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Demographics of India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


This article is about the people from India. For other uses, see Indian (disambiguation).

Demographics of India

Population
Density
Growth rate
Birth rate
Death rate
Life expectancy
male
female
Fertility rate
Infant mortality
rate
014 years
1564 years
65 and over
At birth
Under 15

Many faces of India


1,236,344,631 (July 2014 est.)[1] (2nd)
382 people per.sq.km (2011 est.)
1.25% (2013) (94th)
20.22 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
7.4 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
68.89 years (2009 est.)
67.46 years (2009 est.)
72.61 years (2009 est.)
2.3 children born/woman (SRS 2013)
40 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Age structure
31.2% (male 190,075,426/female
172,799,553) (2009 est.)
63.6% (male 381,446,079/female
359,802,209) (2009 est.)
5.3% (male 29,364,920/female
32,591,030) (2009 est.)
Sex ratio
1.10 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
1.10 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

1564 years
65 and over
Major ethnic
Official

1.06 male(s)/female (2009 est.)


0.90 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Nationality
See Ethnic Groups of India
Language
See Languages of India

Crude birth rate trends in India


(per 1000 people, national average)[2][3][4]

Infant mortality rate trends in India


(per 1000 births, under age 1, national average)
The demographics of India are inclusive of the second most populous country in the world,
with over 1.27 billion people (2014), more than a sixth of the world's population. Already
containing 17.5% of the world's population, India is projected to be the world's most populous
country by 2025, surpassing China, its population reaching 1.6 billion by 2050.[5][6] Its population
growth rate is 1.2%, ranking 94th in the world in 2013.[7] The Indian population had reached the
billion mark by 1998.
India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age
of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37
for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.4.[8]

India has more than two thousand ethnic groups,[9] and every major religion is represented, as are
four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan
languages) as well as two language isolates (the Nihali language[10] spoken in parts of
Maharashtra and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir). The modern
Indian republic is home to 97% of Jains, 90% of Sikhs, 87% of Hindus, 50% of Zoroastrians,
40% of Baha'i, 20% of Shia, 10% of Muslims, 5% of Ahmadiyya, 2% of Buddhists and 1% of
Christians worldwide.
Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social
parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic,
genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.[11]

History
Ancient India in 300 BC may have had a population in the range 100140 million. It has been
estimated that the population was about 100 million in 1600 and remained nearly static until the
late 19th century. It reached 255 million according to the first census taken in 1881.[12][13]
Studies of India's population since 1881 have focused on such topics as total population, birth
and death rates, growth rates, geographic distribution, literacy, the rural and urban divide, cities
of a million, and the three cities with populations over eight million: Delhi, Greater Mumbai
(Bombay), and Kolkata (Calcutta).[14]
Mortality rates fell in the period 192045, primarily due to biological immunization. Other
factors included rising incomes, better living conditions, improved nutrition, a safer and cleaner
environment, and better official health policies and medical care.[15]

Salient features
India occupies 2.8% of the world's land area but supports over 17.5% of the world's population.
At the 2001 census 72.2% of the population[16] lived in about 638,000 villages[17] and the
remaining 27.8%[16] lived in more than 5,100 towns and over 380 urban agglomerations.[18]
India's population has exceeded that of the entire continent of Africa by 200 million people.[19]
However, because Africa's population growth is nearly double that of India, it is expected to
surpass both China and India by 2025.

Comparative demographics
Category
Area
Population
Population growth rate
Population density
(people per square kilometer of land area)

Global Ranking
Notes (Reference)
[20]
7th
[20]
2nd
102nd of 212
in 2010[21]
24th of 212

in 2010[21]

Male to Female ratio, at birth

12th of 214

in 2009[22]

List of States and Union territories by demographics


Main article: List of States and Union Territories by demographics
S.No.
Census Year
Population [23]
% Change [23]
1
1951
361,088,000
----2
1961
439,235,000
21.6
3
1971
548,160,000
24.8
4
1981
683,329,000
24.7
5
1991
846,387,888
23.9
6
2001
1,028,737,436
21.5
7
2011
1,210,726,932
17.7
Population distribution in India by states
State /
Dens
Sex
Rural Urban
[2 Area
Union Ty Populati %
ity
Female
Liter
Rank
(km)
Males
Ratio
Populati
Populati
4]
Territor pe
on
(per
s
acy
[25]
[26]
[27]
on
on[27]
y
km)
Uttar
Sta 199,812, 16. 240,9
104,480 95,331,
131,658, 34,539,5
1
828
912 67.68
Pradesh te
341 50
28
,510
831
339
82
Maharas Sta 121,455, 9.2 307,7
58,243, 54,131,
55,777,6 41,100,9
2
365
929 82.34
htra
te
333 8
13
056
277
47
80
Sta 103,804, 8.6 94,16 1,10 54,278, 49,821,
74,316,7 8,681,80
3 Bihar
918 61.80
te
637 0
3
2
157
295
09
0
West
Sta 91,276,1 7.5 88,75 1,03 46,809, 44,467,
57,748,9 22,427,2
4
950 76.26
Bengal
te
15 4
2
0
027
088
46
51
Madhya Sta 72,626,8 6.0 308,2
37,612, 35,014,
44,380,8 15,967,1
5
236
931 69.32
Pradesh te
09 0
45
306
503
78
45
Tamil
Sta 72,147,0 5.9 130,0
36,137, 36,009,
34,921,6 27,483,9
6
555
996 80.09
Nadu
te
30 6
58
975
055
81
98
Rajastha Sta 68,548,4 5.6 342,2
35,550, 32,997,
43,292,8 13,214,3
7
201
928 66.11
n
te
37 6
39
997
440
13
75
Karnatak Sta 61,095,2 5.0 191,7
30,966, 30,128,
34,889,0 17,961,5
8
319
973 75.36
a
te
97 5
91
657
640
33
29
Sta 60,439,6 4.9 196,0
31,491, 28,948,
31,740,7 18,930,2
9 Gujarat
308
919 78.03
te
92 9
24
260
432
67
50
Andhra Sta 49,386,7 4.0 160,2
24,738, 24,648,
34,776,3 14,610,4
10
308
996 67.41
Pradesh te
99 8
00
068
731
89
10
Sta 41,974,2 3.4 155,7
21,212, 20,762,
31,287,4 5,517,23
11 Odisha
269
979 72.87
te
18 7
07
136
082
22
8
Telangan Sta 35,193,9
114,84
42,442, 42,138,
20,624,6 6,198,53
12
2.9
308
990 66.83
a
te
78
5
146
631
78
0
Sta 33,406,0 2.7 38,86
16,027, 17,378,
23,574,4 8,266,92
13 Kerala
859
1084 95.50
te
61 6
3
412
649
49
5

Population distribution in India by states


State /
Dens
Sex
Rural Urban
[2 Area
Union Ty Populati %
ity
Female
Liter
Rank
Males
Ratio
Populati Populati
4] (km)
Territor pe
on
(per
s
acy
[25]
[26]
on[27]
on[27]
y
km)
Jharkhan Sta 32,988,1 2.7 79,71
16,930, 16,057,
20,952,0 5,993,74
14
414
948 66.41
d
te
34 2
4
315
819
88
1
Sta 31,205,5 2.5 78,43
15,939, 15,266,
23,216,2 3,439,24
15 Assam
397
958 72.19
te
76 8
8
443
133
88
0
Sta 27,743,3 2.2 50,36
14,639, 13,103,
16,096,4
16 Punjab
550
895 75.84
8,262,511
te
38 9
2
465
873
88
Chhattis Sta 25,545,1 2.1 135,1
12,832, 12,712,
16,648,0 4,185,74
17
189
991 70.28
garh
te
98 1
91
895
303
56
7
Sta 25,351,4 2.0 44,21
13,494, 11,856,
15,029,2
18 Haryana
573
879 75.55
6,115,304
te
62 9
2
734
728
60
16,787,9 1.3
1129 8,987,3 7,800,6
12,905,7
19 Delhi
UT
1484
868 86.21 944,727
41 9
7
26
15
80
Jammu
Sta 12,541,3 1.0 222,2
6,640,6 5,900,6
7,627,06 2,516,63
20 and
56
889 67.16
te
02 4
36
62
40
2
8
Kashmir
Uttarakh Sta 10,086,2 0.8 53,48
5,137,7 4,948,5
6,310,27 2,179,07
21
189
963 78.82
and
te
92 3
3
73
19
5
4
Himacha
Sta 6,864,60 0.5 55,67
3,481,8 3,382,7
5,482,31
22 l
123
972 82.80
595,581
te
2 7
3
73
29
9
Pradesh
Sta 3,673,91 0.3 10,48
1,874,3 1,799,5
2,653,45
23 Tripura
350
960 94.65
545,750
te
7 0
6
76
41
3
Meghala Sta 2,966,88 0.2 22,42
1,491,8 1,475,0
1,864,71
24
132
989 74.43
454,111
ya
te
9 5
9
32
57
1
Sta 2,855,79 0.2 22,32
1,290,1 1,280,2
1,590,82
25 Manipur
122
992 79.21
575,968
te
4 1
7
71
19
0
Nagalan Sta 1,978,50 0.1 16,57
1,024,6
1,647,24
26
119
953,853 931 79.55
342,787
d
te
2 6
9
49
9
Sta 1,458,54 0.1
27 Goa
3,702 394 739,140 719,405 973 88.70 677,091 670,577
te
5 2
Arunach
Sta 1,383,72 0.1 83,74
28 al
17 713,912 669,815 938 65.38 870,087 227,881
te
7 1
3
Pradesh
Pondich
1,247,95 0.1
2,59
29
UT
479
612,511 635,442 1037 85.85 325,726 648,619
erry
3 0
8
Sta 1,097,20 0.0 21,08
30 Mizoram
52 555,339 541,867 976 91.33 447,567 441,006
te
6 9
1
Chandig
1,055,45 0.0
9,25
31
UT
114
580,663 474,787 818 86.05 92,120 808,515
arh
0 9
2

Population distribution in India by states


State /
Dens
Sex
Rural Urban
[2 Area
Union Ty Populati %
ity
Female
Liter
Rank
Males
Ratio
Populati Populati
4] (km)
Territor pe
on
(per
s
acy
[25]
[26]
on[27]
on[27]
y
km)
Sta
0.0
32 Sikkim
610,577
7,096 86 323,070 287,507 890 81.42 480,981 59,870
te
5
Andama
n and
0.0
33
UT 380,581
8,249 46 202,871 177,710 876 86.63 239,954 116,198
Nicobar
3
Islands
Dadra
and
0.0
34
UT 343,709
491 698 193,760 149,949 774 76.24 170,027 50,463
Nagar
3
Haveli
Daman
0.0
2,16
35
UT 243,247
112
150,301 92,946 618 87.10 100,856 57,348
and Diu
2
9
Lakshad
0.0
2,01
36
UT 64,473
32
33,123 31,350 946 91.85 33,683 26,967
weep
1
3
TOT
29 1,210,72
3,287,
623,724 586,469
833,087, 377,105,
India
100
382
940 74.04
AL
+7
6,932
240
,248
,174
662
760

States in India
[hide]Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

India/State/UT
Uttar Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Bihar
Maharashtra
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Karnataka
Odisha
Assam
Gujarat
Jharkhand
Andhra Pradesh
Jammu and Kashmir
Haryana
Punjab
West Bengal

No. of
Districts
in 2001
45
45
37
35
32
30
27
30
23
25
18
23
14
19
17
18

No. of
Districts
in 2014
71
51
40
36
33
32
30
30
27
33
24
13
22
21
22
20

No. of Districts
without any geographical
change
34
31
18
25
24
26
15
20
9
13
5
17
8
17

[hide]Rank
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
Total

India/State/UT
Chhattisgarh
Kerala
Arunachal Pradesh
Uttarakhand
Himachal Pradesh
Nagaland
Delhi
Manipur
Mizoram
Meghalaya
Sikkim
Tripura
Puducherry
Andaman and Nicobar
Islands
Goa
Daman and Diu
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Chandigarh
Lakshadweep
Telangana
INDIA

No. of
Districts
in 2001
16
14
13
13
12
8
9
9
8
7
4
4
4

No. of
Districts
in 2014
27
14
17
13
12
11
11
9
8
11
4
8
4

No. of Districts
without any geographical
change
8
14
10
11
12
3
9
9
4
4
4
2
4

2
2
1
1
1
0
593

2
2
1
1
1
10
640

2
2
1
1
1
10
464

[28]

Religious demographics
Main article: Religion in India
[show]Religion

Religions of India[29][note 1][note 2]


Population

Percent

The table below summarizes India's demographics (excluding Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul
subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipur state due to cancellation of census results)
according to religion at the 2001 census in per cent. The data is "unadjusted" (without excluding
Assam and Jammu and Kashmir); The 1981 census was not conducted in Assam and the 1991
census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir.

Composition Hindus
% total of
80.50%

[30]

Table 2: Census information for 2001


Muslims[31] Christians[32] Sikhs[33] Buddhist[34] Jains[35] Others1[36]
13.40%
2.30%
1.90% 0.80%
0.40% 0.60%

Composition
population
10-year
growth % (est.
19912001)[37]
No. of
females/1000
males. (avg. =
944)
Literacy rate
(71.7% for age
7 and above)[38]
Work
participation
rate
Rural sex
ratio[37]
Urban sex
ratio[37]
Child sex ratio
(06 yrs)

Table 2: Census information for 2001


Hindus[30] Muslims[31] Christians[32] Sikhs[33] Buddhist[34] Jains[35] Others1[36]

20.3%

29.5%

22.6%

18.2%

18.2%

26.0% 103.1%

944

940

1009

895

955

940

75.5%

60.0%

90.3%

70.4%

73.0%

95.0% 50.0%

40.4

31.3

39.7

37.7

40.6

32.9

48.4

1000

953

1001

895

958

937

995

922

907

1026

886

944

941

966

925

950

964

786

942

870

976

1000

^1 including Bah's, Jews, and Parsis. Tribal Animists (and non religious) are included after
1926 (1931 census onwards)
Population trends for major religious groups in India(19512011)[39][40]
[41][42]

Religious
group

Population Population Population Population Population Population


% 1951
% 1961
% 1971
% 1981
% 1991
% 2001

Hindu

84.1%

83.45%

82.73%

82.30%

81.53%

80.46%

Muslim

9.8%

10.69%

11.21%

11.75%

12.61%

13.43%

2%

2.44%

2.60%

2.44%

2.32%

2.34%

1.89%

1.79%

1.89%

1.92%

1.94%

1.87%

Christian

Sikh

Religious
group

Population Population Population Population Population Population


% 1951
% 1961
% 1971
% 1981
% 1991
% 2001

Buddhist

0.74%

0.74%

0.70%

0.70%

0.77%

0.77%

Jain

0.46%

0.46%

0.48%

0.47%

0.40%

0.41%

Parsi

0.13%

0.09%

0.09%

0.09%

0.08%

0.06%

Animist, others 0.43%

0.43%

0.41%

0.42%

0.44%

0.72%

Neonatal and infant demographics

Male to female sex ratio for India, based on its official census data, from 1941 through 2011.[43]
The data suggests the existence of high sex ratios before and after the arrival of ultrasound-based
prenatal care and sex screening technologies in India.
The table below represents the infant mortality rate trends in India, by gender, in the last 15
years. In the urban areas of India, average male infant mortality rates are slightly higher than the
female infant mortality rates.

Year
1998 70
2005 56
2009 49

Infant mortality demographic trends of India per 1000 births


Infant (01 year), male
Infant (01 year), female
74
58
52

Reference
[44]
[45]
[46]

Some activists believe India's 2011 census shows a serious decline in the number of girls under
the age of seven - activists fear eight million female foetuses may have been aborted between
2001 and 2011.[47] These claims are controversial. Scientists who study human sex ratios and
demographic trends suggest that birth sex ratio between 1.08 to 1.12 can be because of natural
factors, such as the age of mother at baby's birth, age of father at baby's birth, number of babies
per couple, economic stress, endocrinological factors, etc.[48] The 2011 census birth sex ratio in
India, of 917 girls to 1000 boys, is similar to 870-930 girls to 1000 boys birth sex ratios observed
in Japanese, Chinese, Cuban, Filipino and Hawaiian ethnic groups in the United States between
1940 to 2005. They are also similar to birth sex ratios below 900 girls to 1000 boys observed in
mothers of different age groups and gestation periods in the United States.[49][50]

Population within the age group of 06


[hide]State/UT Code
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

India/State/UT
Jammu and Kashmir
Himachal Pradesh
Punjab
Chandigarh
Uttarakhand
Haryana
Delhi
Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh
Bihar
Sikkim
Arunachal Pradesh
Nagaland
Manipur
Mizoram
Tripura
Meghalaya
Assam
West Bengal
Jharkhand
Odisha
Chhattisgarh
Madhya Pradesh

Person
2,008,670
763,864
2,941,570
117,953
1,328,844
3,297,724
1,970,510
10,504,916
29,728,235
18,582,229
61,077
202,759
285,981
353,237
165,536
444,055
555,822
4,511,307
10,112,599
5,237,582
5,035,650
3,584,028
10,548,295

Males
1,080,662
400,681
1,593,262
63,187
704,769
1,802,047
1,055,735
5,580,212
15,653,175
9,615,280
31,418
103,430
147,111
182,684
83,965
227,354
282,189
2,305,088
5,187,264
2,695,921
2,603,208
1,824,987
5,516,957

Females
927,982
363,183
1,348,308
54,766
624,075
1,495,677
914,775
4,924,704
14,075,060
8,966,949
29,659
99,330
138,870
170,553
81,571
216,701
273,633
2,206,219
4,925,335
2,541,661
2,432,442
1,759,041
5,031,338

[hide]State/UT Code
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

India/State/UT
Gujarat
Daman and Diu
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Maharashtra
Andhra Pradesh
Karnataka
Goa
Lakshadweep
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
INDIA

[28]

Population above the age of 7

Life expectancy map of India, 2011-2016.[51]

Person
7,564464
25,880
49,196
12,848,375
8,642,686
6,855,801
139,495
7,088
3,322,247
6,894,821
127,610
39,497
158,789,287

Males
3,974,286
13,556
25,575
6,822,262
4,448,330
3,527,844
72,669
3,715
1,695,889
3,542,351
64,932
20,094
82,952,135

Females
3,519,890
23,621
6,026,113
4,194,356
3,327,957
66,826
3,373
1,626,358
3,352,470
62,678
19,403
75,837,152

[hide]State/UT
code
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Name
Jammu and Kashmir
Himachal Pradesh
Punjab
Chandigarh
Uttarakhand
Haryana
Delhi
Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh
Bihar
Sikkim
Arunachal Pradesh
Nagaland
Manipur
Mizoram
Tripura
Meghalaya
Assam
West Bengal
Jharkhand
Odisha
Chhattisgarh
Madhya Pradesh
Gujarat
Daman and Diu
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Maharashtra
Andhra Pradesh
Karnataka
Goa
Lakshadweep
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
India[28]

Literacy rate in India

Total

Population
Male

Female

22,055,357 11,703,083 10,352,274


14,782,725
7,920,675
6,862,050
58,116,096 30,039,874 28,076,222
169,853,242 88,943,240 80,910,002
85,222,408 44,570,067 40,652,341
546,611
290,243
256,368
1,179,852
616,802
563,050
1,694,621
878,596
816,025
2,368,519
1,187,080
1,181,439
925,478
468,374
457,104
3,226,977
1,644,513
1,582,464
2,408,185
1,210,479
1,197,706
26,657,965 13,649,839 13,008,126
81,235,137 41,740,125 39,495,012
27,728,656 14,235,767 13,492,889
36,911,708 18,598,470 18,313,238
21,956,168 11,002,928 10,953,240
62,049,270 32,095,963 29,953,307
52,889,452 27,507,996 25,381,456
217,031
136,544
80,487
293,657
167,603
126,054
99,524,597 51,539,135 47,985,462
76,022,847 38,061,551 37,961,296
54,274,903 27,529,898 26,745,005
1,318,228
668,042
650,186
57,341
29,391
27,950
65,244,137 32,616,520 32,627,617
1,116,854
545,553
571,301
340,447
182,236
158,211
1,051,404,135 540,772,113 510,632,022

Literacy rate map of India, 2011.[52]


State
India/State/UT
/UT Code
01
Jammu and Kashmir
02
Himachal Pradesh
03
Punjab
04
Chandigarh
05
Uttarakhand
06
Haryana
07
Delhi
08
Rajasthan
09
Uttar Pradesh
10
Bihar
11
Sikkim
12
Arunachal Pradesh
13
Nagaland
14
Manipur
15
Mizoram
16
Tripura
17
Meghalaya
18
Assam

Literate Persons (%) Males (%) Females (%)


86.61
83.78
76.6
86.43
79.63
76.64
86.34
67.06
69.72
63.82
82.20
66.95
80.11
79.85
91.58
87.75
75.48
73.18

87.26
90.83
81.48
90.54
88.33
85.38
91.03
80.51
79.24
73.39
87.29
73.69
83.29
86.49
93.72
92.18
77.17
78.81

85.23+76.60
71.34
81.38
70.70
66.77
80.93
52.66
59.26
53.33
76.43
59.57
76.69
73.17
89.40
83.15
73.78
67.27

State
/UT Code
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

India/State/UT
West Bengal
Jharkhand
Odisha
Chhattisgarh
Madhya Pradesh
Gujarat
Daman and Diu
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Maharashtra
Andhra Pradesh
Karnataka
Goa
Lakshadweep
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
INDIA

Literate Persons (%) Males (%) Females (%)


77.08
67.63
72.9
71.04
70.63
79.31
87.07
77.65
83.2
67.66
75.60
87.40
92.28
93.91
80.33
86.55
86.27
74.03

82.67
78.45
82.40
81.45
80.53
87.23
91.48
86.46
89.82
75.56
82.85
92.81
96.11
96.02
86.81
92.12
90.11
82.14

71.16
56.21
64.36
60.59
60.02
70.73
79.59
65.93
75.48
59.74
68.13
81.84
88.25
91.98
73.86
81.22
81.84
65.46

[28]

Linguistic demographics
Main article: List of languages by number of native speakers in India
41.03% of the Indians speak Hindi while the rest speak Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada,
Malayalam, Marathi, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and a variety of other languages.
The table immediately below excludes Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati
District of Manipur state due to cancellation of census results.

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Languages of India by number of native speakers at the 2001 census[53]


Language
Speakers
Percentage
[54]
Hindi dialects
422,048,642
41.03%
Bengali
83,369,769
8.11%
Telugu
74,002,856
7.19%
Marathi
71,936,894
6.99%
Tamil
60,793,814
5.91%
Urdu
51,536,111
5.01%
Gujarati
46,091,617
4.48%
Kannada
37,924,011
3.69%

Rank
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Languages of India by number of native speakers at the 2001 census[53]


Language
Speakers
Percentage
Malayalam
33,066,392
3.21%
Oriya
33,017,446
3.21%
Punjabi
29,102,477
2.83%
Assamese
13,168,484
1.28%
Maithili
12,179,122
1.18%
Bhili/Bhilodi
9,582,957
0.93%
Santali
6,469,600
0.63%
Kashmiri
5,527,698
0.54%
Nepali
2,871,749
0.28%
Gondi
2,713,790
0.26%
Sindhi
2,535,485
0.25%
Konkani
2,489,015
0.24%
Dogri
2,282,589
0.22%
Khandeshi
2,075,258
0.20%
Kurukh
1,751,489
0.17%
Tulu
1,722,768
0.17%
Meitei (Manipuri)
1,466,705*
0.14%
Bodo
1,350,478
0.13%
Khasi - Garo
1,128,575
0.112%
Mundari
1,061,352
0.105%
Ho
1,042,724
0.103%

Largest cities

Largest cities or towns in India

Mumbai

Census India, 2011 [55]


Ran
State/U
Ran
Name
Pop.
Name
k
T
k
Maharas 12,478,
1 Mumbai
11 Jaipur
htra
447
11,007,
2 Delhi
Delhi
12 Kanpur
835
3 Chennai Tamil
8,425,9 13 Lucknow

State/U
Pop.
T
Rajastha 3,073,3
n
50
Uttar
2,920,0
Pradesh
67
Uttar
2,901,4

Chennai

Nadu
Hyderab Telangan
ad
a
Bangalor Karnatak
e
a
Ahmeda
Gujarat
bad
West
Kolkata
Bengal

Delhi

70
6,809,9
4
70
5,570,5
5
85
4,681,0
6
87
4,486,6
7
79
4,462,0
8 Surat
Gujarat
02
Uttar
3,676,8
9 Varanasi
Pradesh
41
Maharas 3,115,4
10 Pune
htra
31

14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Pradesh
74
Maharas 2,405,4
Nagpur
htra
21
Madhya 1,960
Indore
Pradesh
521
Maharast 1,818,8
Thane
ra
72
Madhya 1,795,6
Bhopal
Pradesh
48
Visakhapat Andhra 1,730,3
nam
Pradesh
20 Hyderabad
PimpriMaharas 1,729,3
Chinchwad htra
59
1,683,2
Patna
Bihar
00

Vital statistics
UN estimates[56]
Period
1950
1955
1955
1960
1960
1965
1965
1970
1970
1975
1975
1980
1980
1985
1985
1990
1990
1995
1995

Natural
Births per Deaths per
change per
year
year
year

CBR1

CDR1

NC1

TFR1

IMR1

16,832,000

9,928,000

6,904,000

43.3

25.5

17.7

5.90

165.0

17,981,000

9,686,000

8,295,000

42.1

22.7

19.4

5.90

153.1

19,086,000

9,358,000

9,728,000

40.4

19.8

20.6

5.82

140.1

20,611,000

9,057,000 11,554,000

39.2

17.2

22.0

5.69

128.5

22,022,000

8,821,000 13,201,000

37.5

15.0

22.5

5.26

118.0

24,003,000

8,584,000 15,419,000

36.3

13.0

23.3

4.89

106.4

25,577,000

8,763,000 16,814,000

34.5

11.8

22.7

4.47

95.0

26,935,000

9,073,000 17,862,000

32.5

10.9

21.5

4.11

85.1

27,566,000

9,400,000 18,166,000

30.0

10.2

19.8

3.72

76.4

27,443,000

9,458,000 17,985,000

27.2

9.4

17.8

3.31

68.9

Period
2000
2000
2005
2005
2010

Natural
Births per Deaths per
change per
year
year
year

CBR1

CDR1

NC1

TFR1

IMR1

27,158,000

9,545,000 17,614,000

24.8

8.7

16.1

2.96

60.7

27,271,000

9,757,000 17,514,000

23.1

8.3

14.8

2.73

52.9

CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR =
total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Sample Registration System[57][58]

Total fertility rate map of India, showing distribution of average births per woman by its states
and union territories, as of 2012.[59]
Crude
Crude
Average
death
Natural
Total
Live
Natural birth rate
1
population
Deaths
rate
change Fertility
births1
change
(per
(x 1000)
(per (per 1000)
Rate
1000)
1000)
24 289
15 333
1981
716 493
8 956 000
33.9
12.5
21.4
000
000

1982

733 152

1983

750 034

1984

767 147

1985

784 491

1986

802 052

1987

819 800

1988

837 700

1989

855 707

1990

873 785

1991

891 910

1992

910 065

1993

928 226

1994

946 373

1995

964 486

1996

982 553

1997

1 000 558

1998

1 018 471

1999

1 036 259

2000

1 053 898

2001

1 071 374

2002

1 088 694

2003

1 105 886

24 781
000
25 276
000
26 006
000
25 810
000
26 147
000
26 316
000
26 388
000
26 185
000
26 388
000
26 133
000
26 392
000
26 640
000
27 161
000
27 295
000
26 824
000
27 215
000
26 989
000
26 943
000
27 191
000
27 213
000
27 217
000
27 426
000

8 725 000
8 925 000
9 666 000
9 257 000
8 903 000
8 936 000
9 215 000
8 814 000
8 476 000
8 741 000
9 192 000
8 633 000
8 801 000
8 680 000
8 745 000
8 905 000
9 166 000
9 015 000
8 958 000
9 000 000
8 818 000
8 847 000

16 056
000
16 351
000
16 340
000
16 553
000
17 244
000
17 380
000
17 173
000
17 371
000
17 912
000
17 392
000
17 200
000
18 007
000
18 360
000
18 615
000
18 079
000
18 310
000
17 823
000
17 928
000
18 233
000
18 213
000
18 399
000
18 579
000

33.8

11.9

21.9

33.7

11.9

21.8

33.9

12.6

21.3

32.9

11.8

21.1

32.6

11.1

21.5

32.1

10.9

21.2

31.5

11.0

20.5

30.6

10.3

20.3

30.2

9.7

20.5

29.3

9.8

19.5

29.0

10.1

18.9

28.7

9.3

19.4

28.7

9.3

19.4

28.3

9.0

19.3

27.3

8.9

18.4

27.2

8.9

18.3

26.5

9.0

17.5

26.0

8.7

17.3

25.8

8.5

17.3

25.4

8.4

17.0

25.0

8.1

16.9

24.8

8.0

16.8

3.8

3.5

3.2

2004

1 122 991

2005

1 140 043

2006

1 157 039

2007

1 173 972

2008

1 190 864

2009

1 207 740

2010

1 224 614

2011

1 242 738

2012

1 261 006

2013

1 279 416

27 064
000
27 133
000
27 190
000
27 119
000
27 152
000
27 174
000
27 064
000
27 092
000
27 237
000
27 379
500

8 422 000
8 664 000
8 678 000
8 687 000
8 812 000
8 817 000
8 817 000
8 823 000
8 827 000
8 955 900

18 642
000
18 469
000
18 512
000
18 432
000
18 340
000
18 357
000
18 247
000
18 268
000
18 410
000
18 423
600

24.1

7.5

16.6

23.8

7.6

16.2

23.5

7.5

16.0

23.1

7.4

15.7

22.8

7.4

15.4

2.6

22.5

7.3

15.2

2.6

22.1

7.2

14.9

2.5

21.8

7.1

14.7

2.44

21.6

7.0

14.6

2.4

21.4

7.0

14.4

2.3

2.9

The numbers of births and deaths were calculated from the birth and death rates and the average population

Regional vital Statistics


The below table gives the vital statistics (Births, Deaths, IMR and NGR) for the year 2010,
according to the Registrar Gen., India.[60]
State
Andhra Pradesh
Assam
Arunachal Pradesh
Chhattisgarh
Delhi
Gujarat
Haryana
Jammu and Kashmir
Jharkhand
Karnataka
Kerala
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Odisha

Birth BR BR Death DR DR
NGR NGR
NGR
IMR
Rate Rural Urban Rate Rural Urban
Rural Urban
17.9 18.3 16.7
7.6 8.6
5.4 1.02% 0.97% 1.13% 46
23.2 24.4 15.8
8.2 8.6
5.8 1.49% 1.58% 1.01% 58
28.1 28.8 22.0
6.8 7.0
5.6 2.13% 2.18% 1.64% 48
25.3 26.8 18.6
8.0 8.4
6.2 1.73% 1.84% 1.24% 51
17.8 19.7 17.5
4.2 4.6
4.1 1.36% 1.50% 1.34% 30
21.8 23.3 19.4
6.7 7.5
5.5 1.51% 1.58% 1.40% 44
22.3 23.3 19.8
6.6 7.0
5.6 1.57% 1.63% 1.43% 48
18.3 19.5 13.5
5.7 5.9
4.7 1.26% 1.36% 0.88% 43
25.3 26.7 19.3
7.0 7.4
5.4 1.83% 1.93% 1.39% 42
19.2 20.2 17.5
7.1 8.1
5.4 1.21% 1.21% 1.21% 38
14.8 14.8 14.8
7.0 7.1
6.7 0.78% 0.77% 0.81% 13
27.3 29.2 20.5
8.3 9.0
6.0 1.89% 2.02% 1.45% 62
35.1 34.6 26.4 26.3 25.5 22.3 3.06% 3.02% 3.11% 78
20.5 21.4 15.2
8.6 9.0
6.6 1.19% 1.24% 0.86% 61

State
Punjab
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
Bihar
Goa
Himachal Pradesh
Manipur
Meghalaya
Mizoram
Nagaland
Sikkim
Tripura
Uttarakhand
Andaman and Nicobar
Islands
Chandigarh
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Daman and Diu
Lakshadweep
Puducherry

Birth BR BR Death DR DR
NGR NGR
NGR
IMR
Rate Rural Urban Rate Rural Urban
Rural Urban
16.6 17.2 15.6
7.0 7.7
5.8 0.96% 0.95% 0.98% 34
26.7 27.9 22.9
6.7 6.9
6.0 2.00% 2.09% 1.69% 55
15.9 16.0 15.8
7.6 8.2
6.9 0.83% 0.78% 0.89% 24
28.3 29.2 24.2
8.1 8.5
6.3 2.02% 2.07% 1.79% 61
16.8 18.6 11.9
6.0 6.0
6.3 1.07% 1.26% 0.56% 31
20.5 22.1 14.6
5.9 6.9
2.3 1.46% 1.52% 1.23% 31
13.2 12.6 13.7
6.6 8.1
5.7 0.66% 0.45% 0.80% 10
16.9 17.5 11.5
6.9 7.2
4.2 1.00% 1.03% 0.73% 40
14.9 14.8 15.3
4.2 4.3
4.0 1.07% 1.05% 1.13% 14
24.5 26.6 14.8
7.9 8.4
5.6 1.66% 1.82% 0.92% 55
17.1 21.1 13.0
4.5 5.4
3.7 1.25% 1.57% 0.93% 37
16.8 17.0 16.0
3.6 3.7
3.3 1.32% 1.33% 1.27% 23
17.8 18.1 16.1
5.6 5.9
3.8 1.23% 1.23% 1.23% 30
14.9 15.6 11.5
5.0 4.8
5.7 0.99% 1.08% 0.58% 27
19.3 20.2 16.2
6.3 6.7
5.1 1.30% 1.35% 1.11% 38
15.6 15.5

15.8

4.3

4.8

3.3 1.13% 1.07% 1.26%

25

15.6
26.6
18.8
14.3
16.7

15.0
28.6
18.3
13.2
16.7

3.9
4.7
4.9
6.4
7.4

3.7
5.1
4.9
6.1
8.2

3.9 1.16% 1.79%


3.3 2.19% 2.09%
4.8 1.39% 1.42%
6.7 0.80% 0.95%
7.0 0.93% 0.85%

22
38
23
25
22

21.6
26.0
19.1
15.5
16.7

1.10%
2.53%
1.36%
0.65%
0.96%

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics


The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise
indicated.
Total population
1,166,079,217 (July 2009 est. CIA)[61] 1,210 million (2011 Census)[2] .

Map showing the population density in India, per 2011 Census.[62]


Rural Population
72.2%, male: 381,668,992, female: 360,948,755 (2001 Census)
Age structure
014 years: 30.8%, male: 188,208,196, female: 171,356,024
1564 years: 64.3%, male: 386,432,921, female: 364,215,759
65+ years: 4.9%, male: 27,258,259, female: 30,031,289 (2007 est.)
Median age
25.1 years
Population growth rate
1.548% (2009 est.)
Literacy rate
74% (Age 7 and above, in 2011)[52]
81.4% (Total population, Age 15-25, in 2006) [63]

Per cent of the population under the poverty line


22% (2006 est.)
Unemployment Rate
7.8%
Net migration rate
0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
under 10 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
1524 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
2464 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.908 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 65.8 years (Source: UN Human Development Report 2013)
Total fertility rate
2.72 children born/woman (2009 est.), although more up to date statistics indicate that India's
TFR was 2.6 in 2008 [64] The TFR (Total number of children born per women) according to
Religion in 2001 was :
Hindus 2.0 Muslims 3.4 Sikhs 2.1 Christians 2.1 Buddhists 2.1 Jains 1.4
Animists and Others 2.99 Tribals 3.16 Scheduled Castes 2.89[citation needed]
Religions
Hindu 80.5% Muslim 13.4% Christian 2.3% Sikh 1.8% Buddhists 0.8% Jains 0.4% others 0.7%
unspecified 0.1% (2001 Census) [65][66][67][68]
Scheduled Castes and Tribes
Scheduled Castes: 16.2% (2001 Census) Scheduled Tribes: 8.2% (2001 Census)
Languages: See Languages of India and List of Indian languages by total speakers. There are
216 languages with more than 10,000 native speakers in India. The largest of these is Hindi with

some 337 million (the second largest being Bengali. 22 languages are recognized as official
languages. In India, there are 1,652 languages and dialects in total.[69][70]

Population projections
India is projected to overtake China as the world's most populous nation by 2030. India's
population growth has raised concerns that it would lead to widespread unemployment and
political instability.[71][72] Note that these projections make assumptions about future fertility and
death rates which may not turn out to be correct in the event.
Source:[73]

2020: 1,326,093,000

2030: 1,460,743,000

2040: 1,571,715,000

2050: 1,656,554,000

2020 Estimate
In millions (example: 361 = 361,000,000)
Source:[74]
Year
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020

Under 15
361
368
370
372
373

1564
604
673
747
819
882

65+
45
51
58
65
76

Total
1010
1093
1175
1256
1332

Ethnic groups
See also: South Asian ethnic groups, Ethnic relations in India, Historical definitions of races in
India and Caste system in India
The national Census of India does not recognize racial or ethnic groups within India,[75] but
recognizes many of the tribal groups as Scheduled Castes and Tribes (see list of Scheduled
Tribes in India). Nevertheless, some anthropologists classify Indians as belonging to one of four
major ethno-racial groups, which significantly overlap because of racial admixture between
populations: Caucasoids, Australoids, Mongoloids and Negritos. The Caucasoids are found in the
north, central and south-western regions of India and generally speak Indo-Aryan languages;

Australoids are found in the south and generally speak Dravidian languages; Mongoloids are
largely confined to the Northeastern region of the country and for the most part, speak SinoTibetan languages; and Negritos are found on the Andaman Islands located on the southeastern
side of the country. These speak a language known simply as Great Andamanese, a linguistic
isolate not related to any known language. And finally, Austroasiatic languages are spoken by
only tribals or Adivasis, who can be of either Australoid or Mongoloid racial stock.[76]
According to a 2009 study published by Reich et al., the modern Indian population is composed
of two genetically divergent and heterogeneous populations which mixed in ancient times (about
1,200-3,500 BC), known as Ancestral North Indians (ANI) and Ancestral South Indians (ASI).
ASI corresponds to the Dravidian-speaking population of southern India, whereas ANI
corresponds to the Indo-Aryan-speaking population of northern India.[77][78]
For a list of ethnic groups in the Republic of India (as well as neighboring countries) see ethnic
groups of the Indian subcontinent or the tree diagram above.

Genetics
See also: Y-DNA haplogroups in South Asian populations

Y-chromosome DNA
[79]

Y-Chromosome DNA Y-DNA represents the male lineage, The Indian Y-chromosome pool may
be summarized as follows where haplogroups R-M420, H, R2, L and NOP comprise generally
more than 80% of the total chromosomes.[80]

H ~ 30%

R1a ~ 20%

R2 ~ 15%

L ~ 10%

NOP ~ 10% (Excluding R)

Other Haplogroups 15%

Mitochondrial DNA
[81]

Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA represents the female lineage. The Indian mitochondrial DNA is
primarily made up of Haplogroup M[82]

Haplogroup M ~ 60%

Haplogroup UK ~ 15%

Haplogroup N ~ 25% (Excluding UK)

Autosomal DNA
Numerous genomic studies have been conducted in the last 15 years to seek insights into India's
demographic and cultural diversity. These studies paint a complex and conflicting picture.

In a 2003 study, Basu, Majumder et al. have concluded on the basis of results obtained
from mtDNA, Y-chromosome and autosomal markers that "(1) there is an underlying
unity of female lineages in India, indicating that the initial number of female settlers may
have been small; (2) the tribal and the caste populations are highly differentiated; (3) the
Austroasiatic tribals are the earliest settlers in India, providing support to one
anthropological hypothesis while refuting some others; (4) a major wave of humans
entered India through the northeast; (5) the Tibeto-Burman tribals share considerable
genetic commonalities with the Austroasiatic tribals, supporting the hypothesis that they
may have shared a common habitat in southern China, but the two groups of tribals can
be differentiated on the basis of Y-chromosomal haplotypes; (6) the Dravidian speaking
populations were possibly widespread throughout India but are regulated to South India
now ; (7) formation of populations by fission that resulted in founder and drift effects
have left their imprints on the genetic structures of contemporary populations; (8) the
upper castes show closer genetic affinities with Central Asian populations, although those
of southern India are more distant than those of northern India; (9) historical gene flow
into India has contributed to a considerable obliteration of genetic histories of
contemporary populations so that there is at present no clear congruence of genetic and
geographical or sociocultural affinities."[83]

In a later 2010 review article, Majumder affirms some of these conclusions, introduces
and revises some other. The ongoing studies, concludes Majumder, suggest India has
served as the major early corridor for geographical dispersal of modern humans from outof-Africa. The archaeological and genetic traces of the earliest settlers in India has not
provided any conclusive evidence. The tribal populations of India are older than the nontribal populations. The autosomal differentiation and genetic diversity within India's caste
populations at 0.04 is significantly lower than 0.14 for continental populations and 0.09
for 31 world population sets studied by Watkins et al., suggesting that while tribal
populations were differentiated, the differentiation effects within India's caste population
was less than previously thought. Majumder also concludes that recent studies suggest
India has been a major contributor to the gene pool of southeast Asia.[84][85]

Another study covering a large sample of Indian populations allowed Watkins et al. to
examine eight Indian caste groups and four endogamous south Indian tribal populations.
The Indian castes data show low between-group differences, while the tribal Indian
groups show relatively high between-group differentiation. This suggests that people
between Indian castes were not reproductively isolated, while Indian tribal populations
experienced reproductive isolation and drift. Furthermore, the genetic fixation index data
shows historical genetic differentiation and segregation between Indian castes population
is much smaller than those found in east Asia, Africa and other continental populations;
while being similar to the genetic differentiation and segregation observed in European
populations.[85]

In 2006, Sahoo et al. reported their analysis of genomic data on 936 Y-chromosomes
representing 32 tribal and 45 caste groups from different regions of India. These scientists
find that the haplogroup frequency distribution across the country, between different caste
groups, was found to be predominantly driven by geographical, rather than cultural
determinants. They conclude there is clear evidence for both large-scale immigration into
ancient India of Sino-Tibetan speakers and language change of former Austroasiatic
speakers, in the northeast Indian region.[86][87]

The genome studies through 2010 have been on relatively small population sets. Many
are from just one southeastern state of Andhra Pradesh (including Telangana, which was
part of the state until June 2014). Any conclusions on demographic history of India must
therefore be interpreted with caution. A larger national genome study with demographic
growth and sex ratio balances may offer further insights on the extent of genetic
differentiation and segregation in India over the millenniums.[84]