

Large electrical generators happen to generate AC naturally, so conversion to DC would involve an extra step.

Transformers must have alternating current to operate, and we will see that the power distribution grid depends on
transformers.

It is easy to convert AC to DC but expensive to convert DC to AC, so if you were going to pick one or the other AC
would be the better choice.

201. Which is the Cable Bus? What are the applications of using it? What are the advantages &
306B

disadvantages of using it? What are the type of conductors & configurations used? Compare
between ampacities using Cable Bus & other normal cables.
Answer

Cable Bus:

Cablebus is similar to ventilated busduct except that it uses insulated cables instead of bus-bars. The cables are
rigidly mounted in an open space-frame. The advantage of this construction is that it carries the ampacity rating of
its cables in free air,which is much higher than the conduit rating, thus giving a high amperes per-dollar first-cost
figure.

Cable Bus utilizes fully-rated power cables instead of the more traditional bus bars to carry current. The cables are
housed in a ventilated metal enclosure (normally aluminum) to provide a completely protected bus system.

Cable Bus is a system for distributing power from one electrical apparatus to another using insulated power cables
inside of a protective metal housing.

Cable Bus is designed to carry large amounts of electrical power for use within power generation and industrial
plants for service entrance, main feeders, distribution applications and for retrofits for existing power systems.

Cable Bus is a competitive alternative to conventional non-segregated phase bar bus, cable tray with armored cable
and conduit & wire systems. This is due to Cable Bus having lower cost, higher reliability, greater flexibility, easier
installation and longer life expectancy. This makes Cable Bus the obvious choice for your power distribution needs.

Bus systems have an ampacity range from 400A to 6000A and voltage ratings of 600V, 5kV, 15kV, 25kV and
35kV.

Each system is custom designed and manufactured to meet your specific job requirements.

Cable Bus systems use a compact metal housing that is 50% ventilated taking full advantage of the free air rating of
the cables. This allows using fewer conductors, saving you installation time and money.

Cables are held securely using Cable Support blocks that are held in place in the housing using our Short Circuit
Brace. The combination of these two elements, the Cable Support Blocks and the Short Circuit Brace, allow the
Cable Bus systems to withstand short circuit forces of up to 100KA RMS symmetrical, keeping personnel safe in
case a fault occurs.

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Cable Bus Applications:

Typical applications include connections between transformers and switchgear, tie connections between two
switchgears, between motor control centers and large motors and generator to generator breakers or generator stepup transformers.
Also, Plant Distribution, Primary & Secondary Feeders, Industrial Plants, Convention Centers, Hospitals, Airports,
Shopping Malls, Sports Complexes (Indoors or Outdoors).

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Advantages of Cable Bus:

Lowest cost:

Reliability:

For over five decades Cable Bus systems have proven to be the most reliable systems for almost 50
years in power generation, mining, petrochemical, paper, heavy industrial and commercial industries
ranging from heavy pollution areas and hazardous environments to humid tropical, freezing arctic and
blazing desert conditions. With long life expectancy, durability, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year
maintenance free operation, Cable Bus systems are installed in areas where downtime is NOT an
option.

Totally insulated conductors reduce shock hazard.


Ventilated enclosure guards against entry of foreign objects and protects cables from physical damage.
Designed to safely handle high short circuit currents.
Aluminum enclosure and high pressure splice joints provide excellent ground continuity. No additional
ground wire required for most systems.

Safe:

Ease of Installation:

Standard enclosure is manufactured from a structural grade aluminum alloy which has excellent
corrosion resistance and is far superior to painted steel products in industrial and outdoor environments.
The aluminum enclosure also reduces electrical losses compared to steel enclosures.

Flexibility:

Cable Bus systems can be designed for up to 20 foot support spans thereby reducing support costs and
installation labor.

Enclosure:

Cable Bus Systems are easy to install compared to other systems. No heavy lifting equipment or special
tools are required. Housing sections can be easily lifted into place by two men. Every job is engineered
and designed to fit the specific application with all Cable Bus sections, elbows and accessories factory
precut to fit your project needs. Long vertical sections are easily installed using our Short Circuit Brace
which allows the Cable Support Blocks to be installed without any fasteners until all the cables have
been pulled into place. Interleaving or crossing of conductors within the Cable Bus housing is not
required with our system.

Long Span:

Cable Bus systems have proven to be the most cost effective available way to distribute electricity with
material and installation costs savings of up to 40% in comparison to conventional non-segregated
phase bar bus, cable tray & armored cable or conduit and wire systems, making Cable Bus the obvious
choice.

System is very adaptable in joining or connecting to other equipment or other systems.


Bus can be easily routed around obstructions or equipment.
High salvage value. System can be dismantled and reused or rerouted.

Disadvantages of Cable Bus:

Bulkiness:

Its principal disadvantage is bulkiness and difficulty in making tap-offs.

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Type of Conductors & Configuratuions:

Copper Conductor Systems

Aluminum Conductor Systems

Ampacity Comparison Chart:

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Engineering Informations for Cable Bus:

Cables

General:
The main consideration in any cable bus system is the proper selection of power conductors. MDF uses
only the highest quality cables, pre-tested and designed for use in cable bus systems for indoor or
outdoor environments.
Conductors may be copper or aluminum and are typically supplied with an insulation temperature
rating of 90o C.
Insulation:
Cross-linked Polyethylene XLPE. This is the most economical type of insulation. XLPE has
excellent resistance to most chemicals, and is very resistant to physical damage.
Ethylene-Propylene Rubber EPR. EPR is recommended for all systems rated above 2000 volts. This
insulation is superior to XLP in most all categories and results in a more reliable system, particularly in
outdoor and wet environments.
Shielding:
Shielding is recommended on all systems over 2400 volts. A grounded shield does several things for the
power cable:
Confines the dielectric field within the cable.
Provides a uniform stress distribution within the dielectric.
Protects the cable from induced potentials.
Limits radio interference.
Reduces shock hazard.
Provides a ground path for leakage and fault currents.

Voltage Drop & Power Loss


MDF Cable Bus Systems have low impedance characteristics, which reduce power consumption and
also minimize the system voltage drop. The actual voltage drop and power loss will of course depend
on the specific Cable Bus system.
The typical system will have a 2 to 3 volt (line to line) voltage drop per 100 foot, at rated current.
Computer analysis and printouts are supplied with each project detailing this information. If you have
specific questions regarding voltage drop or power loss, please consult the factory.

Parallel Conductors & System Balance


Cable Bus systems take advantage of the efficiency of using two or more conductors per phase in larger
rated systems. As cable sizes increase the ampacity per circular mil decreases. This is due primarily to
the skin effect or current distribution within the cable and the decrease in the heat radiating ability
per cross section area as the cable size increases.
The current density is highest at the outer surface of the cable. Two smaller cables will have more
surface area than one large cable of equal total conductor material and will, therefore, most often be
more efficient.
The efficiency of paralleling conductors is not without certain potential problems. When two or more
cables are paralleled per phase one might assume that the total current would automatically divide
equally between these paralleled conductors. This is definitely not automatic.
Due to inductive coupling between conductors, the total impedance of each conductor also depends on
the physical geometry of the system. The mutual coupling between conductors is dependent on the
spacing between conductors and the relationship of the phasing of each conductor in the system.
Current division between improperly balanced systems can be as high as a 30 to 70 percent split (in a
two conductor system)!
One poor solution commonly offered to this problem is to transpose the cables within the cable bus
system. Proper transposition techniques, however, would require five transpositions alone on a 2 cable
per phase system.
The proper solution to this problem is to engineer each system to produce balanced conductor
impedances through careful phasing and spacing arrangements of each conductor. Balance currents can
be obtained for most systems through symmetrical cable arrangements.

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Short Circuit Capacity

Cable Bus Systems must withstand the forces created by potential fault currents of power distribution
systems. Forces are created as unusually large currents are passed through the system during a fault
condition. The forces are a function of the current magnitude of each conductor as well as the distance
or spacing between conductors. Cables of opposite phases will be repelled while cables of like phases
will attracted. A simplified formula for forces between conductors is given below.
Force = K (C1 x C2)/D
Where

As in any electrical system, it is important that Cable Bus Systems be properly grounded per article 250
of the National Electric Code.
Cable Bus Systems have high pressure splice joints between bus sections. These joints eliminate the
need for bonding jumpers across bus sections.

Field Testing

Cable support blocks can be supplied in either our standard hard maple wood block or am optional
fiberglass block.
Wooden support blocks are manufactured using a high grade maple and treated with a quality wood
preservative for long life. The blocks are also primed and painted with a fire retardant paint.
Fiberglass blocks are manufactured from NEMA GPO-3 grade material which is flame resistant as well
as arc and track resistant.

Grounding

Cable Bus systems have been designed to withstand these forces. Conductor support blocks firmly hold
cables in place within the cable bus enclosure. Blocks are spaced between 12 and 36 inches on centers
depending on the required short circuit rating of the system (All vertical cable bus risers have support
blocks spaced no greater than 18 inches on centers). The cable support blocks are completely framed
and solidly secured to the enclosure to maximize the strength and capabilities of the system to
withstand these forces.

Cable Support Blocks

K = constant
C1 = Current cable 1
C2 = Current cable 2
D = distance between conductors

It is mandatory to conduct insulation testing for every Cable Bus System prior to energizing. The
cables should be completely installed, secured and terminated (but not yet connected to other
equipment). The bus covers should also be in place.
600 Volt systems can be meggered to proof test the insulation. Higher voltage systems must be tested
using DC high potential testing per IEEE 400, or other suitable standard.

Connectors & Terminations

Compression type cable connectors are supplied as standard. Termination kits are supplied for 5KV
and 15KV systems. Heat shrink or cold shrink kits are also available.

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202. What are the different batteries types - technologies? State the difference?
307B

Answer

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203. Consider a pillar with a 3 phase load 200A. The cable length feeding the pillar from a
308B

transformer is 140 meters. This cable is laid directly in ground and is grouped with
another 5 cables in the same trench. Which size of cable below you prefer to use in order
not to exceed 2% voltage drop, p.f = 0.8 & why?
Multi-core Cable

CU/SWA-XLPE/PVC (0.6/1) kV

1 x (4 x 300 mm2).
2 x (4 x 120 mm2).
Where; Group De-rating Factor (Spacing = 150mm) for 6 cables direct laid in ground is
0.68. Temperature De-rating Factor (@ 40 Degree) 0.95. Depth De-rating Factor (up to
0.6m) 0.96.
Cable Size
(mm2)

Resistance R
(Ohm/Km)

Reactance XL
(Ohm/Km)

Current Capacity Direct


Laid in Ground (A)

Unit Price
(S.R/Km)

Overall Diameter
(mm)

4 x 120

0.197

0.0948

310

188000

48.4

4 x 300

0.0812

0.0935

494

415000

69.7

Answer

Pillar Cable Ampacity @ 125% = 200 x 1.25 = 250 A


For 1 x ( 4 x 300 mm2 ):
Cable De-rated Ampacity = 494 x 0.68 x 0.95 x 0.96 = 306.4 A
%V.D. = {3 x 250 x 140 / 380} x {[(0.0812/1000) x 0.8] + [(0.0965/1000) x 0.6]} x {100} = 1.93%
C.B. Size = 300 A
Cost = 140 x (415000/1000) = 58,100 S.R.
Overall Diameter = 69.7 mm

250 A (OK).
2 % (OK).
306.4 A (OK).

For 2 x ( 4 x 120 mm2 ):


Cable De-rated Ampacity = (310 x 2) x (0.68 x 0.95 x 0.96) = 384.5 A
250 A (OK).
%V.D. = {3 x (250/2) x 140 / 380} x {[(0.197/1000) x 0.8] + [(0.0948/1000) x 0.6]} x {100} = 1.71% 2 % (OK).
C.B. Size = 300 A
384.5 A (OK).
Cost = (140 x 2) x (188000/1000) = 52,280 S.R.
Overall Diameter = 2 x 48.4 = 96.8 mm
Comparison:
Cable Options (mm2)
1 x ( 4 x 300 mm2)
2 x ( 4 x 120 mm2)

Voltage Drop
(%)
1.93 (Worst)
1.71 (Better)

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Cable De-rated
Ampacity (A)
306.4 (Worst)
384.5 (Better)

Cost (S.R)
58,100 (Worst)
52,800 (Better)

Overall Diameter
(mm)
69.7 (Better)
96.8 (Worst)

Total
Evaluation
Worst
Better

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204. What are the expected room sizes (dimensions) for standby generators with these sizes:
309B

80, 100, 125, 175, 200, 350, 400, 500, 600, 750, 900, 1000, 1500KW
310B

Answer

Generator Size
KW
KVA
80 - 100
100 - 125
125 175
160 - 220
200 350
250 - 440
400 500
500 625
600
750
750
940
900
1125
1000 - 1500
1250 - 1875

Generator Dimensions
Length (mm) Width (mm) Height (mm)
2420
840
1230
2600
890
1410
3610
1270
1630
4070
1530
1970
4310
1830
2280
4830
1830
2410
4830
1900
2510
5660
1900
2510

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Generator Room Size


Length (mm) Width (mm)
Height (mm)
5000
3500
3000
5250
3500
3000
6250
3750
3400
6750
4300
3750
7000
5250
4250
7500
5250
4250
7500
5250
4750
8500
5250
5750

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205. State some diversity factors of different purposes (ex: lighting, sockets, air conditioning ..
31B

etc) for different type of premises (ex: residential, offices, hotels... etc) according to
?Egyptian Code
Answer


)(

"


"

192

50
100
.
40 +



66
100
.
40+
.

100
.
50+

33+

20+

100

50+

33

20+

100

10
50+
10

100

50 +

75
100
.
40+
.
75+

.
100
80+

60+

100
10.
30+
10
5+
.

10 .
80+
.
60+

100

50 +

100

50+
.

100
100+
25+ .



90
100

75+

100
75+ .

100 .
80+
.
60+

100
80+
.
60+
.

.

100 .

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206. Can you estimate the demand load of a building using its type & its gross area according
312B

to Egyptian Code?
Answer

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15
(.. )

12
10 8
15
(.. )

2 1.5

4 2.5

12 - 6
10 - 6

15

100/...

12

10 - 8

207. Compare between LV & MV generators.


31B

Answer

Description
Maintenance

LV
More easy and More popular for
all technicians
Short Delivery
On shelf

MV
Few Technicians deal with
MV
Long delivery
Customer need to get the
recommended spare parts

Transformers
Losses

Using oil transformer 20% more


capacity will not affect the out put

No need to have transformer

Operations

Normal electrician

Specialized technician

Replacement

You can replace from stock units


in case of emergency
Easy installation
More reference

You need at least 9 Month


for MV
Special tools & Instructions
Few reference

Availability
Spare parts
availability for
alternator side

Installation
Reference

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Notes
For 10 Electricians you have only
one deal with MV
As LV Standard unit
The supplier sold 1 MV compare to
100 LV so it is difficult to have parts
availability For MV as it will
become slow moved items.
Regarding the transformer
Maintenance for oil cooled need only
added oil every 4:5Year
So it is more practical to have LV
Generator

MV need Certified team to install


We can show to you some good
references using LV+ Transformers
for prime power applications

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208. Calculate the grounding conductor size & the grounding resistance according to IEEE Std
314B

80-2000 of grid of length 80m width 40m, 12 rods with separation distance of 20m, rod
length is 3m, rod diameter is 20mm, soil resistivity is 450 .m, grounding conductor laid
0.8m below ground. Suppose that expected fault symmetrical current is 20KA in 1sec
duration. Where the grounding conductor is chosen to be 40% conductivity copper-clad steel
conductor
Answer

Selection of Grounding Conductor & Connection to an Electrode Method Based on IEEE Std 80-2000
Symmetrical currents
11.3.1.2 Formula simplification
Akmil = . K f = (20)10.451 = 209 kcmil
A = 120mm2

For 40% conductivity copper-clad steel conductor Kf =


10.45
Where
Akcmil
I
tc
Kf

is the area of conductor in kcmil


is the rms fault current in kA
is the current duration in s
is the constant from Table 2 for the
material at various values of Tm (fusing
temperature or limited conductor
temperature based on 11.3.3) and using
ambient temperature (Ta) of 40C

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Grounding Resistance Calculations Method Based on IEEE Std 80-2000


Schwarzs equations

Rg =
R1 =

R2 =

2
(4.91)(10.77) (3.49)2
R1 R 2
=
= .
(4.91) + (10.77) (2)(3.49)
R1 + R 2 2R m

2Lc
k1 . Lc
k2
ln +
a
Lc
A
(1.1)(240)
(2)(240)
450
ln
4.9
=
+
(3.14)(240)
0.102
3200
= .

4Lr
2k1 . Lr
2
nr 1
ln 1 +
b
2nr Lr
A

Rm =

(4)(3)
450
1
ln
0.02
(2)(3.14)(12)(3)
(
)
2
(2)(1.1)(3)
2
+
12 1 = .
3200
=

2Lc
k1 . Lc
k 2 + 1
ln +
Lr
Lc
A
(2)(240)
(1.1)(240)
450
ln
4.9 + 1
=
+
(3.14)(240)
3
3200
= .

Lc = 2(40) + 2(80) = 240 m


k1= 1.1, k2= 4.9 [see Figure 25(a) and (b) Curve]
A = (40) (80) = 3200 m2
Since; the buried conductor used is 120mm2 (i.e Diameter = 13mm)
0.013
(2)(0.8) = 0.102
= . 2 =
2
R1
R2
Rm

Lc
2a
a'
a'
h
A
k1, k2
Lr
2b
nr

ground resistance of grid conductors in


ground resistance of all ground rods in
mutual ground resistance between the group of grid conductors, R1, and group of ground rods, R2 in
is the soil resistivity in m
is the total length of all connected grid conductors in m
is the diameter of conductor in m
is . 2 for conductors buried at depth h in m, or
is a for conductor on earth surface in m
is conductors buried depth in m
is the area covered by conductors in m2
are the coefficients [see Figure 25(a) and (b)]
is the length of each rod in m
is the diameter of rod in m
number of rods placed in area A

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209. What are the IP references preferred for switchboard assemblies?


315B

Answer

210. What are the main aims of tunnel lighting? What is necessary to know about tunnel
316B

lighting? When to light tunnel by day? When to light tunnel by night? How to light tunnel
by day? What are the 5 zones of tunnel lighting? Which type of lamps to use? What are the
types of tunnel lighting systems? What is the short tunnel & underpass? How to illuminate
tunnels for different lengths in day time 25m, 75m and 125m? What are the tunnel
lighting arrangements and state advantages & disadvantages of each?
Answer

The aims of tunnel lighting are:


Firstly, to allow traffic to enter, pass through and exit the enclosed section safely
Secondly, to do so without impeding the through-flow of traffic.
Necessary to know about tunnel lighting:
For smooth traffic flow, in bright daylight and total darkness, and in all weather conditions, tunnel lighting should be such
that the drivers sense of safety and comfort is not diminished compared with the experience on the open approach road.
This means that drivers should have adequate visual information concerning the behaviour of other road users, the course
of the road ahead and the presence of any obstacles in the tunnel entrance, to be able to react in time within a safe
stopping distance (SSD). Guidelines for tunnel lighting according to CIE 88 can be found below and in the references.
When to light tunnel by day:
This depends on a number of factors including the length of the tunnel, visibility of the exit, penetration of daylight,
brightness of the walls, and traffic density. CIE recommends day-time light levels throughout the tunnel of 0 %, 50 % and
100 % of the normal threshold zone lighting levels for long tunnels. See
table below.
When to light tunnel by night:
During the night, CIE recommends a minimum light level equal to the
light level of the approach roads.
How to light tunnel by day:
Good tunnel lighting takes care of good visibility conditions for the road
users; this requires lighting levels that are matched with the adaptation
level of the users eyes. As this adaptation level gradually changes while
travelling through the tunnel for lighting purposes the tunnel can be
divided lengthwise into five zones: the access, threshold, transition,
interior and exit zone. (fig. 1)
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The 5 zones of tunnel lighting:

CIE guidance (CIE 88-1990) states that the amount of light required within a tunnel is dependent on the level of light
outside and on the point inside the tunnel at which visual adaptation of the user must occur. When planning the lighting of
a tunnel, there are 5 key areas to consider:
1) Access zone
The access zone is not a part of the tunnel itself, but the approach road immediately before the tunnel entrance, from
where drivers need to be able to see and stop in front of obstacles in the tunnel. The length of the access zone is
consequently equal to the safe stopping distance (SSD). The maximum light adaptation condition of the drivers vision in
this zone, determines the luminance in the threshold zone at the beginning of the tunnel.
CIE defines the adaptation state as L20, the average luminance in a conical field of view of 2 x 10 centred in the tunnel
opening at the safe stopping distance from the entrance. L20 measurements and recordings for the access zone over a long
period are the most solid basis for the entrance lighting design (fig. 2).

2) Threshold zone
The required luminance level in the first section of the threshold zone, which length is equal to the safe stopping distance,
is related to the L20, the outside luminance level, the stopping distance and the applied optical system as shown in table
1. Daylight screens, louvres and other measures that reduce the L20 will proportionally reduce the amount of light and
energy needed in the first zones of the tunnel. In the second half of the threshold zone the luminance level is decreased
rapidly to 40 % of the initial level (see fig. 3 for a schematic representation).

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3) Transition zone
In the transition zone the lighting level is gradually reduced towards the level as required in the interior zone (fig. 3). The
reduction speed is related to the adaptation speed of the eyes and thus time dependent. The reduction steps should not
exceed a ratio of 3:1. as they are linked to the capacity of the human eye to adapt to the environment and, thus, time
related. The end of the transition zone is reached when the luminance is equal to 3 times the interior level.
4) Interior zone
In the interior zone, which is often the longest section of the tunnel, the required lighting levels are related to traffic speed
and traffic density as shown in the tables below.

5) Exit zone
The part of the tunnel between interior zone and portal.
In this zone, during the day time, the vision of a driver approaching the exit is influenced by brightness outside the tunnel.
The human eye can adapt itself almost instantly from low to high light levels, thus the processes mentioned when entering
the tunnel are not reversed. However, reinforced lighting may be required in some cases where contrast is needed in front
of or behind the driver when the exit is not visible, or when the exit acts as entrance in case of emergency or maintenance
works where part of a twin tunnel may be closed. there are other reasons for installing an increased lighting level in the
exit zone: (1) to make small cars following behind large lorries visible when the daylight at the exit is glaringly bright, (2)
to make following cars visible in the rear-view mirror of a car leaving the tunnel and (3) to convert the exit into an
entrance (at reduced speed) in case of an emergency or for maintenance.
The length is a maximum 50m and the light level 5 times the interior zone level.
Emergency lighting
Emergency lighting is normally part of the night-time lighting, but is fed from an uninterrupted power supply.

``

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Type of lamps to use:

The entrance of a tunnel needs high lighting levels of SON-T lamps. For other areas needing lower light levels, such as
the interior zone or at night, fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps can be used.
In general, luminaire photometry is conducted at 25 C, but the average operating temperature in a tunnel can be much
lower and therefore positively influence the efficacy.
Types of tunnel lighting systems:
Symmetrical and asymmetrical lighting
Used generally for transition and interior zones for long tunnels, and in short tunnels, or low speed tunnels for all zones.
Asymmetrical lighting can also be a means of reinforcing the luminance level in one way tunnels.
Asymmetric counter beam lighting
To reinforce the luminance level and at the same time accentuate the negative contrast of potential obstacles. Counter
beam lighting is achieved with symmetrical light distribution facing into the traffic flow, both in the direction of the on
coming driver and in the run of the road. The beam stops sharply at the vertical plane passing through the luminaire. No
light is directed with the flow of traffic. This generates negative contrast and enhances visual adaptation.
Pro beam lighting
In some circumstances, positive contrast must be reinforced, often in the exit zone where the exit is visible. In these cases,
asymmetric light distribution is used in the same way as counter beam but with direction of the traffic and is called pro
beam. In dual carriage way tunnels, counter beam at entrance can act as pro beam at exit. This technique is not
recommended as the road luminance is very low, creating too big a disparity between the exit zone and the parting zone.

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The short tunnel:


A short tunnel is a road or rail over bridge and underpass of more than 25 m, for motorized traffic including entrances to
multi-storey car parks, for example. The height may vary between 2.5 and 6 m or more and the width from 5 to 20 m. If
the tunnel is shorter than 25 m no additional tunnel lighting is required.
The underpass:
When the underpass is longer than 25 m a dark frame or a dark hole may appear around the bright exit. Here an obstacle
may completely be invisible for an approaching driver at a distance equal to the Safe Stopping Distance (SSD).
Day time lighting of tunnels for different lengths:
(CIE-Guide for the lighting of tunnels and underpasses)
When lighting a tunnel, its length, geometry and immediate environment must be taken into account as well as traffic
densities. Differing light levels are set for each project, according to the governing standards summarized below:

Typical tunnel lighting arrangements:

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211. Select the required automatic capacitor bank for a transformer rating: 1600 kVA, Voltage:
317B

13.8/0.38 kV, Connected Load: 1516 kVA = 1289 KW, Assumed PF/ Target PF: 0.85 / 0.95?
What are the minimum & maximum harmonic orders for this capacitor bank?
Answer

Txfmr Rating:
1600 kVA
Voltage:
13.8/0.38 kV
Impedance:
5%
Connected Load:
1516 kVA = 1289 kW
Assumed PF/ Target PF:
0.85 / 0.95
Formula for Calculating kVAR:
kW ( tan 1 - tan 2 )
1: Existing PF & 2 : Target PF
Calculated kVAR Required:
375 kVAR
Adopted kVAR Required:
400 kVAR
Steps of Capacitor Bank:
2 X 50 + 3 X 100
Minimum Cap Bank Step:
50 kVAR
Maximum Cap Bank Step:
400 kVAR
Resonance Frequency Formula:
( kVA / ( kVAR X Impedance) )
Minimum Harmonic Order:
8.9
Maximum Harmonic Order:
25.3
% of Non-linear Load assumed:
20
Type of Capacitor Bank:
VARSET Comfort ( Overrated Type )
Feeder CB rating of LV Panel:
1000 Amps
Assumptions Made:

Harmonics Creating Loads is around or less than 20 % of the total connected load.

Impedance of Transformer: 5%
Verification :

Possible Harmonic Orders in the system will not interfere with the calculated min and max harmonic orders.
Solution Conclusion :

400 kVAR Automatic Capacitor Bank, 380 Volts, 60 Hz, Steps Size ( 2 X 50 ) + ( 3 X 100 ) kVAR
LV Standard Automatic Capacitor Banks
AV500 series 3 / 60Hz
AV500 series 3 / 60Hz
AV400 series 3 / 60Hz
KVAR
KVAR
KVAR
Steps
Steps
Steps
Rating
Rating
Rating
(Qty x
(Qty x
@ 240 V
@ 480 V
(Qty x KVAR)
@ 480 V
KVAR)
KVAR)
2 x 25
2 x 25
2 x 25
50
50
50
3 x 25
1 x25, 1 x50
1 x25, 1 x50
75
75
75
4 x 25
2 x25, 1 x50
2 x25, 1 x50
100
100
100
5 x 25
1 x25, 2 x50
1 x25, 2 x50
125
125
125
6 x 25
3 x 50
2 x25, 2 x50
150
150
150
1 x25, 3 x50
1 x25, 3 x50
1 x25, 3 x50
175
175
175
2 x25, 3 x50
4 x 50
4 x 50
200
200
200
1 x25, 4 x50
1 x25, 4 x50
225
225
5 x 25
5 x 50
250
250
1 x25, 5 x50
1 x25, 5 x50
275
275
6 x 50
6 x 50
300
300
1 x50,3 x100
350
2 x50,3 x100
400
1 x50,4 x100
450
2 x50,4 x100
500
1 x50,5 x100
550
6 x 100
600
The table refers to Digest - Squared (Schneider Electric)
The AV400 and AV500 are suitable for use where harmonic generating loads are less than 15% of the
total connected load.

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212. What is harmonics? What is the problem of harmonics? What is k- factor? How to calculate
318B

K-Factor? What is K-Factor of a transformer? Why we calculate K-Factor of a transformer?


What are the advantages of calculating the K-Factor of a transformer? What are the
disadvantages of using the derated standard transformers instead of K-Factor? What should
be remembered when using a K-Factor Transformer? How K-Factor Transformer could be
calculated?
Answer

The Problem of harmonics

In today's industrial workplace, the proliferation of solid state devices (lighting ballasts, motor drives and controls,
communications equipment, and other DC-powered loads) has created a major problem for specifying engineers,
contractors and building owners. The non-linear nature of their switched-mode power supplies generate harmonic
currents that cause transformers and system neutrals to overheat and destroy themselves.
The extensive utilization of solid state power conversion technologies has created new problems for the power
industry and power engineer designer. This technology, called Switch Mode Power Systems (SMPS), consists of
various types of solid state switching elements. These switching elements are solid state devices such as: SCR's,
DIAC's, transistors and capacitors. These switching devices are in computers, copy machines, fax machines,
telecommunications equipment, solid-state drives and controls, energy-efficient lighting ballasts, and numerous
types of DC-Power Loads. These solid state elements continuously switch on and off producing non-linear or nonsinusoidal wave shapes in the current supplied from the energy source.
While a linear load uses current from the AC source continuously over the sinusoidal cycle, a non-linear load (such
as the SMPS) uses current in large pulses from the AC source which creates harmonic distortion. These non-linear
current pulses may exceed the nameplate ampere rating of the power source and may cause transformers to run
hotter than expected, even when these transformers are supplying less than 50% of their rated nameplate capacity.
With non-linear loads, overloaded neutrals are also showing up in three-phase panel boards serving single-phase
loads. In some cases the neutral conductor carries 180 Hertz currents, rather than 60 Hertz currents. This
phenomenon is called triplen harmonics. Triplens are multiples of three, which do not cancel but are additive in the
neutral conductor.

Harmonics

As defined by ANSI/IEEE Std. 519-1981; Harmonic components are represented by a periodic wave having a
frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.
In other words, harmonics are voltages or currents at frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental (60
Hz) frequency, e.g. 120 Hz, 180 Hz, 240 Hz, 300 Hz, etc. Harmonics are designated by their harmonic number, or
multiple of the fundamental frequency. Thus, a harmonic with a frequency of 180 Hz (three times the 60 Hz
fundamental frequency) is called the 3rd harmonic.
Harmonics superimpose themselves on the fundamental waveform, distorting it and changing its magnitude. For
instance, when a sine wave voltage source is applied to a non-linear load connected from phase-to-neutral on a 3phase, 4-wire wye circuit.
Triplen harmonic currents are phase currents which flow from each of the phases into the fourth wire neutral and
have frequencies in integer multiples of three times the 60 hertz base frequency (180Hz, 360Hz, 540Hz, etc). At
each of these third multiple triplen frequencies, these triplen phase currents are in phase with each other and when
flowing in the neutral as zero sequence currents, are equal to three times their RMS phase values. See Figure 2.
In a 3-phase, 4-wire system, single-phase line-to-neutral currents flow in each phase conductor and return in the
common neutral. Since the three 60 hertz currents are separated by 120, when balanced they cancel each other.
The measured resultant current is equal to zero. See Figure 2
Theory also states that for even harmonics, starting with the second order, when balanced the even harmonic will
cancel in the common neutral.
Other odd harmonics add in the common neutral, but their magnitude is considerably less than triplens. The RMS
value of the total current is the square root of the RMS value of the individual currents squared. As shown in
Equation 2.

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At any given instant, the 60 Hertz currents on the three-phase legs have a vector resultant of zero and cancel in the
neutral. But, the third (and other odd triplen harmonics) on the phase legs are in phase and become additive in the
neutral.

Kfactor & its ratings

K-Factor is a weighting of the harmonic load currents according to their effects on transformer heating, as derived
from ANSI/IEEE C57.110. A K-Factor of 1.0 indicates a linear load (no harmonics). The higher the K-Factor, the
greater the harmonic heating effects.

When a non-linear load is supplied from a transformer, it is sometimes necessary to derate the transformer capacity
to avoid overheating and subsequent insulation failure. The reason for this is that the increased eddy currents
caused by the harmonics increase transformer losses and thus generate additional heat. Also, the RMS load current
could be much higher than the kVA rating of the load would indicate. Hence, a transformer rated for the expected
load will have insufficient capacity.

The K-Factor is used by transformer manufacturers and their customers to adjust the load rating as a function of the
harmonic currents caused by the load(s).

Generally, only substation transformer manufacturers specify K-Factor load de-rating for their products. So, for KFactors higher than 1, the maximum transformer load is de-rated.

Some manufacturers, who produce both transformers and products like motors or ballasts, are sensitive to
measuring K-Factor since they know that poor K-Factors of ballasts and motors will de-rate the maximum load
their transformers can carry. From the customers viewpoint, K-Factor must be established in order to calculate the
size of the transformer that is needed. In other words, if a company with many offices were to install poor quality
electronic ballasts having a poor K-Factor, a larger transformer would be needed than is apparent from the overall
power consumption calculation.

The K-Factor rating assigned to a transformer and marked on the transformer case in accordance with the listing of
Underwriters Laboratories, is an index of the transformer's ability to supply harmonic content in its load current
while remaining within its operating temperature limits. A specific K-Factor rating indicates that a transformer can
supply its rated KVA load output to a load of specified amount of harmonic content. At present, industry literature
and commentary refers to a limited number of K-Factor ratings: K-1, K-4, K-9, K-13, K-20, K-30, and K-40. In
theory, a transformer could be designed for other K-Factor ratings in-between those values, as well as for higher
values.
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The commonly referenced ratings calculated according to ANSI/IEEE C57.110-1986 are as follows:

K-1: This is the rating of any conventional transformer that has been designed to handle only the heating
effects of eddy currents and other losses resulting from 60 Hertz, sine-wave current loading on the
transformer. Such a unit may or may not be designed to handle the increased heating of harmonics in its
load current.
K-4: A transformer with this rating has been designed to supply rated KVA, without overheating, to a load
made-up of 100% of the normal 60 Hertz, sine-wave, fundamental current plus: 16% of the fundamental as
3rd harmonic current; 10% of the fundamental as 5th; 7% of the fundamental as 7th; 5.5% of the
fundamental as 9th; and smaller percentages through the 25th harmonic. The "4" indicates its ability to
accommodate four times the eddy current losses of a K-1 transformer.
K-9: A K-9 transformer can accommodate 163% of the harmonic loading of a K-4 rated transformer.
K-13: A K-13 transformer can accommodate 200% of the harmonic loading of a K-4 rated transformer.
K-20, K-30, K-40: The higher number of each of these K-Factor ratings indicates ability to handle
successively larger amounts of harmonic load content without overheating.

Table 1 Gives example of K-Factor loads

K-Factor Calculation

The K-Factor is a number derived from a numerical calculation based on the summation of harmonic currents
generated by the non-linear load. The higher the K-Factor, the more significant the harmonic current content.
The algorithm used to compute K-Factor is:

Details of the calculation method can be found in IEEE Standard 1100-1992.

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One problem associated with calculating K-Factor is selecting the range of harmonic frequencies that should be
included. Some use up to the 15th harmonic, others the 25th harmonic, and still others include up to the 50th
harmonic. For the same load, each of these calculations can yield significantly different K-Factors because even
very small current levels associated with the higher harmonics, when multiplied by the harmonic number squared
(e.g., 502 = 2500), can add significantly to the K-Factor. Based on the underlying assumptions of C57.110, it seems
reasonable to limit the K-Factor calculation to harmonic currents less than the 25th harmonic. Sample calculations
are shown in Figure 2.

K-Factor Transformers

Underwriters laboratory (UL) recognized the potential safety hazards associated with using standard transformers
with nonlinear loads and developed a rating system to indicate the capability of a transformer to handle harmonic
loads. The ratings are described in UL1561 and are known as transformer K-Factors.
K-Factor transformers are designed to reduce the heating effects of harmonic currents created by loads like those in
the table.1 above. The K-Factor rating is an index of the transformer's ability to withstand harmonic content while
operating within the temperature limits of its insulating system.
In establishing standard transformer K-Factor ratings, UL chose ratings of 1, 4, 9, 13, 20, 30, 40, and 50. From a
practical viewpoint, individual loads with K-Factors greater than 20 are infrequent at best. Office areas with some
nonlinear loads and large computer rooms normally have observed K-Factors of 4 to 9. Areas with high
concentrations of single-phase computers and terminals have observed K-Factors of 13 to 17.
When multiple nonlinear loads are powered from the same source, lower total harmonic current levels may be
expected due to phase-shifts and cancellations. In one study of commercial buildings, (6) single phase loads with
current distortions of 104% THD (total harmonic distortion) resulted in only a 7% THD at the service entrance
when added with other loads in the building. Additional studies of typical loads are beginning to provide
information which should aid in the development of additional rules-of-thumb to use when direct load
measurements are not available.
K-Factor transformers are designed to be operated fully loaded with any harmonic load having a K-Factor equal to
or less than its K-Rating. For example, a K-13 transformer can be fully loaded with any harmonic load having a KFactor up to K-13. If the load has a K-Factor greater than 13, then the transformer cannot be safely operated at full
load and would require derating.

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Advantages of calculating the K-Factor of transformers

K-Factor transformers differ from standard transformers. They have additional thermal capacity to tolerate the
heating effects of the harmonic currents. Beyond that, well-designed K-Factor transformers will also minimize the
winding eddy current losses through the use of parallel conductors and other winding techniques. The K-Factor
indicates the multiple of the 60 Hz winding eddy current losses that the transformer can safely dissipate:
Transformer load losses consist of winding I2R losses plus stray losses. Using UL1561 test methods, stray losses
are assumed to be primarily winding eddy current losses for transformers 300 kVA and smaller. For example, a
transformer having winding I2R losses of 2000 watts and 60 Hz stray losses of 100 watts would, with a K-20
rating, be required to dissipate the 2000 watts of I2R losses plus 20 times the 60 Hz stray losses of 100 watts for a
total load loss of 4000 watts without exceeding the maximum winding temperature rise. The result is a larger, more
expensive transformer. For K-Factor transformers, UL also requires that the neutral terminal and connections be
sized to accommodate twice the rated phase conductor size (double the minimum neutral capacity) of standard
transformers.
Standard transformers, i.e., those not marked with a K-Factor rating, may have some tolerance to nonlinear loading,
but their capability is unknown to the user and is not certified by a third party such as UL. Currently, marking a
transformer with a K-Factor rating is not required by UL. Due to a conservative design or application, some
unmarked transformers may therefore have enough extra thermal capacity to tolerate additional harmonic load
heating. This is particularly true for 80C or 115C rise transformers built with 220C insulation materials which
can safely withstand a 150C winding temperature rise.
Additional overcurrent protection should be considered for all transformers supplying nonlinear loads. The National
Electrical Code allows primary-only overcurrent protection at 125% of the transformer's primary full load amps.
With three-phase transformers, the triplen harmonics are cancelled in the delta winding and do not appear in the
input current. The output current and transformer loading is greater than is apparent from the input current.
Therefore, the transformer can be overloaded without the primary overcurrent protection ever tripping. Adding
transformer secondary overcurrent protection helps, but it still does not protect the transformer from the heating
effects of harmonic currents. The use of supplemental protection in the form of winding temperature sensors can be
used to provide alarm and/or system shutdown in the event of overload, excessive harmonic current, high ambient
temperature, or inadequate cooling.
Because transformers are the power system component most affected by nonlinear loads, they were the first to
receive a harmonics capability rating system. K-Factor ratings are based on the heating effects of harmonics and are
not necessarily applicable to other power system components. If harmonic rating systems for other components are
needed, they will have to be developed by other methods, e.g., THD, crest factor, or some new and componentspecific weighting of harmonic currents.

The strategy is to calculate the K-Factor for your load and then specify a transformer with a K-Factor of an equal or
higher value. In this way, the transformer can be sized to the load without derating.
The advantage of using a K-Factor transformer is that it is usually more economical than using a derated, oversized
transformer.

Disadvantages of using derated standard transformers instead of K-Factor transformers

First is the issue of managing the derating when the transformer nameplate indicates greater capacity. Initially, the
transformer may be operated at the reduced loading, but in the future, the loading may be increased without
considering the intended derating.
Second, if smaller overcurrent protection is used to intentionally limit the loading, nuisance tripping may occur due
to the transformer inrush current. Larger overcurrent protection may be required for the oversized (derated)
standard transformer resulting in larger conductor requirements with the associated higher feeder costs.
Third, transformers designed specifically for nonlinear loads minimize losses due to the harmonic currents. They
operate with the nonlinear loads more efficiently and generate less heat that needs to be dissipated.

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What should be remembered when using a K-Factor Transformer


Harmonic loads do cause premature failure when standard transformers are used.
Average reading RMS meters do not measure harmonic currents. True reading RMS meters should be used.
Insist on a K-Factor transformer that has been 3rd party tested. Accept no verbal claims. The proof must be
on the label.

Estimating & Calculating K-Factor Loads

For the most part, each designer or installer must make his/her own decision regarding what K-Factor to assign to
any load or load category. The following table is intended to assist in that determination by presenting what we
believe are realistic, yet conservative, K-Factors for a number of loads and load categories based on their relative
harmonic producing capabilities.
List the KVA value for each load category to be supplied. Next, assign an ILK value that corresponds to the
relative level of harmonics drawn by each type of load. See Table 2.
Multiply the KVA of each load times the ILK rating that corresponds to the assigned K-Factor rating. This
result is an indexed KVA-ILK value: KVA x ILK=KVA -ILK
Tabulate the total connected load KVA for all load categories to be supplied.
Next, add-up the KVA-ILK values for all loads or load categories to be supplied by the transformer.
Divide the grand total KVA-ILK value by the total KVA load to be supplied. - This will give an average ILK
for that combination of loads. - (Total KVA-ILK) + (Total KVA) = average ILK
From Table 3, find the K-Factor rating whose ILK is equal to or greater than the calculated ILK.
Corresponding to this ILK is the K-Factor of the transformer required.

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213. Consider transformer 1600 KVA feeding an office building with total lighting load 201 KVA,
319B

total power load 483 KVA, total HVAC load (AHUS) 386 KVA and total EWH load 54 KVA.
Select the k-factor required for this transformer.
Answer

Item

Load description

KVA

Ilk-factor (from table 2)

Ilk-KVA value

Lighting

201

25.82

5183.82

Power

483

123.54

59669.82

A.H.U

386

0.00

0.00

E.W.H

54

0.00

0.00

Total

Average ILK = 64853.64 / 1124 = 57.69

From table 3
K13 transformer can be used.

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1124

64853.64

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214. What is difference between prime generator & standby generator?
320B

Answer

Standby:
Applicable for supplying continuous electrical power (at variable load) in the event of a utility power failure. The
alternators are peak rated (as defined in ISO8528-3).
Prime:
These ratings are applicable for supplying continuous electrical power (at variable load) in lieu of commercially
purchased power. There is no limitation to the annual hours of operation and these models can supply 10 percent
overload power for 1 hour in 12 hours.

215. What is difference between metal-enclosed switchgear & metal-clad switchgear?


321B

Answer

Metal-Clad vs. Metal- Enclosed

You will frequently hear the expression medium voltage Metal-Clad switchgear. This means that the structures
(and compartments within each structure) are physically separated from each other by grounded metal barriers. The
phrase metal-clad might not be said every time when talking about medium voltage switchgear assemblies, but it
is assumed. This feature separates medium voltage switchgear assembly from other types of assemblies, such as a
Metal-Enclosed assembly. A metal enclosed assembly (often associated with low voltage equipment) encloses the
equipment in separate metal vertical structures. However, compartments are not separated from one another with
metal barriers.

Metal-Clad
Equipment in the assembly is enclosed, and separated by metal barriers into individual compartments.
Typically associated with medium voltage equipment.

Metal-Enclosed
Equipment in the assembly is enclosed, but not necessarily separated by barriers. Typically associated with
low voltage equipment.

As per IEC/BS EN 60298:

The general term metal-enclosed is used in BS EN 60298 for three different categories depending on the design
of the internal compartmentalization
Metal-clad switchgear has separate compartments for the main switching device and the two adjacent zones, i.e. in
general three compartments (for circuit-breaker, busbar system and cable terminal zone). The compartment walls
are metal and are earthed.
Compartmented switchgear has the same degree of bay subdivision as metal-clad switchgear, but the
compartment walls are of insulating material.
Cubicle switchgear is defined as all switchgear whose compartmentalization does not meet the requirements of the
two above categories (e.g. only two compartments), but this also includes all switchgear that does not have internal
compartmentalization.
The decision on which of these installation categories is to be used in any specific case is up to the user, with most
attention paid to safety of personnel during maintenance and cable work inside the switchbay. Restricting the
effects of faults is important only when the resistance of the compartment walls to arcing has been verified and
when the compartmentalization forms a true potential separation.

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Advantages of metal-enclosed over metal-clad

Lower initial cost per cubical (metal-enclosed = 1/3 metal-clad).


Better protection for cables and transformers.
Significantly lower let-thru currents (mechanical energy).
Significantly lower let-thru IT (thermal energy) - (breakers take 5 cycles from relay sensing to circuit interruption.
Power fuses require no more than 1 cycle for circuit interruption).
Lower installation cost (simple field assembly).
No auxiliary. Power or VTs (voltage transformers) are needed.
No maintenance required for fuses.
No possibility of reclosing on a fault with fuses.
Single-phase protection: shunt trip of three-phase switch in feeder cubical when a fuse operates.

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216. What do you know about metal-enclosed switchgear, metal-clad switchgear and arc resistant
32B

switch gear?
Answer

Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Power Systems

Metal-enclosed switchgear power systems are commonly used in low voltage applications.
Metal-Enclosed Indoor Switchgear Power Systems: This type of switchgear power system is enclosed on all sides,
including the top, with sheet metal. Ventilating opening and inspections windows, however, are not covered. The
enclosure contains the power switching or interrupting devices with buses and connections, controls,
instrumentation, metering, and other auxiliary devices. Doors and/or removable covers provide access to the
interior of the enclosure.
Outdoor Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Power Systems: This type of enclosure is similar to an indoor switchgear
power system except that it is waterproof. A walk-in outdoor enclosed switchgear assembly with an aisle in front of
the circuit breaker and instrument sections to protect workers and equipment from weather during maintenance and
system operation is often available.

Metal-Clad Switchgear Power Systems


Metal-clad switchgear power systems are most commonly used in medium voltage applications. Metal-clad
switchgear power systems differ from metal-enclosed in the following ways:

The main switching and interrupting device is out of the removable type arranged with a mechanism for moving it
physically between connected and disconnected positions. It is also equipped with self-aligning and self-coupling
primary disconnecting devices and control wiring connections capable of being disconnected.
Major parts of the primary circuit (i.e. circuit switching, interrupting devices, etc.) are completely enclosed by
grounded metal barriers that have no intentional openings between compartments.
All live parts are enclosed within grounded metal compartments.
Automatic shutters cover primary circuit elements when the removable element is in the disconnected, test, or
removed position.
Primary bus conductors and connections are covered with insulating material throughout.
Mechanical or electrical interlocks are provided for proper operating sequence under normal operating conditions.
The door through which the circuit-interrupting device is inserted into the housing may serve as an instrument or
relay panel and may also provide access to a secondary or control compartment within the housing.

Arc Resistant Switchgear Power Systems


Conventional medium voltage metal-clad switchgear is not designed to withstand high arc energy faults. Arc
resistant switchgear power systems are designed to provide protection against internal arcing faults. The following
are safety benefits can be gained by using arc resistant switchgear power systems:

Each compartment door and barrier plate is designed to withstand pressure surges due to internal arcing.
Hot gases and molten particles escape through a specially designed pressure relieve vent located on the roof of the
enclosure away from the operating personnel.
Closed door racking of circuit breaker provides added safety.
Viewing windows allow personnel to observe the status of the circuit breaker without opening the door.
The low voltage compartment is completely segregated to avoid pressure buildup.
Arc resistant switchgear power system design should contain the faulty compartment, reducing down time

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217. Compare between Static Transfer Switches (STS) and Automatic Transfer Switches (ATS).
32B

Answer

Transfer switches are used in power electronics to provide controlled transfers between two power supplies. In this
note, we will always refer to devices that are able to perform switching, both with synchronous and asynchronous
supply sources, with a Break Before Make (BBM) operation. This last feature is particularly fundamental in order
to avoid a paralleling of the two supplies and to avoid that the neutrals get cross-coupled. The break introduced
with BBM has to be sufficiently small in order to avoid too long energy gap to the load.

The use of transfer switches is used to increase the system Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) through
redundancy of supplies and by separating the loads. This is done in two typical ways.

Two technologies for Transfer Switches: STS and ATS

In first place, the switch will perform a change on the source used for the supply of the load whenever the
original source is out of tolerance. Secondly, separating the different loads, it is possible to avoid that a
problem happening in one load will propagate also to the other loads.
This latter case takes place during a short circuit, hence the switch supplying this load will not permit a
transfer on the other source while all the other switches will change the supply source protecting their
loads.

There are two main technologies used for these devices with different characteristics in terms of switching quality
and cost each having its merits and deficiencies: Static Transfer Switches (STS) and Automatic Transfer Switches
(ATS).
STS is based on static electronic components (SCR) therefore allowing for a fast and precise control of the
switching between one line and the other. This solution permits to obtain a perfect (BBM) behaviour by never
permitting a source overlap. Moreover, it is also capable of very fast switching between the two sources with a max
delay of less than 5 msec (typically 4 msec).
ATS is based on electromechanical components where the (BBM) switching is actually made by controlling the
relays on each source line. This kind of technology can still make a perfect (BBM) change of supply sources both in
synchronous and asynchronous conditions but it is certainly slower than the static solution.

The right Transfer Switch for each load need

STS should be used in case of more critical loads where a longer voltage gap in the (BBM) procedure can be
deleterious.
ATS, on the other end, is still a reliable product that should be used to increase the overall reliability of an
installation. Indeed, is a product with a very high (MTBF) value. On the other side, due to its intrinsic lower
switching speed, should not be used where the loads are very sensible to longer voltage sags (in the order of 6
msec). Anyway, ATS is certainly a lot more cost effective product respect to an STS one of the same rating.

Break Before Make (BBM)


feature
Synchronous transfer between
sources
Asynchronous transfer
between sources
Value
Reliability
Prepared By: Mahmoud Essam Hezzah
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STS
Always guaranteed. In CROSS there is a
sensor for each SCR on and off state for a
true BBM.
Typical less than 4msec (max less than 5
msec)

ATS
Always guaranteed. Similar sensor as
per the CROSS but for the relays

0-20msec delay to be added to the above


delay

0-20msec delay to be added to the


above delay

Highest quality and higher value


Less Reliable

Good quality/price ratio


More Reliable

Typical less than 6 msec

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218. State the difference between the three types of ballasts Magnetic, Rapid start, HF ballasts.
324B

What is the recommended ballast for T12, T8, T5 & CFL?


Answer

Magnetic Ballasts:

Are used as a current limiting device. The Magnetic Ballast consists of a large number of windings of copper wire
on a laminated iron core. It modulates electrical current at a relatively low cycle rate, which can cause a noticeable
flicker. Magnetic ballasts may also vibrate at a low frequency. This is the source of the audible humming sound
people associate with fluorescent lamps.

Rapid Start Ballasts:

Start lamps quickly (0.5 1.0 seconds) without flicker by heating the lamp electrodes and simultaneously applying
a starting voltage. This starting voltage of about 500V for 32W systems is sufficient to start a discharge through the
lamps when the electrodes have reached an adequate temperature. Electrode heating continues during operation
typically consumes two watts per lamp. Lamps operated by Rapid Start ballasts typically operate 15000 to 20000
switch cycles before failure.

Programmed Start Electronic Ballasts:

Also start lamps quickly (1.0 1.5 seconds) without flicker. Programmed Start ballasts are designed to provide
maximum lamp life in frequent lamp starting applications such as areas where occupancy sensors controls are used.
Programmed Start Electronics Ballasts precisely heat the lamp electrodes, tightly controlling the preheat duration
before applying the starting voltage. This enhancement over Rapid Start ballasts minimizes electrode stress and
depletion of emitter of emitter material, thereby maximizing lamp life. Lamps operated by Programmed Start
ballasts typically operate up to 50000 switch cycles before failure.

Note that: Rapid Start and Magnetic are old solutions banned in Europe and USA, because they consume lots of
energy and are not very efficient. The markets are switching fasts to Electronic ballasts solutions.

For T12,
For T8,
For T5,
For CFL,

Either Rapid Start ballasts or Electronics can be used.


Either Magnetic ballasts or Electronic ballasts can be used.
Electronic ballasts only can be used.
Either Magnetic ballasts or Electronic ballasts can be used.

219. Can we dim LED Light? How? Is there any flickering while dimming? Are there any
325B

Changes in color and efficacy with dimming?


Answer

Lack of effective and affordable dimming has hampered the adoption of CFLs in the residential sector. LEDs are in
theory fully dimmable, but are not compatible with all dimmer controls designed for incandescent lamps.

Standard dimming controls

Typical residential incandescent lamp dimmers are essentially electronic


switches that toggle on and off 120 times per second. By delaying the beginning
of each half-cycle of AC power (known as phase control), they regulate the
amount of power to the lamp filament. Because this occurs so quickly, most
people do not detect flicker, but see continuous dimming. Although the general
operation of such electronic dimmers is the same, the specific electrical
characteristics of residential dimmers can vary considerably.
These variations are immaterial to incandescent lamps, but matter greatly when
used with electronic devices such as compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and
LEDs.

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Dimming CFLs

LED (Light Emitting Diodes) Dimmer Circuit

Some screw-in (integral) CFLs can be dimmed using line-voltage incandescent dimmers but must be specifically
designed to do so. They typically dim only to about 20% of maximum intensity, due to limitations of the low-cost
ballast. More sophisticated electronic ballasts providing continuous dimming below 5% are available, but are
simply not cost-effective for use in screw-in CFLs. Some fixtures (e.g., torchieres) successfully use pin-based CFLs
in combination with on-board dimming controls. Four-pin CFLs using separate dimming ballasts can be dimmed
via line voltage or 0-10 volt DC control, with dimming range as low as 1%, but more commonly 5% or 20%.

LEDs are very sensitive components - exceed their rated current or voltage
and their lifespan can be slashed from 50,000+ hours to a microsecond. LEDs
are current-driven * which means that the intensity of the light they generate
depends on the amount of electric current flowing them. (* The voltage drop
across an LED depends entirely on the current flowing through it and ranges
from 2-4 Volts for most LEDs).
Typically current is controlled using a resistor in series with the LED, or a current regulator circuit. Supplying more
current to an LED increases its intensity, and reducing the current decreases its intensity. One way of dimming an
LED is to use a variable resistor (potentiometer) to dynamically adjust the current getting to the LED and therefore
increasing or decreasing its intensity. This works very well when just one LED bulb is involved.
Unfortunately, all LEDs are not made equal - even those of nominally identical specifications from the same batch
from the same manufacturer. Although this will not be apparent when strings of LEDs are being driven with the
recommended forward current (e.g. 25mA for ultrabright LEDs), as the current is reduced some LEDs will turn off
before others, and some will be dim when others are still quite bright etc.
LEDs face a dimming challenge similar to that of CFLs: their electronics are often incompatible with dimmers
designed for incandescents.
An LED driver connected directly to a line-voltage incandescent dimmer may not receive enough power to operate
at lower dimming levels or it may be damaged by current spikes. Some LED products can be used with line-voltage
incandescent dimmers, but the dimmer and the LED driver electronics must be carefully matched. Because of
variability in installed dimmers, it is not possible to guarantee that a given LED fixture will work with all dimmers.
Some LED light fixture manufacturers publish lists of specific dimmer products tested and approved for use with
their fixtures.
More sophisticated LED dimmers use low-voltage controls (either variable resistors or 0-10 volt DC control)
connected separately to the electronic driver. Full AC power is provided to the driver enabling the electronic
controls to operate at all times, thus allowing LEDs to be uniformly dimmed (typically down to 5% or lower).
However, they may require additional low-voltage wiring for retrofit applications.

Pulse Width Modulation

A far superior method of dimming LEDs is to use Pulse


Width Modulation (PWM). With PWM strings of LED
bulbs can all be driven with the recommended forward
current, with the dimming achieved by turning the LEDs
on and off at high frequency - so fast the human eye
cannot see the strobing effect. The longer the on periods
are relative to the off periods, the brighter the LEDs will
appear to the observer.
Duty Cycle is a percentage measure of the time that the
LED is physically on. If, for example, the LED cycles
ON for 9/1000 of a second, and then OFF for 1/1000 of
a second, the duty cycle is 90%: 90% of the time it is
ON, and 10% of the time it is OFF. Therefore, the
intensity of the light will be approximately 90% of its
undimmed level.

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The easiest way to achieve this high frequency switching is to use a 555
timer integrated circuit (IC) - one of the commonest and most versatile ICs
ever created. The circuit shown below (from the following article: Pulse
Width Modulator with NE555 Timer Oscillator) is designed to be used as a
dimmer for 12V DC light bulbs or a speed controller for a 12V DC motor.

This circuit can easily be modified for use as dimmer circuit for LED bulbs
powered from a 12V DC supply as shown below:

This dimmer circuit cannot be used to turn the LEDs all the way off or to
full brightness. In fact it operates within a duty cycle range of 5%-95% as
the potentiometer (labelled P1) is turned from minimum to maximum. (By
using germanium diodes in place of the two IN4148 signal diodes this
dimming range can be extended to go from 1%-99%.)

PWM with a Microcontroller

Flicker and dimming

There are now quite a few different microcontrollers on the market which are very easy to
programme, cheap to buy, and can be built into circuits with only very few external
components required.
The advantage of using a microcontroller rather than building a circuit like the one presented
above is that the complexity of the system is in the software (instructions) you put onto the
microcontroller. This means that changes can be made without needing to change the circuit
design, and prototyping can be very quick.
We connected one of our 12V LED spotlights to the dimmer circuit and found that some of the 20 LEDs in the unit
flashed on and off, others turned off altogether, and others alternated between being very bright and very dim.

Most LED drivers use pulse width modulation (PWM) to regulate the amount of power to the LEDs. This technique
turns the LEDs on and off at high frequency, varying the total on time to achieve perceived dimming. Driver output
frequency should be at least 120 Hertz (Hz) to avoid perceptible flicker under typical circumstances.
LED light fixtures may appear to flicker at the lowest settings, but only when the dimmer control is moved. This is
due to the finite resolution of the digital electronics. Good-quality electronic drivers feature 12-bit or greater
resolution to obtain flicker-free operation throughout their dimming range.

Changes in color and efficacy with dimming

When an incandescent lamp is dimmed, the filament temperature decreases, causing the emitted light to appear
warmer, changing from white to yellow to orange/red. The luminous efficacy of the lamp also decreases: a 15
lm/W lamp at full power will be 10 lm/W at 50% dimmed.
CFL color temperature does not change with dimming as dramatically as with incandescents, running counter to our
expectation of significantly warmer color at low light levels. Luminous efficacy of fluorescent sources stays
approximately constant with dimming until about 40%-50%; thereafter it decreases, but not as steeply as with
incandescent lamps.
Most white LEDs are actually blue LEDs with a phosphor coating that generates warm or cool white light. Their
light does not shift to red when dimmed; some may actually appear bluer with dimming. White light can also be
made by mixing red, green, and blue (RGB) LEDs, allowing a full range of color mixing and color temperature
adjustment. Overall LED luminaire efficacy decreases with dimming due to reduced driver efficiency at low
dimming levels.

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220. According to SEC Distribution Materials Specification. What are the available ratings for
326B

transformers Pole mounted & Pad mounted? What are the maximum accepted losses? What
are the available tap changer settings? What is the recommended vector group, Impedance
Voltage, Temperature Rise, Noise Level, Short Circuit Level, Degree of Protection, Dimensions,
LV bushings/terminals?
Answer

Ratings:
The standard ratings shall be:

Pole mounted: 50, 100, 200, 300 KVA

Pad mounted: 300, 500, 1000, 1500 KVA

Maximum Losses:

The indicated figures below are the maximum acceptable values. Transformers with losses exceeding these values
will be rejected.
Transformer Rating
Up to 100KVA
200KVA
300KVA
500KVA
1000KVA
1500KVA

No-Load Losses (Watts)

Load Losses (Watts)

250
380
520
750
11100
1700

1500
2200
3200
4700
9000
14000

Tap Changer:

On M.V; Transformer shall be fitted with a lockable 5 positions, manual, off-load Tap Changer having the
following taps:
Tap No. 1
+ 5% of rated voltage
Tap No. 2
+ 2 % of rated voltage
Tap No. 3
0 % of rated voltage
Tap No. 4
- 2 % of rated voltage
Tap No. 5
- 5 % of rated voltage

Vector Group:

Unless otherwise specified, the transformer shall be connected delta-star in accordance with vector group reference
Dyn11.

Impedance Voltage:

The impedance voltage at normal tap shall be 4% for transformers up to 300KVA, 5% for 500 KVA and 6% for
transformers greater than 500KVA.

Temperature Rise:

At the rated power the transformer shall comply with the following Maximum temperature rises:
Top oil
45C Max.
Winding
50C Max.
Hot Spot
98C Max.
Avg. temp. due to short circuit 250C Max.

Noise Level:

The noise level emitted by a transformer, at full load, shall not exceed 48 dB. Measurements shall be in accordance
with IEC Standard 60551.

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Short Circuit Level:

The short circuit current that transformer should withstand for two seconds is:

25 times full load current for ratings of 50, 100, 200, 300KVA

20 times full load current for rating of 500KVA

17 times full load current for ratings of 1000 & 1500KVA

Degree of Protection:

Transformer and its cable boxes shall be designed to have adequate protection level suitable for outdoor usage.

Dimensions:

The maximum dimensions of the transformer shall be as follows:


For pole mounted transformers:
Rating (KVA)
50
100
200
300

Depth (mm)
900
900
1100
1100

Height (mm)
1450
1450
1700
1700

Depth (mm)
1400
1600
1700

Height (mm)
1600
1900
2000

For pad mounted transformers:


Rating (KVA)
300 & 500
1000
1500

Width (mm)
1350
1350
1450
1450

Width (mm)
1700
1900
1920

The above dimensions are not applicable for transformers used in Package/Unit substations.

LV bushings/terminals:

For Pole-mounted transformer:


The LV terminals shall be suitable to connect the following Aluminum cables:
Transformer Rating (KVA) Cables to be connected Up to
50
one 4cx185mm
100
200
two 4cx185mm
300 (400/231V)
two 4cx300mm
300 (231/133V)

For Pad-mounted transformer:


LV bushings/terminals shall be brought out of the transformer tank inside a cable box on the opposite side
of the HV box with cable entry coming vertically from bottom; box shall have removable front and bottom
sides.
The LV terminals shall be suitable to connect the following Copper cables:
Transformer Rating
(KVA)
300
500KVA (400/231V)
500KVA (231/133V)
1000KVA (400/231V)
1000KVA (231/133V)
1500KVA (400/231V)
1500KVA (231/133V)

Prepared By: Mahmoud Essam Hezzah


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Cables per phase to be


connected

Cables for neutral to be


connected

one 1cx630mm
one 1cx630mm
two 1cx630mm
four 1cx630mm/
three 1cx630mm/
six 1cx630mm/

two 1cx630mm
three 1cx630mm/
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221. Whats the reason of grounding or earthing of equipment?


327B

Answer

With a ground path, in case of short circuit the short circuit current goes to the body of the equipment & then to the
ground through the ground wire.hence if at the moment of fault if a person touches the equipment body he will not
get a shock cause his body resistance (in thousands of ohms) will offer a high resistance path in comparison to the
ground wire. Hence the fault current will flow thru the ground wire & not thru human body.
Providing a ground path helps in clearing the fault. A CT in the ground connection detects the high value fault
current hence the relay connected to the CT gives breaker a trip command.
Grounding helps in avoiding arcing faults. IF there would have been no ground then a fault with the outer body can
cause a arcing to the ground by breaking the air. This is dangerous both for the equipment & the human beings.

222. What is difference between power transformers & distribution transformers?


328B

Answer

Distribution Transformers are designed for a maximum efficiency at 50% of load. Whereas power transformers are
designed to deliver max efficiency ay 90% and above loads.
The distributions transformers have low impedance so as to have a better regulation. Power transformers have
higher impedance so as to limit the SC current.
Power transformers are used to step up voltages from 11 kV which is the generating voltage to 132 kV or whatever
will be the transmission voltage levels. Power transformers are having DELTA-DELTA connection and are located
at power generating stations.
Distribution transformers are used to step down voltages from transformer levels to 11 kV/415 V. Distribution
transformers are having DELTA-STAR connection and are located in substations near load centers.
The difference between power and distribution transformers refers to size & input voltage. Distribution
transformers vary between 25 kVA and 10 MVA, with input voltage between 1 and 36 kV. Power transformers are
typically units from 5 to 500 MVA, with input voltage above 36 kV.
Distribution transformer design to have a max efficiency at a load lower than full load.power transformer design to
have a max efficiency at full load.

223. What will happen if DC supply connected to 100W bulb?


329B

Answer

Of course the bulb will glow.


Note that the current in case of AC flowing through the bulb will vary from zero to peak value then to zero again &
then to peak value in the -ve side & then again to 0. Hence the bulb actually flickers with a 50 Hz frequency. Of
course your eye is not that quick enough to notice that flickering & hence you see a continuous light coming out of
the bulb with AC
Considering a sine wave AC current, A DC current with value equal to peak AC value divided by sq.rt2, will
provide exactly the same power consumption. A 100 watt bulb operating at 220 V AC will draw rms current
Irms=P/V=100/230=0.43 Amps. The current hence actually varies from 0 to 0.6 (peak value, = 0.43 * sq.rt2) then
to 0 then to 0.6 in the other direction & then again to 0. And of course this happens 50 times a second. Since the
power consumption is calculated from the rms value hence we need to keep in mind the rms value of current when
going to design a switch (or breaker for larger loads) for such a load.

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224. Can an armoured cable be laid in a PVC conduit for aesthetic purposes?
30B

Answer

PVC sheathed armoured cable could be placed in PVC conduit. PVC sheathed armoured cable such as BS 5467 - could be enclosed in a PVC conduit with few ill-effects.
However, if the cable is a low smoke halogen free type (e.g., BS 6724), or has specific fire
performance (e.g., BS 7846), then the use of a PVC conduit could have deleterious effects on the
cable in a fire, and guidance should be sought from the cable manufacturer concerned.
Other types of conduit may be more suitable.

225. Is it permissible to install PVC/SWA/PVC cable in Zones I and II flammable areas? If so,
31B

what is the authoritative document?


Answer

Armoured (SWA) cables are usually suitable BUT, are subject to the requirements of BS EN 60079 - and also
evaluation by the installation designer!

226. Is it permissible to use aluminum twin & earth cables?


32B

Answer

Prototype aluminum twin & earth cables were produced in 1971, but were soon abandoned because of concerns
with conductor corrosion and 'creep' within terminations.
Its recommend that these cables are replaced with copper conductor 6242Y (or 6242B) cables, sized in accordance
with BS7671:2008 - 17th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations.

227. What are the codes of armoured cable glands? What is application for B/W & C/W?
3B

Answer

Armoured cable glands codes - and are as follows:

A - Unarmoured cable
B - Armoured cable (no sealing)
C - Armoured cable (sealing on outer sheath)
D - Armoured cable (sealing on Inner sheath)
E - Armored cable (sealing on both sheaths)
W- SWA
X- Braided
T Pliable
Y- Aluminum strip.

B/W is used for indoor & C/W is used for outdoor

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228. What are the minimum CSAs for process instrument cables, power cables & control cables?
34B

Answer

To meet BS 7671:2008, assuming that the circuit supplying the instruments is actually a power circuit and not part
of the control system, the minimum size is 1.5mm2.
For signal and control circuits, it is 0.5mm2 minimum.
If the signal circuit is just an IT signal, it can be 0.1mm2.

229. Is it possible to use armour of a power cable as its earthing conductor? As an example 35B

for 4 x 240mm cable, is it necessary to install separate earthing cable? Or is the armour
of the cable enough for earthing? What is required by BS standards?
Answer

If the calculations in accordance with BS 7671:2008 are satisfactory using the circuit protective conductor (CPC),
then, yes you may use the SWA of the cable as the CPC.
In this case, it is not necessary to provide separate CPC.

230. What is the filling percentage that should be followed for trunking & conduits & cable trays
36B

as per British Standard?


Answer

The Wiring Regulations (BS7671: 2008) state the 45% fill rule for trunking and conduit for heat dissipation.
For cable tray, you would normally fill to around 80%, as heat can easily escape because of there being no covers.
Another factor to keep in mind is the recommended support positions (span) to ensure that the combined weight of
the cables, plus the tray, does not exceed the manufacturer's recommendations.

231. In order to reduce the size of the sub-main cable, we have installed a separate circuit
37B

protective conductor (CPC) with calculations satisfying this. Terminations have been
completed as standard. However, on installation, the contractor has installed the CPC so it
is not clipped to the armoured cable as normal practice, and takes a different route. Is
there a standard that requires an armoured cable's CPC to be clipped to the cable? Is there
an issue with running earths in a separate route to the armoured cabling, i.e. different
lengths etc?
Answer

If you refer to BS7671:2008, Regulation 543.6.1 states: 'Where overcurrent protective devices are used for fault
protection, the protective conductor shall be incorporated in the same wiring system as the live conductors or in
their immediate proximity'.
At that point, it would appear that the said installation may not comply with the requirements of this regulation.

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232. We have to pull a 3 X 70mm SWA cable through 80m of 100mm ducting. There will be a
38B

bend at each end up to the electrical switch room. The cable run between is more or less
straight. Can you tell me what a reasonable bend radius would be to allow satisfactory
pulling of the cable?
Answer

Manufacturers recommended installation minimum bend radius for SWA cable with shaped cores is eight times the
overall cable diameter. So, for your cable, this is 8 X 34 = 270 mm. This is acceptable for a 600/1000V cable. For
higher voltages the recommendation is 12 X the OD. If you can go for a bigger bend, obviously this is always
better.
Also take care...ensure that the pull is even etc. This is referred to in the Wiring Regulations BS7671:2008, and also
in the cable standard.

233. What power cables are suitable for direct burial in ground which may be prone to water
39B

logging?
Answer

Armoured power cables with Medium Density Polyethylene (MDPE) sheaths are recommended for burial in water
logged conditions.
Standard armoured power cables (PVC & Low Smoke sheaths) are recommended for 'free draining' soils only.

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234. Calculate the annual savings and payback for installing an occupancy sensors given that:
340B

No. of fixtures = 20 x 2 Lamps; Fixture wattage Draw = 88 watt/Fix; Time length needed
341B

= 20 min/hr.; Operating hours = 4000 hrs./year; Electricity cost = 0.15 LE/kWh; Sensors
cost = 200 LE
235. For replacing an existing Lighting system of Incandescent lamps by a new fluorescent
342B

lamps, calculate the annual savings and payback given that:


Existing lighting system
34B

100 Lamps (200 watt/lamp); 200 watt lamp efficacy 17.5

Lm/watt; Fluorescent lamps 36 watt (44 watt incl. Ballast); Fl. lamps efficacy 70 lm/watt;
Fl. lamps cost = LE. 15 (incl. Fixture); Annual operating hours 4000 hrs./year; Electricity
cost = 0.15 LE./kWh
236. A 23,000 square meter high bay facility is presently lit with 800 twin 400 watt mercury
34B

vapour fixtures (455 watts per lamp including ballast.) What are the annual savings of
replacing the existing lighting system with 800 single 400 watt high pressure sodium
fixtures, (465 watts per lamp including ballast) Assume 8000 hours per year, an energy
cost of $0.05 per kWh, and a demand cost of $6.00 per kW-month.
237. Choose the correct answer:
o The efficacy of a light source refers to the Color rendering index of the lamp.
A) True
B) False
o Increasing the coefficient of utilization of the room cavity will in many instances
increase the number of lamps required.
A) True
B) False
o Which HID lamp has the highest efficacy?
A) Mercury Vapour
B) Metal Halide
C) High Pressure Sodium
o A sewing factory. Lights are on 9 hours per day. The ceiling height is about 4 meters.
Suggest an appropriate light source.
A) Incandescent
B) Fluorescent
C) Metal halide
D) High pressure sodium
E) Low pressure sodium
o One disadvantage to metal halide lamps is a pronounced tendency to shift colours as
the lamp ages.
A) True
B) False
o A building presently has the following lighting system:
Present:
196 mercury vapour light fixtures
Size:
250 watt/lamp
285 watt/fixture, including ballast
You have chosen to replace the existing system with the following:
Proposed:
140 high pressure sodium fixtures
Size:
150 watt/lamp
185 watt/fixture
The facility operates 24 hours/day. Approximate the heating effect if the heating
system efficiency is 80%, fuel costs $4.25 per GJ, and there are 200 heating days per
year.
A) $4,445/year
B) $2,754/year
C) $6,986/year
D) $5,289/year
E) $2,754/year
345B

346B

347B

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.238
o
o
o
o
348B

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers


:
75. . = . 1
30 2.
10 1.5. . = . 1
:
:
.
)(
.
)(
349B

350B

351B

)( :
=
) (1
) (2 =
) (a = )
) (b =
) (3 =
=
) (4

37.5 = 75 50. = 37.5..


6 = 5 2 0.40 + 2
1.32 = 1000 / (220 6..
30 39.6 = 1.32..
6 =(1.58)25+1.5+1.5.) 6..(
83.1 = 6 + 39.6 + 37.5..

( :
)
=
) (1
) (2 =
) (a = )
) (b =
) (3 =
=
) (4

67.5 = 75 90. = 67.5..


9.58 = 5 2 0.75 + 2
2.108 = 1000 / (220 9.58..
30 63.23 = 2.108..
15 = 1.5 10. = 15..
145.73 = 15 + 63.23 + 67.5..

.239 350 . : .
352B

15
= 4.. 100 /

350
100

6 84 = 4..

.240 .
35B

:
)(1
)(2
)(3
)(4

224

.
.
.
.

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.241 ) ( :
o 15000
o : 2 30/ ) (.
o :
o 1.2
o 1400
o 7 / :
o 2 / 3.5 ) 2.6.(
o 3 / 2.5 ) 1.9.(
o 2 / 2 ) 1.5.(
o :
o 6000
o 2 / 2000
o 1 / 1200
o :
o 1.6.
o 2.8.
o 0.6.
o :
o 2 / 3.
o 1 / 2.
o 1 / 6.
o 5.
o 4.
354B

:
) (1:
66
9.9 = 15000 66.
) (2:
:
40
6 = 5 2
+2
100
= 1.122 = 0.85 220 6. 0.85
= 33.66 = 30 1.122.
) (3 :
100 10 ]) 1.87.( 0.85 [ 50 +
10
) [1.9 3 + 2.6 2 ] 50 + (1.5 2 + 1.4 + 0.746 1.2
50
]10.75=5.4+5.3=[5.7+5.2.
= )+ (3 + 1.4 + 0.9
100
) (4 :
100 10 30 + 10 ) 2.2.
(.
= ) 7.00 = (6) 30 + (1.2 + 2.00 2.

225

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) (5 :
100 50 + = 3.9 = [0.6 + 1.6 ] 50 + [2.8] 100.
) (6 :
) (a :
100 100 + 25 +
12 = (4) 25 + 5 + 6.
=
) (b :
100
= 8 = 2 + 3 2.

:
)(1
+ 9.9

)(2
+33.66

)(3
+10.75

)(4
+7

)6(
+12

)(5
+3.9

)6(
8

= 85.21.

:
137.722. :

)= (diversity factor

85.21
137.722

= 61.87

.242 :
35B

226

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)(
500
1000-500
3000-1500
500
300-200
2500-150
300
6300
300-100
100-30




Projector
Printer-
Computer -

15
60
80

)(
100
1500-700
100
50-75
400
2000
3000-2000
6000-4000
6000-4000

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.243 1250.. 750..


356B

30

) (1-4 :
30

750
= 0.6 ; t =4 h
1250
k2 =1.19
= k1

:
S2 = k2. SN = 1.19 * 1250 = 1487.5 kVA

.244 ONAN 450.. 250..


357B

S2/ S1 = 450 / 250 = 1.8 = k2 / k1

S2= 450 kVA , t2 = 4h

S1= 250 kVA , t1 = 20h

) (1-4 1.8 = k2 / k1 ;
t = 4h k2 k1 k1 = :
0.633 , k2 = 1.14
S 2 = k 2 .S N : S1 = k1 . S N:

S1
S
= 2
K1 K 2
450
250
= SN
=
= 394.9 KVA
1.14 0.633
= SN

227

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.245
o
o
o
o
o
o
358B

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

600 2 :

2 / ) +(
16 / 5/
3 / 15.
3/ 17.5 88 .
2 / 6.5 87
: )(

15
100 2 10 8..
100 2 12..
)(1
)(2
)(3
)(4

)(5

2
2) 600.. 100 /(2
---- 600
2
2
12) 1200.. 100 / ( =
---- 2/ 600 = 1200
2
10) 9600.. 100 /= (2
---- 16/ 600 9600 = 2
+ + ) ( =
:
1128..
= 12 + 960 + 12 + 144
---- :
15 3. ) 0.85 / ( = 53..
----) 3 (a
) 0.85 / 0.746 17.5 2 ( ) 0.88( = 53..
----) 2 (b
6.5 ) 0.85 / 0.746 ( ) 0.87( = 6.6..
----) 1 (c
:
6.6 + 35 + 53
---- 95..
2

= 12..
144..
960..
12..



= 1223 = 95 + 1128..
80
= 1528.75 = 0.8 / 1223..

= 2000..

.
68
= 862 = 95 + 68 1128..
80
= 1077 = 0.8 / 862..

= 1500..

228

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.246
359B


: )(2-1
.
.
.
.
.
.
: )(7-1
) (1 .
) (2 .
) (3 .

.247
360B


/
) 1/( ) 25(
.

) . : (

.

229

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.248
361B

:
:

)(Single-wrap traction machine


)" (S " ) (Deflector sheave )" (T " ).(Traction sheave

: 1:1

)(Double-wrap traction machine

)" )) (1-1(

) (S ) (Idle sheave ) (T
) (S 1:1 )(Double-wrap
.

: 2:1

)" )) (1-1(

)(Double-wrap traction machine

)" )) (1-1(

1 : 2 ) 2.5 3.5/(
.

:
: 1:1

1:1 ) (
.

: 2:1

230

)(Double-wrap traction machine

)" )) (1-1(

10
2/ 2000.

)(Double-wrap traction machine

)" )) (1-1(

(m/c room less

) (m/c room less .

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.249
362B

231

) 4 8
(.

) Motor
.(generator

/ ).(Static converters

) (Geared machines 500 1500/


) (.

) 0.75 0.125/(
) (Variable speed ) (Variable voltage
) (Variable voltage, variable frequency) (VVVF
2.2. 75 .. . ) (1-1 .

50
5000 2/ 15. 260..

) (3-1 ) (4-1 .

1500/375/ .

1500/
.

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.250
36B

) (.

:
).(
=

)( .
1500 900 600
1 : 1 ) 1200( 50
10 .
1500 3.6/ 1/.
) (5-1 . .

:
) (1 .
) (2 / 20 .
) (3 .
) (4
/ ) ( .
) (Potential energy
) (System regenerative braking .

*


4-3
240
3
5.5-4
320
4
6.5-5
400
5
8.5-5.5
480
6
11-8
640
8
13
750
10
16
900
12
* = 746

232

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.251
364B

50
)(Group demand factor
).(6-1
) (6-1 .

233

) (6-1 1750 3/ 36..


0.67 :
= 120 = 0.67 36 5..
/ 80 =
120
= 150..
=
0.8
.

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.252 1 : 1 ) (5 1750 3/ :
o .
o 0.21 /. ..
365B

/ 50 50
70 .
50 50 90
:
= 36. ) ) .(6-1 ( 80

36..
= 45..
/ =
0.8
= 45. 90 . 70 20 = 5.67..
/
= 5.67..

= 36. 90 . 50 20 = 3.24..

3.24. .
=
8.91 = 3.54 + 5.67. /
=
5 = 44.55 =8.915. .

.
:
.

:
2
70 2
50 6
10 14
32.5 .
32.5 24
=
(3.24+5.67) 0.325. 24.
=
69.5. / /
=

0.21
69.5.
25
=
. .

= 364.86 / /
= 1824.323 /
)( /
10 25 /

12
1824.323
= 4378.374
20
=

234

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.253
36B

0.45/ 0.6/
.
20
).(8-1
) (9-1
. ) (10-1
.

235

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.254
367B

) (2-1 .
) :(2-1
810
)(
0.45 0.6
)/(
7.5
).(
10


20
2

30
3

1210
0.45 0.6
7.5
6.5
13.5
20

50 60 . ) (3-1
6.5.
) :(3-1
).(
)(
)/(
)(
3.75
4.25
0.45 0.6810
5.00
5.2
0.45 0.65.00
5.20
0.457.5
6.40
0.451210
11.2
7.60
0.45 0.6.255


368B

.256
369B

4 ).(Single electric feeder


.
.
40 7.5. .
:
7.50.4. 10250 (3415.2 .../
)

) (4-1
.

)(
350
750
2000

236

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) :(4-1
)(2
)(
)(
)../(
2
355
200
1194
64
750
200
2559
16 - 12
1500
200
6824

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.257
370B

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

)(Moving walks and ramps

) 5 15
(.

) (11-1 1 55

. ) (12-1 660 1000


.

237

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.258
371B

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

.1 )(Window type AC

238

)(
)(13-1
) (Window type AC
)(.
" "
) (Heat pump .
) (5-1

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.2 )(Split Unit

).(14-1
. )(15-1
.
) (Exposed floor or ceiling unit
) (Concealed unit ).(15-1
15 2 7. . 0.44. .
2.25..
) (6-1 .
:
. .
. .

239

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.3 )(Package units

240

.
)-1
.(16

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.4 ) (Central Station Air Conditioning


. .

.a )(Water Chillers System

241

) (Water chillers ) (Reciprocating


) (Screw ) (Centrifugal ) (Air handling units
) (Supply and return air fans ) ( )
(
.
350 (Cooling
).Towers

) (Air handling units .
.
850 380 50//
/ ) (Soft starters 3300 6600
750.

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.b )(Absorption Chillers System

242

1000 ) (Direct fire


) (Lithium bromide
.

.


. 330 40..

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.259

:

372B

.260
37B


0.5
0.033
0.05
0.054
0.043
0.043
0.054
0.043
0.06
0.06
0.043
0.072
0.11


75
55
75
81
65
65
81
65
90
90
65
108
165

40/3 10
22. . 2900/ .3/50/380
.
) ( .

243

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.261


374B


) (Jockey pump ) (Header .
.262
375B

) (P :

.Q H
0.746 KW
75

=P

:
: Q
)/3(
)(
: H
( 80 -75
: )
:
= ) 1000 1200/(3
) (10 380 .
)/3( ).(
5.5
18
7.5
21.6
7.5
22.4
) (10 .3/50/380

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

)/( ).(
15
20
1500
35
77
102
130
2900
155
175
205

40/3 10
22. . 2900/ .3/50/380

244

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.263


376B

.
26.5 )
.

16 ) (.
.264
37B

) (10-1 ) (
.
) ( 70 50 30
100 1.2. . 4.5..
) ( 22. 3/50/380
.

) (10-1 ) (
1

3 to 3

2 to 2

1 to 1

2
3
2
3
4
5
3
4
5
6
115 150 150 190 190 250 140 250 250 300
3.5 4.5 4.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5

1
75
2.5

115 170 225 220 270 270 330 270 330 380 385
84

245

84

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84

84

84

84

84

68

68

55






)/(

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.265
378B

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246

) ( ) 3.5 4.8(
) 0.35 1.35( .
30 ) 10( )
( ) (
) 1.5. (. ) (Expansion tank
.
7.5. . ) Level
.(switch . .
) (22-1 64 .
) (Expansion tank ) .(Pressure-stat
) (23-1 .

) (Jokey pump
.

) (23-1.
) (24-1 .
6 .
2.98 6. . 2900/ 3/50/380 40/3 5.

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.266
379B

Top Electrical Design - Questions & Answers

247


.
.
) (26-1 ) ( ) (Waste water
.
) (27-1 ) (28-1 .
) (28-1 10. . 15. .
3/50/380 .
.
.

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.267

380B

:

.
.

) (
.
:

) (a :
.
) (b : .
.




.

TT
) (
. )(1-

248

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TN
) (TT :
TN-C
" "
" "PEN 10 .2 ).(2-

TN-S
) (N ) (PE
) 3 )( )((
10 2 16 2 . ).(3-

TN-C-S
) (TN-C ) (TN-S ) (TN-C-S
) (TN-C ) (TN-S .
. ).(4-

249

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IT

.
. ).(5-


) (PE

.
.

) (TT .
) (TT ) (IT
.
) (TN-S ) (RCD
) (TN-C .
) (IT
.

.
.


400 250 ) (TN-S
) (RCD )
( .

250

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.268
381B

400/230:

251

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.269 3 . 400/230
382B

3 . 230.

256

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