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Combined Heat & Power Programs

at the
Center for Environmental
Energy Engineering

Dennis Moran, Director


Mid-Atlantic CHP Application Center

1
CEEE Organization
CEEE programs are organized into 4
primary program areas:
Combined Heat & Power
System Optimization
Refrigerant Alternatives
Advanced Heat Exchangers

3
CEEE Partners
Advanced Heat Tr. Honeywell Sanyo
Arcelik Hussman Tecumseh
ATEC ITRI Thermo King
Baltimore Aircoil Kathabar Trane
Broad LG Electronics Tridium
Capstone Magna-Steyr Trigen
CDA Matsushita Trion
Copeland Naval Res. Lab. US Army
Daikin Propane Res. Council Visteon
Denso PEPCO Wolverine
DOE/ORNL Rocky Research Wright Patterson AFB
DTE Samsung Electronics York International

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Center Staff

Five Faculty

Seven Research Faculty

Forty Graduate Students

Six Support Staff

$2.2 Million Annual Budget

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CHP at UMD
CHP activities at the UMD include:
CEEE CHP Consortium
CHP Integration Test Center – Chesapeake
Building
Campus CHP System – Trigen-Cinergy
Solutions System
Mid-Atlantic CHP Application Center

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CHP Consortium <BACK

Long Range Goals:


„ Optimum Integration of Subsystems
„ Verified, Dynamic Models for Controls and Optimization

Projects
Integration Test Center
– Micro-turbine -> Absorption Chiller -> Solid Desiccant System
– Engine-driven AC (Engine Gen-set)-> Liquid Desiccant System
– 27MW Campus CHP Plant Analysis and Optimization
– No-cooling-tower Absorption System
– Propane Operation
Optimization: Design and Operation
Steady-state and Transient CHP Models
Diagnostics
Web-based CHP Handbook

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CHP Test Center Focus
CHP integrates dissimilar equipment
Components are generally designed to do one job well
– MT produce power
– Desiccants dry air
– Absorption chillers produce chilled water
Many additional benefits are obtainable when design is
aimed at system level from start
We want an INTEGRATED SYSTEM that is clean,
reliable, efficient and cost effective

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3

Kathabar liquid Desiccant


ATS Solid Desiccant

Goettl Engine Driven AC

Broad Absorp. Chiller

Capstone Microturbine

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Issues Encountered
System integration issues we have encountered include:
Parameter compatibility
– Exhaust temperatures vs. waste heat temp. requirements
Standardization
– Metric bolts, English nuts, specialist wiring harness tools, star-shaped
sockets
– Transformers, fuses, voltages (5,12,24,120,230,277,480V AC/DC)
Frequent duplication
– Sensors
– Enclosures
– User Interfaces
– Controllers and software drivers
Duplicate maintenance contracts, inconsistent manuals

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UMD CHP Plant

2 Gas Turbines, 2 HRSG, back


pressure steam turbine and
steam driven chillers
CHP plant provides 27 MW
electricity, 10,000 tons of
cooling and entire steam load
to the campus
Reduce regional emissions of
NOx by 9,800 tons/year and
CO2 emissions by 3.5 million
tons over 20 years

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Thermoflex Model of Trigen Plant

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Mid-Atlantic CHP Application Center

Mid-Atlantic CHP Application Center (MAAC) is one of


eight regional centers
Initial funding provided by DOE
Primary functions are:
– Increase awareness of CHP
– Provide technical assistance for promising projects
Primary goal is to increase use of CHP

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National Advanced Building Testbed
Initiative
Modeling Workshop at University of Maryland
November 18, 2004

University of Maryland
Modeling & Optimization Projects Overview
Reinhard Radermacher, Dennis Moran, Vikrant Aute
University of Maryland College Park
Agenda
Meeting Objectives
CEEE & CHP Program Overview
Modeling and Optimization Program Overview
– Technology Focus and Approach
– Modeling Tools
– Hardware/Software/Person Resources

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Objective

Provide an overview of UMCP – CEEE modeling


capabilities and near future perspective
Identify resources that can be used to support
the Initiative

3
CEEE Vision and Mission
Vision
– International leader in research and education in
• environmentally acceptable,
• economic feasible
Thermal Management Systems, that are
optimized for minimum cost, volume, weight, maximum
reliability or other relevant parameters
Mission
– To provide knowledge in support of strategic technology
decisions
– R&D of new components and systems
– Verified, user-friendly tools for simulation and optimization
– Timely results and tech-transfer
4 – Education of next generation of team oriented engineering
professionals
CEEE Organization

CEEE programs are organized into 4


primary areas:
Combined Heat & Power
System Optimization
Refrigerant Alternatives
Advanced Heat Exchangers

5
CEEE Partners
Advanced Heat Tr. Honeywell Sanyo
Arcelik Hussman Tecumseh
ATEC ITRI Thermo King
Baltimore Aircoil Kathabar Trane
Broad LG Electronics Tridium
Capstone Magna-Steyr Trigen
CDA Matsushita Trion
Copeland Naval Res. Lab. US Army
Daikin Propane Res. Council Visteon
Denso PEPCO Wolverine
DOE/ORNL Rocky Research Wright Patterson AFB

6 DTE Samsung Electronics York International


Center Staff

Five Faculty
Seven Research Faculty
Forty Graduate Students
Six Support Staff
$2.2 Million Annual Budget

7
CHP at UMD

CHP activities at the UMD include:


CEEE CHP Consortium
CHP Integration Test Center – Chesapeake
Building
Campus CHP System – Trigen System
Mid-Atlantic CHP Application Center
National Advanced Building Testbed Initiative
support
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CHP Consortium
Long Range Goals:
„ Optimum Integration of Subsystems
„ Verified, Dynamic Models for Controls and Optimization

Projects
„ Integration Test Center
• Micro-turbine -> Absorption Chiller -> Solid Desiccant System
• Engine-driven AC (Engine Gen-set)-> Liquid Desiccant System
• 27MW Campus CHP Plant Analysis and Optimization
• Absorption system with dry cooling-tower
• Propane Operation
„ Optimization: Design and Operation
„ Steady-state and Transient CHP Models
„ Diagnostics
9
„ Web-based CHP Handbook
CHP Test Center Focus
„ CHP integrates dissimilar equipment – components are
generally designed to do one job well
ƒ Microturbine & gen-set produce power
ƒ Desiccants dry air
ƒ Absorption chillers produce chilled water
„ Many additional benefits are obtainable when design is
aimed at system level from start
„ We want an INTEGRATED SYSTEM that is clean,
reliable, efficient and cost effective

10
Chesapeake Building Equipment
Solid
Desiccant Existing RTU2
Liquid Existing RTU1
Desiccant

EDAC
(removed)

Absorption
Chiller
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Microturbine CHP System 1


CHP System 2
Issues Encountered
Issues encountered in the test program include:
ƒ Thermal parameter compatibility
— Temp of exhaust/cooling water temp vs. TAT temp
requirements
ƒ Standardization
— Metric bolts, English nuts, special wiring harness tools, star-
shaped sockets
— Transformers, fuses, voltages (5,12,24,120,230,277,480V
AC/DC)
Frequent duplication
— Sensors
— Enclosures
— User interfaces
12 — Controllers and software drivers
ƒ Duplicate maintenance contracts
ƒ Inconsistent manuals
UMD CHP Plant

2 Gas Turbines, 2 HRSG, back


pressure steam turbine and
steam driven chillers
CHP plant provides 27 MW
electricity, 10,000 tons of
cooling and entire steam load
to the campus
Reduce regional emissions of
NOx by 9,800 tons/year and
CO2 emissions by 3.5 million
tons over 20 years
13
Thermoflex Model of Trigen Plant

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CHP System Monitoring
Tridium Niagara Framework™
– System integration platform for diverse thermal
systems
• Used for control, data logging & reporting, and alarms
• Independent of communication protocol & manufacturer
• Web interface
– In system 2, Niagara program used to:
• Monitor the system (data logging by separate system)
• Set operation schedules
• Send alarms and alerts
• Control CHP system & RTUs
15 Additional details at www.tridium.com
CHP System Online

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CHP System – Chiller Data

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Rooftop Unit 2

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Mid-Atlantic CHP Application Center

Mid-Atlantic CHP Application Center (MAAC) is one of


eight regional centers
Initial funding provided by DOE
Primary functions are:
– Increase awareness of CHP
– Provide technical assistance to promising
projects
Primary goal is to increase use of CHP

19
Modeling & Optimization
Program Overview

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Technology Focus
Modeling steady state and transient thermal
systems
Optimization of components and system for first
and operating cost, performance, energy
efficiency etc.
Development of validated, robust and scalable
component and system models
Technology transfer – user-friendly
customizable and component based modeling
21 software
Technology Approach
Thermodynamic/engineering Expertise
– Available from faculty/students at the Center
Development Platform
– Microsoft .NET®
– Models can be used in EES, Matlab, Excel, KULI,
other simulation tools
Property Libraries
– NIST Refprop 7.0, PPDS (in evaluation)
– In-house refrigerant property libraries – 500 times
22 faster than commercially available
Technology Approach (contd.)
Equation Solvers, Optimization Tools
– Solver libraries for linear/non-linear equation
– Differential equation solvers – problem specific
– Gradient-based optimization routines
– Single/Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms
Component Standards
– Defines component model interfaces
– Allows interaction with external modeling tools, calling from EES,
Matlab, KULI etc.
– Facilitates third-party component development
– Components can reside on local or remote computer
Hardware
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– CEEE Laboratories
Modeling Tools
Coil Designer
– User-friendly simulation and optimization software for air-
cooled heat exchangers, steady state
– Tube-fin, micro-channel and wire-fin coils
– Ability to add external refrigerants and correlations
– Highly flexible and customizable
– Validated with data from several sources
Accumulator
– Simulation of accumulators, steady state
– Detailed geometry and loss coefficient inputs
– Validated with data from sponsoring organization
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Coil Designer Coil

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Modeling Tools (contd.)
Compressor Simulation
– Detailed simulation of positive displacement
compressors and expanders
– Single thermodynamic simulation, separate geometry
input for different devices
– Accounts for internal leakages, internal heat transfer
and valve losses
Dessicant Wheel
– Transient model of desiccant wheel
– Component based, will be used in CHP system
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simulation in future
Modeling Tools (contd.)
Absorption Chiller
– Time estimate to reach steady state
– Simulate the performance during startup
– Temperature control strategy
– Part load simulation

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Modeling Tools
VapCyc
– Simulation of vapor compression cycles, steady state
– Conventional (R22/R134a) and unconventional (CO2) cycle
simulation
– User can add and change component models
TransRef
– Transient simulation of refrigerators, single and dual
evaporator systems
– User changeable component models
– User configurable cabinet models, can be extended to
automotive passenger cabins
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VapCyc

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TransRef

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Modeling Tools
CHPTran
– Development in progress – component
models
– Goal – simulate transient performance of a
CHP system put together by the user

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CHPTran

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Modeling Tools
Optimization
– Eventually all designs have to be optimized
– Steady state (first cost, efficiency) or transient
performance (control algorithms, operating cost)
optimization
– Focus on gradient based and Genetic Algorithms for
optimization
– Successfully applied Single and Multiobjective optimization
algorithms for air-conditioning components and systems
– Multiobjective optimization demonstrated significant
potential, especially with Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms
(MOGA)
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Optimization Case Study
Normalized Coil Cost vs. Heat Load (MOGA1, 500 Iterations)
Multiobjective optimization 1.2
Results
MOGA1-500 Results
– Pareto Solutions
Baseline Case
1.1

Normalized Coil Cost


1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7
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0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
Normalized Heat Load
Optimization Case Study
Infeasible & Pareto Solutions for Condenser Units
Multiobjective optimization
1.6
Results Pareto Solutions
– Infeasible and Pareto Infeasible Solutions
Solutions 1.4

Normalized Cost
1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
35 Normalized Heat Load
Application Examples of GA
Beneficial in problems with both
continuous and discrete variables
Can be coupled with all CEEE modeling
tools
Coupling with Thermo Flex, KULI etc.
through Excel or otherwise
Can be used for real-time control
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optimization
Thank You for Your
Attention!!!

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Paper R-037