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Lennart Ege


. III.:mJlrrJ

Lennart Ege

h is nearly IWO hundred yean .inee man

finl Idl lhe gf'(KInd andlravcllcd Ihrough
the air in a vehicle of hi. own design. His
aerial carriage w.. only a (rail, paper.
co\'ered en.ft with a burning braz.ier at
iu base 10 provide the hot air thai railed
it (rom the ground ; but (rom .uch humble
beginnin8lllemmed the ilUpinuion that
h. . . nee carried him 01.1110 worlds beyond
hi, own.
Aner hOi air came hydrocen .. the lin
ing medium, and ancr Ihe (rcc baUoon
eame the ainhip, which could be poweTcd
and lleered in Right. In 80 well-cholcn
examples thit volume illuurates IWO
centuries of progrca in lighter.than.air
flighl , from the M ontgolficr brolhcn'
original 'doud in a paper bag' of 1783 to
iu prent-day Counierpari #\own by
sporumen in many paru of the world .
In between lie the (amoul, the in
famoul and the almOit unknown : great
pioneer names like Lebaudy, Charla and
Parse\'al ; Ihe giant Zeppelin ainhip!lhal
operated the world ', finl airline tcrvittl
in 1910- 14 before their military brethren,
Ihose ' moosten of Ihe purple Iwilight' ,
rained lefTl)r on LondOfl in the Finl
World War; the great Italian polar air
ship! of the 19701 ; Ihe balloon bombl
launched by Japan agailll! the Uniled
Stales in World War 2; headlinemaken
like the Hindenburg and R 101 ; the
unlung but highl y . UCh 'ul blimp! of
Ihe US Navy ; and many m()re .
The illustrations arc by Ouo Frello and
the book is edited by Kenneth Mumon,
aUlhor of the Pocket Encyclopaedia of
Aircnft teriQ.

The Pocket Encyclopaedia

or World Aircraft in Colour

1783- 1973
Editor of the English edition
from translation prepared by
Illustrated by



Fifll &,/iJA NitUm 1973

RrfWUtltd '974

English text
'973 Hlandford Press Ltd
167 High Holbom, London WCI V 6PII
World Copyright C '973
Politikens Forlag A / S

0 "37


All richlS CiCnc:d. No pan of mi. hook may

be IC..-odooed or trantmitted in any fonn or by
any mt:anI, el-troNc or mcehanical, inc1udinc
photocopyirlf, iCCOiidina: or by any inCormation. ltorage
and l"Cuicval ry.tnn, without pumiion in writin,
rrom the: publisher.



Tat printed and boob bDund in Great Britain by

Buder a TaMcr Ltd, Frome and London
Colour lettion printed in Dcrunark



1,.e 'World Aircraft in Color' series would be: incomplete

without a book. dealing with balloons and airships. This latest
tide in the series is therefore essential to the series and deals with
a fasdnating subject.
Eighty different types ofbaUOOOl and ainhips from '783 up to
the present day are illustrated and described in this book, which
presents an authentic cavalcade of the development of balloons
and airships down through the years. It is not claimed to be: a
comprehensive selection. Twice that number could easily have
been included, but the author has endeavoured to present in part
those 1>3.110001 and airships which represent defmite stept in the
development of aeronautics generally and in part those which
lcfl their indelible impressions in that field . For the latter reason
this book includes lOme LTA ( types that
previous publications dealing with this subject have not described at great length. It should be: obvious that a book on airships will to a great extent be dominated by two names which
even today are synonymous with tltis type of aircraft: Zeppelin
and Good)'Cllr.
This selection ius been made, and the text written, by the
Danish aviation historian Lennart Ege; the color plates are tbe
work of artist Otto FreIlo. The eompilation of this book would
ha\'e been a more difficult task if the Librnry of the Danish Air
Force, headed by librarian S. Aa. Jeppesen and located in
Vacrle.e, had not made available its vast collection of rare
"olumes and series of old periodicals on this subject to both
auLhor and artist. We are also especially indebted to Mr C.
Sch6nw1lder. an engineer now residing in Copenhagen, who
reor.ived his training on, and bec3me: a crew member of, the
pa"enger ainhips Vi!tDrUz iIlis" lJansa and Stulum and the first
German naval ainhipt L I, L 2 and L 3. He willingly contributed
authoritative, firsthand observations and infonnation on their
appearnna:. equipment and fates. Further valuable assistance,
both with regard to thc selection of tbe aircraft to be dealt with

and in supplying data about them, was rendered by: Colonel

Rougevin-&ville of the Mw&: de I'Air in Paris; Lieutenant
Commander W. J. Tuck at the Science Museum in London;
managing director Diplom Kaufmann Peter FOrster and library
manager Dr Ernst H. Berninger, of the Deutscha Museum in
Munich; anistant director E. W. Robisc:hon at the National Air
and Space Museum, Smitluonian Institution, Washington, D.C.;
Lyle Schwilling, manager of Goodyear Aerospace Corporation,
Akron, Ohio; curator Olav Wetting, of the Norwegian Tech
nical Museum in OsJo; flight instructor Johannes TIUIIC5C:n,
Jakobsberg, Sweden; aviation historian Erik Hildesheim, Copenhagen, and Mrs Milly Ege, Espelgzrde, Denmark. The work
of translation and revision necnary for the English edition was
undertaken by Mr Erik Hildesheim, an experienced aviation
engineer and aviator who has Hown with balloons and airships,
and who is well known as a writer in Europe and U.S.A. The
editor of the English edition is Mr Kenneth Munson, a specialist
writer on aircraft and the author of the other titles in tltis scries.


11troughout all periods of our civilisation, Man has concemed

hilllscif with leaving terra firma and rising into the air. Even
thousands of yean ago our anceston, while roaming about
wearily. would stop for a moment occasionally and glance skywards in contemplation of the birds who flew about unhindered
and seemingly without effort.
There are innumerable tales and myths dealing with fiying
gods and human beings in various shapes. Dest known is undoubtedly the c1anicallegend from Greece which deab with the young
Icarus, who escaped from imprisonment by means of wings, the
feathers of which were fastened. with wax. In his exuberant joy
over his recovered flccdom, Icarus climbed too high and the
heat from the sun melted the wax in his wings, causing him to
plunge to his de."\th in the waten which until.ecent years were
named the l earian Sea. There are reports of a Chinese emperor,
Shun, who more than four thousand years ago a lso escaped from
his prison by fashioning himself a pair ofbird's wings. A contemporary compatriot of his, I-I.ik-Tse, became renowned primarily
for his sky travels. Among the Canadian Cra Indillill reportJ are
spread of one of their tribe who flew in feather garbs. Even the
Incas in Peru had their AyarUtso who sprouted bird's wings.
In A Tlrnsand and OM Jii,/ds, one tale conttJilJ a mechanical
Oring horse - certainly a variation of the well-known fiying
carpet I In our own latitudes there is the story about Wayland the
Smith whOle brother, gil, procured him a. 'Oygil' (ffight tunic)
made from featlltrS procured from vultures. The Finns have
their own unique lImarinen, who simply created a Fire Bird. In
Denmark the thunder god Thor flashes 3CiC5L the s:ky in fiace:
competition with aU JOrts of winged wonden or monsten.
Numerow generations have reported boom and uproar, smoke
and steam, but nothing definite enough to fix as the date of
Man's fint, genuine Right. Yet all these visions are no more
imaginary than the 'weightless' sky chariots that only a few years
ago invaded our newspapen, radio and television Jets as a

---- ford-aste of the strange contraptions that will carry coming generations into outer space.
In our search for something of any substance, we came across
a French source which tells of 1\ missionary who once found, in
:lrchives in Peking, a report of the way the civilised nations of the
east IOlved the problem of aerial navigation by means ofballoons,
centuries before the Europeans. And herewith we approach the
.ubstance of the problem: there never has been a true fl)'ing
human being and there will never be one. Man is defeated by
the fact that the weight of the human body is out of proportion
to its muscular strength. However ingenious the flying machine
schemes may be, they all have one defect in common: their lack of
a mechanical power source. Down through the yean many
designs have been tried out. With .orne of these contraptions
jumps have been made from roofs and towers; they usually
ended disaJtrowly.
Man's first idea was to copy the flight of birds, the 'heavierthan-air' principle. It had lo be abandoned for a while and at
the ~inning of the seventeenth century a new conception came
about: air trowel had to be tackJed on the 'Iighter-than-air' basis.
nle French author J e..m-Savinien Cyrano de Bcrgerac (16191655) was one of the first to realise this possibility. Around 1650
he wrote some fiction novels about travels to the moon and the
sun. This prophetic Frenchman worked out these trips by means
of a girdle lo which were fastened bottles filled with dew. ~ the
sunbeams he;!.ted the bottles their content became lighter, 10 the
wearer of the girdle climbed skywards. Adjustment of the altitude
was very simple: one bottle - or more - was simply smashed.
This method worked, in theory at least, because he was on the
right track even though he failed fuUy to realise the scope of his
idea: the finding of a substance lighter than air. For argument's
sake he even mentioned some lightweight tanks that climbed
when smoke was produced inside them. If the author had carried
his thought a bit further, and had provided a hole in the bottom
of his tanh, right then and there we sbould have had our first
conception of the hot-air balloon.
The Italian scientist Galileo ('564-1642) had already proved,
ea rly in the ICvcnteenth cen tury, that air has weight. J fe first
weighed some air-fLlled bottles, tllen the $ ones again after
the air had been evacuated from them.

The Jesuit Father FranceKo de Lana-Teni (1631-1687) from

Brescia in I taly might be conside.ed the proper 'inventor' of the
b:tlloon. In .670 he published a design for an aerial ~l project
to be supported by four spheres made from very thm copper
sheet. A vacuum was lo be created in them j then, de Lana
re,,...ned, the vehicle should rise, for the spheres would weigh
less than the air they displaced. This experiment was made possible, at least in theory, thanks to the Gelman p.hysicist Duo \"On
Guericke ( .600- 1686) from Magdeburg, who m 1650 had perfected the air pump (the 'Magdeburg semi-spheres'). Dc Lana
either did not realise, or conveniently ignored, the fact that
atmOSpheric pi essure would limply cause the spheres lo collapse.
Thus de Lana's scheme was impractical and his aerial vessel was
nC\-'Cr built; yet he pointed the way to a thrilling application of
the principle which was discussed extensively and brought him
many honours.
In 1736 lOme rumours circulated in Europe to the effect tllat
a Brazilian clergyman, Father Bartolomeu de Gusmlo, had
ascended in an 'airship'. This was an exaggeration. Many years
earlier, however, Gusmilo had .ubmitted his ideas on lightcrthan-air Right to the Portuguese king, J ohan V, who became
enthusiastic and gave him financial support. After some unsuccessful experiments, Gusm!o successfully dcmorulrated a model
hot-air balloon before the Portuguese court on 8 August '709 the first demonstration of its kind in history. It involved a light
wooden framework covered with paper below which a fire was
kept burning. The later rumours referred to a more ambitious
design called the Passarola (Great Bird), which is thought to have
boen a p3$'enger-calT)'ing nacelle intended to be raised alon by
a large hot-air lxtlloon. There is no ICCOrd that the Passarola
ever flew, but there is a remarkable similarity betwee:n its carriage
:lnd that of a heavier-than-air C'onvertiplane designed more than
a century later by Sir George Cayley.
While these groping efforU to build a practical 'airship' \\-'Cre
going on, true scientists devoted much of their time lo the study
of the various In 1766 the English chemist Henry Cavendish discovered hydrogen, originally known as 'inflammable air'.
In 1774 another Englishman, the natural scientin Dr J oseph
Priestley, dealt with this new gas in a treatise on the strength of
which Dr J OICph Black (1728-1799) in Edinburgh conceived the

Rlaid linhip

I. Moorln, point (for attachment to

moor!!l, mast)
2. Gunner I platform with speakln,
tube to keel
J. Exterior catwalk
4. Valves
S. Upr,r fixed uU fin with rudder

6. Tal cunner/ observer's sut


t I.

lower flKed all fin with rudder

Water ballut relent
Propeller on rear Mline car
Combined buffer Ind flot:l.tion luI

12. Forward enclne InsUllatlon

13. Door and platform for pa~chute


14. 8rl Ie
IS. Sulrw2y to airshi p hull
16. Water lullut release

21. Passageway runnln, full len,th

of keel
22. f ue l unks
23. Water oollast for use In

17. Plan view Ihowln, fixed hor!


zontll tall surf",e! and ellntors

18. Gas cells (toul of IS)


19. Connectln, puu. way from keel

to rur observer/ cunner's posi-


t ion

20. Water



(for emer,ency


manoeuvrlnl the airship

Crew accommodation
Officers' mU5 and ubln.
Water lla.\llIt for USII In man
oeuvrl 0c the II "hlp
Water blllast (for emercency
PasuCeway for entry from moor
inc nust to all SttCtlons of airship

idea that when confined within a lufJicient1y light cover the

laner would rise. It .truck an Italian who lived. in England.
Tiberius Cavallo, that it should be possible to demonstrate the
coiicdness of this theory in a tangible manner. He did not succeed, though, for he lacked sufficient technical skill to make
an imp.cgllated gu-tight balloon envelope. Instead the scene
shifted to France, where the world was lOOn to witness the I)'1tematic and purposeful work of two men who transronned the
theories about the variow gases into a practical result. They were
the brothers Joseph and Etienne Montgolfier from Vidalon-IesAnnonay, near Lyons, who were the first to produce a manCtlrrying hot-air balloon. TIlls type is called the Montgolfibe.
aner them.
. Once Man had sucooeded in producing a pr3ctical balloon
It was only natwa1 that his attention should nat be directed
towards turning it into a genuine aerial vehicle which could be
driven by sail power or by means of Dan and be steel cd with a
rudder. It W3S lOOn realised that, to render a balloon dirigible
(steerable) at all, it mwt advance at a higher speed than the air
surrounding it. No su~table means of propulsion being available,
the last years of the tJghteenth century brought forward a. great
number of weird propositions. They comprised schemes employing airscreWi or complete driving wheels operated by brawny
~en or even by horses. Other suggested means of propulsion
~nclud~ hOI-.air or steam jet propulsion. Even the idea of employmg traJned bIrds as draught animals was advanced in aU seriowness. Here eagles were the first choice, but even pigeons had their
a.dvocates. ~ng ~e 'bird punge' proponents may be menlIoned Kayser In Vienna (ISoI), MdntOlh in London (1835)
and Madame Tessiore in Paris ( 1845).
Not everything was pure imaginative fancy. One voice expressing c1ear-Jighted conceptioN abo spoke out. It belonged to
the Engl~hman Sir George Cayley ( 1773-1857), one of Ihe most
outstanding ligures in the whole history of aeronautics. His contributions in these are many and varied. Among the
p~blems bckled by him was the development of a real lightWeIght Iteam o~ compressed-air engine, eo.-en of the piston type.
But for a long tlIne nobody heeded his revolutionary, pioneering
Though Cayley remained the ignored 'lonely swallow',

common ~nse lOOn began to prevail, and as early as 1784 a

Lieutenant (later General) in the French Corps of Engineen,
Jean-BaptiJte Meusnier (1754-1793). presented piaN for a balloon of dongated shape which would ofTer leu resistance in
forward movement through the air. He abo introduced a new
conception ror maintaining the shape or the outer gas-filled
envelope, as gas escaped through it, by means or a smaIler inner
bag termed the 'ballonet', which was to be filled with air supplied
rrom a pump mounted in the car. This ingeniow principle has
ever since been adopted in all non-rigid and semi-rigid ainhips.
The Mewnier ainhip was to have been driven by three large
propdlen. Suitably shaped propeUen or aincrev.'I had already
been envisaged or tried out by such aeronauts as Alban, Blanchard, Potain and VaJlet. However, as already mentioned, a
suitable powerplant remained the problem. Steam engines wen:
available, or course, but their performance was feeble and they
remained too heavy and clumsy ror we as aelo-engines. Mewnier
calculated that 80 men should be needed to drive ltis ainhip by
hand at the nttesSary lpeed to render the rudder effective. TIlls
would mean an ainhip orluch large size as to make it impractical.
Yet Mewnier will be remembered rorever as the one who really
conceived the luccusrul dirigible ai~hip rorm.
The fint serious attempt to build a dirigible airship was made
by two Swiss, John Pauly and Dun Egg, living in England. In
1816-17 these two men produced an ainhip with an em-elope or
dolphin shape, made rrom gold-beater's skin and provided with
a ballonet. One interesting detail or their ainhip layout was a
And-filled box acting as a sliding scale in the longitudinal axis or
the ainhip by which means the climb and descent was to be
controlled. Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in Gennany was later
to adopt this method in hLs fint rigid airships. Pauly died while
the airship was being buill and it was never completed.
A t that time airships were aJwa}'s referred to as 'dirigible
balloons'. A really outstanding ainhip model, built in 1850 by
the French watchmaker Pierre Jullien from Villejuir, outside
Paris, and demolUtrated at an exhibition in the French capita1,
flew o:cellently. It was pov.-ered by " clockwork engine which
drove two propellen placed on each side of the centre-line or the
aircraft. In appearance it resembled very much the rigid Zeppelin airship of fifty }'ean later. A rull-size Jullien ainhip Wall


said to have been built in 1852, but if so itJ power.plant and fate
arc unknown. However, the rcsultJ aebieved with the Jullien
airship model proved an inspiration to the French engineer
Henri Giffard, who did succeed in producing a small and light
steam engine and thereby truly inaugurated the airship era.
The varied story of the development of the balloon and
the airship, with itJ abundant triumphs and failures, is told
in the type descriptions in the tat that follow and is also illustrated in the colour plates. It becomes evident that no balloon
ascent was ever a routine matter, nor ever will be. And every
time an airship climbs skywards, be it in times of war or peace,
the reigning atmosphere on board is akin to that of the pioneering
The balloon has not become an anachronism; indeed it is still
'going strong' today. At first, balloons were used as an exhibition
stunt at public displays. Later, they served scientists as research
vehicles; were employed as instrumcnu of war; and, more
happily, have become the attractive mountJ of keen sportsmen.
By an odd chain of development ballooning, which began with
the hot-air type, has now traversed the full circle until today a
modern version of the same type is used alongside the gas- filled
The future course of the airship is slightly more complicated
to plot. Admittedly, small non-rigid airships, mainly of Goodyear
manufacture, are still to be seen used for advertising in the skies
of Europe and America; and as rttently as Mareh 1972 a
192.5 ft (S87m) long Goodyear advertising and TV airship
named Europa was built in the historical Cardington airship shed
in Bcdfordshire. However, no really large passenger airship of
the rigid type has now been built for more than thirty years. It
is also a fact that the term 'Zeppelin' has become synonymous
with tlle concept of all large airships, and from as long ago as
World War 1 some still associate these giant air monsters with a
n~w ~nd terrible form of warfare or with massive disasters. Iflarge
airships are ever to stage a comeback-and they still have their
advocates as well ;u their antagonists-it will most likely be as
pure cargo carriers.
Some of the present advocates of airship revival include voices
from out of the past, so to speak. They number, among others,
lhe former American airship commander, Admiral Charles E.

Rosendahl, and Captain Max Pruss, the last master of LZ 129

Hindenburg. The last moving spirit of the Zeppelin yards, Dr Hugo
Eckener (who died in 1954 at the age of 86) was, on the other
hand, somewhat less optimistic. But at Goodyear there are still
leading officiah with implicit faith in large passenger-c..trrying
airships. Yet they all realise that iftlle airship is to compete with
the modern jet airliner at aU it will be on the score of the convenience that the former offers. In tltis hurried age of fast air
travel there still are people left who prefer restful travel at a
more leisurely pace.
It is principally circles in Great Britain and Russia that now
propose the revival of airship travel. The Soviet Union has
always needed to transport large quantities of cargo over great
distances. In both countries much has been written, and discussions have been held, of both tile advantages and disadvantages of cargo airships. The belief is that they must be able to
carry weful loads of between 500 and J ,000 tons if there is to
be any justification for them at all.
The advantages of the modern airship may be listed as follows:
its frame can today be made of plastics materials, and the gas
cells will be filled with helium. Today tlris element is available
in much larger quantities than formerly; and, what is still more
import,mt, is now available outside tlle United States, which no
longer enjoys a monopoly of the gas. Conventional petrol and
diesel engines or atomic power could be used as powerplantJ,
when coupled to eTcctric generators that provide tlle current for
the electric motors which drive the propellers, they would have
a lower noise level. Bccawe only very low starting and landing
speeds are involved, air contamination is also held to a mini
mum. These qualities, combined with an almost limitless flight
duration, likewise spell increased safety. Finally, now that passengers, if carried, will travel for pleasure and sightseeing at low
levels, they can enjoy comfort to a deglee hitherto unknown and
unavailable in heavier-thanair craft. Such vessels will move
about with unrestricted ease, at greater safety, throughout their

air voyage.
To deal with the unavoidable drawbacks as well (wlrich can
never be entirely eliminated from passenger accommodation or
cargo facilities), it must be pointed out that the modern airship
must necessarily be of large dimensions; lengths of about 1,475 ft



(450 m) have been mentioned. A giant hull of that nature is not

meant for high altitude flying, and hence will be exposed to the
unstable weather conditions in the lower regions, such as strong
headwinds and ice formation. This in turn inHucnces the question
of economical serviee which, above all, remains the deciding
factor. Thus the t:xpc:rts at present mwt investigate whether it is
cheaper overall to transport heavy and bulky stores in airships
rather than in surface vessels or aeroplanes. Optimistie calculations favour the ainhip, but IOmething else rowt also be considered - and that is whether it will prove a paying proposition
to develop and build new airships unless they can be turned out
in sub:st:lntial numbers. Doth the advocates and the adversaries
of the airship have advanced long rows of dry figures and finan cial calculations in support of their points of view. Thei r findings
really fall beyond the scope of this book, but may be studied in
trade j ournals and technical voluDles.
One point is not in dispute. It would be a great pity if people
of today should be deprived of the magnificent sight which impressed former generatioN 10 much: to witness one of the
'Queens of the Sky' soar by across cities and countryside, unpertu rbed by noisy and smoke-trailing jet aeroplanes hurrying by.
Let U5 hope also that the hitherto unhappy associations of the
word 'Zeppelin' may also disappear along with that terminology.



Kite balloo n
I. Valve openln,

2. Gufjlled envelope
3. Sublllsln, ba,
4. Air Inlet to ~lIonet and
sublllll n, b,i,
S. Valve li ne to basket
6. Buket
7. Nec k
B. Atuchmenu for reulnln, nettln,
9. HoIdln, cable
10. Stretcluble stroblUsln, .urflce
II . Cone haped l ubllhier

12. Main <lIve

13. Valve li ne InSide bliloon envelope:
when pulled,
Is dlKhar,ed
14. Ballonct oo t let open!n,
IS. Alr.filled ballonet
16. Air pasu,cWlY to sublllsln, bl,
17. GiS outlet openln,
18. Air outlet openln,



Wind dir ect ion

InboiUd pr ofile



The M o ntg oltl. r broth. r.



I. G;u wive (openad when t'"

~tloon II to dascend)
2. Nettln,
3. 'Crows felt' Junction 01 nettln,
and attachment lines
4. Inltrument panel
S. Arrestln, ropes
6. Tn.II-rope (In olden days with an
anchor attached)
7. Wooden bo.rcls
8. Buket
9. Basket Utachment ropes
10. !luket hoop
II. Attachment lines
12. Neck (U outl.t (appendix)
13. BalJoon envelope
14. Equuor (diameter) of Ipherlcal

- - 1 - 13


IS. Rlppln, panel

16. Attached line for pullinC away
rJpplnC panel
17. Une pulled to open CU nlv. on
top of balloon envelope

Sphe rical balloon


The balloons and ainbips are .hown in the colour plates in chronological
order as far as this has been technically feasible. We have funher nriven 10
present each balloon orainhip in. lelling charaeleristieof thaI panicular
Iype. Extensive research has preceded the rendering or the .....rious colour
schemel; Ihis applies to the early Iypo particularly. anen, few sources
were available which dale that far back, yet the available infonnalion has
in KVCral instances been conflicting. In .uch cases the ed.iton have had 10
usetheir judgment. The Iypedcscriptioru do nolgive everydctailshown in
the coJour plalellU this is nol nec .. nary. The text deab with the developmenlofthe types and with their civilian or military career. Infonnation is
abo ineluded about their erew and capacity, how they were used and, if
applicable, armed. I n the case orainhips, their technical.pecificalions are
included as well.


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,*-. ..... t.".., to . . . .... ""'~_


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13 ". ..,1785


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boIloon_ent. fr...., itoo TUII._ Good'fIt .. ' ......... 2 o.c ..,' 2 1783_ (_"')
.It.. 'If ......,101



....... ,\'Pe . . - . " ' - -

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Ot JeIf_ ........ ,he Ii<ot wee_lui. II>oIIgo/1 ... _

c .......... from eo- II> C_ "" 7 J.n....... nBS

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.. r.......... ,on ...... "

(.".., 1/ ..........- to. ~ A, W

11 P'M , ......... n ; d , ..... 0/1 wo.1fI hi:: _OWl\. 00 M..

hi::_0Ld_en! 10 ... oIIlI_ 01 &01,110 ~ tle.700 m) " .... 0," , . Uti ... ,..., II Zuoido .... II 0,'0<'"' 1132. Thoo b' w ..
dw9 _ _
10< "" .... MI''''' ~
In, .. J, I IOf .... cQp....

eo....... ....


.... ,... "9IIl _

O'ocI ........

,,,,'M,LI.,, 1.2111 ""_.

S.. _ _ 0 A At .._
,O'd ....... 0114.1l1li 11 (22,112 m)
01 (." .... II ""'" .... ~
~I.I ........ ftJIood ... 1fI _
, n. peckocl

It..,.. ......
... ... , ' '"

IIO< .. ~ ......... bo _

It '''''




Mac on


.. us ,......, ....... ZIIS.

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1131 K_"'-_~co __
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<10_ Thoo """"""
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10 US H................ oM,"", .... eOO'l.$' ....... ""'" '93]. "","","",","; in ..... mtoeo oIft... _
buo "" "<w..., 1935 .... , .. _ dOwn eo _ 0/1 .... C_ 01 CoIi'- _ '0 Nrl... " " _
............. doo . . . .. .. obo"d,. c""
IftCw""," M" .......... _
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G_.;" io oIPown OM 01 ~ C"".. fie SPIn"O"'~.wt.I_.., ..... '0 ~ ."..,...... _
.. ~.I 'A .".

'wo.. .....



71 Tho ~ 5757 ": .. rJfI:P Zoppel'" U 12t 11t.r!tHM... "'. tho wond', _ _ ... ::1 ... MOd "'. buo~
. . .. :, "" ,,_ ....:Latrk _ _ 2'" ..... _"" _ _ _ ....:t .. : : tho 10M 01 thoo
"'.. hi .... witt!
W ~.... c
ift .. _
01 ""Ito hoIIu",- pIonMd. /lbo One 01 ,ho """ ..,.;:oe
.... MOd. _
0I2ho P, .. '"'_ ..... ~ ()pp<wro Tho diOMi.", Look.h ..... "" e M.... lt37



U .S. Navy N cia ..

U .S. Navy K cl ...


.. ,,"' .. '" 1M U S. N.vy'.

oNdow ..... " .... _ , .....

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w. 2 __ u.... _ """...,., _ . _


T"" " .. n",,, ..

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l 8 '" ''''' US.

l clo ... ~ woo ,""
.... tat ......... by ,ho N .., dum", ,"" wI<

'" ,"" N cl... '" ,"" USN..,.. ond ,n'_ ...... _

bee._ ' ' ' prO'''IVPI "'. _,.. 01 ........ ""'''PI "",It ""'kInu

..... N ""'.. oi.o/I,,, '\Of'" "oft lor 26-4 IoOU'"


in 1951 It
",u""'!! '1<IlII .r><! _U'''''' . in 1"7.

Fu - Go

Barrage balloon,

7' Z~ c"",;'" t.olK>oe ~ lho V 5
M..,... Coo",' u .. nino e.n ... ro<
tho I'>ondl,"II 01


.. POI"'" loI.nd, SWill C........

6oll." b09l could 110 ,.01_ 10

lho '11,,<110' 01 lho bd ..... , 51.

"'...."..""" '" t..Iloono '" t~ ..

typogu..-V S N..,. _ _
d I'''' ", WO<Id W. 2.

11 ' hoJ ... '! I I I

t.or.-. tl ..... _


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0<:.." ...

i~ .......,." 1115 5

<ro. ..... "'- 011110 conlt<lllOCl"'....."

_ _ .... _Io.nd

I :'


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u.s. NAVY


71 h~"""''' ..,.,."p oIlho U.S.

ZSQ_ tI-. ,1Mo< d., _
01 m. K cion ... _
wH 10 IIK~ _ <to .. , .... _"'I OIJbrnari .... T _
11" ,,, ...... "11 eQu,II"'I'" _ could 01 ......... ,ho"
.... ," boll ... "'Ino '''. T....... "'or' 0100 ' '''''''
~"i"ll com,...10 e"_ o! e"w' wi,houl lldl"ll


.,ra/upO""" "'''''' ...



Tho 1d""",,,,"11 ""hIp A _ " I>\j, ~ by GOO<I._ ""

C.. pOr'
..... w_ e""'pl.,1d '" ~~ ,869 Mcwlnet>Itt.....
boO d,opIl'\'I,n m. ...,.. or nlgh1 by " ........ II,. oo c.I
S .. p " Skytaeul,,'
" .. ,,,..,'"'' .. _
~_ 7.MO _uk ~ bulbo ... d,,,""",-'
till bo!h _
... ,ho on', ,'_.

' '01 ... """,",Id



71 n .. "'''',,1>0.
ri.tbiot III of "'"
U S. Iu, F~ .. _ " .... 1e
e..,."", J ........ W Klm _ _ .... '10 ... o/I,:ud.
oIl02.aae It (3: .380 m) - . ;. ........ b'I' """,,~Ul'
10 boogon "'" long .... oc .... t TPIII .... :1>0 1On~
1''''l1li """,,~"II iu"'" in "'" ~ ..... III "",_
w" 10
u... condilion, :0 wllic:lt futuro
.."on..... would bo .......... ""M. , ..",n'lIII :0
EI<1I1. K,nI"OII" ... _ ..... ~ ..... 1>01",..

"'' 11'' '


1!1 Tho


'" ..!>do "'"

bi' ; I


am..;, i_a r _

.......... AntllOfty

AIon R_ !toni

s.rwm. ................

.. '. noon " ... off h"", ~ '"

""'" , 963 on 0 b ' _ "'" 01 _oS
.. dur_"",_ fOol AtrlCIIO .....
5'10 gi'; Not>onol ~ .... II> '''-''',,'.0.
~""" ...II to ............... ,1>0 .. ~~:.
of 11>0 .f.Iric........... , ..... ,Mol ...... ,


Don P iccard

10 "'_R
bIoI_ '" .1Ie _ ' "
_ I .., ....., tit' 0.... .......


.""'Ii '-'
".... ,.. ,,,_.

n.. ............... hr"

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n. 0IYIe ...

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..... _

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c.,..,.. lull

<ire... lor 0/". iI' ,tlu,n 10 tho "", ... ,

.... _ 01 , 113

1 The brother. - bt_ ... or the man -arrybaa: botd .. balIOOll
The brothers Joteph and 1'.tienne
Montgolfu:r came from Vidalon.le._
Annonay, near Lyow, a ,mall town in
"",them )o"rance. Jooeph (1740=1810)
the rlrlt 10 become interetkd in
aeronautical matten. ThiI led 10 his
mIOkilll" lOme small paruhulel and he
alto pondered how 10 produce an '.ir
machine' to be lilled wilh a gas lighter
than amx:.pheric air. H.iI brother
ttienne ('74S 1799) tnUn<:<! .. an
.rch.iled in pan., and was then ..ked
by hil fathet 10 -eIUe in Vidalon 10 take
over and manage, joinlly with his
brolller, the paper mill owned by the
family. JOlCph'. idelll lOOn attracted
him and ~ther the brothcn began
10 carry out a number of e:xperimen ..
with omall balloon. made of ~per,
which they lillcd with IIeam; ror from
obletvation of eloud formatio<u they
had concluded that these provided
TTleanli of producing lifting power.
ilowever, they soon. dropped the idea
of pNiiwding along these linea linoe
Ihe balIooru coIlapecd almost immediately.
The two Monlgolfiu brothcn had
read the ClAy of the Engliah phyaic:ilt
JQKPh Prie.t1ey containing hio obtervalM>ns abou t various gases. particularly hydrogen (or, .. it _ then called,
'inllammable air'). By ot.erving the
rising 1IDOk.e and .pub from a lireplaoe, however, the Montgolfien were
0( the opinion that then: mIDt be an
easier way of making a balloon rise.
They auumed that in the plC- _. of
burning IOIlIC lOr! of gal was produced
which ........,honally became visible ..
anok.e, but thil wu an eilOhCOUS deduction. What actually tlk.. place it
th.t aire:xpanda .. it iI heated, whereby
iu lpeeilic gravity iI IOW1:red. Though
the brothera WeI not realise why the
heated air .cted .. it WeI they oontin\Kd

IOmnduct new aperimenu with......,1d

balloona filled with bot air thai obli_

gingly rme in the air. Their IIOI.trce. 0(
heal wa:t a mixture ofbuming wool aud
moisl llraw, placed below the opening
and poiming downwards. In thit manner they produced what they tcnncd
'eloc:tric arnoke'. Without n:ali$ing it.t
the time they bad inotinctivdy .tumbled
on to the eorn:ct lOIution. Q.le day in
J)uxmber of 178:! a 706 m.rt (20 m .m)
balloon they ha.d made climbed to an
a ltitude of985 rt (300 m).
In time the French Acadl:mie des
Scienca in Paris leamed of the: experiments and requested. demot .. tnlion in Annon.y. TItis took place on
+ June 1783 when the Montgol.6er
brothcn let a 118,IIS:! cu.ft (Boo cu.m)
balloon ueend 10 an altitude of about
-t&ft ( 140m). Before its releNe this
balloon had dcvdopcd .uch lifting
capacity that ei8ht .trong men eouId
Ical"OI:ly ratrain it. 'Init IUcccaful
e:xperilllCnt reverberated in lCien tilic:
circlet throughout Europe, to the
Acadtmie in Pan. now ..ked fOT a
demonltnUon in the French capital.
However, here Charla.tole. mueb M
the Monl(OlflCrl with his hydrogen
... noon Cw. (tee No. II), and tticnne
(who was It&ying in Paria at Ibe time
to prepa.n: the demonstration by him_
lCif and hit brot.bcr) wim/ :d Ille
other event. Soon it became their

'The MontgoUicr brothen woe ....

w ted by their friend and fellow paper.
manufacturtt ReveiIJon, and turned
up with a large and beautifully decorated balloon wbieh _
7+'15 rt
(lHI-6m) t&l\ and 4Il-65 ft ( 130 m) in
diatJV"ler. It WIll decided lint to mIOke
captive trial .-em!, which took place
on 14th September 17SS .t Reveillon'.
garden in Rue de Montreu.i.l, F.ubourg
Sain t.Antoine. Everything went well
until. lIonn brok.e out and the ennUn dalr"Oyai the "'11000 com-



pIeldy. The llituatioo wu now eriticaJ,

for the brot.hcn 'Hue .bout to .... , 11( ..
IU'ate their *ill bo (y c Kine Low. XVI
and hil murt in Vtr"il'r The utua.
tion __ mricwd by workiDc anNnd
the dock and ___ ""orca and
llimpler bal10M had t p n bo.UJt. II wu
S7 n ( 11'4 m) hleb. 41 n ( I ~'S m) in
dj.melu and it. YOIume ."""mud to
'5, ( I,ooon....n ). Like ill ~
d EC ... it _ tplcndidly d ........ ud in
blue and cold. Mer captive tctt . 1

tbe Revei1lon Cactory on 18 Scpcembcr

I ....... the _ I day 10
The MOIlIlOl6er brothen had lone

"'loon _

inlUldcd to let .'h~ men 77 hw! in

their .. 110M on ill lim free trip. but.
here they met with the viaorouI Gp}-
tion 01 the kin&. It wu tbt:n:b e
drci<kd to pant ahcep. fOOfCcr .nd
duck the Mnoou oItO",inl the finl
air tnIvdkn. The .ni...... 1t wae pl.ced
in "'kct beJoo. the balloon, wNch
rcae rtOl1\. ptatfnnn in the p.lace yard
on 19 September 1,83. The king, with
0Jtcen Marie Antoinette, watched the
filq 01 the bal10M .t do... quartcn
until the ill-tmdlinc cloudl 01 .....,

ro.:at .bout II' mila (+ km) .way. The

The fillilll _
completed in Ie. than leD minulCl,
which _
very Cut compucd to Ihe
blc time raz~ to ptoduce cou..
puable quantity 01 bycIrosen.. Mer
the lut 01 throe cannoQ ebob had b E-1'1
fired (they ,",ae to t"I'''t a tnodition
at Ihe balloon 'IWlI. 01 that puOod)
the balloon rcae majeJtieal.Iy .nd
bud away, "(companied by many
chccn. It must have been Cantan ic
licht, with tbc &boond'nlly embellbbed
ballooo. the picturaque dI :, 01 the
apec:t.aton and, not leu!, the beautiful
ca'tle in ill wondedullCttiD(. AItroacF
men preICIlt with !heir teJe.oopc:o ,",ae
able to "poi t that the .. 110m had
diD1bcd to an altitude 01 diJhtly lDOIe
that 1,640ft (soam) Won il 'and I
c:iabt minutct taler in the V.utI" COIl

M OIlIre\liI to the OLIteau La Muclle

in the Boa de Boo.tlogne outlide PaN

wbeoce the biltorical alCCnt wu to be

made. In the mominr 01 II. NOYernber
the ca.,.oty 01 the tethcre:;I
balklon _
Ulted ....... IDOI"C and
I!IIlimud to a"""'Ot to aboul 1.,a8lb
(ns kt:). M i.... lunewaa barelyav""''''''
wbm the bliloom _
ca",llt by
.1tOnf 1'1'1 01 wind aDd damafCd
bd'ofe it ...... 11d be brouabt t ck to the
platform. I II IWO oa:upanll runaincd



..1........ and, admittedly, it ila wonder

that they caUlCd 1'00 _
01 liws, ror
oftm Iheec bo!..air .. I.............. ac bced
to IaDd being mellC or b ... ady by fire. JOKph _ the only
one 01 the MonlfOllier brothcn who
ever tooI.t to the air h~ and he



Jcan-Franeoil PilAtre de R~ier (1754

I,aS) came forward .. a voIun lC'U" and
IVcc Mded in pb"IUMiina: the kill( thai il
iU behoved bumanity if the bonou.r 01
hei nl the lint to have riJen into the air
m,1d be- wdcd toaaiminal. Sonow
a really Iarte bellom, of s6$o cu.n
buill; it
(1,600 N.m) YOI\1IDe, _

1'bcreafta- the .. Ilooo _ cou~eJed

I'rorn RevmIon', pnIen in the Rue de


I'CW ilDpatiml and ~Ied

thtC*1I; but with the willinc bdp 01
m&IIY voIuntecnaod "'mdl' ~,
the "I'oon _
n:paircd aDd n:ady
&pin within twO boun..
MOIl oliN . PCI Eill doubted that
the aw' n t would NCCeed. One 01 the
tpectaton, the Due de Cbanra, in.
quind 01 de R oricr in a lOiOi.icd
whisper: ' I do not IUppn you will
I. ke oH1', only to be . .urcd, ' I ndeed
I thall' . hUon 1000 followed the wonIa.
With the "110M rutdy once mon, the
in trepid aeronaUtl apia climbed on
boanI the plJery. AI 1.54 p .1Il. all
.....--U!cs.. aen:1ee .dandtbe ..JIoon
bcpn to diD1b alowly; it _lI.i(htly
c'c:Ndy. O'ArI'ndee ............... ud later:
'The ~ IUnOUndinc ..... ptWtd
me, 10 I waved my bandkuebid at the
aowd. ' Thil wu mlk' tzd by RoUer.
wbo exclimed: 'You are doin,

l.nd;"I bunt opeli the "'k,,\ and the

d"ed anima" eKapcd vinuaUy un
TbiI happy P""(
and cndi..
opmcd the obviouI road to a manocd
.. 11oon 's lit. F'nl il _ coulUldcd
tbat condannocd criminal Ihould be
~ptie.ed in n:tum for beintI: pl~ in
the ballooa ..,kcl .. a human ,wnca
Pir, but a )'O\U\f Fn:nch .dentin named

_ 7S'S ft (13 m) tall, with. di&mc:tcr

01 SO"9 n ('5'S 11). Below the baIloon
_ a pIlery when: the aeronaut could
,land to ICed the fin: in the pan _ ~
01 iton b"ket pI.accd in the open ,led
of tbe bI.I\oon. Fint, lOme captive
. Itemptl ,",ae made, by takin&:. IOllIeC
0( heat aJona on the 'M;C"D I on 150 I 7
and 19 October I ,83. On the lall 01
tbac """"";"'" de RMicr linl carried
I.D -c:quaintanooe, Gitoud de Vilette,
at a p'PP-nla, then had F~
LaUJ"Ul!, MarquiI d'Arlandea, captain in the inuntTy, alone with him.
The talter wu abo to accompany de
RoItier 00 the eventual fnoc llicbt.

dZ"OC them " ck

\lIIperturbcd, but the

lI)ade bul 0l\C NCU'lI. ThilS occ:urraI at

Lyoou on 19 January 1784 when he,
de Rozier- and live otha ~
made a trip in hillarge and VU)" hand
balloon I.J FIuMIkl.
The MonlIOIficr brothen are the
inditp'Jtab&e pioll(!(!11 in the 6dd 01
man-arryiDf bool'oom, )"d aflC!" fC\'u-al
~ with hotair boo' ......... it
_ alrutdy evident in 1784 that the
competinc h}'drosul. "Ilooo, the '0. . ...
litle', _
the rom;", type bec:aUIC it



C. a de. - ..... ianutor

or the bydz~l_ - 1 ' The balloon expuimcnu 0( the Morit
pfier brolhcn (tee No. I) .""1.....1
much excitement in French lcienti6e
circles .nd the Acadbnie in Pan. inviud them to the capital 01 France or
do hiQDItration then:. Bdore thi$
came about, howe. eo, one 01 the
)'<IWlI<S1 and most pt ............... ben
01 the Academy, the pbyricUt JacqUe!!
Alexandn: C'bar a..rles ('7-t6-.&l,),
oll"emt to tum O!.It a "Iloon in 0>

I'OOthins, and we are bf.n:Iy at

.11.' Soon they cauahl a rccble northI

westa ly wind and act cd the Seine al

a low alti lude, then p'red betweetl
lbe miliwy .cademy and La I ...

valid... They red the fire


J. A.


to ptUU"lt a cVv. nl a.....,.. the

..... tEl in Rue de stvre and CODtlnucd
LbeiI" air voyaae. Howe.a, hoVe bcpn
10 .'" ES r in the papa- and &brie
lua inc the "'loon, caUlCd by the

maDy tparb ..... the lire paD, 10 the

twO men didcd to look ror a Iand.inf
lite. Meanwhile, they -.oue kept bury
t! the fire with IPOOIC' dipped in
pail. 01 watee" tha t foreunately they
had been ar..ei,gbted U"IOUIh to brini
Twenty.five minutca alI.CI" their
talr.o-olf the balloon touched the
ground. apin al Butte-aux..c:.ilb,
DOWadays known .. lbe Place d'italic.
With this exploit de R.micr and
d'ArI.nde!! CO down in biltoty .. the

opu.t;"" with



and aafismen, the Robert brothen.

The Academy acttpled !hie olfer and
IDO(I(;)' _
collected for the b.. ild inl
oIa rclativdy aanaIl epbu-ical blI1oon,
01 IS' I rt (4 m) di.metcr, with an
an-dope made of nlbbe. iIcd and


ror the equipment witb which 10

develop the newty..clil(O\iered ....
bydc .. ' .... For the inlpnrJ I filii", 01
the "110m aboulll,loo cu.ft (60 cu.m)
01 the ... would be raz~, and tbiI
quantity _ to be (II'OC\lmI by pouriDa:
eu1pburie acid and watee" on to iron
filinp in t.rn:l. The r dtin( bydro-

&n. rwo bum.n beinp to rile in the

air. In time many ltIOie .HtDll ,,"ae
made with the. 'MOIIIPfibe' type 01


gcn wa! to be fed to the bAlloon through

connecting hOle from the barn:1.

Several UlDCialed dilf'lCUllies, luch ..
the high heal and Iteam aoo cnated,
had fint to be Alnnounted, ana which
Charles fixed the date for the fint
of hQ balloon, which he named


The aseenl w.. to take pla.c:e on

27 Al.lgU$t 1783 from the Champ de
Man in Paris, when the Etll'el Tower
u now localed. On tile previous night
the balloon was tratut'er.ed there from
Ihe worbhop al Plac:c do Victoires,
but the ucent fint planned had to be
abandoned because the crowds which
were expected to congregate there
would have been too large.
When the balloon .,....,dcd, practi_
cally all Ihe inhabttanll or PaN,
headed by the memben of Ihe Academy,
seemed to have gathucd to witnCII
the event. Mer tome supplementary
gas had been added 10 Ihe C~IH Ihe
firing or a gun announced that the
balloon WI'-' about to asc::end. It look
off during a shower and disappeared
behind the roofs in a north-e..terly
direction. Threc-quartel'll of lUI hour
later the balloon landed in the unall
village of Goncac, lOme six. mila
(9i bn) away from Paris, and Ihere
cawed great collSten'lation. The frightened f:umen took the balloon for a
monsler and attacked il with pitchf'orlQ,
scythes and blunderb".r
Some months later Charles and the
Robert brothers wen: ready witb
another balloon which could carry two
men, but by then de Rc:ier and
d'Ar1anda had already been aloft in
their bot-air balloon. However, the
other team had been far-eeeing and
meanwhile made IUch pfV8iC. thai
the gas-filkd balloon they had now
created, with a diameter of 26'75 n
(8'15 m), was perfecled at once except
for minor altentiolll and has n:ma..ined
the lIandard type in use throughout the

cenluria.. The new, large balloon Will

now provided with an open neck
lCI'Ving as a safety .... Ive, wbich CWN
had lacked. Daervedly, the name of
the in"entOt ill papetuatcd in the
'Charlitre' delCriptive term bc:iIOWed
on the g... filled balloon.
The pa.sscngu-carrying basket wall
shaped and decorated after the fuhiona
of ita day, IOlllcwbat after !he style of
the unall can found in today'. merry_
prounds. It must have been quite a
problem bow to luspend these: rancy,
but rather unpractical, gondola! properly from the balloon envelope.
'The balloon ascent of Chules,
aa:ompanied by the elder of the Robert
bro!hen, Marie-N~, $luted from
the Tuileria Gardens on I Dtx<:mber
783 and was witt,- '-1 by lOme
400,000 people. The American KiClltilt
and ltatesman, Benjamin Franlr.lin, wall
among thole who wilre":d the glorious
In spite of the advanced Kason Ihe
weather was faVQurable for a balloon
ascent. Charles inaugurated the serui.
ble practice of launching a !nlllil pilot
balloon (his was of a bright grecn
colour, hCllce long vilible) prior to his:
own ucent to give him an idea in which
direction, and bow strongly, the wind
was blowing. As a courteous deference
to Joec:ph Montgolfier, who was in the
crowd, he ..ked the latter to releaJC the
Imall pilot bauoon.
After a gun-shot had announced Ihal
the balloon was ready to take oil', it
rose Alccasfully at t.45 p.m. to the
accompaniment of cheering shoull from
the bOwds. Two hours lalet' the IWO
men IIoated at an altitude of 8w ft
(!l5 m) touth-wat of Paris. AI NnlCt
Charles decided to descend in a field
ncar the amaIl town of Neales, some
31 miles (50 lr.m) from the French
capital. It was a RTIOOth landing, and
there were plenty of willing helpen to
bold the basket on the ground. One of

the flIIt 10 arrke was the Due de

CharlrCl who, wilh friends, had pursued
lhe balloon on horseback. Charla
wrote a brief' accounl of the balloon
trip and the landing WIU duly certified
by the local aUlboritia..
'Ine sun was down by now, but
Charles was in IUch high .pirita after
hill ad,cotura during tbe day that he
decided to al(7nc\ once more, but thiI
time alone becaUIC the balloon had 1011
some of ill bydfV8CO. In spite of tbill
the ballooll climbed rapidly, auaining
no altitude or about 9.f40 ft (3,000 m),
where Charla caught his IICCOnd
glimpte or the lun that day. Hu cal'll
began to ache badly, 10 he hurriedly
valved. gas, whereupon the balloon
began 10 descend. Charla threw out
Klme ballast and then landed gently
ncar Tour du Lay, not very far from
Nala, after having Itayed in the air
for about half an hour the~ond time.
T he following day the balloon was
relunled to Parill in triumph.
I n spitt of this: luecClilful fint lrip,
Charla never made anolher balloon
ascent. Hill JeCOnd venture into the
upper air regiON had likely been 100
much of an experience.
II remailll only 10 report that Charles
and the Robert brothers allo buill an
elongaled balloon ordered by the Due
de Chanrea, who had bt:comc a keen
balloon enthu.iut. The duke almOllt
paid for !hill balloon with his life as,
l!rangely enough, it was not equipped
with a Urety valve.
3 '!be balloon a ..... n ... of ViJM:ea&o
I_nanil ill Great BrltaiD
Vincemo Lunardi made the fint balloon alCCi1t in Great Britain on 15 September t 74 Lunardi was born at
Lucca in I taly on t I January, 759 and,
al'ter lpending hQ childhood in the East
Indies, wall at a relatively early age
employed by the Neapolitan ambusader in Loooon, Prin~ Caraminico.


Lunardi was then a good-looking,

temperamental and vainglorious youngIter wbo lOOn Cltablilhed hiffilClf in
the gay and hectic lire prevailing in the
British capital of that period. He
believed that he would become .till
mon:altractive by taking up ballooning
at il time wben the achicvemenll of the
French aeronauta -vere the currenl
topic in r~,hjonable places. Lunardi
was a dandy. yet endowed with much
common ICflIC and -veil aware of hill
lack. of luwwlu!ge in the new fidd of
aeronautia. For thill reason he amoci:tted bimself ",ilh one ol hill friends,
George Biggin, who enjoyed the
reputation ofOOng a patron oldIe ana.
Before the construction of a balloort
could be taclr.led it was neces.sary to
find a suitable pla~ for ill uemt .
Lunardi fint tried 10 obtain penniaion
to go up rrom the grounds or the
Chel5ea HOIpital. However, tomebody
clse had already beaten him to it - a
Frenchman, de Morel, who had made
the fint attempt with a whinuical hotair balloon Ihaped like a Chinese
temple. Thill moruler declined to leave
the ground, which disappointed and
infuriated the spectaton; in Iheir rage
they destroyed the balloon III well III
tome rurrounding property. Dr John
Sbeldon did not fare much better; hill
captive balloon alIO was damaged. and
be abandoned hill lIICCna.Lon attempt.
II was thus readily understandable
whco the ma.l\agcment or the Chelsea
Hospital refused to grant pamission
for [."mardi to UIC ita grounds ror hill
balloon 'seent. However, the commander of the Honounble Arlillery
Company, Sir Walkin Lewill, finally
ovt:reame official reluctance and placed
the Moor6c:1cb training grounds, on
Ibe nonhcm oUIllr.iru of London, at
Lunardi's dupont - with the proviso
that from his collected money an
amount of 500 WIll 10 be tet uide 10
guarantee covo:Rle of any poIIiblc

dlUIUl8e caused and the lum of CIOO

Cltablished as a fund for the: benefit of
we family of a n:ttIlIiy-dCC'"wl
arlillery oIT"lCCI'.
Now Lunardi could IinaIly p~ed
with his arrangements to have built a
hydrogen balloon of the Charles type.
It was, strangely enOUih, not 6ued with
a valve on top and 10 beame dangerous and dil1Icu1t to handle. The enllU'gCd nelting amtngemenl, on the
other hand, introduced a distinct
improvement fealure, for the cording
was reduced fint to 'crows' feet' from
whiCh the leading cords were falllened
to a hoop from which the: ca:r was
awpended. The car itJcl{ abo was of
a man: pra.::ticaI form and devoid of
luperfluous, heavy om"mentatioo. The
envelope of the balloon was made of
oiled ailk, and had a diameterof3314:n
( 10 10 m) which teSUlted in a volume
of IB,~oo cu.fl (515 eu.m). A chemist,
Dr Gcorge Fon:Iyce, was in charge of
the f.Jling and also buill the equipment
for manufacluring Ihe hydrogen.
The ucent look place in the early
afternoon or 15 September 178+ It
had taken an of the previous night and
the wbole of the morning to 6.11 the
balloon, and the 100,000 or more
renlest and impatient spectaton. raidercd the tuk all the more diffiMiIL
Then: was no way of praiicting how
they might react if kept waiting too
long, 10 the decision was made that
Lumrdi was to aocmd alone in the
balloon, which was not yet quile filled,
and leave Biggin behind on the ground.
Lunardi WII accompanied by a dog,
a eat and pigeon, and provisions were
amply lupplied. A .peciaI stand had
been ttCCtcd for the Prince of Wales
who WlII ph :1lI and he tipped his ailk
hal in defctttlce II the balloon began
to rile. Everybody else Pn:'$CDt followed
the royal aample. There was a hushed
atmosphere of fear and doubt; not a
IOIIDd was heard.


Lunardi, who had hopes or ad_

vancing through the air by rowing,
had brought along oan of different
lhape, one of which broke wben he
started. But he remained convinced
that the oan wen: instrwnental in his
rea.ehintI: a cornfield near NOTth
Mimms, .orne 13 miks ( ~ I kIn) nOTth
of London. Here he landed at 3.30 p.m.,
divested hiDllClf of his remaining ballan
and reJensed the cat, which by now
was quite benumbed with cold. Though
Lunardi tllroughout the trip had stayl
at altituda of below I,ooon (305 m),
he had rqistered temperatu.rel as low
III -16"C. Now that the balloon was
relieved of lOme weight it I'Il$C again and
Lunardi jotted down and dropped a
Bowery report about the esoteric clouds
bdow him and the mil sparkling \.he
wide landtcape. From this it is evident
that this time he climbed to a higher
altitude. Some thirty minutts later the
balloon once more landed softly in a
meadow near the town of WBN: in
Hertfordahire. The acared ranncn at
rent refused to approach this 'devilry'
until a girl, who was abo present and
much imp" :d by the finely-dreued
young gentleman who had descended
rrom the Iky in his pretty red- and
bluwtriped ballocMl, grasped one of
the lina; then the othen pitched in to
help, lhough with lOme hesitance_
This lint balloon ascent in Great
Britain turned Lunardi into the hero
of the hour and, dr" ed in the honorary
unifonn of the Artillery, he wu presented to King Gcorge III. A monument WaJ erectl on the $JlOt where
Lunardi landed ror the second time;
ill popular name is Long Mead, and
it is ltill there.
Lunardi went on to build larger and
better balloons and aso:nded once
more rrom Moorficlds. On this occaPon his balloon "'U dCCOlatcd with
a huge Union Jack, in which manner
he 'wished to ap.CIS his rapccu and

! : votiOn to everything Wllich tilt word

"Brilish" lunds ror'. Hill faitllful
friend Biggin and a Mn Letitia Sage,
an actreSS, wac to have aceompanied
him 00 this trip, but once more the
lifting capacity orthe balloon wu poor,
10 L~!03rdi .tarted a10ne on 13 May
1785- Soon anerwards he had to come
doWll again, near Toltenham Court
Ro:W, because the envelope turned out
to be leaking. The well -tried patience
or Biggin WM finally rewarded laler
Ih3t year when, on !t9June, he WM able
to ascend hillllClf, a ccompanied by
Mn Sage. This trip wted an hour and
had the distinetion or being the fint
time 'a British female air traveller' had
gone a10ll This was the term by which
Mn Sage henceforth liked to be
dClCibed. She "'U a beautiful lady,
but from a ballooning point of view
she unfortunately tipped lhe ICaJes at
200 lb (91 kg).
Lunardi made several more balloon
aseeDtI in Great Britain during 1785,
but in August '786 one or his young
assistants lost his life in a tragie
accidenL During the preparations ror
an alcent at Newca.lIle upon Tync,
Ralph Heron was pulled aJo(t III one
arm got entangled in the anchor rope
when the balloon look off prematurely.
The rope broke and the hapless
youngster plunged to his death.
Lunardi was nol to blame, yet, after
the incident, everywhere he went in
Great Britain he was now penecuted
as intemcly as he had previously been
acclaimed. He len lhe country ror good,
but continued hilt balJoon lUCentil in
haly, Spain and Portugal. His health
later failed, and he died in Portugal
on 31 July 1806.

-4: Blanchard IUId Dr Jdf'riu erosa

tIoe Engl; .... Channel by air
Jean-PierTe Blanchard (I 753- IBog)
played a prominent pari in the history
of ballooning and must be conaiderl

the lim tflU: proressional aeronaut in

a period with many other more or
(most onen ) lea pun: amateun..
Blanchard was born in Norm,a,ndy of
poor paren~ and lacked much fOTmal education, but he lOOn displayed
a bent for mechania. Before long he
attracted by the probleJlll or flight and
buill 11 kind of bird-like aerial bicycle
with ftapping wings - which, however,
never did Oy. The balloon acbiC'oemenu nf tile Montgol6er brothen and
Charles inlpired him to try a combination of the lining power of the baUoon
with IIapping wings for propuhion.
He conducted. number of expuunentl
along Ibcse lina in the 'Pring and
summer of '784. but they did not
atuact much attenlion. In the autumn
of that year he IeI\ fOT London, where
he quickly became the central figure
in a ""'11 group of balloon enthusiasts
numbering, among othen, the American Dr John Jeffries.
In June '785 Blanchard carried out
the fint experimenll with parachutes
in Great Britain, by dropping from his
balloon a $IIllll patachute made of.ilk
to which a eat wu attached. Afterwards Blanchard maintained that he
had made two panchute jumpa himdin 1777 and '793lupectively, but
he never sub$tantUited theat claims
with valid evidcnee.
Blanchud made his fint successrul
balloon ascent in London on 16 October
1784, when he was accompanied by
one of his patrolU, Dr John Sheldon.
This trip finally convincl Blanchard
that neither the wings he had brought
along nor his newly-developed 'moolinet' (a kind of revolving aincrew)
contributed to the lin or provided any
After making lOme joint balloon
aocentil Blanchard and Dr Jeffiies
decided to attempt to be the fint to
UOiI the English Channel by air.
Although Jcffria roo ted 1111 the bills in


conneclion with this plan, IJlanchan;l

tried in underhanded ways to leave hia
.pouwr behind, becauae he did lIot
wi$h 10 Ihan:: the honour ol luch Illl
aehie.>enx:nl with 0Ihcn.. The Americall
doetor mllll have been good-natun'd
to have put up with aU the wily mcb
ol the irucibJe little Fralchman. At
the end of 1114 the balloon and the
equipment ror prodUCIion of iu bydrogen were brought to Dovct Culle,
where the IiIling ol the balloon ~
place. When weighed olr with the IWO
participanu ill the basket, 10 e.>ti ybody'. rurprite the lift proved lea thllll
calculated - until Blanchard was
roulld out. His ego was deBated when
he had to de.... .. his 'own' weight by
the removal of an abdominal !catha
belt filled with lead, with which be
had fortified hitNCIrror tbc OC'C"'ion.
It _
a clear and calm day,
with only a lIight north-north-westaly
bu:ne, when the balloon took olrrrom
thecdgeolthcclif&ofOo.u.t 1 p.m.
on 1 J Illluary 118~ The balloon _
heavily laden with much IUpcrAuous
equipmcllI, even including 8lanthard'l
wings. The balwt _
quickly, and lOOn CVU)'thing ebc, even
IDOIt ol their clotha, _
whether- it could really be spared or
Il0l. Dr JeRii!l confided later to rrkods
that in their frantic efforts to lighten
the balloon ~ was alone point a
ludicrous q1c to it 'when they did
their UlIllOIt 10 rr:lieve thcmIelvel ..
much .. poaiblc'. One ill lempted to
speculate wbether limit., minute,
1Obct, yet practical elrectl may not have
COllverted other 1Ublimc, bislorical
evenu limilarly rrom dilaster 10
lriumph. Anyhow, Blanchard and
Dr Jelrne. man.ged 10 "ay in the air
and .t 5 p.m. pined the French COUt
to land in the midst of the Fdmoret
rorcst ouuide Cali.. where their bal
loon was brought 10 a '1Op by a tree;
help Wal lOOn at hand. On thiI Jpot


marble monumenl w.. 1.ler erecled,

aowncd with. balloon. Their balloon ia 10 this day on display .t a
m\.IIeUm in Cabi., which made Ihem
bononry citizcna.
Upon his retum to London Blanchard tried to euh in on bil rarne by
the ettablil1uncnt ofwhat he termed an
'Aeronautk.l Academy with nrious
di5plays'. ThiI proved only a qualified
W" ' 'A, 10 be decided to mum 10
Fnnoc. In the yean rrom 118~ to 118g
manclurd ~ in both hot-air lind
hydrogell baJloons in variool countr;et
on the Contiocnt, when: luch lIlI event
wall often still a noveIly. When the
French Revolulion broke out in 118g,
Blanchard wu .rTC'Ited by the A.....
trians in Tyrol and cbargcd with tbe
distribution of revolutionary propaganda litcralun. He managtd 10
eICIJlC to Ameriea where, on gJaouary
'793, he made the lint balloon
in the New Warid. al Philadelphia in
the pcuenec ofGeooge WashingtOll, the
PrcaKient of the Uniled SIIIet. Blan
chard relumed to France in 1198 and
continued lUI aeronautical can:cr. I n
February 1808, at The Hague in
Holland, he made a hot-air balloon
a"CC"t and on this Iilttkth Illld lut
air Y'O)'agC of hillUlrCl'Cd heart attack
rrom which he OC'\'er fully recovuuI.
On 1 March IBog he p.,:d awa.y
pcacd"ully in Pan., well aware of the
ract that he would go down in IUItory
II one of the true pioIKUI of balioMting_
To Rlpplancnt the iCCOid of Blanchard, bis widow Madeleine-Sophie
became an aeronaut in her own right.
In the yean (0110w';ng his death Ihis
alcnder little wonWI became a favourite of the PariJ.ians, ihanb to bet
cokMuful ba]lcwm 'Iomu, often at
night, 10 the accompaniment of lireworb. On 7 july 181g Madame
BIanchant hc:ndr met her death,
durin( an '''CC''I &om the Tivoli park


in Paris when her balloon caught fire

rl'OOl the lircwo.-Its the carried akllt.
She made a rough landing on the root
of a boule in the Rue de Pnwincc and
then plungcdto the ground.

The coaquest o ( the all' cla.Inu

lu aNt vict im s
After the French b_ll00n pmecf
Jc:&n-Fran~ Pilltre de Roa.ier, on
11 1 November 1783, had made the
..-wid's fint air YOyI(C in lhe company
of the Marquis d'Arlanda, he derided
_ cYCfI before the suee rill Channel
air crc.ins: of Blanchard and Dr
jelrtiel on 1 January 1785 (Ke NO4)to go by air from Fraoec to E.ngland..
F thiI undcrtakinr he buill a new
type of balloon, which _
really a
combinatioo of the botair balloon with
hydtogcn baUOOfI, 10 after him hal
been termed ''. But, aw, it
was 10 OOSI him billife. 'The .pbcrica1
bydtogul balloon comprilcd the top
part, and de Roa.icr'l idea _
that i,
IhouId provide the lin while the
cylindcr...napcd hot-ai r baUoon bdow
it .."OUId IICtve not only 10 save the
hydrogul IiIling but alia 10 regulale
the ascent Illld d'P'llI. The hydrogm
balloon had a diameter of 511-8 n
(10m), the bot.air balloon a width of
IS' llI n (4 m) and heigh t of diptly
1e. than a3 rl (1 m). The circuIu
gondola, or plIery, _ futened 10 the
ncttio( oovcring the top pan of the
bydrogm balloon. The pan with the
lin, _
pi _ad in the bottom open
mouth of the hotair balloon and could
be railed and Jo ... ued al will.
This whole contraption looked for
...1 the world molt like a giant mushroom, and was not too coolidcnceinopUing. l u (7U.tor appeared totally
unconotrncd about the dangcroua
combination of an open lin, and hydrogen, oonomtrating hit allUltion instead
on findin( a faVOl.lrable wind dilCClion
lor hiI VUlture. A free balloon iI not

dirigible, but since the windi blow in

diifacnt dilCClions al .... rioul altiludes
de Rozier figun'd that with hil new type
of balloon he would he better able 10
pick a r.vourabJe wind and maintain
the right altilude ror it. A youO( girl
from Yorkshire, Susan Dyer, had just
bc:oome engaged to de Roricr, aoo with
reminine intuition bad a Pi( I :ntirnmt
0( the impending danger. She implored
him 10 abltain (rom hil project, but he
refused 10 give in and would only
promiJe that Ihil ahould he his lut
UCC<l1. lie fclt that his reputation ..-;11
al .lIke becaUJe the French govcmment had advanced bim 4':1,000 francs
to bclp him real;'" his plan.
I n Oct<mbcr 1184 de Rozier .eltkd
in Boulos!).. JU!'.Mer, .Iong with hit
young ....tant Picm: Romain, to await
favourable weather. ThiI did not occur
until I~ jW1C 1185. and meanwhile
Blanchard and Dr jelrnc. had uo II :d
tbe ChanncI by air rrom EnsJand to
Francc; however, undilcouraaed. de
Rozia and Romain flatted that momins: rrom Boulognc at 7.1S. The balloon
climbed, but RYeral spccllton
noticed lhal the pllcry appcan:d to
be suspended II a slalll. Tbc balloon
lint drifted OUt 10 ICI as planned, but
after altaining .n altitude of about
4,9':10 ft (t,5OO m) began to aJlPl'Mch
land again. Then di.asterltrock quickly
and remonc1ctdy. De Rozier _ just
IhUi releasing a larJe al11O\1Ilt of gas
and a opark, either from the rU"e pan
, more likely, of IlIlic dcctricity
cauacd by the rubbing of the line manipulating the wPPu PI valve again"
the goldbcaler'l Wn of the balloon
envelope, was teen to ignite theeteapins:
bydrogen. The remains of the eq>1odcd
balloon plungullo the ground not very
far from the lpot when: Blanchard and
Dr Jeffriet had landed triumphantly
tcan:ely lilt months earlier. Thoec
haltening to the 8CCfIe of the disaster
(0UDd de ROlia dead i Romain jult


ma~ 10

whiJper 'Oh, J aUl' before

he, 100, ClCpired. The oonqucsi of the
ir had claimed ill fint V>C:tima.
Thai day wu 10 daim lIiII one more
hwnan lire. Poor Susan Dyer wu
among the horrified .peclalon who
wiu- cd the death plunge of the
balloon, and the dreadful .ight was
moce than abc could .WK!. She unk
to the ground in raint .nd I"".....t
way ahonIy aftcrwuds.

6 The world', Hr.1 mllll ..,.

obHrvadoft balIooo
Towards the end of tbe cightcenw
cen tury the lint French republic
became involved in warfaring wilh
1CVera1 Eu.ropet'n countric. that had
joined foraa and ormcd ,trolll'
OO"lition to combat the DeW I"CVOlutionary tu.le. TIM: to-ealIed 'Committee 0{
Public Safety' had been formed, which
appointed a axnmiltce to evolve we
best means of military preparednaa.
One mcmbcro{this committee, Guyton
de Morveau, prop"''''' the employmcDt
0{ obtervation balloons to wpport
the French armie. during the military
campaignl. This ptopotal wu.tclaimed and two highly gifted 1Cim
tilts, Jean Marie Joteph Coutelle and
Nimlas JacqUet ContI', wen: entrusted
with carrying it OIIt. They deviacd
equipment (Of produc:ing hydrogen
by palling ,team over rut-bot iron,
having been fotbidden the UK o{...upburie acid, ainee wlphur IUppliet
wen: needed for gunpowder prodoolion.
Coutel1e was commiaioned a capuin
and onkrod to report 10 General
Jourdan, who, wilh hU army 00Ipt,
was .triving to hold off the AustriaN
in the fonrea of Maubc:uJe. Then: he
.ubmitted hU plana which wen:
promptly .pproved and, tosether with
Cont~, he alablished his lemponry
headquarters at the CbSteau de
Chal.ais-Mcudon ouuide Pan.. Here

the world', rltSt military oo.ervalion

balloon ....... built; it was named
L'&tff/Ir~. Iu ",pacily wat 10,9.50
aI.R (SIOal.m). and both the netting
and the lina were rcinfOteed to enable
them to willu.WK! Ihe inD\1eIlCC of
.trong winrb. Since it would _
captive balloon, t..'O cable. were ~
vidcd .. ''*)'1. There wu. crew o{two.
one making oblervationl, the ower
handling the balloon. TIM: aignaIs wac
Il'llllSlDiued to the ground riwer by
IllC'lllU of flap or as wrium m 'ga
lowered in bags wrightcd with And
and attached to the cable. wilh small
L'~ was dcmonstl'lltcd to
in March 179+ Everybody was pleased
wiw what they witncacd and held
high hopet fot" iu future UK, and
few daY' later - on ~ March - the
WOC"kt't fint military balloon ept wu
formed, with Coutcllc AI commanderin-claid. Cont~ a1to had tettived a
captain'. commiIIion and was .ppointed commanding officer of the
Meudon lICCtion in e/w's1: 0{ aU manu
facturing and training activities.
With all its nee Pry .((0 "oria.,
includilll' the equipment for the prod\lClion 0{ bydrot;en, L'&lTfJw~ was
u anslb . cd to the Maube:uge rc.trc.,
wheteCoutel1e ucendcd with it eheooed
by the .oldien and to tbe .....ompaniment 0{ sun wute. From b;' high
elevation CouteUe wu KIOn .ble to
report the locations of the Austrian and
Netherland. annia outside the city.
By the lime he made his 6fih uoent,
the enemy lrOopI had tttO.uaI. from
the shoc:k that the .ppeu1Dee of the
balloon had caused them .nd fired
upon it with a gun (rom a hidden poai_
tion. When one of the enemy cannonbalb; glaneed off the boltom of the
balloon haskel Coutcl1e coolly Iignallcd
h;' men on the ground 10 let OUI more
cable. Riling to .n altitude 0{ .orne
, ,,"

I,300n (400 m), he was.non beyond

the reach 0{ the fint aoli-aitcrat"t sholl

. lCCuon fully lived up


what France expected or it, .o wu

ordered to accompany Genel'll lJourdan
10 the Charleroi fortraa which had
been taken by the Austrians. In broiling
IUD and wiw great dilfscuitiea the in.
Bated balloon wu moved the 18, miles
(SO km) (rom Maubc:uJe to Charleroi .
1bere ill appearance in the: Iky OIIlIide
the fonraa daUOilaliacd the gllrn...
10 completely wat wiw no furwer
cause it surrendered immcd.iately. The
next day was a lIillgtellter triumph for
Coutel1e. With General Morlo t ..
obterver, he ,tayed in the &.it wilh
L'ENnJK~ for the full ten bOlIn'
duration of the battle 0{ F\euna.
PraclieaUy all movements 0{ the
FrOileh troOps wen: direeted exclush-cly
&om the air, and AI result the A ......
triam tuffered a resoundill8 dd'"CII'.
Afier thae magnifiomt achievements with the oblcvation b..UOOllll in
the cam~ a IeCODd balloon .ection
wu formed, which participated .mong
other mgaa:emmts.t Stuttpn, Donauwlirth, Aupburg and Wilnburg. On
one 0CCIIw... Coutelle ascended whm
the wind blowing was of .uch rorce
that UIC 54 toIdien holding 00 to the
cable could huely keep control of the
baJloon. While thae men wac having
their lrouble. .orne Austrian offiecn
turned up waving. while Ilaa:. They
had obIerved the difficulties that
Coutelle laboured Wlder, 10 ,'DIUD_
IOCicd the offer that Coutellc wu
wekome to pay their beadquartcn a, and the balloon could be: hauled
down Jafcly. Coutellc tumod down this
generous offer, but in return demon
.trated his bal1oon, and the handling
0{ it, to the enemy offteen. Wan could
be: c:onducted in tucb gentlemanly
manner in 17951
I n I 796 the F reneh p
w.d four

balloon ICCtinnl, each with iu own

balloon. 1Dcy ~ue, beida the already
renowned L'&lTf'/IffltI11tI, CllaI" 11,,tJJ. and IlIlrlpiJl. In 1797 Genel'lll
Bonaparte CO....OIted 10 the inclusion
oi a balloon ICCtion in the army ror hill
campaign in fCypt, bu. il wu DOt
turned to good advantage then: and iu
equipment ullimately was 10ft in
August oi the following year in the tea
battle of Aboukir. where the Vi cI
Ut Pillri~l~ lraraportio, it ....... mnir;.
When Gel\Cral Bonapane returned to
France in 1799 he diaol,'C'd the balloon
KCtions, at well as the
eslabIOOmenl, which bad
.tarved ror aevera..I ycarl
fundi.. N. result oi!hac: "~,,;;;
mi...lculationll and diIpoaitionl on the
part 0{ the peat untqilt, France w..
not to use balloona again until she went
to war wiw Genn:l.Dy in 1810-71.

1 A..


Garae.riD - r.fluor or 11M

&r.t praedeal par..d... te
One 0{ the spectaton .ttendi"l'
OIarlel" hUlotica1 .l(CIlt in the
world', fint manrtcd hydtoaen balloon,
in Paris on D...:cmbcr 1783, asked what
J>WlXI'C it.crved. Aho p<:I~nt on thil
OCC?'ion wu the American .aOllist
and .tatesman Benjamin Franltlin,
""00 countered with: 'Of wbat use .is
new-born baby?' This wu, indeed,
an apt comparison, Cor few then had an
imagination vivid CDOugh to coneeive
the tntwfonnation of the balloon into
a dirigible ainhip. The: big problem
confroating the amall number 0( people
pondering the problem of ptOpUhion
wu where to lind uitable po ..... er

AI the II&llloC time there ..... ere others

who, .lthough they did not care
particularly to tackle thae problems.
had the viIion and po
cd the enterprix to ICC and take adl'llntagc of the
novdly and entertainment angle 0{
the balloon AI abowmcn. For lOme


years to come no large eeltbrntion or

exhibition anywh~ in thc world could
fail to tum out a .ueccu if only the
programme included a balloon ascenl.
But the aowda lOOn tin:d of juat lCCing
a balloon arise and disappear. Some
more novelty then luld to be added, and
the .!age was lOt for the age of the profcuionai acronau!l. These pilou
.tlunncd no mc:u\I of thrilling their
public, and among them one: in particulac stood OUt.
1be Frenchman Andro!; Jacque.
Gamerin ( 177(H82S) .pecialiJai in
parachute jump' from bis balloon, and
thereby cootributc:d in his own way
to the development of aviation.
Gamcrin made his first balloon aK'CIlt
in Metz in 1787, but the Jo"reneb
Revolution IKlOIl put an end to his
more extreme': tehemCl, panicuLarly
the: combination of balloon 'venti and
descents by paraebule.
During the: revolutionary WIll' Gar_
nerin wall taken prisoner by the Austrians, who held him for three years.
Then he returned to I'ans to carry out
his pla"'- On ~~ Oetobc:r 1797 he tried
his firsl parachute from a balloon above
the Monceau park. When fully opened
il had a diouneter of S9'4 ft ( I ~ m)
and during the lUCenl hung folded like
a long cylinder below the balloon &Upported by a ring of about 66 ft (~m)
diameter futenc:d on the inside of the
parachute fabric near the top of the
parachute canopy. A metal tube,
mounted in a piece ofl'o'OOd of cylindrical shape at the lop of the canopy.
surrounc\c:d the rope which attachc:d
the parachute 10 the balloon. The rope
could be cut by Gammn, who wu
luspended in a basket al the end of
the linea.
He disengaged himself from the
balloon al an altitude of 2,Soo ft
(700 m), and the parachute opened
perfectly. The balloon, incidentaUy,
exploded .hortly afterwards. TIle pan_

chute canopy was made of wind.tight

matuial and, ao:<:ordingly, the air
inside it could nOI escape. As a result
ule paraebute OOICillated violently, yel
Gamerin managed to land unharmed.
He immediately mounled a hone and
rode back through the park, e:hecrcd
by the crowd. After the previous
.USpcllK, during whieb they we:re
almOIn paftlysed with fright, C\'U)'body
on the ground felt relieved to witnOil
Gamc:rin'. ha.urdous del(>ellt.
In IBM Gamenn proc:eeded to
London, where he mad<': his 6fth
.uce' rul jump from an altitude of
9,850 ft (:J,I)()() m). This time his
paraebute OKillated so badly that he
bame very 'seasic:k' and wu badly
bruised on landing. The: obvious perils
of thCI<': parachute dClCCllts did not
unnerve Gamcrin, however, and the
ltability of his parachute WlUI improved
IOfficwhat when one of his friends. the
IUtronomer Lolande, influenced him
10 provide a ImJlll hole at the top of
the canopy through whieb some of the
trapped air could escape. Gamerin'l
wife, Jeanne: Genevitvc, whose llUIiden
name WIU Labrosse, and his niece,
Elisa Gamerin, shan:d his enlhusia..m
for parachuting. The former, on
10 November 17gB, became the first
woman w make a parachute daa:nt,
and the laller bromo the world'.
fU'St profcuional woman parachutist.
Gamerin'. reputation IU an aerial
performer soon became a household
word throughout Europe, and his
services were much in demand in
Gcnna.ny, Italy and Russia.
Greal .tlowman that Gamcrin wall,
on one ocralion he planned an
ocdinary balloon asecnt in the company of an attractive young lady. II()II;
soil qui maJ~ /JnIM, and perhaps she wa.r
only his niece; bowcvu, acrording to
a contemporary DCv.'Spaper comment:
'TIle police have forbidden amen
Gamc::rin to make an air \'oyagejointly


with a female .inee he could not prove

that this companionship will in any
way aid lhe perfection of the art. An air
"cyage undertaken by two membel1 of
oppolite VX" mUlt furthermore be con_
sidered quile improper and immoral.'
At the coronation of Napoleon
BonBpD.I1e 1.1 emperor, in No~ Dame
de Paris on 1I December 1804, Gamaio
was appointed official performer of the
homage in the air on that occuion.
To this end be buill a number of
colourful balloons, the 1argest of which
was richly d..:cwated wiu) IIap. golden
initiah and laurcb. A tale u told about
this balloon a the AlP' and
daocnding on the tomb of empaoc
Nero in Rome. Undoubtedly this
would have made the IUpentitious
Napoleon ill at ease, but 110 1Ub.tantiating proof has ever been provided that this actually ooculTCd.
The performances of GamcriD were
imitated extensively, and often led to
ludicroUl odditiCi. Some would ascend
mounted on hOl'lCll, othen would let
Iheir animJlla descend alone by parachute. Still othen, like Gamerin,
would Jel off firework. in the air, which
might ...ell end in dis.uler. Yet lhcre
is no denying that, in Ipite of his
lhowmanship, Gamerin mUlt be conlidered the father of tbe lint practical
parachute, a device wbich wa:J in time
to aave: the livell of thOU$3.Ild. of pilou
and other alice ...
8 J. P. Coldl., - tint Da.a.lsh
The exciting newt of the balloon aventl
of the Montgolfier brothen Iprud like
wildlire all ova the world and similar
experiments were lOOn rq>cated in
many places. Already, in tbe llame year
of 1783. l1l'i9.11 balloons were launched
in Copenhagen, but the fint manned
ucent in the Danish capital WaJ made
on I October 1806 by the Belgian
'ProCeuor' Etienne Gaspard RobertlOn

who had previously a.seended in

Moscow and Stockholm. The finl
Danish aaonaut wa.. Joban Peter
Colding, who began in the nOI unuaunl
way of ICtlding up Irnali balloom with
firework. and animals filled with
parachutes. He made his inilialucent
in a hot.air balloon on 10 November
1811 from the drill groundtt of the
ROICIlborg ea.tle, at which royal palace
CoJding had been dccotated at all
in~Litun: with the Ordu of Knigbthood of the Danilh Flag Name on 28
June IBog.
'The ehlef distinetio". of thill Danish
aeronaut are his initiation of 1..'0
present-day mmmon practices: air
mail and aerial psychological warfare.
In t808, with the financial and moral
support of King Frederik VI of OatmarIt, be acnt a lIumber of balloon,
aCfosa the Greal Belt with letten, and
sc:veral of these letten have been preserved. That area is mainly mJlde up
of many Imall island., and only the
Jutland peniltlula ill contiguous to the
European continent. The Danish capi
tal is located on one of the two laf'gQt
Wands and at ulat time no lubmarine
cable had been laid in the Greal Belt
ICpaI'Bting lhcm. Foreign news was
alwa)'! anxiOU!ly awaited, not ICIlIt
in those da)'! of the Napoleonic wan,
but sometimes ice or WIll' activities
plueliled the maillt from going
through; il therd'arc made IC~ 10
investigate whether carrying the letlen
by air could overcome the biatua. At
that time the Spanish alailiary troopt
waiting to aoss these waten had
mutinied. and British wal1hipt were
cruising up and down to prevent their
pa.age. One of them observed a
Itrange object afloat. A boat "'...
lowered to in"estigate and .... Ivagcd
what tumed out to be one of Colding'.
mail balloons thai had come \0 grief.
The letten at lcan w~ returned to the
Admiralty in London and one of them


ill still on file in the Public Record
Office. In iI, in DiLllish, are printed
ilUll'UCliolU 'To the Finder' from
Colding, repeating King Fredcrik',
command of 8 May 1808 from the
Danish headquaners in Copc:ntagen
informing everybody of 'our lII0I1
gr.u::iow will that Candidate Colding
carry OUI KrOItatie expetimc:nu
at the Great Belt, making il incumbent
on all our public laVantJ or who ebc
;1 be not 10 binder him in any way,
bUI to IiUppon bill wk to the best ~
their ability and band in the letten
10 the ncuut telegraph olfu:e for
.pecdy transmission, Ihowing this Royal
Order and, upon demand, be paid
tuitable rev..ard'. They are to add an
endonemenl about the location where
the air machine wu found.
When Ihortly afterward. King Gustar
III of Sweden wlU avaninated, one of
those involved fled to Denmark and,
convinced that bill native country
would be best off by joining the Q)Il1.bined rulenhip of the kin!, of Oenl1Ull'k
and Norway in a united Scandinavia,
printed a pamphlet to penuade the
Swedes to switch their allegiance to the
Danish king. Frederik VI seized the
oppurtunity and loll no time in having
a large quantity 0( thtIC pamphleU
ICDt to Colding with inlltr\J.etiom to
despatch the copies to Sweden by
balloon when the wind wu favourable.
In those rqionll the westerly winds
predominate, and m in the ahadow ~
the ghost of Hamlet thill aeronaut reo
le"S-d a MHoon allMlt daily, each
carrying So pamphleu from his
quarten at the Kronbort castle in
Elsinore. They could generally be
obllcrved to daccnd on the other lide
in Scania. The guardI 011 coastal duty
had orden to tum in their c&l1S0Ci to
the local go'VentOI' for dotrueticm, but
in the beginning they were reluctant
to approach thtIC 'trange aerial
visiton. When in time a tpCCimcn wu


retrieved and .ubmitted to the new

Swedish king. Gustar I V "",,,me much
ina:nsed. al what he considered a mOlt
unfair manner of 5Omebody ebc
milling himself up in fnreign affain;
and "'-id 50 in no uncertain terms when
ICllding an envoy with it to the Danish
king to IIllicil his assurance of keeping
aloof from such despicable praelice:.
Frederik VI only made matto:rs .....ane
by replying to the effecl thaI if
GUSIll.V IV really "''allted to know.
he .....ould readily admit to being the
inltiptor of this 'Balloon leIter'.
1bac IWO incidents in the history
of aeronaulics were only modClI beginninp of what ..... ere, within a
cenlury and a half, \0 develop into
important and common practices: those
fast mail dclivery by air and
effective psychological aerial warfare.
coming developmenu, fnr history h.u an odd way
of repeating il5Clf. In Shakespeare'l
words, 'gTtat oaks from little acorns


9 The 'Royal VallahaJJ' ballOOD

filled with c oal pa
The Englishman Charla Green (17S5IS70) mUSI be reckoned one of ballooning'l great pioneen, for he made
balloom cheaper 10 operate by being
the fint to fill them with ordinary eoal
gas. As early all 1807 a number of
Itreeu in London .....ere lit by gaslight;
Green realised the advantage of using
thill gu to fill balloons, bccautC the
rilling was cheaper and faster. Since
a:.I gas is abo lea affected by changes
in temperature, the halloo .... can likewiJe .tay in the air longer, but a good
gas of lighl quality is required foc the
filling of the balloon.
Green made his finl ascent with n
balloon filled with coal gas on 19July
IS~lI from Grttn Park in London,
during the cclebratiolU
the coronation of King George IV_ Named


Gttn'" IV &JaJ

Co~io!I &I/(Ioft, its

.iu was approximately 15,900 eu-ft

(450 !:U.m). During this avent il

climbed to lin altitude of about
10,000 ft (S,05O m) and everything
..'CDI wcll, but only as Green gradually
pined experience did he bcmme a
.killed aeronaUI. At the beginning of
his ballooning career many of his
.tarts and landinp wac hazardoU$.
By 1835 Green had made a total
200 balloon !lights and had inlroduced the trailrope which was 1,000 ft
(s05 m) long and wu gcne:rally
lowered before the landing to dow
down tIle balloon', dacenl and regulate
its beight. On fa\1O\lBble ",",moOi
during an air voyage the trail_rope can
allo be used to help conserve ballast,
by lIabiliJing the baUoon', altitude,
for.u the balloon linb a greater portion
of tlle rope will rest on the ground and
the ballCXIll Ihereby becoma relieved
of iu coflaponding weight. When
gl'Ollnd oblltacla are nOI likely to be
encountered the trailrope can aho be
paid out at night to iCrve &I a 'feeler'
of the altilude of the balloon above the
Green'l mOlt adventW'OUI and re_
nowned balloon &$(:Cnt wu undertaken
on 7 and 8 November ISS6 with the
balloon R~ VIlw1utll of 70,000 !:U_n
( l,gS:I cu.m) capacity, built to the
order of the ownen of the Vauxhall
amusement park in LondOll, whence
itllartCd. I t was an imprCllive red and
white ,triped baUoon which had al
ready made three previowt tripi. 'The
Unl uccnt occurred al 6 pErnO on
9 September IS,6 and took place befon:
a diJtinguished crowd of lPCCtaton
headed by Lord PalmenIOD. Thanks
10 the la~ carrying capacity of the
balloon the car could on this "('calion
bold no fcwcr than nine perIOlU. They
were, besida Green and his wife, his
brother Jama, the politician Robert:
H olland, and five othen. In ipite of


ulis load tile balloon climbed. rapidly

and reached an altitude of 1~1.000 ft
(3.gfu m) in five minuta. It was a
<:reditable performance by both Green
and his baUoon thaI this fil'lt trip was
an unqualified 11,>((
On his ascent in November of that
year Green canied as pa"engers the
operas, Thorn.. Monck
Maoon, and HoUond, who had planned
this f1igbt as a duratioD trip and footed
the bill for il. Bcaida ample ballast the
three air travellen carried various
ilUl.ruinallS and mgnal lighu along
with them; nor were they wanting for
provWOlII and hcver.tge_ They took
off in the early aficmOOll with the
balloon beading IOUth. After .ome
Ilight altitude adjustment they CI"OMed
Dover and made for Calaill, continuing
their silent panage over EW'Ope where
the various .hining citia began 10
appear in the dusk. When the .un
dawned again after a long and dark
night, the three men in the btuket had
no idea of where they were. Below them
they could only make out a rugged
landscape with the higher regions
oovem::l by mow. After they had .tayed
in the air for seventeen houn, Green
decided to dacend and they landed
IDlOOthly al the outskirts of a fonsl,
where farmen approached to inform
the three air adventuren that they
were dOlt to the town of Weilburg
in the Duchy of Nuaau. ThUl they
had covered a distance of about
mila (77:1 bn) from their ltatting
point. ThiJ wu the longest balloon
voyage on record and they WCie
entertajned and celebrated royally in
Weilburg. Their balloon wu renamed
NllfIIW and transported to Paris to go
on exhibition there.
ThiJ outJtanding JI)(('. wu to be
lUev ' Ied by a tragic incident_ In 1837
Green wu persuaded, much againlt hill
better judgment, to lake: up the 6tycar-old painler and amateur lCicntist



Robert Cocking in his balloon, from

which the latter intended 10 jump by
parachute. In his youth Cocmg Iw:I
attended lOme parachute exhibitiona
in London by Gamcrin (_ NO.7) and
Iw:I tbcrcafter for many yean experimented with what he himself considered IOIllC improved types. In the
evening of 24 July Cocking 1aW1Cbed
himself and his parachule from the
Nnw"' balloon 10 plunge to the ground
with the folded parachute lireaming
behind him. Cocking alllIOIt carried
Green and his other companion,
Edward Spencer, 10 tlw:ir deaw 100,
for once Ihe balloon was relieved of
Cocking'. weight il became complelely
uncontrollable. II wall only thanu 10
Green's skill and pie.euee of mind that
the balloon managed to land safely
In 1B40 Green proje<:led a croaing
of the Allantic Ocean by balloon from
Europe to America. He propoeed to
provide propullion and the required
sustained lin by mea", of a propeller
driven by clockwork. However, Green
had to abandon his pllUU when that
year he was injured during a dillIcult
balloon landing in EMU,
In t838 and apin in 18~ he made
lOme altitude asccnlil with J{IlSIQII, in
punuit of scientific aUnt. In the latter
year he and the utrOnomer John
Welsh from the Kew ohlcrvatory in
London made lOunuch ascents between
AU(U$t and November. On their last
trip they reached an a1litude of no
lea than 22,930 n (6,gSg m). 11lat very
year be abo achieved the goal which he
had previoUlly set himself, that of
making hit sooth balloon .scent. Thco
he retired to his houae in Highpte,
Lc;mdoo, and took no funher active pan
in baliooning, hut he continued 10
follow keenly everything concerning
the conquest of Ihe air. Green died
from a heart attack OIl .116 March

The ateftm,..ginoe-driVC!D air-

or Henri Curard
the French engineer Henri
(1825-1882) is gencrnlly credited with the distinction of producing
the world'. fint lruly dirigible (steerable) ainhip. Already at an early age
Giffard made a fortune from his
various inventions fOl' the improvement
ofJocomoti~'C: steam engines. He gained
his first aeronaulical c:s:pericncc from
the building of giant balloons fOl'
exhibition purposes. Thull he designed
a large captive balloon for the World'.
Fair in Paris in 1867 which provided
the public with a bird's eye view of the
fairgrounds. This was Giffard', largest
captive balloon and became a popular
fcalun:; a IOtal of 35,000 people
received their 'air baptism' in this way.
Another of his captive balloons, named
Q,P!j~, saw serviee in London in 186g
and WIU later converted into the free
balloon u PdJ, Nord. It was wcd by
the well-known Frencb actOoaut Guton
Tillandier 10 coIleet money for the
pola r explorer Guslave Lambert.
After his fint lUCent in a free balloon
Giffard decided to try his hand as an
a[iShip designer. His fint attcrnpt was
a 144 ft (44 m) long non-rigid aiiShip
with a diameter of 39'4 ft (12 m) and
a volume of 88,287 cu.ft (2,500 cu.rn).
The envelope was tapered al both
ends and coverai completely with a nel
to which a 66 ft (20 rn) long pole was
attached, with a triangulaT sail-Iikc
rudder affixed to the rear end. A sm.1I
gondola could just bold the aeronaul
and the Iteam. engine. The latter was
of Giffard's own design, weighed only
99'11 Ib (4~ kg) and was able 10
develop 3 hp. yet the total weight,
indudiog boiler, fin: tray, water and
fuel, amounled to oo1y 551 Ib (250 kg).
The three-bladed propeller bad a
diameter of about 108 ft (sgo m).
This .mall ainhip left the ground
(or Ihe lint time at the Hippodrom.


in I'llris in the presence of a large

crowd on 24 September 18511. On this
occaion Giffard W3ll dl' ed in style,
wearing a 'Prince Albert' frock-coat
and waving his top hat, while the
aslonished 'petta ton saw the a.inhip
move ahead leaving a trail of white
Ileam behind. This was the lint Bight
anywhcn: of an ainhip under its own
power and ended without any mi3bapl
at Trappe, -ome 15. miles (is km)
-outh-WClI of Paris. The airship had
maintained an average lpeed of ~ m.p.h.
(8 kmfbr) and an altitude of 4.920 ft
(1,500 m). TIle IO'IaIl rudder had made
it poalble to ,teer the airship to some
dqslee and on a later Irip Giffard
even managed to complele a full circle
with the a.irabip.
However, these flights were made in
perfect weather conditiOOl and Giffard
rcaliled very well that his ainhip was
no better than a free balloon if only
the slightest wind wu blowing. What
he lacked W&I an engine developing
mon: power for leu weight. He was,
however, unable to build a power
IIOUroe meeting these requin:menu, 10
in 1855 he built instead a larger
envelope which W31 230 n (70 m) long,
32'8 n (10 m) in diameter and held
tt3,000 cu.fl (3,200 CII.rn) of gas. The
gondol:l was now attached din:ctly
10 the netting, but did not turn out 10
be: such an effective design. With
Gabriel Yon, Ihe well-known manufaclurer of balloons, .... his uaistant,
Giffard made a trial trip (rom Courcella, IIOUth of Lille, but the envelope
c:ouId not lD<lintain ita lhape due to
1011 of gas, and u a rault Mime of the
wires lIUpporting the gondola gave way,
fortunately when ncar to the ground,
for the envelope slipped completely
from the: netting and eJlpkxkd. Giffard
and \'01\ \~cn: Juclry to ClCaJ>C alive
from this $eriouJ mishap.
Giffard in his lut attempt aimed 201
a truly large ainhil). It was 10 be:
. . .-11

1,g68 ft (600 m) in length; have a

volume of 7,769,200 CU.fl, (220,000
cu.m). and be: powered by a .team
engine qhing more than So tons.
The COlt of building a 1IlO00ter ainhip
like this proved prohibitive, 10 the
project was eventually abandoned. A
(ew yean later this capable and enterprising man bc:eome blind, which
.pclled foUl to what fUlure plans he
may have entertained for funher conquests in the air.
Lowe'a ball_ neiou ia the
Americ:aJ:l ClvO War
When the nineteenth cenlury dawned,
John Wise was the dominaling ligun:
in American ballooning circles; he will
be rernembc::ted chiefly fOl' his .cherne
to UOII the Atlantic in a balloon (_
No. 15). His only equal in !lte New
World at that time wall hill constant
rival, ThaddCWI S. C, Lowe, who was
twenty-live yean younger. Lowe made
his lint balloon a.5Ce:nt on I 7 July 18sG
and, like Wlsc, 10011 became oJ..cged
with the notion of ut&illg the Atlantic
in a balloon and 100t no time in
endeavouring 10 carT)' out this plan.
By 1859 he had railed sufficient money
in New York to enable him to J!f'OCCcd
with the building of a very la~
balloon, fint named Ci!1 of Nrw York
and later Grlot lYutmr. It was of no
ICSII than 724,000 cu.ft (20,500 cu.m)
c:apacity, with a diameter of 1(4 f'
(3 1'7 m), and was more than 200 fl
(6 1 m) tall. It was thus the lAiKC't
balIooo built up 10 that time. ru \ViJc
bad planned to do with his balloon
Atlantic, Lowe abo carried a lifeboal
below the cnclOlCd gondola.
The linl disappointing obllacle that
Lowe encountered was the inability of
the gasworks in New York to fill his
balloon, due 10 lack cI facilities 10
produce !l,e required quanlily of g...
However, this was remedied when Ihe
praident of the Point Bree~ gasworu


in Pbi'ldclpbia came 10 the, we with

an ....-&DOe 01 bani able to mee'
Lowe'l requua .....lta. The
.CCOidin,ly tranlIfa.ed to Philaddphia,
but had 10 be IIDt'ed there lint few
the duration 01 the winter. Finally. on
dJWle 1860, the .... 11oon _ ready tOr
ill lint trial ....rat. By a ""';ncidmce
thil _
the VU")' -me day that Cr.t
Emmt, then the world', larpsl
llearner, turned up in the harbour 01
New York after her maiden voyare
sao. the Atlantic Ooean. The bUIoon
ful611ed all Uipa::U1tiont. and ,,",ay
eBOn _ aimed al enablin( a nan tOr
Europe 10 be made in September 01
that ~. Durin, the ~ 01 GrMI
WuImI on 7 September a Itrong
wind caUlCd the t.l1oon to toIlKie
with an ot-ude and be b.diydamaaal
.)111'1 fillint: bepn on 29 SqMemher, but this tirnc the balloon exploded
due to a wuU:ne. .-.uliDc from the
lint milhap. Mer this, ibu'e _ no
mon: money left to .pend on the pro-

"'loon _



lint captive ballooo1 UCUlli

b the Feckral Anny pve no betltt
resu1l1 than thole achieved by IUCb
other YOiuntcer balloon operaton and
ot.u .ai uJohn Wix,Jobll La MOW!.
lain, Samue.l Kin(, and the bI'Othcn


Jow:pb Henry, a n!CoI"iled
Kieoltilt 01 the SMithtoni'n InIlitution
in D.C., who had aIIo
acted u adviler 10 Wile, lUiiated
now that Lowe abo Woo,1d m.altc a
IonS en :tlUntry t.l1oon trip before
he attempted apilllO 00. the Atlantic
by ap.. Lowe (0110"" I this advice and
kI\ immediately lOr Cincinnati with
hit balloon
01 ~.,o cu.n
(~70 cu.m) which be IIICd lOrahibition
purP1' 1elMer wailinf 10""( tilnc for
air wealhcr be finally let OUI in April
1861 on alonrtrip sao. V.rginia and,
when landw, in South Carolina,
he had w.aed a dittance Wo
mila (.,000 bn). Unexpa::ttd IIrIOn(
winds bIowi"! (rom the north had
(orced hiM down at Pea Ridge ncar
lhe lown 01 Unionville (now Union).
During Lowe'. balloon MCenI the Civil
Wu betWCU"l the Northern and Con
Itdaate Slata had lUrted, and he WIll



Ja..... and E- Allen The .......... (ew

thiI WIll dial, with the aoeption of

Coaal MeClellan, all army offittn
failed 10 realile the potmlial value 01
acriaI obIervation in warfare. Raida
having 10 470000i.1C thiI ~yt resist
ance: on the part of the pound (h CCI
to availirlf ll...........vcs 01 the .... .;cu
01 the military ... ooaUb, the latter
liue OOIlliooted with nulilCf'OiM other
difficulties. To begin with, thep.
balloonl \Oue IlOl too well adapled to
activc IeMoe and, after beint 611ed
allOmC distant p.i'\OOIb, enwwlIcrcd
many oWtada on the lon, appooach
to the Iirint liou
III time, howe-.u, the rivalry beIWto) the competing aeronaull was
onlcome, better equipmmt was procured and working conditioi'll abo
wac improved. A better atznoq)bcn:
was likcv. ix acaled when Lowe .ner
the baule OC8UU Run on II. July 1861 ,
was able 10 ..:poil 10 Wuhir1flOi1 hit
important obeervalions 10 the dfect
!.hat the Confederate forces,
victory tbey had WOIl there. appc:and
disinclined 10 punue thN kItt. Tbat




Lowe had lOr the lim

tUne c:onVCfed bit acriaJ obiu VIta-.
to the pound by electric tdq.apb, the
win: oIwbieh _ attached 10 the cable
holdillJ his balloon &krpriN.
At the end 01.86. the l' ederaI (01'CCl
bad a total 01 ICm obIcrvadon bal.
....... at their dilp" I, all built by
Lowe- 1'bey WOt named Ua.,
c.utitati_, IV~ U"itMI $I .....
l","pU, Equ and &ulsiar, and varied
in J,ize from I~OOO 10 32,000 cu.A (42~
to 906 cu.m). they opt:tated
aUD altitl.ldeofup to ~ A ( 10.S2~ m ).
No auaupe _
made to ca"'O'lfiqe
bal...... ; on the OOIltrai'y, they
",ae brigbtly embellished with the
eoIoun 01 the American ftac ew with
the uwpia 01 tbe American CIfIle.
Lowe JI.OOC'eCded in dcvc.Iopinf equipIIICJIt (or the production 01 hydrogeu
whicb _ .wtable (ew Inn$poi1Ition,
and thweby pwovided a badlynut&c:d
mobility for the balloon unita. In l86t
the OOilvened collier G. W. P.,b
Quli,. operatinA; on the Potomac river.
ter~ed .. mothcr-&hip 01 the balloon

year. in

;m.. iloiled .. a p'op: .. ted Yankee apr,

but _
re'eu d apiD after ..tyin(
the -tMiouli SouthUhUI that hit
balloon trip had ICi ..:d lCienti6c
purpoICl only. Hil mum trip proved
difficull and Lowe eompktcly aband
oned bitJonc-dil!tarICC baUoonw, plam
to pit...... biwcl( inltCild 10 PI jdmt
Lincoln in WubiD(1Oil 10 offer hit
Kl'Vira. The Pruidmtappotnted Lowe
dUd of the Ann,', aeronautical divi
lion, under the command 01 General
Mc..Qt:u'n, wbow: fOiCCI bad taken
up their poIitioN on the Potomac

I W.....,_

The ...Ioot.. terVing with the:

Federal b<:u llDQuutionahly rutricted
the hitherto unhampued .......... Iity of
the Confederate ttoope, who tried their
but to ddtroy them, but withoul much
__ c
..ved. the FcdcraJ foica from ... ue
defeats, durint the battlu 01 Fair Oab
and Gainct'. Mill ill t86:t. The Con
(ederate attempll to utabliab a t.l1oon
lCClion on their tide woe few and fairly
feeble. Thill WII due to their luk 01 equipmmt (rom which the enemy
blockade cut than off. But known it
the Coo(edente ba.11oon that ..... buill
in Savannah al the ilMliption 01
Captain l..angton Cbe-u. III mvelope
could hold only 7,500 cu.A (2t2 cu.m)
0( coal gat, and brcaUIC it was made
up 01 many odd piecu, which pve it
I motley appearance, it _

...... ._._.......-v...........


that IOUtbun bella had pa.riotically

. i6ctd tbdr tilkm evmlng 10"(or the caute. Henee it _
rduTed to
.. 'The Silk Drat Balloon', and WIll
Ul IOUte 10 the ffOill on board the
ConCede. ate anncd Iv.gboat
when the latter bcc:amc ItrIInded on
a bu in theJamu rivu. Thut both the
~. d and the "110001 became an easy
JIftY 10 the mobile and wdlanned
Federal ironclad
1110: American Civil War became a
lUling pound (or new wt'IponI and
pnctica, and Coreicn military Dbao:rven, not leul from Germany. care(ully in_ipted thuc military deve'opiKi'ta. One IUCh
oiIioer 011 a lcave oIabence, who _
attached to the FedenJ (otCa (or a
while, was Counl Ferdinand VOiI
Zeppelill, who noted the activities 01
Lowe aDd hit balloon IICCtion. On an
expkrinc trip 10 the M;JW'OU of the
M....ippi ri~. VOiI Zeppelin later
recei\-ed hit; own balloon initiation witb
an NOent at Minoeapol;" Aller hu
return to Germany and aubtequmt
retirement from military ICi ~ioe, VOiI
Zcppc1in _ evamaally 10 dcoote all
hit time and btuDe 10 bit idea 01 a
rigid ainhip and, by oheer
PUIC~Uance:, ultimately bri", (orth
a number 01 imptellivc Zeppelin diri




. ...


Lowe, aeronautiral rattt:r turned

out lui
rul. Neither he nor the
other civilian aaonaura ,,"ae ever fully
.ewguited by the military piOfuaionaIt. Faced with a Jack 01 .ympa_
thetic undcntandin, on the part of an
ever-cbancinllurco ion 01 c:ommaod.
inJ of6c:rn, Lowe ra.igncd in 1863.
He _
pwcwL.t by the Allen
hrothen, who woe even Iua able
10' tbc ....IYCIt and -... the
"'1000 ICCIKln wat dj..oIved com
plctely. Thercafl:er the U.S. Army
oJ no ballot:c. for the next thirty





"floe .1.0' IpUn_ ' .... C' 04"'

N!IIdat'. balloon u G'=' .... one of the
Wpl and belt koown in Europe

dW'inl tbe IlineCccnth telllury. Nadu,

or Gup&td t'6ix Toumacbon to rive
him ru. tall name. _
u le motl
renowned t' rench pbotognlpha 01 hit
time, and uny in hit canu became
im_led in.. Llonautical probkrN. He
hrpn to experimenl ",ith photlJlf1lpM
taken Crom balloon., and in IS.s,s
..... ivcd !he idea of mappinc from
the air. The F........h guw:aal
rather KCplic:al oflhe pnctical vallM:
of such a proood~ and the CatnO\It
UtrOnOmtt Bc:ruch tried to prove to
Nadar that the idea ...... not f~ibJc
at all. Yet Nadar continued hit elbu.
Uit fint attempu .. ere a toW failun:,
but .. iddmly, one day, a d!urda muld
be d;'O n.ed 011 one 01 the platts. Nadu
Iwk:tnt. cd that chit expcurc had
been made wbik the ..xty valve of
the balloon wall ckwd, and deduced
that eIca~ P' had prcviowly Conned
a ulin veil bdow the balloon preventillJ
anything from thowinf 011 the plates.
In lata" yean he obcaioed even bctlCl"
Nadu _ a 'lnXiI beliaer in aircraft. of the hcavicrlbanait priDcipie.
and in 186] wrote an _ y 011 the
principle and propa
of the .Jr..
...... ew. pcacticaUy predieting lhe
of hdicoptcn to come. I: iI ironic,
thcltfoce. that Nadar had his gianl
balloon " Chit built as a mcaru ol IDDiKy to help Iinanoe an
aitcn.ft of the 'proper' heavierIbn air type. The envelope of th.iI
hUfC balloon _
made ol ailk aDd
bdd a l _ tlt,OOO a..A (6,000
of , ... The toW he;,ht of the bal
loon was 197 n (60 m) and iu lining
capacity more than 41 10fU. The bal
loon "' .....1 _ rernu... bk in iu own
risht and looked Kx- all the world like



a ...,,1(





It contained a captain'. cabin with

buak. a lOilet, a IlOre-roOnl. a photo..

papha. "ucIio complete with dark
100111, and a pOntine p..
On lOp"""
an open platform for walb. The
",,-ers.l1 dimcnaionJ of the hultct ,,"ae:
1,1 n by h A (4 by t , m), The
bonom 0( the basket was provided with
IhafiI for the mounting of whccb..
The lint _ I of thit balloon toOk
pbce on 4 0c!0bcr 100, from tbe
Clamp de Man in Paris.. with about
100,000 viaiton payiQc ~, It
had been dai,uut and built at the
plant 01 the wellknown Godard ramily
01 acrnnauu. When the balloon ...
cended il _
in charge 01 Louis and
JuleJ Godani and caliicd twdve more
p . . e.,.al includi... Nadar and anotha
of the Godard brothcn, EUfbK. who
...... an expuic..ttd M]lOOD pilot him
td The lrip _ of only a Cew houn'
The next trip foUowcd. two ....eeD
later. 0<1 .S and 19 Oetoba. and luted
much 1orJ&a. It turned out dramatically indeed. The JalDe Godanl brothen
WU' in chalJC apin, and thil time
Nadal- ...... accompanied by hiI wife
and only t ..'O moce ~ Ana- a
ltay in the au- ol utcen boutI the

balloon ..... CI' Hina I-laDowrian terri

toty and the thrilled ~ wue
pll.ercd 011 the POIiKlUldc deck
admiring the beautiIullUnrUc:. Mean
while, however. the Godard brothers
began to WOIT}' about wbat woukl
happ;iI when the heal 01 lUll bqan
10 warm the mGniIOI.II voIulDC 01, ...
They Cca.rcd that the balloon m;,"t bunl. and 10 thq' v;t.1.ed mucb
01 the p i and prcpan::d 10 land. The
bolloon dacendcd rapidly and, much
to evuybody'. fU.rprile. they found that
the wather WIU really .IOrDlY ciole
10 the ITOOnd. There wu IlOUting elle
kft but to p ....eed with the landinc.
b bccaUlie oflhc heavy "- 01 ... the
balloon (Plid DO! be forad to climb
apm. 11M: Jut bop of balt..! Mele


ucriJkcd jwt before lbe baa hit IlK

pound. and lbcn !be v;t.lve wall out
of order. The oocupanu' previous
..... _
cnjoyInenl quickly IUmed into
panic dunn, the CDlUinc nl1j:htmarc
ride. raMm,el'l grasped whatc:vcr 1Upport _ within their read! in the hurt
b"kel. while the panly-emptied en
veIope acled u a larae .. il and dfOY
lhem ....... the aurCaec of the earth at
a IIfIC' I oI!O m.p.b. (!Io 1Im/hr) which
I d'lJtcd in &rq\IUI1 jump. of the bMket
hish ia the aUr. Every OOItack in ill
pat..b ...... 10m ..under, and even lalJC
trca and pok:I broke like
matd!ca. An approaching train barely
manaced to pull 10 a lIop with kitcd!
inI braltcl bdon: the impctuow giant
lore t..brouch the anbankmcnl. Thil
went 011 for thirty minutes, until _
dcnIe ball in the ne;,bbouthood of
lbe small town of Rcthun. iOilK !iO
miles (,0 11m) northWCIt of the city of
Ha_cr. finally anatcd the balloon
forrood. 11 then exploded ... a
finish, By lhen, alone oflhe paMF.1aen,
the wire of Na<br remained in Ihe
badly-<bmaaed ba.ket cal. The l(II
of the party. along with nulf>el .....
pic -. of ,,"whae. were IU'WO in the
wake of the bolloon. II mUll be con.idcre:d almott. miradc that cvuybody
remained alive, but all .. ele more or
lmI badly injU!'cd.
" (;I.w undu .. wt thorough repain
and look 10 the: air .pin. both in Greal
Brilain IlJId ocher European counlra.
but Ibt fteVc:r IKO'UOO her Conner
.itality and wu no Ioo~ C&p;ibk: of
making aily king tript. "is1' licket
price, wue cbarJcd ror ucenU in tbe
balloon. but it did not IlJm out 10 be
tbe goIdmin~ lhat Nad.r had expctlOO.
She was IIOt a lUilabie me&n' oflrantponatOon, for pawengtrI nevu- knew
where they wouki be callied, .nd il
was alwaYi difficult to make afc
llindinp. The lack of tome rippilll
de.. icc accountttl lOr !hil to a gft>1ot

extml. bul Nadal- himxlf" wu no

lkillcd balloon pilot cilba.
Not much ...... heard .... t.eq ...ultly or
Nadar .. a balloonilt. Wben P.... ......
buiLled in the .ranco-PnoMi .... W"
of 1870-71 be.nd other balloon pilou
PCCKolt in the .' rt:neh capital atablishcd ..... ir mail ten"ice by iI"IIIi\I of
balloona 10 maintain tome MX1 or com
munication ","ilh the oullide world.
Nadat alro participated in the: pr0duction of the: microfilml which enabled
pi&wc.. 10 carry replies and ocher
IT- . p tzck 10 PuiI; and, finaUy. at
one .tage of the: Jiqe Naclar maintained
IOIDC captive balloon. above M oot.
maitre for military ot.c:rv.tionJ.
13 What aldtade did ' MammocJo,'
at.. l-l
Prot M J - Glaishcr ( 1809- 190S).

the: mcIecIr"OIo&iIt. ...... om of the:

a:icltGU of bip$ llandiJJs or hill
time. He ....... in charwe of the ","calba
!erVKe of the Greenwich Ot.m.. tory
in Londool ....d in thai eapacily lOOn
yilualiKd Ihc potenlialities of the
balklon .. a tool for Ilucla of the: air
'",,"n'. Accoodincly. bct.. CD 1862 and
1866 he made: iOfliC thirty NtCDLJ in
IlK CO\11patoy of the balloon pillOt Henry
Tracy Coxwell ( ISI9-lgoo). all of them
lOr .dmtific pw.-' They IU"VUI. to
ettablilh the com~tion of the ..motpberc.....d Glailhcr abo made physic)..
qical obtervalionJ
the reactionJ
living ~tllities .. \ allitudeJ.
Glaishcr wu mcourascd 10 undU1akt
this wor\ by. and ~ei\'Cd
in carrying it out
two wealthy
Britilh enginten., WiUiam Fairbairn
andJ- Nasmyth.
Before pioocedin, with hill pmjcCLJ
Gbilher had 10 rind a ruiuble balloon
.... d a cap:able pilot. He em- eo....~l1,
who opined that a new belloon had
better be built or thrir 1pCC;"1 wlt.
C::u:",~11 ..... no ItcMec in the lidd 01
baUoor.. Ai Car back as .8.t7 be pined





hill fi ...1 balloonin, apo iehce in hit

you~ dafl and dun"" the (oUowina
IWO yean be dut>Oll$trated in Germany
with hit ..1IootI $JliA how. city muk!
be bombed with 'air UMjA""'''''
launched (rom t.lloon; hi. cailKd
twin "'keta on Ihae ........... icna, When
the F~Pru.ian WIU' broke OUt in
1870 the German Anny ordaed IWO
t.lloont .nd Ihe r......' ry pi~cralinl equipment (01' them (rom
<A:ooeU and asked him 10 head two
bal100n KClioN 10 be formed, eacbcompriaina: lWmty men. However. they ..w
little .etive tervicc with the 1'0..4 of
von MoItkc beau_ the PI gtnaa'on
lried field mobility.
While eo.wdl was busy buildinl; the
DeW ballooo, of 90,000 cu.ft (1I>50f8
cu..m) capacity - il was later IlIU'DI:d
AI. ' lot - the ..'... _ and lIurdy
G\aidler trained in order 10 be able 10
lland the (alilue 10 whKb balloon
Uemtlto hifh .Ititudes weae 10 ai-lie
him. Orilinally be lad not intended
to be an aclive panieipant in them
himrtr. lie ..Ieetcd hi. instrummtl
equally painttakinaly and abo pondered minutely the many inveatigatioru
10 be c:onduetcd.
On 17 July 181 };l
tk was Iillod
with coal pa at the pworb in
WoIverhamptOll and then n.e on ba
first trial trip which, thouCb brid,
IIilI IJroucht GlaiIbe:t and Cox.rdl
10 the conlidc.abk altitude of mort:
than 26,000 rt t7,9IJoS m). 5trang.:ly
enouch. neithtt then nor later did they
eva- avail thenuelva of any OIlyten
equipment on their variow a1tilude
triJII. They adapted theantclva to tbe
thin air of the upper regions, yel they
VIae lOOn 10 learn Iilat there VI'U
limit 10 ",hat they CO"kl endme.
Tbey made one mOT(: tml lrip in
AIJIUII the ame year and then let out,
at p.m. on oS Septembrr 1II6:J, (1ft the
altitude aHmt which ,..., to SO down
in hiJlory AI one of the peatelt of aU

replied, 'Jr.dt:ed you had, and 10 had I,

1........' Now thaI they had apio

balloon.chicvementJ. They pelKtratcd

the layen of e""wI at .bout ,000 n
m), there to enoounter brifht
aJnIhinr: which .aderatro their (unba
climb while AI"
,i continued 10 re..dvc .Jowly IU'OWId her 'l'ertical uis.
Neithttoflbe two men apuiu.ocd any
diacomfOn until lhey reaclKd an .ltitude of .bout !l9tYlO ft (8,990 m),
alt~h the blUthing of CoxVl~11 was
occa.ion.!ly heavy. GlaiIhcr attended
to hit obIcrvat>oni and read, lOr
instance, temperatun: of
bul when the balloon continued to
dimb Itill hifber be bad difficully in
radinJ the iNtrumentJ. AI the line
maaipulatin( the vaM: now .110 sot
It\ICk Cox...ell had 10 climb up 10 !be
hoop canyinf the ru,ket 10 m: !be
line. Suddenly Glaisba' ,.... unabk: 10
!'aile fitst one ann and then the ~.
He ICcounted Later: 'J tried 10 Ihakc my
body in an efl'ort to rid m)'ICI( of my
uncuy (celinp and I "1(: ~ ded p.,tly,
but rclt numb, and at I llanced .t the
baromeler my head I:UIk on my lefl
Ihoukict, then I tumbled baekwardt
down in the 1.,ket. I tried 10 talk 10
Coxwell, wbo was IIill _led in tbe
}.oop. but no wordt came (orth. I could
think elnrly UDtil the very n ........JiI
that darknaI mvdopcd me.' Coxwell
rea1. thai both be and Glaisba' woe
in imminent d'naer, lOr now hill armt
likcwite lurned limp. llebc Cox ..~11
abo I"'" uneoalCiow be manaaed 10
link hi. teeth inlO the line 10 the valve
.nd pull it M:Veral timea. Then the
..11oon began 10 link, (ollowinl ita
previoullteady dimb of about ' ,000 ft
(505 m) per minule. Claishcr .woke
when Cox ..e!I.tood 0IItt him and ahook
him while .cpealing the words 'tem
pentme' and 'oboc:rvations' and limul
tancousIy nd.bjol hill hancb with
( ..... C1aiIber _ sradually able 10
rile rrom the botlom of the t.,kd and,
addJ ina Cox ...ell, 10 "claim, 'I had
!oat my ...ita complMdy.' C::O-'dl



Ievd where the oq-wen

COIItmt of the air wu more plentiul,
the two men 100II r ......... aOO and
manafC<l 10 land the "11000 011 Wp
II'*'"' dow by the v i i . of Ckc 51
Marpret, otltJide Wolverhampton.
Neither GlaWwT nor Coxwell IUfI'ered
any afler<lfeets from lheir perilow,
but valuable, balloon VO)'1IIe. Po.tuity
llands in admiration of their .chievemall on thai fX("a'ion, .11 the more
beeawc of their .dvanocd ap: Coxwdlwas then 43 yea ... ok! and GiaWKr
hill elder by ten yean.
How b;p did };(, rA climb 011
that day? Aooordinilo Glailber'. own
ttatWkDta they reaehed an a1tilude
of '7,000 n (11,278 m), but thit 6sure
hal lata been que-tiobcd by other
aPO III basinl lheir jude...a,t m. the
", ... ea of the UC'Ul1 and de.ce'll on
that ..........ion. They maintain .Iao thai
the barometer readinp wen: unreliable
under the prevailing condit>ocu prior
10 the "1100II reathina its ceiling. But
all unanimGUlly agree that tbe daring
. ... ebed


.:at... uta almou. c:erta.inly exccecl'Cd

an altitude of !O.OOO n (90'+5 m) by

an ampk


Durina: the yean up to 1866 Glaiaher

made number of additional .cimtilie
"1\000 a. ,- "'-t both by day and .t
niPt. and Coxwell was lhe pilot on
of them. In .863 Cox ..<11 do .......
.traled bis balloon before Brilan
Army mmmiitee thai _
10 pa.judgment m. the luitability of t.J1oons
for j CUJiUllliaance. Bef'(IK Coxwell died
in 19oo (.1 the age of 80) be lad made
.boul t,OOO t..Iloon aoccnta in his long
and IIitriog career. Glailher became
Got of the founde ... of the AerOllautical
Sociel)' (now the Royal Aeronaulical
S.~I,.) iii 1866 and cOfuinued 10 take
an aetivc intU'CI1 in .11 aaonaulM:al
!natlen ripl up 10 hi. death in 1905 al
the -ce of 9+-

'4 The Rala- Bridp ( rom P. ri

dllria. tlM al IF by tlM Ge ....... u.

II ,. 7'
Doe of the stranpt chapten in the
history of 1.llooniDc. AI well AI in the

ann.h of France. ill the air-bridfe thai

was ellabli,bcd when Pan. was
be i gal in the Franco-Pru.ian war of
18~ . Wben theCa .... n armies. on
19 Seplember 1870, held the French
capital in their iron vip, the timinl
was rno:-t inopportune and very crili
cal for the French:. DEW so.allment
bad reechuy been lOT med iii the eity
of Toun. in IOUthem France. while
the Ministry of Defence remained in
pan.; and now the connectioOll beI .. : -ro them VIae .c.aed.
Saaal 1.!1om pilots.ucb AI NadaT,
the Godard brothen., Guion T.andier
and otben VIae Ilaylna: in the b eacd
city and immediately .pptnchcd the
ponmuterIUlual. Germain Ram_
ponl-Uchin, with lbe ",opoIition that
communicalton with the outside world
be re-establiahcd by mtal'd of balloonl.
A carrier piseon fancier, van Rooeebe<:ke, p'GpClcd rurtba that the 1.1Ioont c:any pigeoru which CO'dd later
mum 10 PariI with rN V rrom the
porinca.. 1'bete i&ru met with the
ready .pptova1 of Rampont, wbo took
imnwdi.te IItp 10 ha'"e them lUI.,
and the first balloon departed with mail
on 113 September (rom Place Saint
P'elle in Montmartre. Jua DuruoC
,.... the pilot, and he uted his old and
1eaky balJoon U N1- c, which three
boun later landed well behind the
enemy line- al tvreaux, tome ~ milcl
(go km) _ t of P.n... On:r6 September
tbe bIolloon La ViJU u FIt.. took off,
c:an-yin, ii!OI't mail, JlUKfI3U'nd
van R_be<:kc, carrier pigeon..
Three day. later Louis Godard 1'01lowed in hit Lu tuu-Ufili whK:b wu,
as the hinted, combination
of two ImIIller t..IiooN Hi; : 'u. and
N.,T"I7. Bebe the month _



hand whcn their balloon wu lired upon

in ClO$.ling the enemy lines at lUI altitude of only 1,970 ft (600 m). He was
leaving Paris 10 organise ille resistance
against the occupation of France in the
rest of ille country, and was almost
taken prisoner by the Germans when
he landed in a field by the village of
tpinewe, near Clermont, 31 miles
(50 km) north of Paris, u the Germ&n$ had only shortly before held that
Another balloon, the Georle SIlnJ,
piloted by Joseph de RtviUiod and
carrying tWO American pusengen,
Reynolds and May, left limultancously
from Place Saint-Piem:, whence many
of these Paris mail balloons oflen
departed, 10 accompanying shouts of
'Long live the Republic'. 111is balloon
was built to the private order of
Reynolds, who had received a large
munitions order from the FTench
government and IIaW no other means
of delivering the contract to the factory
in the United States. His employers
rewarded him with a commcmorative
gold watch suitably inscribed to tC:<lify
to his display of ingenuity.
The Germans were in a rage because
of their impotence to IIOP the French
mail balloons, and threalened to shoot
the pilots u spies when caught. The
Krupp establishment was a long timc
in turning out the first anti-aireran gun,
yet the enemy fire from the ground
gradually became trouhlesome to Ihc
balloon!! departing from Paris, hcnce
Ihe later ascents werc made at night.
Olle of these took a spectacular and
dramatic course and, though in_
voluntary, for many years remained
the longest air voyage.
The balloon La Ville d'OrUaru
started from the Care du Nord al
midnight on 114 November 1870, carrying important despatches, more than
550 Ib (1150 kg) ofmail and a cage wilh
aix carrier pigeons. Paul Rolier wa.

Ca.ston Tissandi~r also InK! left Paris

with mail and calTier pigeons in his
balloon fA Cilule, and that about
exhausted the aupply of baUOOIlJI available in the besieged city. So Rampont
had th~ manufaetUTe of balloolls initiated on a large scale in the now idle
Care du Nord IUId Care d'Orl02n'
railway Itation~ in Pari:!. The haUoon
envelopes were sewn by many of the
skilled local Iealllltre&SCI from whatever material! were availabl~, then
vamished IUId luspended from the high
Italian ceilings to dry. Sailors were
selected for brief balloon pilot training
because, JCn.Iibly, from their previous
handling of sailing vessel! they wen:
judged best adapted to the new wI.; on
hand. With their relatively great inexperience it is remarkable indeed how
few injuries tlley lustained in onen very
difficult landings under trying winter
and war conditions. \Vhen Paris capitulated 0Il1l8January 1871, a 10lal of
66 balloolU had left the besieged city,
carrying IIi n.illion lctlers and newssheets, or more Ihan 9 tons, beides 368
carrier pigcons (of which 57 returned
to their Parisian dovecotcs with microfilmed messages) and live trained doga
(none of which managed to return 10
l'aria); yet only two of thc ballOOllJl
were 100t - at sea - and live captured
by the enemy.
Many oflhe Paris mail balloons wcTc
named after renowned pcnonalities of
the put and present, such as: MUfftgolfor, DllluaTl, GllriluJldi, /SIllU NCII)/./1II,
Vidor Hugo and Gevrg. SllJId. Moot of
illem were of 70,630 cu.fl (11,000 cu.m)

!le1t known of the balloon lUCents

during Ihe siege of Paris is that of Ihe
Armond Burbis, piloted by Alexandre
Trichet, on 7 October 1870, because
his passengers were the very active
politician Lfun Gambetta and his
friend and secretary, balTister Eugb1e
Spuller, Gambella wu wounded i.1I one


tbe pilot, and he wu aceompanied by

Uonard Shier, a tkilled markmian,
At an altilude of 8,860ft (2,7oom)
they headed north in the pitch-dark
night. At dawn's early light they were
flabbergasted and horrified 10 lind
tbemselvCl OUI over the open sea,
ClCtending as rar u Ihey could ICC. They
lighted IIOme ships, bUI these were
unable 10 help Ihem. They were convinced that certain death now wu their
fate, 10 twO pigcons were released wilh
news of their silualion and IIOme mail
Wall dropped to lighten the balloon,
which continued on its way. There was
more agon y in itore for the weary and
famished aeronauts. II began 10 mow
heavily, with the effect that the snow
accumulating on lOp of the balloon
forced it down fast and Rolier and
Ilbier bad reconciled thaNe/ves to
suc.::umbing by drowning in ille icecold lea when, to their great rurprise,
all of a sudden a desolate, snow-covercd
landscape appeared below them. They
1000t no time in jumping for thcir livCl
as lOOn Ill! the blUket approached the
ground. Lighlened by their w"ight, the
baUDon took offagain and wu iru;tanily
1000t 10 sight. The two men II"t out on
a laboriou.s walk through the deep
snow, and after a long and cold night
reached a cabin where they found heat
and lOme food which they dug inlo,
but there was nobody present. Mer a
while two surprised woodmtcn returned, but they could not undersland
each other's language. Then Rolier
look 10 aigos. drew the oUllincs of a
balloon and also wrote the word' Paris'
in the snow. The significance thereof
wu grasped; the unexpectod guests
had lit~raUy fallen from out of a cloudy
sky. nle Frenchmen Ilt ftnl surmised
illat Ihey mWI have landed in Rl..L5.Sia;
bnt when they noticed a matchboll on
which, beside the lIame of the make",
WIllI printed the location 'Christiania'
(WI the Norwegian capiwl was illeu

called), they had a better idea of their

whereabouts. In that continental war
the iYmpathy of all Norway was on the
French side, 110 that when they were
brought 10 the nearest city and exprcs"d their wish to be taken to the
French oonaul in Christiania, Ihey
received willing assistance. Thcir visit
there lurned into one continuow proceaion. They were feted
and celebrated everywhere. TIleir
balloon was recovered, the metal in
illl valve melted and.mall medals struck
from it which were IOld u lIOuvc:nirs,
raising a sizable rum of money for the
benefit of the war injured in Fnnce.
To this day the ba!.ket of La Vilk
d'OrU(11Z.J is on display at the Norwegian
Technical Museum in Oslo.
This balloon had been in the air for
14 bours 40 minutcs after its departure
from Paris when Rolier and B6:ier came
down al Liljel, in the Telemark district
of $OUthem Nonyay. They returned to
France by boat, via England, with the
recovered mail from Ihe balloon.
The Paritl balloon mail III!rvice wu
an imptelilive achievenu:nt of which
all the world look nOlice. It wat! an
OUllitanding rueCC!lS, even though the
allemplll 10 bring relurn mail into
Paris, also by balloons, failed. Hence_
forth strategists everywhen: had to
reckon with tbe third clement as well
in considering future warfare. In France
it resulted in the establishment of the
Chalais-Meudon aeronautical CltabHshment outside Paris in 1877, in the
chargc of the Renard brothers, Charles
and I'aul.
15 Wise" 'Atlantie' balloon
John Wise was Olle of the outstanding
balloon pionccrs in the United States.
He devoted 44 years of his life to this
branch of aeronautics, and wrote two
valuable volumes on the lubjecl. Wise
was particularly interested in naviga_
tion in ille air and hcld the conviction


!hat in the. "'ppei 'cc""'~ oIair'

(u be IOn..x!. them) would be enm .. n~ midi likeOl.U'" ma ... I(they
could only be ........ Iited, it --"oo.dd be
p" ib!e 10 exploit them for tnJUpOrta_
tion of ~ and cal10 by ~l
loon&. TMre wu . .uethin, 10 lhc
theOi a 01 Wile. 'I'be.c ttto.l&" .ir
Ci.ItT'eI'I\:t actually exist, and they pb;y
tbeU- active part in today't air tnvdo..
Today we ca11 tbenl 'jet.IrtainI', only
they are b.nd .t much pata' ...ltituds than W_ mcd
RiFt the OUtJet W_ SlJ'OVe
in hil QftIU" III NUoon piloc to
pnaile wha t he preached, (or be aimed
.t nothing IcII than the au.inJ 01 the
Atlantic Occao by balloon. l V-itt 6nt
......ded in. balloon in early .839 and
ilh It, by hit Nlioon _ I 011.
21 April 01 that)'ClU"', had made very
impol1ant oontn"butioo to the exploitation 01 the t..Iloon by introdudnc the
rippm, pando ThiI iI panel which U
glued to the uppu hal( of the ba lloon
envelope; lhc pilot ean pull il opeil, by
mcana of line jnlide the balloon,
,;wt bdOR the ba'kl'1 tooctw.. the
FO'''v4 in I,rvli"" By 10 .w", the
balloon iI qWckly delate;( a.od ant
lana: dntginc: in Itt .... windt pre-

vmted. Pluioualt ppod _

to peua,t th. dnginr, but thit
ryttcm _liable to CIlUfIC midi damage
and/ or injuricl if' CIltclUna bold


oWt.cleo Stra.n&dY cnouch, ltWIy

yean wue to pall bdorc


and mortan ","Cie IUfficicnl ~poru

for thai .....
When the Civil W ... in America
bcpn in .86. It'Ieu.l of Ibe bellb ......n balloon piIoct there. inch>ding
'Pro(, . ' W_ (a be Ilyled hiTNCIC
by then) otrt'red toor IeI"Vlcco to the
Fedtnll lOtus. At thai time it wa
common praeticc .moog Ammcan
prof, ;-.'.' ~ull to Cillitle themJCIvet 'Phi: 1II',.nd they .11 rdl that

they could .aider valua.bIe Ai .'k<: to

the nonbcm caa.e "nee it ......Id be
featible 10 mUc rocriaI ob.....lItiOlw at
the a'..... uy', ffiO'oJW .....lll f.oo. captive
b&l.1oons. We lave .lrcady iCjXIi ted,
in the ICCtion on Thaddeus Lowe',
ac:tivitictitl the Civil W ... (No. I .), thai
tbae vOIunwy balloon obKrven did
not get due eredil for their .... work .
They took an active put in It.a.1
of the mt.jor battb, yet their badquutus ""Ied to realilc the. tactic.1
advantagCI to be dn.wn (rom lbe UJC of
aptive balloom - though it mUlt .Iso
be admitted thai the .vailable equipmtDt _
not very suitable..
In .859 Wile bcpn to cmt..rt upon
hie: dfcam, rbich _
to U . . the
Atlantic in balloon by utilia", the
eu'aiy wind. blow ..., .t hicb .ltitudes. For the pwpm, be had
500000 eu.n ( IA.6 eu . m) balloon built,
whieh was Nppoo."1ed by IWO amaller
ballooni a .Wldby if" the main balloon
mvelope ahould require any tepa;n
while in lhc air. The ut'w would
Dumber lOur. They wae provided with
ample quarttn in the .oomy. c:wk I
"'-'- I'.00il:C<t'tl
.... eqwj.:,,<nt
to be tCored in 'ed.Iar' bdow lbe
Soot. The tranutlantic baUoon wu to
arry lilcborol mspmdcd by cable
bdow Ihe CIlr. The l!'OOnnOUIJy wealthy
balloon enih:w." o.c.r A. G"fU" wu
the main financial t..cb:r of the Wile

example ....... ,.,.. gwend pc1Icttoe.

Owing the wu of the United StatCI
Wi..t Mcxko in .8.t6-8 W_ o5::aed,
immediately .ncr the outbreak. 01
boitilitico, to build. captive .... !Ioon
10 be 'tationed at the Sanjuan de Ulua.
rort that covcn:d VU'1l Cruz in Mes.ico.
'IDe balloon wu 10 I"tw... pe.t' . )j'
ahdls and 'aerial IOtf'e'Lou' over
enany territory . 'IDe military .u\hori-


","ae not inluuted, ho ..~a,

kdiD( - not without caUJC - that pN

'IDe "Iloon was named Au..tit ,

and inJult 18Y.J Wile dccidI!'d 10 make




.6 'Ib....." ..... _,,",".ral re-


trial trip with il. He

U'oc:Icd from SI I ......, and on Ih.
ooc.,jon was .... -npanicd by C'Ca,
John La Mountain, an old hand .t
b&1loonin, himKlr, and it'jXIi Ia'
named Uyde Crom the St UMI RtJItlbIi1001 newlpapcr. They found. faY'Oll!".ble walcrly wind, and whCil landi",
nearly lIO boun lata" on the CUICi'n
bank d Lake Ontario, clOJC to the lown
of Hl!'ndu...... they had w.'end
count of ','00 mila: ( 1,110 km) , or,
itI stn.~t line, dist.nee of .boul
80g mila ( ',3M km), which remained
a balloon world .cwcd ror many yean.
Thil .ir YOYIlfC had been va')' drama.lic; lanpal had nged.. rorei", them
to drop the lut'boal. and pouch with
Il'1tcrt which they.Jso carried, 10 ~pe
death by drownin(.
On 22 SepccmbU' tbc )'CIU'" La

Mountain made one MOle trial trip.

..... OiIipu1ied by the well-known ~
papcnnan J.. A. HwIdocrc. It was
planned to be of tbort d...... tion only
when Ihet i'Ok from W.tertown in the
ttate of NI:'W York al p.m.. but
thrilled and excited by the maJitificaot
attneI')' unJOIdins 1- kw the t..Iloon
they did not d 10 Iaad. until duK
.t 9 p.m. when they round tt""'iMOlves
in a dcool.terqion and Wei fourdatt'
.nd nicbu' IOlIlking through cold and
wet fOlUU bd"ore reaching.n inhabi
ted apot. There they learned to their
atonbbmatt th.t they had landed
with their ballOlwi IOil1e '5.5 mila
(234 km) north of Otta_ in Canada.
1ne MiMli, balloon wu nco" to
u . . 'The Pond' by air. one: likely
caUIC for thit r.i1ure bcins that the
t'n1lC1ope turned OUI to be IcII Murdy
lhan catinv.ted. Wia h~lfwu to die
'with hit boou on': on 29 ScptembU'
:879, al tbc qe oi7', thil indd.lipble
jliobc('f balloon pilot made hit lui
!UQCn' , (rom St I"oOi .",
roInicd by
......... 1 bankt'r, GELJige Bum, only
to diappar in Lake Michipn.

cord .tumpc with IMJI_

7fn 1lla'
We have .lr9dy 'CjXIi ltd (ae No. ,,,)
that two Englialuncn, Gt.ithcr .nd
Cou.dl, "'('I'e the finl to dimb in a
blUoon 10 .n altitude of more than
SO,ooo n (9.'4.5 m). The finl .ltanpt
10 bett('l' the rcco:d Itt with the
ilIA t..Uoon _ made in Fran,
The movinItpirit _ the we:ilk:nown
a:icutm. .... thor a.od Ki'OMut Culon
T...oo.;U' (.80- .1199). He ........... ".
panicd on thit ucenl by the ph)'lkilt
JOICpb Ewtace Croct-SpincUi and by
the formcr naval captain HCilri
1b6dorc Sivel, who had married into
family of active KiOii6UU .nd had

IxOOil'" an CJl:pakoced balloon pilot

himself. 'IDe .06,000 C\l.n (",000 C\l.m)
balloon Z.w. lOr thii: ."....u
bcIon(od 10 Sivel and TuPndier, who
had on I,-li.f March .8,5 made a trip
of 13 houn' duntion in it, I!1Ivdlin,
distanc;e of S~ mila (,57' km) (rom
Pard 10 Anichon in the Girondc
district .
A. v.ilA now I'OIC (rom the ;uworb
.1 La Vilkttc.t .,,2 . . m. on ., April

. 8,50 ill an .llCIiIpI to beal the record

01 the
d balloon, the thrtt
ote\IpaftU of the ba'kl'1, lOrcwuned by
tbe tr)'inI knee of Glaither and
CoxweU 011 thcir altitude .lIanpt,
had outfitted tht'madves with indi_
viduaJ OX18Ci: brathinJ equ.ipmmt .
Thit eompNcd. thtcc hI.elden of .ir
mivd with OI'1CCO, each oonnec:tcd
tJuvuch with hand-bt:1d
mouthpiece lOr the intake at the
mixture by the aU'Oftautl. ThiI .,..
ranpncnt had warted pcrl"ectIy wbm
lhey had tried it O\It previously on the
ground in a vaeullDl chamber. 'I1ley
began 10 inlale the oxygen mixture
wbm the b&l.1oon had dimbcd 10 .0
altitude of 12,970 n (,,000 01) .nd,
simultanMo ... ly. optimietically <bopped
rood portion 01 their And batlal.


' '3

AI lhey reached 24,300 (\ <7,400 m),

IlKkIenly all three of them began 10 reel
inacasingly ill al cue in Ipite of their
\lie of OXYJCll. They ........ me Ihort of
Ix"eat" and !.heir puba throbbed rUler.
They relt exhausted and Tiaandicr
even Io.t consciousnCII ror a moment.
The balloon now began to link rUI, and
they had to throw OUt It ill !nOR ballut
in order to make the balloon resume
ill climb. At an altitude of 26,250 n
(8,000 m) TiJeandicr blacked out apin,
but Croce-SpinelJi arouxd him by
thaking him llrongly, only to
r ... Ddie:r raint once morealittle ...hile
I:ucr. He rc-opencd bileya aI3.+5 p.m.
and obIcrved that the balloon was
"nkina wt, bu t ..w abo to bit dismay
lha.t both of his companiON lay prwIrate al the bottom of the basket. Their
races were black and blue, and blood
(oamed. rrom their mouth.. With great
Ikill r..andier managed to land
zailll ..rely, though hard, by the
village of Ciron, ncar I.e Blanc, IOIUC
155 miltl (250 !un) IOUthwtlt of Parit.
I! was tben 4 p.m., and doc::ton calll
in could ettablish only that both
C~-Spinclli and Sivel had dcparter.l
th;' liCe tome time ago. Tlllandicr him
tclC took violently ill Ihonly ana hil
landing, but hAAh'cn:d quicldy after
ICItinc brieRy on the fITOUJId. Deeply
gricvai, he loOk eharge of the motionIe. boditl lhal thOR: Iwtcninc to the
spot had plaad nat to the balloon
basket. Undoubtedly they lolt their
Ika becaUIC the mouth picco, used
il1Jtead of !nOR suitable
nwlu, had
depended upon the mal remaining
COIUCious in ordo:r to keep lhem in
pGlition. The How of uygcn may abo
nOI ha\'e been quantitatively lufJkicnt.
TIl(: lurvival of TlSPJIdier can be
uaibcd to hit heine in a belter physical
coodition than bb two companions.
That Glaiaber and c::o,.wcll managed to
descend ... ith no ill elfccu (rom ~
Iban 30,000 (9,'45 m) undoubtedly



iI abo Otplailled by their good huhh

and condition, combined ... ith thei r
being acc:wtomod to higb altitudes
rrom lheir long lta)'l in thole rqionl.
Finally it hal also been __ rted Ibal
~illl 00 thil uccnl wu exJX'M'd to
more deglto of frost than MCIIIIIIONk
mel witb on hen.
Czoct-Spinclli and Sivd today lie
below a beautiful QlOrlumct\t at the
Ptre-lAcha.ix cemttery in Paris, not
far (rom the tomb of Madame
Blancbard who wu killed in 1819
when, after landing on the rool of a
boule, Ihe (ell OUI of her balloon ba.ket and plunged to the ground (lee

17 DupuJ eM LOme'. airahJp drivt'n

by 'p.lley
During the liege of J'w in the t' raflCOo
l'ru.ian War of .870-7' the Frendt
government conunisaiOlled the 1UI~al
engineer Henri Dupuy de L6mc: 10
build an ainhip which was to attempt
to reach the buiqed city by an aerial
route. He tackled Ihil t..k ICfllibly in
many rapc<:ts. tint he built a 118'5 n
(,612 m) \ong, calhapcd ainhip
envelope with a diameter of 48'7 n
('4'0. m), hokiing t2'''990 cu n
(3'.54". cu m) of p. It was filted in.
temaUy with a bal lonct which was inBated by mcanJ of a baud pump. A
IIXOOCI triangular rudder was provided
for utering purpolCa. The luspclwon
of the goOOoIa rrom the envdopc wu
not unlike the much later practice of
Imall non-rigid airshiP'. in baving ilJ;
own separate attachment (abita.
In rapect of propubiOfl, Dupuy de
L6me lacked the time to aperimenl
with IOmdhing new and .ook the retrograde step of raorting to manual
power, by tbe UK of eight .. ilon to
operate the (our-bladed plopdkr. The
inlialion of the ballonet called (or hand
powe; u well, 10 the tota.! ~iaht of
hb 'power plan t' was likely to have


t:Ilcccded the weight of a Iteam cngine

of comparable
TIle completion of Dupuy de L6mc'1
a inhip __ delayed fOI' vanou. ......1001
and iu 6nt and only Ili&ht did nol take
place Wltil2 Februuy 1872, lOrD( time
alter the wu bad ended. The ainhip
Id'I Fort Neue in Vincennes, outJide
PariJ.. and tome boun later IUCC
rully i(lchcd the ncarby village of
Mond6coort, having attained a muj_
mum altilude of ','SOft ( I,02Om).
The eighl 'galley davcs of the. air'
tnanarcd to convey the ainhip at a
.peed of almoit 6 m.p.h. (to km/hr),
a ~itable performance due not I_I
10 Dupuy de L6me', libenl aIlowanOt:
of rum. 1lIe ne>npapen "'~ kce:nly
interesled in thiI ainhip and were
quick to make the comment that the
engine __ opcaating exclusively on

Thb partkular ainhip projec;t was
bul lOme
valuable ape! ieilCC had been gaiDcd
rrom it; fint lhat a inhi .. could he con
Jidcrcd dirigible to lOme Ottenl and,
I\!condiy, that (urther exploitation of
thiI ~bility caUed for a really power(ul CIIIine thai could driV'C an ainbip
forward al a greater Ipeed than any
rmvailing wind.
not ckvclopcd any rurther,

18 The ainhJp

of th4= TI...ndiu brothe,..
I II their ICaI'eh ror tuitable powerplant the ainhip piork!Cli of the nine
teenth century investigaled all a\-ail_
able pouibilitia. In the previous
chapter we have even IeeII bow Dupuy
de LOme raoned to manpower.
At a Paris exhibition in . 88 1 deYOted to electricity, an eleclrically
driven airship modd demon
wated. It had been conceived by the
'rlll&Ddicr brothers, Gutoo and Albert,
and .. il attracted much attention they
decided to build a full-eizl! ainhlp.
11tey pve the envelope a length


of g l 'gft (28m) with a muimum

diameler of 30""2 ft (g"2 m), raulting in
a eapacity of 37,4'" cu.ft ( .,060 cu.m)
of guo A Wge p1vanic t.ltery .upplied the CWTent to drive. ' "5 h.p.
electric motw of SiemeN manuCactw-e,
with a lwo-blada:l pmpdkr mounted
on iu t.haft. The IOta.! weighl of Ihil in.tallation amounted 10 IOI"DC 606lb (275
Iqj;), wbich pve a rather U.....IWClory
])O'nu/wcisbt ratio of .; 400. The gon.
dola was Ihapcd like a cage with a
rrame of mODg bamboo caoc covered
with fabric:. With a Clew of two DlUl,
the alIup-weight of the ainhip came
to 2,7SSIb (t,250 kg).
On 8 October 1883 the Tillandier
brothcn made a fint Iliabt of slightly
k:a than an hour'l duration rrom the
suburb of Auteuil, on the watern outakitu of hriI, to Croiasy-5ur-Scine in
the neigbbourhood of Sainl-Germain.
'There was only a. l;,hl wind blowine
and the muimum attained lpeed
amounter.l to little more than 3 m.p,1t
(s !un/ hr). The analltria ngular rudlkr
wu iruufficient to maintain a coune
and il was therefore quickly decided
iO Ul.Wxe iu a....... Altholllb only a
few other small altentio", ..-ere made
bcAdCI this change the ainhip did not
.....d again Wllil 26 September .8f4.
at 4 p.m., apin ftom Autcuil. Taking
adV1lntage ofa north-cuterly wind, the
airship beaded IOUth after describing
10fIlC turns over Paril which proved the
rudder now !DOlI! effective, bul the
speed _
, till on the: Cltrundy low
aide. Mer being in the air for 1\0'0 boun.
GUiOn 'r..a.lldier decided tha t it was
advisable to land and 10 descended by
the vi llage of Marollcs-cnBric clOIC by
Villcncu\'t', having covered a distance
of 15"5 mila (25 km) from hit IlaMing
point. IU lhe crow 8.ita.
The trial trip. had been pretty IUCcuarul, rei the T....,dit'r brothers
abandoned rurther de1.-clopmcnl work
IU their ainhip bad broken 1M) new

ground, and peo.ed 100 IIow even

under favoun.ble weatha conditioN.
This dc' i'+)ll was abo inlluenced by
the &imuhaneoul appc:anonce of the
much fIIOR man!E\lVr1Ible ainhip of
Renard and KrcbI (ICe No. 19).
19 The ainhJp 'l.. FrIlDce'
What could be a ccomplished with
fr; balloonl, and the extent of their
IUnitationa.had beendunonstnlted convincingly during the ~ege of Parilj and
to many in France produced various
tchuneI JOr dirigible ainhipi. Dupuy
de L6me had aJready atlempted to
build an ainbip with which to gain
Ut!nncc. to PariJ by air during the
liege, but it was not completed until
. 8711 at llated in chapter '7. Then, in
1878, two officers in the French Entinecring CorpI, Captaisu CbarJa Renard
(18+7- 19O!I) and Arthur Krebl, coocci.ved a design Cot an ainhip. FiAt they
built a sm,1I model which was dUIIOt.,tnlted bcon: the rUlOWlled politician
and former M inisla 01 the lutuior
U:on Cambetta, who had not r... gotlen
hD own escape rrom besieged Paril by
balloon (_No. '4). Gambelta thousbl
highly of their Kiea and when the War
Office turned them down he financed
them puwna.lly to the sum 01 400,000


The airship was built at the OIa1'i"

Mcudon aeronautic:al establishmcnt
oul$ide Paril durill8' the summer 01
1884 and was named 1A Ff/IAU. Paul
Renard helped his brother with the
work. which took two IDOtIW from the
time of the (IlSt Hitch until it was ready
rOl' its maio+.:n air voyaae. The Ulvelope
of the ainbip was pointed in (ront and
shaped like a torpedo. the gondola was
no !at than " 48 n (3~ m) n long,
made of bamboo cane, and covered
with lilk and linen fabric. An electrical
motor provided the JXn'I u, taking CW'ren t from an especially lightweight
battery. The unit droo,e a four-blade

wooden popdlel' of the t.-ctor type,

havm, a diameter of 1I9.~ n (9 m).
Renard had provided a very dficient
rudda and elevator arRllgUhUU and
the ocntn: of gravity of the ainnip couki
be abIDed by means of a aliding _ight.
The 9th of August 1/384. was a lUitable day (or the first trial flight and,
with the: two deaifllos aboard, the airship aroM: and ltana:i the
engine; the large popclla began to
revolve. pushm, the aiMip forward.
Renard and Krebl had not counted on
being able to return to their .tarong
poUtl. but found thun ...1va able to
control the dirigible aI will, and heDce
cirded nearby VilIaeooJblay. and then
after a flight of II! minutca' duration
landed apin ..rely in Chalais. u
F _ thlll _
the lint ainhip in hittory to return In its ltatting pnint and
had altained alJk!Cld twioc that of any
previoul airship. In the COUI'1le of 18&4and 188~ 1A FrllllU made a toW of
",en tripi. Five limn - on 9 Auruu,
8 September (when the ainhip _
cended lwic:z) and apin on !III and II!
September - it relumed to its 'larting
poinl. On the Jut IWO .........ionI the air_
ahip Bew at far as, and uo .d parU of,
Paris. On the trip on 113 Seplember
three people wue earried, namdy
Renard, who terved .. pilot i OuttPoitevin, a _1Iknown (rce-ballo<.!
pilot; and the later-n:nowned aclral
Caby Moriay who attended to the
electric motor and mill became: the
world', first woman ainhip p'cnger.
1A FrllllU is enOl credited with 00118'
the fint practical aiMip. which is a
alight exa"Btu.Iion, Cot bcr Ipw l was
to inligni6c;ant thaI ha dirigibility was
limited to day! of all1lOlt complete
calm; nor did the eapacity of the baltery suffice for anythm, but Ibort lripi.
A pdr'Ol engine would have proved the
efflCiOlCY of this airship beyond all



Renard had now dtW(H.otrated what

a "IlIoible airship Ibould look like and

next devoted hm..elf to the Kiulti6c
aspECts cl aeronautia, the uitical
Jp : I' of ainhipa bem, uae of the
problUlUl be Itudied especially. R.enatd
thereby cootributed his important
share to the French IIrideI in
aeronautia in the yean before World
War I. He held the rank of Cotoncl
when he died on I! April 1905.
StnllJlCly enough, he neva" look to
the air again ana 1885, bul his name
will live in the development history
of aeronautia at the first to toIve the
dirigibility problem. 01 the ainhip.
SF! dReadoD of 'La FrIlDce'
VoI.-: 6~,826 cu.(t (1.864 cu.m)
Ln\tUl: 16~4 n (SO42 m)
/lfuiltAtm jiCMtn: 117-6 n (8.40 m)
TIMlIMi,IU (carrying two pCltonJ) ;
<MIO Ib (11,000 q )
&,iN: One 8 h.p. Thtopbile
gramme electric motor
Sf*d: 145 miles per hour (1I!4


The Britiab Army baDooIUI
The Brit4h Army introduced ballooru
among ill equipment in 1878 when the
Woolwich Anocnal in London began to
build balloons under the direction 01
Captains R. P. Lee andJ. 1... B. Tem~
Id". This new dC\"Clopmcnl proved
to promising that in 1879 a ..:parate
~1100n IeCtion for obIervation balloom
wu formed. PiMCW, of I 0,000 cu.n (liB!
cu.m). ill fint hydeosen balloon, and made ill fint uccnt 00 113
August 1878. By 18811 the Balloon
Equipment Store, at the Ketion wu
known, had gained general'OCOChition,
and in October of IIlat year was Iran.rared to Cbatha.m, Kent. when: it was
_!TIed to the School of Military
The anaIl Balloon btablishmen t...
it waf I'I>named a rea r lata, was very
activt: during the Ilext few year., and


ill achiaaucnll indudcd the production of .teel cylinden for prolonged

.ton~ of hydrogen WIder pii un:. In
the 10,000 cu.n (1I8! cu.m) H".... it
aDo introduced another imprO'h;1llalt
by Uling the .o-calkd igoldbcata'.
lkin' in the IDamg of balloon envelopes. A. tbe dM liption indieates, the
primary purpn of this matcria1 had
hilherto been to _
in the hammering
out 01 gold-leaf. The material, derived
&om the intestinca of certain anima ..,
provided more flesible and gu-tight
baBoon UlvelopM; the Weinling (amily
&om Abacc, thUt raiding in London,
enjo]ed _monopoly in ill manufacture. They had previouaIy made
omall toy b.noo.... but at the ilUtiga_
tion of Templer
KVell membcn of
the famity wue integrated into the
Balloon FAtablilhrnOlt and tetved with
it for _
than thirty yean.
In 1885 a detacbmUlt with three
ballooOII KrVUI with the mililal')' 0 pedition to Beclouanaland under Captain H . End. le, .....ho meanwhile
had Iwm piOiDDted to Major, and 01
LietJlenant Trollope. It ....w DO rea1
active KrVK:e. but the commanding
officer ni the expeditionary (orce,
General Sir Charlca WatI"Ul, hilIllClf
made a number of men rul observatiolll the balloon Jlmm.
1bc lame year another balloon
lOCtion under tbe command of Tcm~
1u', who abo had been promoted to
Major, and of Lieutenant Mackenzie
participated in the actiom in eutcm
Sudan. It played only a Im,1I part in
tbun, due: to lad: of hyde agen and
tnruportation ftcilitia: but Mackenxie
ltayed in the air (Ot" K~U' houra at an
altitude 01 7SO (I (1129 m) while :I.
column man:bed from Suakin to
Tolrik. his 7,06:3 cu.n (200 cu.m) balloon being towt:d by a car in the: centre
of the column.
EIy"le tall ied out much valuable
piouming woek in the field olmilita...,


balloon:! befOf'e In: wu lucceeded in

1888 by Major C. M. Wat.on. Righi
from the ltart, Wllt.on aimed III I'OWld.
ing 0I.l1 the IC(:lion u a leif-COfltained
unil with its own hona aod drivers,
and iUl own hue. In 188g a balloon
lCCtion participated for the flnl time
in the Army ma~uvra at Aldcnhot,
Hampshire, at the end of which one of
lhe balloon:II took part in the parade
headed by E1sdale, who meanwhile
had ",cm "ed Captain Lee. In the
pme year Aldenhot WIllI made the permanent ba$e of the Balloon Eltablishmmt, and in 1690 it was joined
there by the newly-fonned BaUoon
Section of the Royal Engineen.
At that time the ltandard uniform of
a British officer on active lUVice Will
compol/!d of a tunic, brecchc., riding_
boots with IPun, a helmet, aod a belt
with sword aod a lIIbn:tache. -nle
balloon olliccn found it next to imposlible to convince their army brotherofficen that nKllt of thilt outfit made no
IeIISC and WllII wone than we.lea wh ile
they performed their lISIigned dutica in
the balloon baJket. I n the beginning
the others felt illat the balloon offieen'
demand to be permitted 10 diltpenx
with much of it caned for .tCVere cenlure.
At the end of IIIgg Great Britain wa
heavily engaged in the war againat the
Orange Free State and Transvaal (tlte
Boer War), in which four British balloon detachmenll participated. Each
them was foUowed by a train com
pri,ing aix can pulled by hoots 0.bullocb, all
them tnnspOrting nine
steel containers of comp.. ,I hydrogen, in addition to the IDuai fld<! ear
riages belonging to every military unit.
Thew: 'bottle can' were simply yet
lturdily built to witlutand the rough
South African terrain, and the bal100na
were kept inflated all the time. The
nine boltlca on each CIlITiage were
inter'OOIlnecled by meana of detach.



able rubber hoscs and contained .ulli

cient hydrogUl for the inflation
captive balloons of 13,000 cu.fl (368
cu.m) cacho At thiI di>tance in time it
iI difficult to a" , how valuable these
ballOOlll proved to British headquartcn,
but they undoubtedly facilitated the
~ing cf the plo&,eso cf the cam_
paigns of the twO ..omewhat unC\:Il
&idea and enabled British genCl'1lb to
estimate the activities; immediately
behind the enemy lines.. The agnail
from the air were thus imp<>l"taot, but
they were still traNmitted in a ratbu
prilllilM manner by fIagI in code to
the ground troopS.
By 1903 Templer had ri$cn to the
rank of Colonel and. upon his rceommendations, the twO balloon establish
ments were transC"e" ed to neighbouring
Famborough owing to the increaed
activitia rauiting from the war. This
move was effected in the winler of 19051906 and laid the fouodation for what
hili today become the Royal Aireraft
Establishment research centre lit Fam
borough, whose airfield is also a display
centre of world-wide fame.


ill The kite balloon

Almou to the end of the nineteenth
century the spherical "yle of free bal
loon WIllI the ODe used for military
captive baJloona. Their drawbaclr. was
their unsteadineso in the air, for C\'Cfl
if only a sligbl wind WIll blowing it
made the task of staying in the ba.skel
to observe very difficult - and ITIOiSt
IIDpleasant to the OCCUpanll, who were
apt to become violently air-sick.
ThiI WIll remedied by twO German
officcn, Major August von PlIJXVlI.l
and Captain H. Baruch von Sigsfcld,
who sct themscl\"CI Ihe tulr. of turning
OUt an improved type of oblcrvation
balloon. The outcome was the 'DrachenbalJon', or ltite balloon, 10 called
bccaUIC it combines both balloon and
kite principlCl, Thein was not really


Ilew idea, but lhey improvc<.l on

previous error"" They crealed an
oblong envelope: which wa pardy
IUPPOMed by the wind when facing it
al an inclined angle of 30 to 40 dcg,eca.
It waa nabililc:d by mean. of a control
iUrl"acc, which waa later replac:a:l. by a
1arge air bag.
Beginning in t8g3 they tried different
combinalioru and variow lius of envelop:!, from al,aoo cu.fl (600 cu.m)
capacity to twice tlut aizc, and by 18g8
von Paneval and von Siglfdd hood
arrived at the type: which gradually became the ltandard of IJIOIt European
armica. By nowthey had added a nabil.
ising fin on the right and left aida of
the envelope to prevent the captive bal
loon from twilting around i'" longitudinal axis and, like a ltite, it was further
provided with a long tail 10 which one
to live parachute-like 'umb.-elllll' were
anachc<.l, Combined with the stabil;"
ing bag, th($(: devices held the balloon
facing into the wind.
Tile August Riedinger b.'llloon plant
in Aligsburg, Germany, began a regular
production of Ihilt Iype of ltite balloon,
and abo lupplied varioWi .tylCi of
enginc-driven motor winches on which
the oblcrvation balloona were railed
into the air and later hauled down
again to the ground. The cruilel'l in
the navies oflCVeral muotrics were abo
equipped with kite balloona, to detect
enemy .ubmarines and protect the
cruisers against their attaeb. It lOOn
became ltandard pt:aCtice for the ltite
balloon to lIay completely steady in the
air at altitudes ranging from 3,il80 to
6,560 ft (1,000 to il,ooo m), 1:\:Il in
winds of up 10 40 m,p.h. (65 Ir.m/hr),
Kite balloona _re used aten
lively in World War I. They soon
began 10 appear in great numbers
on the wellern front, where the
Gennana employed lhem to direct their
gunfire and "'port itJ effecu. This,
combined Wilh the proclivity of the


Germans for eatillg larBe quantilie.

of SIIusageo, cxplaina why thcae kite
balloon artillery ohlcrvation platfomu
were lOOn nicknamed 'IIIU111p' by the
AlliCl, who in tum copied, built and
used them cxlClllively until the Fn:neh
came up with the improved 'Caquot'
type of Jr.jIC balloon (.ce No. ). Although the kite balloonJ wen: in fixed
positions, the fighter pilo'" Bying 10
attack them IIOOTl lad dri\'en home to
them forcd"ully that IhiI meant lint
running the gauntlet of a well-adjusted
barrage of fire from anli-aircnlft guna
mounted 10 proteCt them. Thil meant
that the kite balIOOtlI mIDt be attacked
very fall from above in a dettrmined
dive on them becaUiC they could be
hauled down fut. The downing of a
ltite balloon thcrdore on a par
with a victory in any other ai r battle.
The balloon observer WIll one up on
the aeroplane pilot in one rcapect, in
that he had a parachu1.e hanging on the
oulliide of the ba.slr.el and eould jump
to lave hil life in case of an enemy
ai r attaa. It wu not un til toward.
the end of the war that German fighter
piloll were abo outlitted with a pan._
chute in their aircraft.
Ila David Schwartz, the oriJlnato..
of the rlp.i D1etal al ...hip
Until the lasl decade of the nineteenth
century all ainhipt were of either the
nOlI-rigid or semi-rigid type and could
be termed nothing more than typCI of
elongated dirigible balloons.
The Austrian enginett David
Schwartz WllII the lint to dClign and
build a truly rigid ainhip, with Itrue.
lure and covering completely of aluminium. He conceived thil idea lint in
s8g3, hut hil original layout did not
have sufficient Itrength. He therefore
began to build an improved type in
Berlin ill 18g5, but ....~rIc on it IllmOIl
came to a halt whtn Schwartz pa.ucti
away luddenly in January 1897, bUI hil

resolute widow carried on the work

with great determination.
Tm: envelope, more properly dcacribcd III the hull, was a .lightly elliptical cylinder, 45'9 n (14 m) deep IUId
39'4 n (I~ m) wide with a poinlCd,
almost OlIIica1 IlOIIC M in the ballistic
misliles of today. Tm: rear end wall
slightly convex. It had a total length
of 157'5 n (+8 m) IUId held 130'66+
eu-ft (3.700 cu.m) of gas. The intcr10r
.t.roctute was composed of aluminium
tubing covem:i by a skin of 008 in
(~ rum) al1.lDlinium .heeting. 'The three
propcIJcn wae &lJo made of alumino
ium alloy; tWO .w:re mounted, one on
each side and in front of the gondola
and the third above IUId alltem of the
gondola. All three were adjustable to
effcct control of the ainhip.
The operation of filling lile ainhip
was the u:sponaibility of the wellknown balloon pioneer Captain von
Sigsfeld, and Will conducted during the
lint dara of November tBg7, in the
suburb of Schl.lneberg on tbe lOuth.
western oul5kiru of1k:rlin. Much to the
lurprisc of the many .pectaton the
,mall silver airship diaplaycd a pronounced tendency t.o want to lcave tbe
ground. Unfortunately a wholly inex
perienced pelion wu in charge of the
airabip on ill maiden voyage, and providence ~ benevolently to have con
signed his name t.o oblivion. The
weather conditions furthermore wen:
unfavourable for an atcent, with a
.Irong wind blowing; and after the
handling crew had let go of the lines
holding the ainhip to the ground, it
ltatted to climb and began at once 10
drin before the wind. Tbe frigbtened
pilot worked the helm too much, which
resuiled in di!cngagcment of the pr0.peller driving chains from their cogwheels; stricken with panic, be then
\"alved gas, and the ainhip cruhlanded. The unfortunate pilot was ill
.hock resulting from bis fall, but other-

wise unhanned, whereas the little airahip which had COlt 10 much en~ to
build relCmbled nothing so much M a
huge, comprcacd ball of silver-paper
on the ground.
Yet the bold pioneering enlcrprix of
David Schwartz and his collaboraton
had not been completely in vain, for it
bad been proved that a metal ainhip
was capable of leaving the gtoWld, and
later alrabip des1gnen were to benefit
from the cxpcric:nca gained from the
construction of the Schwam ainhip.
'13 The Saltto..Da.m.ont series of
Alberto Santos-Dumont, the small
Brazilian dandy, was without any
doubt one of the mOln colourful IigumI
in the long gallery of aeronautical
pionccn. Hill family wealth sprang from
South American coffee plantations, but
he hinuclflived and worked most of the
lime in and around Paris. He footed the
bill for more than a dozen small airship', most of which were his own
creations. All of them .w:n:: powered by
petrol engines.
Santos-Dumont was born in 18g1
and left hill native country at the age of
18, heading for an education in the
French capital where the new-fangled
automobila and baUooning caught hU
fancy. Following bis lint ascent, in a
balloon belonging to the French aer0naut Akxis Machuron, he built one for
his pcnona1 usc. It was of 3,990 cu.rt
( 113 cu.m) capacity and named B'II~il.
but his interest inclined towards the
elongated ainhip variety and he hit
upon the sensible idea of picking ooe
of the light and efficient de Dion
Bouton automobile engines M his power
plant. The outcome was SanIOl
Dumont', 'No. I', which ....'111 B~ n (~5
m) long, with a maximum diameter of
11'5 ft (3'5 m), and had a gas content
of 6,360 cu.n ( ISo cu.m). It made illl
lint trial run on 18 September 18gB,


from the new zoological garden in

Parill, Jardin d'AcclirrUliation, bUI it
WlU only oflhorl duration aa the ainhip
ended up in a tree. The result of the
nect Right WIll J(lmcwhat better, but
neither 'No. I' nor its IUC" 1-1f, the
Ilighdy larger 'No. ~' of 1899, was
particularly lUCCCllful. The failure .......
mainly due to the lack of an amply
rigid keel, and thus the ambip enve:lope was nOI lufficicntly rigid in either
cue; and 2000, Santos-Dumont lIill
t(uck to the balloon
_pending the gondola
hi:! 'No. S' ainhip he
Paris by air and circle
I Tower,
which encouraged him to take up air
ahip COIUItroetion in earnat. To this
end he had a large died erected on Land
at SaintCloud oUUlide raris, which the
French Aero Club had just aequired.
There he had a workshop built aa .w:1I,
and installed equipment for the product ion of hydrogen, but in addition
he had a branch connection laid 10 the
main pipes of the public gasworks, IU
he planned on using coal g;u to prm'ide
Ihe lin for his future ainhips.
The SantOlDumonl ainhipl'Ko. 4'
and 'No.5' were produced during the
winter of 19(10-01. They constituted
impro\'Cd daigns with more powerful
engines and were both fitted with reinforced keels ilccommodating the pilol.
The many aerinl jaunts of SantosDumont with bis varioUll ainhips wen::
often risky affain IUId acldom lacked
ICIU3tion. He lC'Cmed to lead a charmed
life and a fortune-teller foretold that he
would die in his bed in the end. Once
hit engine caught fire in Ihe air, bUI he
coolly put it out by Iffiothcring the lint
thin llama with hill I!raW hal. On
another occasion hia ainhip collapsed
and dropped on to the roof of a hOtUC
in lhe centre of the French capital; the
firemen .w:re called out, who soon
rescued him and brought him, un
banned, down one of their tall ClCape

ladden. 1110iSC were the daY' beron::

any air traffic control or othcr wely
I'CIUiClion,! Santos-Dumont could do
much III he pleJUcd, for he ....... the
darling of the dty, and it appca1ed to
the Parisians to glance Ikyward and ICe
him come ,kimming along lhcir boulevanb .at rooll~l and then perhapl to
park hill 'stced' while lciJurcly and unpc:rturbcdly enjoying hill luncheon at
one of the fuhionable outdoor fCltaurants.
The aanc of Santos-Dumont'. air
career, and hill mall outstanding airship achicvc:ment, Will winning the
too,ooo franes DcuI3cb award by
arcnmplishing the Itipulated air paformance in circling the Eiffd Tower.
The money had been put up in 1900
by the French petroleum magnate
Henri Dr:ul3cb de Ia. Mcurthe, to go to
the first to leave Saint-Cloud by air and
return to that ltarting point within So
minules after rounding the Eiffcl
Tower, under offICial supervision. Tbe
distance to be covered tOlalled 68
mila ( I t Iun) and so called for a . peed
of slightly more than 15'5 m.p.h. (~5
km/ hr). Santos-Dumont failed on his
lint attempt with 'No.5', but lue
cceded with hill new and improved air&hip 'No.6'. He took off on 19 Octobe r
1901 at lI.42 p.m. There was a Iligh t
crostWind blowing, but he made
directly for his turning point and
rounded the lightning conductor on
lOp of the alender latticework at a dislance of 165 ft (SO m) while checking
that only nine minuta of hill allowed
time had then been .pent. The wind less favourable on the return trip
and the engine alJo ,tarted misfiring.
Santos-Dumont quickly dco;idcd to let
go of bis controls for a moment while
attempting 10 adjust the engine, but
meanwhile also took the risk that Ihe
ainllip might run off COUI'SC. Hill gamble paid off and he croPCd the final
control poiut in Saint-Cloud with ~9


r ....nda to .pan. Victory wal hill, and

the ,lory .ufficed for SanlOt-DunlOlll,
true tpOO'lamaIl lhat he -.. The prize
,nonef had I'lICalIwhik: JrOwn 10
I II~,OOO Crana, whicll he divided into
two pazu: 75,000 frana wen: bestowed upon the poor af Pan. while the
remainder w.. diltributed &monf thOle:
wockini for him in SaintCloud. Then:
wu another plea"nt lW'prUe 10 come:
ror SanIOl-Dumoot, for the Bruilian
go~eillrnent awarded him another
prize, likewile amounting to I II~OOO
fra.nca, bcsMic:I a buge gold medal.
Thit performance by Sanu.-Du
moat'. ainhip WlU _tional neWli
both in Paris itld( and in ac:ronautical
citdeI everywhere in the wocld; yet he
it to be n:nlembued mo.t for his phenomenal, and tiny, ainbip of only
9.1117 eu.ft (26 1 eu.m) capacity, for it
wu with thislittk: 'air lCOOIer' that he
undertook many of hill aerial jaunta
~houl the bil city. I-Ie had by
now IClltablished his ainhip hue at
Neuilly-Saint-Jamcs, and the air vilita
to hill favourite restaurant, 'La Catcade', in the centre of pan., hill chubby
mount meanwhile remaininl moored
outlide, have altcady been menlioned.
On 113June 1903 he even paid an early
morning vilit to his raidence on the:
c:oma of the O>amptl ~ and Rue
Washington, and kept the ainhip waiting outside the front do while he
enjo)'ed a eup of coffee.
How did Sanu.-Dumont fCI a_y
with it? Two explanations are evident.
Fintly, be alway. ltayed at low alti
tudICII with his ai.nhipe; as be freq~t1y axnmented himIClI', 'wby
climb high?' Sc:Cl''ldly, he alway. bad
his trail-rope dragging on the ground
which afforded him lOme diroetional
and altitude control. at the <XIIt of lOme
IIi8ht 10. in lpeed.
In 'Pile of his many ainbip aaivila
Santo.-Durnont rontributed no real
tcdulieal advanccmClltI to the catUC,

but then it mUll in faim_ be remembered too thai he nevtt receiva:l any
govcmmeflt aupport. He alway. remained an individualist. In thc: book
that Santol-Dumont wrote. entitled
M~ AirmifU, he exp.. ~d dun.igbted
viewt; about two af the technical wonden af his day, the ainbip and the
IUbmarine. when be stated that under
hoItile condilioru they could be deadly
ad\'cnario, with the former a natural
oppc -;"' of the laUer, if confronted.
Two world wan wue later to prove
bow right he-.
Around 1905 Santo.-Oumontloit his
inluut in ainhiptl and bepn to devote
hia attention to beavicr-thanair eraft
instead, and although be abo made
80mC piOgh:W in that fidd (ICC Pi_
Ajrtnft 1903- 1914- in this JCrics). be ill
remembered bu:t for hill early aploita-

lion of the ainhip.

Sp !d6catiOD of 'No. 6'
VoI_: 111,965 eu.ft (6n eu.m)
u.,tJt: 108'S ft US m)
Mui_lii_ln: 19'7ft (6m)
Lifti., u;uit}: 1.5111 Ib (690 kJ)
~: One I II h.p. Buebet/
water-cooled engine

114 .Aadr-&'. Arc:dc balloo n "The

Chid' enginccr Salomon AUfUlt An_
dree, who headed the Swedilb patent
off.oe, was born in 1 8~ and beume
Sweden'. lint active balloon pilot.
Aodr6e became inlU'tlted in ba]1oon_
ing during hit .tay in America in 1876,
where he met the pioncc:r aeronaut
John Wile and _
to have gone up
with him. Wile had by then given up
hill own plans of the Atlantic
by balloon, butllill held extended balloon tripilO be feasible.
Andm: participated as an engineer


and lCau.tist in an expedition to Spi...

beige in July 1 88~, and ~ hia Mica
of a lcientific Polar expedition wu
engendend. Hill plan arouxd much
inlU'tlt in Sweden, w~ he received
financial IUpport cnabling him 10 buy
the balloon Sw.o oiS7,1I57 eu.ft (1,055
eu.m) capacity. From t8gs to 18g5 he
made nine 1010 uocnta, and on the
fifth af them, on 7 April 1894. IClltabo
liIhcd a Scandinavian altitude record
by climbing to 1.... 393 n (....387 m).
Andr!e uxd the trail-rope and a IIC'U'ing Jail on all of hia balloon tripe, a
c:ombinat)on whicll under favourable
conditions afforded him lOme inHuUlOC
O\-ef his dii'CCtion oilligbt.
A suhlc:ript)on provided the meaN
for purehate af the l'olar balbm n.
btu, which wu built by Atdien
Atrottatiquc: de Lachamhn: in l'aril
from piai'll on which the Swedish engineer Nordenfeld coUabontted. The envelope could hold '5' ,853 eu.ft (4.300
eu.m) oi gal and was ttadc of Chimx
silk, the top pan conWting af thra:
layen. lt Wat Cltimatalthat the treated
Iil.brie wu .ufficienlly gu.tight to
enable the balloon to ltay in the air for
a maximum endo.ltaDt:e oi thirty houn
under fa\'OUi'able conditiolli. I nstead
af the UJuai top valve. which in that
poiition milht well be eJoued by snow
and ice, two valves were provided IOI11C
_y down on the enve1opc. The unooth ,
varnished lurface cI: the top part of the
envelope WlU expected to prevent any
accumulation of snow there. The inItnunenta were i>utaUcd in the circular
balloon baskc1: that WlU endoCl:::I and
held supplilCll and ,,!DUlcney equipment. The Ialter included a folding
bo.t and thra: .Iedges. One lingle
bellh wu provided, and 10 eliminate
any magnetic dillurbaneea the balloon
carried nothing iMde of iron or .teel.
The balloon "-::IlI equipped wilh thra:
trail_lopts, eaeh about g8~ ft (300 m)
1ong, mounted on a revolving drum

below the basket hoop. Tbe drq linlCll

wc.e provided with connecting linD.
,~ wen: t:ijj:ht additional balJut
linea which were to relieve the balJut
af their weight if it dct:ended dme to
the: .wf.ace.. The thra: pill provided
ror ..cuing WUt: attached to the envelope at their tope and 10 boriwntal
t.mboo c:allCi at the bottom. All ropet,
as well as the netting, ,",ue waterptoofed.
Andric neglected no detai" but wu
not n:cepti\'C to outaide advice. He had
IClected the Danish Ille on the northWICIItcm tip of Spitithugr;;!. as hia
ing point and arriva:l there OIl 30 June
18g6 with 1M &,u, the pb)'lieillt NibStrindbag and the engineer Knul
Fracnkd who ""ere to aec:ompany him.
The bIllooo wu inflated and .tort:d in
a shed built Iptcially for this PUrpoK
while they waited for a Cavourabk:
wind. For this they hoped in vain, 10
later the balloon wu deilated and repaeked for the winter,
while the expedition n:tumed to Stockholm in ita U'&IlIpOI't v d Vi".,.
The I'oUowinI year the Andde ClEpC:ditlon returned to Danish ble on So
May and radicd 1M btu again.
Anotbu- 10111 waiting period Jet in, bul
the morning oill July finally brought
ideal oonditiont ror a Itart, with a freah
bitt.u lbat would cany the balloon
in a north_wly dil't:Clion. Mtt!'
IIOl'De busy hOUZ'S fPUlt OIl Iut-minute
pteloarattol'lll, Andm: and hill tWO companiom dimbed aboard and uc:alded
at 1.50 p.m. The large yellow and n:d
balloon drifted leisurely away from the
port, the trail-ropes leaving a broad
wake behind. Once the balloon dcaeended 10 low that the basket touched
the water, and the men had to drop
mtHe than 4-4olb (Il00 kg) of their
precious ballaM. Now their helpenlefi
behind '"''t:I'e horrified to note that molt
of the imporilln! ballut linCi had
been Idt behind on the thore. Tbey




rroot of the

loon in the direc:tion of the wind, but
one of the connection u ' 'II had aeci
dentally disuC'Iw', 'T'bey ..CiC unable
10 .e>:ilOtdy thiI and ,,"ac hi&hly "hll' icd,
at they knew how much lton: the _
nautl .a by thac drat!: linea. Suon 71w
&Ill dilappcarat be10w the horizon
and W&I neh. to be Ken again. 11le
oruy news ~iva:! from Andrtc in the
days that followed W&I a m 'ge despatthed by earner pigeon whkh on
1,5 July wa. .hot and picked up at IICIo
by a NlX"fit,ian wbaling boat. It read
'AlI'1 well on board. This iI OW' thin::!
eatricr picton despatch'. Two limilar
mc.acu driIKd athore with buoys in
had been laid out in

and IgoG tapcttivcly, and .. ac

the ..., tipI of life from 71w Eq"
and iu at ... 1lIcy .. ac .... II""", 10 ha\-e
peridJcd in the An:tk del I u.
Oa 6 Auplt 1930 the Norwq:ian
lin, ~ cl Br.k.v, while on a

tcienli6c expedition, found the bodia

of Andrte and Strindq in a camp on
White bland, _bout 250 mib (400 km )
east of Oanilh hie. Some wecu later
the body of Framkd W&I fOWld by lhe
crew of another _I, Pol. &., OUt
litted by the lIC'\iOipoIptn IMig K_
in Stockholm and the Copchbapn
Pt&w.. The Cate of this balloon c:x......
dition wu IinalJy stablisbcd by 17 nn'
of iLl welIpuu va:! diaricI: and photo..... pbic plalCl cont'ined in tina. 71w
EqI= had ltayed in the air b 6,5 boun,
then wu bad down on the ice b
lack of !)alb'l, having covcted a dif.
~ of a1lYlO1t 500 miles (800 km),
a1lhouih the uraightline diltanec
from Danish Ide: amounted only to
roughly 250 milel:. 1Dcy bad 500 more
miJoCI 10 IIy b dwc readaina the North
Pok. The thttt men immcdil\tly
bqan tbcir walk ~th, and .ner im.
mente hardlhipt arrived on White
Island on ,5 October, where they establimed a camp and died shortly alicr
"''"''- puilapt o-CICOil1C by the told,

bul ~bly abo from pc 1 nina alIer

Ihoolm, polar bear infected with
and eating iLl meaL: p~
The three bodies .. ae .nipped 10
Tromlit and !hac uamIerftd 10 the
IUflboat Si:tfu.bpf, which ret1.lmCd
them to Stockholm wba'e they '.. ae
interT'Cd with a gra' display oflupcct
fullflllpathies from the whole Swedish

.peci6cationl of Benon and Sarine.

who .. ue aIIo advitcd by PI..
Richerd Aamann from the aCiOOtauti
cal 01- I"'tooy in Berlin.
BuiOii and Sarint: bach bqan 10 ute
.... ,.m wben they reached an altitude
or bet... ee" 16AOO and 190685 n (,5,000
and 6,.000 m). They made their laIt
ot. "lltioN al the altitude of
n (lo,!I!l5 m), w~ the lunperatIU'C
I i rdiOf W&I -'97C. When, a linle
later, they tried 10 climb liill biabcr by
throwing out _.and ba!wt. SIlring
kilt 0011.00......
Belto.. Iikcwile be.
po 10 p'OW weak and felt tha. be wu
about 10 Caine. but jUlt manaaed 10 pWl
the vah-e bdoce be 100 pat ~d oul.
Wbm the balloon bad dcIanded 10 an
altitude of 19068,5 n (6,.000 m) the two
..imtilu came 10 in time 10 retard the
of the balloon by droppinc
mOle !)allaM, and they landed ..rely at
6.2,5 p.m. alIer havint Itaya! aloft for
a1mott cis:hl houn. Their petilow: trip
had carried them 10 what .... then
dClCribcd .. the maximum altitude
where human bci~ can lurvivc',
At an international mctCOi'Olosieal
convention held in Paris in t8g6 it W&I
..,,:cod that unmanned weather t.J.
Joon. arryin, aUlomatic mCP'q
eqllip.......,t would be prd'a'able lett
buman uvea be ritked a, biab a1titudcsj
wbich explaiN why the altitude ItCOid
ofBu .... 1and SQring wu not IUl'JM'n:d
for many yean..



!I,5 The , ut balloon 'P....,u.Ha '

( P ntHla)
In Germany, two pm.' a.. at the
I>n.ian ~ institute in
Berlin, Benoa and Dr Reinhard
SQrin, made a number of "!Ioon
.t~(n .. 10 high altitudes in the yean
1800 and 1894- Be..oo, on 4 Dtuu.ber
18!M. a.cmdtd aIonc in the bydrc,cn
balloon .... "ix of 9t,ooocu.n (!I,,577
CUll,) from Stratbourg and reached an
altitude of
(9,I.5.5m). Thil
.chitvUl1Cl1l and other CXperilT1Ulti
led 10 the building of the baJlooa Prnu
#11 (Pruaia), the envelope of which
could hold !196,643 cu.ft (8,tOO cu.m)



"' ....

Be..OIl and Suring lim made tome

minor trial tripI with ~ then Oil
,t July 19ot a..: ... idcd in il from Tun
pdbol in Berlin and reachm an a1ti.
tude of DO lea than s..5A:D n (10,800
m ). They "''UC DOt to be OUIPUIUtmc:d
until Pm. )I' Picc:ud beat their
.ecood in 19,t (ICC No. 67 ), and Piccard benefited from the advantage of
being aided by a prc:aurc-prooC car,
whU"tat when the Ccnnaru aoecnded,
nothiOf but OpUi bukell wele a ...ail
able in whkb they mounted their
01C)'lm tanka. Thil oxygttI had, mote
cwu, \0 be inhaled througb mouth.
piccD held by hand, which even
thcrt mUll have been C(H'1i-i;led a
risky practice. On the other hand,
their \..nou. measuring inltntmentl
.. uc hirh-qualilY prodocu. They wue
made by the firm of fIooch 10 the

26 Zeppdia LZ

Unlike the non-n,id and lCtlli-rigid

ainhipa, the n,id type inCOipOiatCl al'l
irltemai girder frame. The credit for
developing thil type lOCI unequivocally
10 the German Count FUliinaod Adolf
Heinrich \-on Zeppelin ( 18,1S.tgI7).
Hip name has bua b:0i11ol: 10 elorty
conncacd with this type of ainhip thai
10 YD1lily pwpk: the ",'OI"d 7.cpptlin has
b:omc synonymout ""ith f'i&;d airlhipt and is oI\cn uted at a conunon

thigilation lor all (iant ainhit-- As a

t1:DliniIccoec of the UU'ly air raids in
WOi'Id War I, when civilian popuIa.
tiorn: .. ae lim cxp-d 10 bOinbt Croon
the air'. IOtlIC even .nudder ali(btly 10
this day a. the mention of the name
Von Zeppelin W&I born on 8 July
t 83B and W&I well eonnCCled, his
ramily being "'-ealthy Junker an.1()-:
craLl in the anall kinadom at Wlb1tun
berg il'l IOUthtm Germany. He choIc a
military career and .. a cavalry offitU'
participated with diltinction in the
Ft1lIIOI)-Prunian Wilt' at t870-71. Be:ing of an ad'"CI'IIUI"Ol.ll tpirit he had
already in the early ciptem-cixtica
taken a leave of abtcna:: 10 join the
Faktal Foous Oil the Potomac river
as a voIunW"{ob! _I'tI' in the American
Civil War. He toOk. ipCCiaI interest in
Thaddeut S. C. Lowe and ru. 01- 1.'&'
lion baUooN (_ No. II ). Aficf bir
return from Amt::t ica \"Oil Zeppelin ~
fIocted much on the military UK of
ballooN and, better 11m, ainhit-Entria in hil diary from t874 wea l
that be bad Ia,id down three rundamental ma:cina for a
ful ainhip.
II mUll ( I ) be of larre dimcnt+"dj
(~) pCP
~F c joy po .. a of JIIopui.
lion, and c,) have .,pptinc body
made up of ICpUllle PI cd..
Von Zeppelin'. idcaa - . became
.nddy known and ... oe acdaimcd in
military eitdu, Clpecially aficr the
.uw n ach)e;.ed by the an;h.encmy
"' ral1(:c, wbCl'e the nonrigid ainhip
Frau bad aocomplilhed a number
of Righll (_ No. 19).
In tSgo, at the
of 52, von Zeppelin wrote an undiplomatic lJotthOiandum in wbich he made the aiticiun
that the Prunian war 01&( dominated
the army of Wlb1tcmq. Aner that
\"Oil Zeppelin .... DO 10040 in Cavour
with the German tmpuoo, Wilhdm II,
and bad 10 retire witb a galol:laI'l rank.
As a civilian be now dcvoIcd bi .....lf






to ainhip ptoblell1l in carnell. He dis.

played much energy in overcoming the

many ob.taclelthrown in his way, and
the lCVUe critici.1lI wvanced apullt
his project, and by 18g6 he had ...iIed
working fundilio the amount 0(800,000
Reichsmarks for tbe foundation of the
Akti~ zur Forderung der
LuftJchiffabrt (Company for the Promotion of Ain.h.ipil), which tounded all
very innoc:cnt, in order not to aroux
any suspiciona abroad.
Von Zeppelin could now bqrin to
build bis fint ainhip. Laeking the reo
quired lechnical knowledge himac:lf, he
sought outside urutance and the help
of Prof. Dr. I ng MiillerBralau, who
evaluated and reviled von Zeppelin'.
ainhip layout, transforming it into a
practical proposition. Construction
y,.wk slarted in 18gg in a .hed IUppotted by 95 Heats and anchored on
Lake Constance near th eel ty of Fried
ricllihafen. The framework of Ihe air
Olhip's hull was composed of ring
shaped cro.Jectionl interennnecled by
longiludinal beam memben. Seven
teen gaa ce1!J were ilUtalled betweell the
main bulkhcadi and were filled with
hrdrogen. All componenu of the lat
lice-girder rnltOework were made of an
alloy of zinc and aluminium, and the
framework WILlI covered wilh linen
fabric which WlU coated with a &hriok.
ing eeUulOlie varnish, lalet termed
'dope'. The bottom of the hull was rein.
fweed by a kind of keel, below which
the two control and pa""lger gon.
dolas were mounted. A Daimler petrol
engine was installed in each gondola,
and each drove a pair of propeUen
mounled away from the hull 10 pori
and .larboard, and IOTTlcwhat below
the centre-line. Rudden were mounted
en the hull, forward and art. A heavy
leaden weight hung luspended belween
the two gondolas, 85'3 f\ (l!6 m) below
Ihe hull, and from its centre poIition
could be pulled towarW either gondola


aecording 10 whether the ainhip wal to

climb or desccnd. This arrangement
was improved upon after the lint trial
Right, when it was rC'plaoed by a sliding
bar below the hull and extending over
the greater part of the length of the
ainhip. The movable weight on this bar
waa increanl to 331 Ih.
The maiden voyage of this fint
Zeppelin ainhip took place in the even
log ofl! July 19oo, when at 8 o'clock
LZ I ( LuftJchiffZeppelin I) wa.s pulled
slowly out from ita ftoating shed rating
on a ialgc raft. The Count wa.s on board
hinwclf along with some meehania who
were to .uvice the engines. The
griulcd ainhip pioneer now ordered
a lmall tugboat, with ita bowline
atlached 10 the airship, 10 pull LZ 1
away, kite fubion. The huge ainhip
appeared reluctan t to leave the rnfI,
but when the hawser was CUI the air
Ihip began 10 eruisc about with iUl
propellen churning, to the cheen of
the newspaper reporten and many
other excited onlookers crowding the
lakeside. F ifleen minutCi later a mishap
occurred u the sliding weight got
.tuck and the framework was de
ronned dangerously.
An emugUlCY landing was made on
the lake and the damage repaired.
Thereafter LZ 1 lOOk to the air again
on two more tvxl!.ions during that
autumn, but these three trial runs, of a
tOlal duration ohlightly more than two
houn, revealed thai theainhip attained
too lillie apeed and raponded slowly 10
the rudders, and thaI its strength wu
deficienl in many rapects. Sinee all
available money had bcco spent,
rurther work on this ainhip was aban
doned and il was dismantled in early

The results so far had not bcco very

encouraging, and von Zeppelin was
criticised ilCVerely in public dOCussioN.
11lis did not deter the elderly Counl
at all; 011 the conlrnry. it stirred him

to new action. With tlle Ocncvolent

noppor! of KaiJer Wilhelm 11 of
Wilr!lemberg he WllI allowed to ltart
a lottery and numel'OUl newspapen
puWished hiJ 'EmCigency Call to come
to the RCICUe of the Ainhip type of
Aerial Naviption', By '904 Count
Zeppelin onee man: commanded luffi
cicnt money 10 tackle the building of
bigger and bella ainhipil.

Spedfication of LZ 1
Volume : 399,054 cu.n ( 11,500 cu.m)
kwlllt: <f!IO ft (lilS m)
~:39'4fi ( tl '7m)

&,inu: Two 14'7 h.p. Daimler

four-cylinder inline petrol en
S/Wd: IN m.p.h. (il8 kmfbr)

Opn-rJliolllll "iIi"1


ZeppeUn LZ 7 ' Deuumland'
A decade after Count Zeppelin rose:: for
the fint lime from Lake Constance ill
his LZ 1 he "'u beginning to achieo.'e
lOme considerable IV:..., hut had
also luffered lOme aevere ICtbacks, nOI
to mention an occuional financial
crisis. In the peniltc:nt punuit of his
airship goal most his personal meatU
hw bcco spenl. Right from the ltan
the Zeppelin ainhips were planned aa
fonnidable wcapons for a future ....-ar, 10,
greal patriot that he was, Count Zeppelin grieved that the military authori
tiel had withheld money for their


A review of the line of Zeppelin

ainhipil dC\'Cloped in the early days
reveals thai the ICCOtId ODe, LZ 2, was
completed in November 19o~ and was
wn:cked on its ICCOnd trip in January
of IgOO, when il made an emergency
landing in -'ormy weather. LZ 3 (Z 1-)
began a Keiel of aucccaful OightJ UI

' 37

O<::tobcr 19ofi, and afier being rebuilt

was accepled by the German Anny,
with which it remainal in lCIVice until
the autumn of 1913. Deginning inJune
19o5, LZ 4 made lOme extended Highll.
On one of them, in July of the lAftle
year, thiI ainhip aOl' Ed the Swill
borda and pl"Ott'cded iU fat as ZUrich
before returning to Fricdric:hstuIIen.
Count Zeppelin was in charge of the
ainhip himsdI when in Augusl it ICt
OUI on the .o-callcd 'Grand Tour',
which was 10 be: a il4 boun' endurance
Right to satisfy the army authoritiel 0(
the capabililies of the Zeppelin type ol
rigid ainhip. On 5 AugtUt, LZ 4 had
bcco in the air for lIO houn, and was
beading back for Friedrichshafell,
when an engine breakdown forced the
ainhip down at Echterdingen for the
nC( ary rcpain. A sudden "orm
threw the anchored airmip agaimt
lOme clC(tric wires, and it exploded, for.
tunatcly without the lOIS of any liVCI.
Thi5 seemed to be the final, all.paralyaing blow to the Zeppelin cause, but
eo.c:nts turned OUI differently. The
patriotic feelingt of the nation were
aroused, alld from everywhere per
sonal ~mpathy welled forth towardl
the grieflIricken, game old Counl.
Newspapen all over the country Ilarted
collectiolll for him, money poured in
on a general scale and at generoua rate,
and even school children contributed
their pennies. Within a few weeks the
impressive amount of6 million Rcichsmarks was turned over 10 Count Zcp (a) All the ZeppeIlD ainhipo bon \be cIaIanalioa 'LZ', IOIIowcd by. l'acIory lIumber.,... L . I in Ano!);c: ~. (b) The alnhipo cl
the Guman Nuy bore the ddl',alioa 'L',
~ by th.o:Sr -.-icc lIumber .,...
",'Led in AroJ>ico ~ra. (e) 'The Zo.ppc/iII
ainhipo at the GnrII&.<I Army wne inldoDr
d=w,\ed by. 'Z', IOllowod by ..... icc II ......
ber ~ in Roman 6 _ bul aew
p<a<:Lft was ad.",led in ,gl~. From IIIC<1 "" the
Gcnrum Army aloo ad.""ed the 'U' ,Wi_I"""
I ii, Zeppelin aiMipo, bu, rollowod by lhc
lOtmy IlUVft lIumber ""p'LULd in Anobico ........

pelin, who placed the moocy in tnatt

and founded the Lun.chifflMu-Zcppelin Grnbl l (Zeppelin Ainhip y.rd ),
in .ricdrichahaf~.
LZ ~ (Z II ) was completa:i by May
'909 and in the same year made an
irnprClaive fOWld uip between Lake
Coostanee .00 the eity of Biucrfcld in
Suonia, covering the dilltance of 746
milCi ( ' ,llOO kID) in
houn and 40
rninulCI. Iu an anny ain.h.ip it suf.
faul the aamc f.te in April '9' 0 that
had bef.llen LZ 4- II EchlCrdingen.
LZ 6 was rudy for operations in
AlJg\Itt 19o9 and pro.ed. now ful
type. It became an even faater airship
when in October of that year it had
thitd and more powoful '4S h.p.
Maybach engine .dded to the two
h.p. Da.imler CD8ines previously installed. Thit ainhip was acquired by
the newly-fotmcd national company
Dcutlcbc Lurt.chifl'ahru A.G. (Ocrman Ainhipping Co. Ltd.) better
known by its abbreviation DE.LAG.
The Zeppelin company was instrumcntal in the formation of DELAG, partly
in oroer to have a civilian outlet foc its
airshi~ instead of bern,: dcpcndcut
wholly on military contracU, and in
addition 10 pin tome practical ew:pcricnce in .irship opClating and handling.
DELAG ...... managed by DaCkcncr, who ...... to become the IDOIt
renowned of all ainhip piJou. LZ 6
caught fire and wu dcsuoyal. on 14
Scptemba '910 in its home bate Ihcd
at Baden-Dot in the Black Fora!,
becaux of can:lean~ on the part 01






LZ 7 made its maiden voyage on ' 9

JUDC 19'0, and Count Zeppelin traNrwed it hirnw:1f by .ir to DO.:Idorf,
where il wu taken IM:r by DELAG
and named ~ (Germany). On
24-June this .inhip a .. ia:I thirty_two
passengcn on Hight to F"mBochum-Dortmund and return. Early
in the momin, 0128 June 1N""""

carrying twenty p.ucngcn. mainly

nCWIpapcr ,epo. ten, lOOk off on '1'1 .iT
crui.c over the Elbe&Jd. region. All had
good time and ~jo,ed tb(!mkJvcs by
moppin, poItcarda with 'Aerial Greet.
inp from high in the Sky', but by I '
'.m. the rear engine maIrunctioned, 10
the dcciAon was made to make.n inter
mediate landing in Milluter, whac an
'IIl,i1iuy force was stationed. But the
prcvio\u fine weather had been fol
Iowcd by Itonn and "ccuhowcn, and
for Ie",,".al boun the .inhip fouthl the
dcmen~ without making much prog ..
the Tcutoburgcr forat; she was now
heavy &om the rain, and a Iquall
forced her down on aome trcc-1Oj,
smashing the rear KCtion. The rest
of it was on the pound in the fanst.
i\rin, on this .........ion, no one was in-

A. a rcpla.ccrncnt ainhip, DELAG
rcecivcd on 30 Much ' 91 ' Erkl~
DnlIsdiItuuJ or DnasdrJimd II, which had
been built quickly, to lIOffie ew:tcnt from.
salVAfCd. parU of LZ 7, but i~ career
wu brief 100. After only three Rights
this airship was b.dly damaged while
bcin, hauled out 01 its shed.
The engines iru..IWI in the Zeppc1in ainhi~ bcfon: WOI'ld War 1 were
DOt very po"'Clful, 10 the craft lacked
the speed fOl' maintaining rqular
lIchedulcd tcrvic:a; C\fCil . " a number
01 German cities built .inhip Ihcds
from. which the DELAG Ikct of airshi~ made almoIt daily auitcs or
iICClal boon' duration. I n this manner
a great number of vcntmuomc people
rcech'Cd their air baptism .nd ~
Wle of future .ir travel, and hac it
mighl be mentioned that the big Ger.
man steamship COI'I1pany H.rnburgAmerilr.a Line wu a financial partner
in DE.l.t\G and acted as its liclr.ct
agcnu. It it.J.) worth mentioning that
C\fCil the ubiquitous iJMHtT did not
mill the ''. I n several of these


Sp ! -I6 c:adollof LZ 7 ' Dc.aI,ach1a n d'

V~: 68',574 cu.n ( '9,300 cu m)
lAqtA: ft ( 148 m)
{)U.wln, 4S'9 n ('4 m)
&tUtu: Three '20' h.p. Daimler
four-cylindct in-line petrol CD

M4I.ri.oratm _lid bu/:

1+.99 ' Ib

(6,800 kg)
Mo:ri_ JpnJ, 37'3 m.p.h. (60
OpntJIitwuJi crilint: 6.560 ft (il,ooo rn)
Mo.n- 'PI': about ',243 mila


28 The Leb.udy-JulUot ainbJp.

of the 'R6pubUquc' e la..
Sirnultaneously with Santc-Durnonl's
cs:pcrimenu with small non.rigid .ir.
shi~ (tee No. 2S), the French engineer
I-Icnri Julliot wu wonrn,: at a daign
for. much Iargcr dirigible airship. lIe
wu emp10ycd by the wealthy sugar
manufacll1J"Cn, the Lcbaudy brothers,
Pict .e and Paul, who had commitIioncd the projcct.JuUiots fint airship,
u~J,.Jliol "
abo named 'La
J aunc' (The Yellow) becauw: 01 the
colour 01 the fabrie IDCd for its balloon
envdopc, wu completed in Novcrnba
' 902. Thill airship wu of the .ani
rigid type .nd of an advanced det.ign.
An oblong metal frame was .fflXCd to
the bottom pari of the balloon envelope
and ew:tcnded aft lUI a keel to which the
l'\Idder and elevator ..-ere attached. The
keel was litta:i with small horiwvtal
and vertical fins. but the
main, 1argcr stabiliIinJ IinI .. cae '1tached 10 the balloon envelope. The
latccr maintained iu shape by mcaru
of an interior balionet lhal wu divided
into three pans. Thill airship rrtade iu
maiden voyage on 'S Novcmba 'g02,

at Moiaon, and fully lived up to opectations; in (aCl, it turned OUt to be by

far the betl .irship yd. The ulm"~
JutJiol , wu mc:dified in '904 and
again in '90S and made 63 Illce ful
tri~ in all, the longest of whieh wu 6,
miles (gSlr.rn). The Freneh SOVCnl'
ment bought this ain.h.ip for anny UIC
in '90S, and ordered a litter v cI from.
Julliot. The laller in turn undcrwenl
modilicalions .00 then in Novcmba
IgOO was kilt, a fate that had befallen
numcrow other airshipa. The ainhip
w:u at the time participating in military
manCJ:UYf'Q ncar Verdun when, during
a storm, it tore .way frorn iu moorings.
It wu lastlCCll over Ireland where one
of iu p.opcllcr1t dropped and wu
found, then disappeared in the Atlantie
Ocean_ Fortunately, the airship had no
crew on bo.ard.
Lcbaudy-Julliot later built the rotlowing .irshi~: Ri;.Miqw, dcliniW 10
the French Anny in June 19oB; R_it,
to the order oIthe R~n govcmmenl,
in May 'gog; LiNrtI for the Freneh
Army in August of the same year;
Alltridinuu in May '910, ordered by
MOlor-J..uf\fahncug Gadbcbaft in
Vien ..... and MOf1Ii", Post, bought in
October that year by lhe London newspaper 01 that name which I.ter preIoCIlled it to the British govctnment.
Thill airlh.ip ...... sublcquently stationed
at AJdcnhot. I n 191t the two airship.
CtpiUiM M,2I'd,f and ~ ~IU
., ~ were dcli\(.ed to the
French Anny. Afccr the outbft:alr. of
Wwld War I the Frcuch Army in
October 1914 iCttived giant, its far
as Lcbaudy-Julliot airshi~ WCIIt, the
Ti'_itT, which with gall content of
']06,~ cu.ft (20,000 cu.m) wu the
largat ainhip to their daign. It ,,'its
powered by three cogines, each of
Ihcm driving four-blade propeller.
This ainhip, however, proved 100
clumsy .and in IervKc only. Ihon

' 59

The Rl/*bIiqw ainhip w.u a typical
exponent of tbe Lebaudy-Julliot deligm. It made ill maiden voyage from
the yard in MoQIon, some thirty mila
(,50 bn) outlide Paris, on 24June 1908,
and wu accepted by the Fren<:h Army
shortly afierwarna. On 6 Septemocr
that year it completed a non-,Iop
flight of 6, haun' duration tova'ing
124 milts (200 km) at an average lpeed
d 1~2 m.p.h. (30-35 kmfhr). Mler
several other IUo..' ful flighll Rif*/lfique, uoou the command of Captain3
Bois and Fleuri, participated in the
military mana:uvCC!! in Bourbonnais in
central France, which began on 3 September 19o9. When on iJ5 September
the ainhip left La Paliue, north-cast
of Vichy. to return to ill base at
Chalais-Meudon, one of the propcllen
broke and p~aeed the balloon envelope.
RI/Nhliqw plunga:! to the ground from
an altitude of 6sG n (200 m) and wu
completely wrecked, and two officen
were killed.
I n t915 Julliot emigrated to America
where he occame head of Goodrich'.
aircrafi division and daigned lOme
small blimp. and varioo,q obtervation


Spe d fi elltJoD of the 'R q,u b Uqlle'


114,773 cu.ft (3,250 cu.m )

Lm&lh: iJl5'iJ ft (656 m)
Dimtuu,; 33'8 ft (10'3 m)
&viM: One 75 h.p. Panhard-Leo,aslOr four-cylindu peltOl engine
URjlJlluJ: 2,/40 Ib ( 1,200 kg)
Cruisi", lP.d: 31 m,p.h. (SO bnfhr)
lifMimwn 'lUll': about 124 milel
(iJoo kIn)

iJ9 Cl~lDCDt-Ba yard /A.t... ' VlUe

d e P am'
The nK:cc.:ul i.cbaudy-Julliot air~hips
(_ previous chapter) reiDlpircd French

con6dencc in this Iype of lighter-Ulanair craft, and even the government

abandoned ill previous hesitation about
the placement of orders for military
ainhip.. Undoubtroly anothu COIltributing factor 10 the changed attitude
towarna ainhipi was Ihe fear that 'the
Zeppelin$' would spread from the
neighbouring country now that the
German Anny displayed a more aClive
inlCl'Cllt in this type of aircrafl_ ThUi
Lcbaudy-Julliot now faced compelition
from the Astra and Zodia<: 6rms whieh
abo began 10 build ainhips of the non_
rigid type. The airship design of the
CMment-Bayard automobile concern
was ofparlicular interest. These airships
WCTe fint built by the ruilra Socitlt da
ConstrocUons Abonauliquts. Their
characteristia were the peculiar tail
&mUlgctIlent of, originally, foor to
eight oblong, Aungc-like or pear.haped envelopes filled with hydrogen
which lCI'Ved IU Jtabilisen. When
viewed from behind thei r shape WIU,
in <:1'OiIS-5CCtion, that of a clover-leaf.
Astra divided ill production into
three main groups, one comprising
.ingle-engined ainhips with one propeller, of which a total of eight were
built; arKMhu with tv.m-engine installations and two or three propeUen, of
which one and rour respectively WCTe
built; and finally a group of JQ-ea!led
rutra-TolTb ainhips. Their interesting
design feature WIU that the ahape of the
envelope was maintained by a strong
interior rigging u well as by mcam of
a 17,657 cu.rt (500 cu.m) ~ ballonet
which was kept in Hated with air de:livered by a fan of iJ54,iJ66 (7.200
cu.m) capacity per hour. The rigging
to all intt::nll turned the Astra-l'OlTb
ainhips into the semi-rigid type and
simultaneously pumitted suspension of
the car clOile to the envelope. The
Astra-Torrb design WIU derived originally from a Spanish Torrb-Quevedo
ainhip that in March 1911 WIU flown

to France where the Alita company

at lay-I_Moulineaw:. OIIl1ide Pan..
made certain rep;oin 10 it.
The prototype of the ainhips or the
lint group wu Jlilk tU PlUil, whieh
made lOme li"ty luePI rul trip. in the
yean 1907 and IgoB. It WIUI built for
JpOtting purpDlCt to !.he order of Henri
Dcuttch de la Meurthe, the petrol mag_
nate, but he donated it to the French
government in 1907, after the Ie. of
the anny airship Patri,. Vilk tU Peru
"1U bas:d at Verdun whence, on 18
Dtct:mbu t907, it made a round trip
to Sartrouville-Lagny covering 68 milel
(110 kIn) in 3 hours 50 minutel\. On 24
December ulis airship made a similar
trip of 86'4 mila (139 krn). III longel\t
flight W&J accomplished OIl 15January
19011 nvcr a triangular coune to Saru'Ouvilie and Valmy and return to
Verdun, when 148 milltl (2"s km)
were eovercd at an average speed of 23
m.p.h. (37 kmjhr) . In I!)OII Vilk d,
Paris WlU modified in the workshop. at
Chalais-Meudon, where Ihe balloon
envelope abo WIU renewed, and WIU
fitted with a propeller of grealer efficiency. This resulted in higher.pecdI or
around 28 m.p.h. (45 kmjhr) being
attained b), VilU tk Paris II, u the air.hip wu now named, on iJ,5 October
and 5 Dcccmbu. During the
of ill career this exccllc:nt and reliable
ainhip served as a training vessel (or
a rmy pel'lOnnel.
T he only ainhip built by Astra for
civilian we wu Vifk d. ~, formerl)' Jlilk de Ptw. It Wall owned by
Compagnie GCnale Tramablenne
in Pau, and before the outbreak of
World War 1 carried 2,590 pasICDIers
on 1167 trip. without any mishaps.
In 1913 the British government
bought an Aura-TorrCs airship, which
Will IIown to Famborough and daignated 'No.3'. AI the outbreak of the
war the Royal Navy used this airship
for photo-rccoonail:sance oro.tend and



Zccbriigge in Belgium, but later it

-=vcd 10 train new ainhip erewa.
When the war ltarted in AUKUSt 19 t 4
the French Anny ]X 1MI'd about a
ICOn: of ainhips, but only L'Adjwhlll
VillllOl and DuPII.7 d, Umt, or the
Clbnent-Bayard type, were or any real
military value. The last-named airship
Wall mistaken ror a German Zeppelin
by French anti-aircraft gwtners and
diot down in the vicinity of iU:ims with
the Ie. of one crew member.
Sp ecificad oll of <VWe de Pad.'
Vofrmll,' 112,830 cu.ft (3,195 cu.m)
Length; 198~ ft (60'4lI m)
/Jimnd,r: 34'45 fl (IO'5 m)
Engin,; One 70 h.p. Chenu
Liftilll.rilJ." 1.,60 Ib U.!i20 kg)
30 P llrHval PL I t o PL a7
Major Augwst von l'ancval, an anny
officer and later a profCt50r at the Technical Academy in Dedin, built his fint
airship in IgOO, It made its maiden
voyage in May of that year and had an
c:nvelopc holding 81.224 cu.ft (2,soo
cu.m) of g:u.. It WIU built by the Motorluftschifl' Studicngaellvhan (Society
for the Study or Powered Dirigibla)
which Kaiser Wilhelm II was ilutromental in having fonned. This airship
was, like all the othen designed by von
J'ancval, of Ihe non-rigid type. The
ahape of the envelope WIUI maintained
by means of a ballonet at each c:nd,
which "ae wed to trim the airship.
Air was pumped inlO them by an
engine-driven ran. The lUSpCDSion of
the control and engine gondola was a
unique feature of this design as a socalled 'sliding rig' through a S)'Ilem of
rollcn kept ule gondola in a ho..uontal
poiSition even when the envelope was in
an inclined position during climbs and
dl 'ellll.
The PL 1 of I 13,001 cu.ft (3,llOO


cu.m) capacily was buill in 1909 to Ihe

order ollhe I mperial Aero Club. PL 2
and PL 3 were 'aken ave.!' by \lie German Army and numbered P I and
1'II rapc:<:tively. On I~ September
IgoB PL 2, with five people on board,
covered 180 miles (290 km) in II
hOUtl- The envelope of PL S contained
197,76~ cu.ft (S,600 cu.m) of gas and
this ainhip was equipped with two
N.A.G. engines of 110 h.p. each. It
made lOme passenger- tript during the
ILA intemalional aircTaIl exhibition at
Frankfurt-on-Main, for which it was
awatded the prize of honour offered by
Ihe German emperor.
I n 19o9 the production of Paneval
ainhipt was Ir.lnsfened to the LFG
company (Luftfahncug Gcaelbchaft)
which m.a.intained planll in llerlin and
Bittrneld. P I and P II, along with
Zeppelin Z II and one more army
ainhip, the Gross-Bascnach M II, took
part in the largc-scale army man(I!UVft:I held in the Cologne region in
November 19o9.
The I'L 4, of 81,11114 cu.ft (2,300
cu.m) lizc, was furnished to Austria,
and the mtallcr PL S, with a volume of
S',207 cu.n ( 1t45Dcu.m), ICI'VCd JpOrting JlUIJX*>i. PL6, of 3'7ASOcu.n
(g,ooo cu.m) capacity, was a panengcr
airship which in Augwt IglO made a
number of Aightl! over the cilies of
Berlin and Munich. I n the Genoan
capital they took place at night u
ICarehlighll projccted advcrtUcmcotl!
for the Stallwcrek chocolate factory on
to white ..... CUIS affixed to the .wcs of
the balloon envclopc. At the outbreak
of war in '9'4 the Genn&n Navy took
over PL 6; but Prince Henry, the
Emperor', brother, who WIll Grand
Admiral and Inspector-General of the
German Navy in the Baltic district,
held Ihis ainhip unfit for active military
service, and it was used only ILS a training airship. Both the German Admiralty
and Army headquarten thought little


of nQll-rigid ainhips, but Ihov.ed poor

technical judgment in thill hSpc:<:t, for
though the Paneval ainbips were IOl.1.II
and kellli vulnerable, they were also
cheap and quick 10 producc; ,lnd were
easy to move aoout on active lervice.
PL 6 WILS dillmant li in 1915.
PL 7 wlU of 268,391 cu.ft (7,600
cu.m) capacity and equipped with two
110 h.p. N.A.C. engines wilh chaindrivCll propclkn. They were, 81 on all
previous l'aneval ainhips, made of
fabric with weighll attachi to the
blade pcriphcrlc$ which kept the fabric
Itretched when revolving, but thill was
the last of these ainhips to follow tI,ill
practice, It was bought by the Ruuian
Army, litted with a Telefunken radio
and nami Eilgul (Expren merchand_
ise) . Thia ainhip was delivered by air
to St Petenburg in November 1910.
The 282,SI7 cu.ft (8,000 cu.m) PL 8
was an army ainhip origina1ly dcslined
for the Brussels World's Fair, and PLg
and PL 10 were bolh small and fast
sporting oinhips of around 70,630 cu.ft.
(~,ooo cu.m) each. l'L I' WIllI again a
German Army ainhip and relatively
fast, being equipped with two KONing
engines ofll5D h.p. each, driving $Ieel
propellen. I II envelope held 368,..00
eu.ft ( I 1,000 cu.m) of gas. Being rever
sible, the braking effco;:t of the propcllen could lUTeS! the f01Ward speed
of Ihe ail'lhip when landing. An aw:iJi ary 10 h.p. Daimler engine lervi to
.tart the main engines and alJo drove
the fan lupplying air to keep the two
ballonets inftated.
PL III was a panenger airship, while
PL 13, equipped with Maybach engines, was delivered 10 Japan. PL '4
was ordered by Ruuia; PL IS and
PL 17 were purchased by the Italian
Army; PL 16 remained in Genoan ler-vice.lnJuru: 1913 Great Britain bought
PL 18, which received the Englishdc:signation 'No. -i'. 'IDe British Admiralty
ordered thrtt: mon: PaJ'IC\'al ainhips

PL 19 to 21, but due to Ihe oulbreak

of World War I they were never d~
[jvui. By an irony of fate, 'No. 4-'
was the finl Britiili aireraft to lee active
service in the war, as thill ainhip
patrolled Ihe entry to the River Thames
on S/ 6AuguIl1914. It wu broken upon
17July 1917. In Great Britain, Vieken
was to build three Pancval ainhips,
NOI. S to 7, under licence, but they
were uxd only for training purp1P'e,
PL 19, which W81 originally to have
been dcIivaed to Great Britain, was
lost accidentally abcr.-e the city of
Libau in the Baltic on IIsJanuary Igl~.
Ainhips PL 22, 23 and ~4 were never
completed, but one more Pancval air-ship laW active service. Thil was the
Illlval PL II~, which for a time wat
stationi at the Tandem airship base:
00 the Danillh border, then ltill German
territory. It was dismantli at Bicklorl'
near Ba-lin in '9'S. PLII6 was a ~la
tively large ainhip, of l,oS9,440 cu.n
(so,ooo cu.m) capacity, which caught
fire and was de!llroyed in itl! shi at
Bi tterfeld afler making one trial flight
only. PL 27 was the last and largest
Paneval airship built during World
War I, for the corutructKm. of non_
rigid airships was ratrictcd by the
rubber Ihonagc then prevailing in
Germany due to the Allied blockade of
the German eoaslll; thill ainhip type
required rubberised envelopes to attain
the neO'uary IIrength. PL ~7 lurvived
the war, but proved a IroublClOme
ainhip; it was tail-heavy, for one thing.
H en: was an instance where IIWOrcb
tully were turni into ploughlbarcs,
fOl' the buge balloon en\'elope of I'L 27
was cut up and made into civilian
The design and collSIruclion of nonrigid airships of the Paneval type WIll
rawni after World War I by the
W-UICr- und Lunfahn:eug GmbH
(Wa ter- and Air Travel Co. I.ld),
which built the two advertising ainhips

PN 118 and I'N 119, pN .tanding for

Paneval and Nap'dd. the pOll-war
ainhip designer of thill concern.
SpedScatJon tlr PL!l (P I)
VolulIII: 14 1,260 cu.ft (4,000 cu.m)
Le",Ih: 190'3 n (sB m)
Dianutn: 34" ft (IO'40m)
Engi",; One 100 h,p, Daimler fourcylinder
C..UiItf 1Jid: appro". 34'2 m.p.b.
(55 km/hr)
Opnf1lw.u.1 uilifll.' 4,g20 ft ( I ,SOD

SpedfleuloD or PL 27
VDlum.t; 1,IOS,3+1- cu.ft (31,300
Ln!&1h: ~IS'I n ( IS7 m)
Dianu:tn; /4S fl ( 19'6 m)
nKiNl: Two Jl40 h.p. Maybach
CTllitilIl JpmJ: 56 m.p.h. (go kmfhr)
O~f1ljOtllll uWng; 14,76S ft (4,500

Th. Brid.h Anny

'NnW Secuad ...'
In 1902 the commanding officer of the
British Army Balloon Factory at Famborougb, Colonel J. 1- B. Templer,
villited the Brazilian Alberto SantosDumoot in I'nrill, to Itudy hill various
$n1.all ainhips (ICe No. 113). Upon hil
return Ihe colonel recommendi to the
British governmcot that a number of
small non-rigid airships be built, but
thill propou.l Wat not looked upon
fa,'Ourabiy bceaUIC of the tight budget
al thai time. However, the &Jloon
Factory managed in 1904 to build tv.-o
SOllWlgt-shapcd envelopes of goldbeater' kin, but had by then spent all
its available funw. I n 1907 Templer',
IUr or, Colonel J. E. Capper, resumed thill work and managed to build
the first llritilh Army ainhip, ti,e
.emi-rigid Nulli SmwIus, bas:d up!ln



the already available envelope&. The

design WillI .alba' imperfect: for ex
ample, nO interior ballonet WllI provided to maintain the prc:ssun:: inside
the envelope, and tile airship 11.40
laeked any ltabilising arran~ment.
The oontrollWfacca, a large rudder and
.arne tiny eJcvatcn,1OOIl proved almo.t
completely ineffective, wilh the out
come that the airship really had to be
handled lU if it were II. free balloon.
Several engine inslallations were tried
and the final choice feU upon a 50
h.p. Antoinette. The ainhip made
lOme brief flights in Ihe vicinity of
Famborough, and then it was boldly
decided to fly this precarioWl aircraft
ac ..... London. The airship started, in
great secrecy, on 5 October 1907 and
was piloted by Colonel Capper; as 11is
assistant, Capper had picked the
ramow aeronautical pioneer 'Colonel'
S. F. Cody, because the lalter was the
only penon availab[e who was IttofIg
enough to liart the engine. The airship
reached London after a flight of some
hours' duration and circled St
Paw's Catbcylral and Buckingham
Palace, but could then make no .gainn the Itrong headwind
although the engine operated at full
r.p.m. with the propeller churning merrily, its blada looking much like tennis
rackeu. So ,N"I/i ~ force-landed
ncar the CryItaI Palace and was 10
badly dama,ed during the night that
thill ainhip never took to the air again.
This flight had, neverthdess, been a
remarkable perfonnance, and repre
Iellted an endurance record for leIlli.
rigid airships.
The improved NIiUi &amdtu II,
which made its lint D.ight on 114 July
IgoB, was a larger craft with a volume
of 85,000 cu.n (11,401 cu.m). The gon.
do[a wall of the Lebaudy type and
affixed to the kl, which in turn was
attached to the envdope by means of a
watcrpn:lOf 'girdk' . A feature of the

Nlilfi Smouhu airships wae the wide

belts ac:roa the top and extending over
nKiIIt of the envelope ci;umfcrcnce
with additional, diagonal belu toward!
the tapered ends. The keel of the
ICCOnd N~/li Smmdw contained a separ
ate balloon used in mana:uvring the
airship. A lingle elevator wu mounted
forward and twin rudders astern. NuUi
Smmdus 11 had a short life and made
only two more Aighlll, the first lasting
eighteen rninuta. TIle ICC(Ind Right
was with pcilOnnel from the NI!l')' to
make them air_minded and give than
the fed of the air. Shortly afterwards
this airship was brokal up.
Throughout the following year of
19o9 the future of aU military air
activ;tia hung in the balance until a
spe<:i.a.lly appointed adl'isory committe(:
decided that henccfonh large rigid air-Ihips wa'C to be the domain of the nal')'
while it was ten to the anny to build
Imall-siud airships and to be re.pon
sible foc aeroplane..



of'NWli Secundu.s'
YolulM: 56,000 cu.n (I ,~ cu.m)
l.c!g/Jt: 1110 ft (S6-6 m)
Dil11NUr.- 116 n (7'9 m )
&gitu: One 50 h.p. Antoinette
MlJJIimum spud: 16 m.p.h. (~6

SII Walter Wellman'. 'America'

Early one morning in October IgtO,
lix men and a cat climbed aboard. car
covered with oibkin that was suspcnded below II. large, clumsy and
patched balloon envelope inflated with
hydJogo . To the cheers of a crowd
numbering thousancb of spectators the
'powtted balloon' Allin;", lOOn dis-appeared into the fog, heading for illl
distant goal: Europe. A whole continent anxiously awaited the lint radio
report from the airship. It lOOn arrived


and read, lurprisingly, 'Come to fetdl

that dam at' !
This was only the aficrmath of a long
line of events engulflllg a penon of
Don Q,lixotc-Ilke character, though of
a more modem style than his prede-(ltlO~. Newspaper reporter Walter
Wellman "''ILl a keen amateur explorer,
with. Bair for raising money to finance
his various Olterprila. Behind him then
were already two gallant altemplll to
penetrate to the NOI'th Pole by ship
and dog-sled. 111e lint time was in
1894, when he became shipwrecked at
Spiubo:gen; the teCOnd time, in 18gg,
he was halted by larse formations of
icc. In 1905 Wellman', newspaper, the
CAi"'lo HtroJd, IICOt him to London,
where he lint heard the news ofJulliot'l
succcssful ainhips in France (ICC No.
28). His lint reaction to thae aircraft
was that they must present an 0pportunity for his conque.t of the North
Pole. Some momba later he was able to
announce that lufficient money had
been raised to "art the WellmanChi"'lo IUwrd-Hnold Mtlc expedition.
In January 1906 the balloon authority
I.ouia Godard in Pan. was in full swing
on an airship with which Wdlman
counted on reaching the North Pole
that same IUmmcr. Later christened
AlIIIrica, this airship was or the non _
rigid type and had a length of t65 n
(.soS m). The car was made of lied
and covered with fabric. There was a
wooden propcllcr at each end and they
were driven by three petrol Olginell
developing a total of 80 h.p.
While Wellman stayed in Paris the
Norwegian xaling vessel FrirAj>j, lUI the
expeditionary Ihip, transported all the
equipment from Trom.MI in Norway to
Blubbertown in north-western Spit&belg<n, which was the hue 0( the expedition. Here Wellman arrived with
Amnic/I on 6 July 19o1i accompanied by
hill thief mechanic, Melvin Vaniman.
Nine wceks lata' an airship shed had

.. .


been erected there, but various dcIa~

at the blUe 01' caWJCd in Pan. forced the
abandonment of a ltart by the airship
that YOlr, a.s it was already September
and the effecu of the long Arctic night
began to be felt. The airship lIiIl had
not been ',_",b[ed, and was re-loaded
on Fridfiqf, which retumed to Pan.
after leaving three memben of the
airship aew behind to ipOld the
winler at SpiubergOl.
Wellman and hill oompaniont were
bao.:k on Spitsbergen willi a much-im
proved Arntrit/l towards the Old of June
t90'. Both the envelope and the car
of the airship had been lengthened, and
now a single 75 h.p. Lorraine-Dietrich
engine wa.s inltallcd, driving two stcci
propellen mounted on outriggers on
each aide of the ainhip. The engine was
fitted with an additional carburettor
and thUi cnuld OjJClale either on petrol
or be fed on hydrogen drawn from the
envelope. ntis dangerow arrange-ment was in Igl~ to aUJe Vanioan',
death when his tr.uu-Alllintic airship
AIaon exploded ....ortly after itl departure from Atlantic City.
AnIni"" carried fuel for a D.ight of I.IlO
houn' duration, which plVl'Kled a
range of lOme 11,160 mi[a (3.476 bo).
"The flight to the North Pole and back
would amount to about 1,430 mile.
(11,300 !on). The ainhip arried provilliom to last the expedition ten months
in cax of a forced landing, in which
evOlt the occupants would have to rely
on the sleds and ten dop whkh the
airship abo carried. The 'equilibrator'
constituted a technical refinement that
....'ILI to keep the airship at a constan t
altitude above the nuface. It corre
sponded to Andltc'l trail-rope in his
Equ (ace No. 114) and the working
principle wall the same in both in.
lIanca. In Wellman's c:ue it comprised
a long lealha' tube holding the storea.
He considered this an ingenioUi inven
tioll which he described in tennl of


'reo::overab1e ballast'. Hil COmpetitOR

in the newa-rcporting fidd had other
name. for it: they ealled it a ''''usage'
or a '.tuffed boo. CQnJtri(:tor',
The Itart wu again delayed by bad
wuther and did not take place until
:: Seplember, which once more: willi
much too late in the season. The crew
of Anltri", comprised Wellman, Vaniman and the navigator Felix ReiJen
berg. To begin with all went well, hut
then the weather deterionted and the
a.irship drifted towanb the COIUtai
mountairu of SpitdXlgt:n. The airship
ltaggered among these pcnetnl.ting
rocky formatiOllll for more than four
houl'l before a landing could be effected
on the ice, where the envelope wu
deBated by pulling the ripping pando
There foUowed another return to
Paria, where the damage to ~ w:u
repaired, and then the indefatigable
\Vdlman WIll once more ready to act
out for the North Pole in his ainhip.
This time he ltarted on 15 August 1909,
but .hortly afterward! the equilibrator
tore: aput and it was only by a llroke
of good luck that the a.inhip could be
landed at sea cloac 10 Fridljof Narucn's
renowned Arctic $hip FTIUIt, which
towed it back to Camp Wellman, as the
bax was now named. During this salvage operation the envelope tore apart
and exploded with sueh lI. bang that
the myriads of caekling birds in the
bay for onee kept silent.
Meanwhile Admiral Robert E.
Peary had on 6 Aprillgog reached the
Norlh Pole on his sledding trip. This
finally made Wellman abandon his
third attempt at reaching the North
Pole by a.inhip, for which the prcparatiolll were already well advanced. It
is only fair 10 admit that if favoured a
litue more by fate he might this time
have lueccei'!d.
Wellman now took up the idea lhat
with a largcr and still belter AlIIlJkll
he should be able to rcalilc Ihe dream


rK an aeronau\s : 1hc ctoaing

Atlantie by air. He always acted im-

pubively, and in no time had received

moral and financial support from Ihree
big ncwspapcn: 'J"M){tw rork Tirnu,
the London Doifl Ttftgrop/l llIId hill own
aN&4go Ruqrd-fftrilld. With '50,000 at
hill disposal Wellman WIU dCllpatehcd
10 Parill, where the long-Iuffaring
Amtri", was modified once more:, Ibis
tUne by being enlarged and equipped
with an additional engine. llII 80 h.p.
E.N.V., and no fewer than four propcllcn. There remained one 1Cri0us
problem to IOlve: the effect of changing
weather conditions On the lining
capacily of the envelope. At that time
no non_rigid ainhip could ltay in the
air for eight or len day! while CI"OI!ling
Ihe Atlantic without COOIitantly alternating between having to drop ballasl
and valve hyd,ogen - a Slnlin that il
CQuld not withstand indefinilely. So
once more Wellman resoned 10 a new
and improved equilibrntor which was
10 perform lCVeral important functions:
it should keep the ai.,rup at a more or
less oomtanl allitude, 10 reduce the loa
of hydrogen and balIul; and So cylindrical lied Ianb holding sp;uc fuel
for the cnginc:I were to be attached to
the 300 n (91'-4 m) long trailing cable,
the end of" which, by dragging in Ihe
waler, Ihould help 10 indicate the
coune II!I well as act U lurface: conncction for the new Marconi telegraph
equipment. Iu it turned out the lifeboat was to prove the mOSI important
aU1iliary item. It was dung directly
below the centre of the ear.
Many long preparations followed
until at last it wa.s Saturday, 15 Oc::lobcr
1910, the date fixed for Ihe Ilari. The
ainhip crew on this Atlantic erooing
attempt wu, besides Wellman and
Vaniman, to oomist of navigator
Murray Simon, radio opuator Jack
Irwin, and Iwo more men, Louis Loud
and Fred Aubert. At B.05 a.m. Ihe line


to the Ill8boBl Ofiw was cut after it had

pulled Ihe airship out from the harbour.
The four propdlen began to rotale and
the large, grey moruler headed CUtwards OUI to Ita. Then it wu that Vanirnan discov<:nd the cat 'Kidde', which
Simon had Imuggled on board, and
which had eaUJcd the queer content of
the fint wircJess me&$&gt: C\-er fent from
an aircraft over the open sea to a land
ltation. An attempt WIll actually made
to lower the connandy-wailing animal
to a molor boat raponding to the radio
The ainhip'l take-off was front-page
copy in the Sunday editions of most
ncwspapel'l all over ule world, and the
expectations of a happy ending to thilt
venture ran high. Yet tl>e plain truth
WIll thai Amtri", was badly overloaded
at the ltart, which everybody on board
the airship well rca.lUed IU go per cent
of the I,ala Ib (550 kg) heavy equilibrator dragged in the water. The
engines abo caUJcd trouble. At 11.17
on Saturday morning the E.N.V. engine
overheated and had to be StOpped for
a while. Later it broke down com
plelely. The Lorraine engine likewise
malfunctioned. The last report received
in Atlantic City from Amm"~, at 1.45
p.m., was 10 Ihe effect thai tvaylhing
wa.s wcll on boBrd, but the engines had
to be nuned along. By 6 p.m. the prevailing cold had foreal Amtrkll 10 low
that all spare fuel un~ dragged in Ihe
water and thereby dowed up the airship
COIUidenably. After being in the air for
ten houn the airship had OO\-ered only
81 mila (ISO km) instead of~ mila
(325 km) as IChcduled. The aOiSing
could be compleled only if Ihe ainhip
enjoyed a following wind. BUI danger
lurked ahead. When it grew dark the
badly overhcating and hard-prew:d
Lorraine engine which now provided
the 'Ole propulsive power began to
emit a Ihowcr of dangerous ip&fb
which hit the envelope, but the lalter

was, fortunately, _king ......,1 rrom

rain and mist. The airship abo only
missed at the lasl minule a collision in
the fog with the maslll of the schooner
Addw.. E. 8uJfllrd. All through ule night
of Satw-day Amm"lII uruggled to maintain illl eanerly coune. AI -4 a.m. Sun_
day morning the red-hot engine had 10
have a rCllpite and then the ainhip
immediately began to drift before a
SOUth-WCII wind. Laler it shifted to
WCIIt-ncnh-we.1 and ioacascd in
Itrength. The ~ine had been reltarted, but wall powerless againsl this
wind force. All through the day and the
follow;ng night the erew fought a loelug
baltIc to lighten Amni&4 in every con
ocivable way.
Monday the 17th dawned with sun_
shine and calm ...-cather, bul wrong
handling of the controls on the pan of
Vaniman now eaUlCd the airship to
climb 10 an altitude of 3,a80 n ( 1,000
m). Thill dangerou.s climb could only
be arrested at the u.crifice of almott 20
per cent of the precious hydrogen conlent of" Ule envelope. All of them knew
that this spelled the doom of Amni&4.
The airship would expire from exhaustion, 10 to 'fl' : k, and it became
imperative that the ae .. took to the
lifeboat. They could only trost that
they would be able to lower il safely.
At 8 p.m. the crew accordingly left the
earandentcred the lifeboat. All through
the moonlit night they scanned Ihe
oc:ean and finally at 5.07 on TuCiday
morning Uley lighled a steamer which
turned out to be the 1.11. TrlYll of the
British Royal Sleamship Co.,
bound for New York. o,-er the radio
the steamer declared. its willingness to
come 10 the rescue of Ihe airship, and
aikr some difficult mana:u\ITCI the IWO
vessels were finally positioned cloac \0
each other. Just U Amtri", was about
to lower its lifeboat the nose: or the air_
ship rose perilously, but by the heroic
work of Aubert, who elimbed back inlO


lhe car, the ainhip waa righled again.

The lifeboat WlIlI DOW lowered into the
sea, but when the aeronauts began to
row away their boat WlIS hit by the
cquilibralozo of the ainhip on one of its
OICillation~. This knocked a hoLe in the
bow of tbe lifeboat on tlle port lide just
above tbe waterline. Adding 10 Ihe
tribulations of this difficult lCaair
racue Tr....' allIl(ll!lt sank the ainbip'l
lifeboat when, while keeping pace with
tbe drifting ainhip, it barely managed
to ltop ahozot of a mlJision with the
After three houn of trying rescue
work the &ix exhausted aeronauts (not
forgetting 'Kiddo', the cat) were aafcly
on board the rrn/l and were wannly
welcomed by both the crew and the
paW"ngen of the ItCamer. Meanwhile
Amnica, now relie\'ed of m\1ch of its
load, climbed skyward and disappeared
from sight, never to be seen again. The
ainhip had then been in tbe air for 71i
houn and, describing ClIrvet in northeasterly and .auth-westerly dircctiollll,
had covered a distance of 1,010 miles
(1,62,5lun). When Amnia! was abandoned it was 400 miles (6.t-4 lun) 011"
Cape Hallens, the namt point on the
cut ooa.t of America. A gnnd iCCCplion awaited the crew of AIIWrir41 upon
their arrival at the port of New York
on '9 October,
Wellman never again entered any
type of aircraft, but henceforth devoted
himself to his writing activitia. He died
on SI January 1934 at the age of7S'
Sp ed6 ea tJOD of 'ADteri_ ' (1910)
VollUlM': $44.'47 ClI.n (9,']6,5 cu.m)
lngtlt: aa8 n (6gS m)
Di_In: 5a ft (15'85 m)
Etr.gilW: One 75 h.p. Freneh Lor
taine-Dietrich and one 60 h.p.
British E.N.V.
Lif/ilLl r41J-iU: 36,878 Ib (12,192


SS Baldwin'. 'U.s, Millta ..,. I'

Umil the rod of World War I only a
few ainhip typa wen: built in America
thai wen: of native ozoigin. Admittedly,
prior 10 the outbreak of war there were
20 to So airship' to be found in the
United Stata, but all of them were
small and primitive, and in no way
oomparable to the developments in
Germany and F]"1lI1te. But if America
got a Late. Itart in the building of lUitable air&bipa, both the U_S, Anny and
U,S_ Navy allo remained active in the
airship field until the thirties, whereaJ
othcrcountria hadceu_d almOft completely to build Ihac: lighter-thall-air
craft by the end of the twenlia. The
U.S. Navy even col1linued to ute ai r
ahipl of the non-rigid type right up
until after the end of World War 2.
The lint military ainhip in the
U_S_A_ WIll built by Thomas Scott
Baldwin, a venatile American a~
naulical pionttl', who in bill long career
was lint a balloon pilot, he then became an e~perienced parachute jumper,
giving ruoc~ul Clthibilioru in many
pam: of the world, and finished up at
an aeroplane pilot and manufacturer.
During WlM"ld War I he served as an
army major.
The ai.-,.bip which the U.s, Anny
bought from Baldwin and aaigned to
the Signal Corpll WaJ delivered in
August IgoB and deaignated U.S. Military I. It can bal be described at a
eylindrical dirigible balloon wilh an
envelope made of two layers of Japanese aIk, intenpa ..d with one of vuIc:aniJed rubber, 10 witrutand lhe effccl5
of lhe lun and moisture better. The aize
of the interior balJonet was ~,800 cu,fl
(79-S eu.m). The gondola was of the
same type .. v."ed by Renard for LIl
Fron~ (ICC No. 19), but was uncovered.
It WIll luspended only 5 ft (t'5 m)
below the envelope by mtallll of about
80 wires. The wooden tractoI" propdler
had a diameter 0110 n 8 in (3'25 m)



and was driven by the engine throua;h

a ~ n (6- 1 m) Ited exlension Ihan. The
biplane elevator ""as mounted fOTWl\rd
in the s1ilMlream, ahead of the engin<::_
The rudder, with fixed horizontal
surfacca, W1U mounted at the rear end
of the extended, oblong gondola frame.
The U.S. Military J WlI3 mainly of
experimental value, but did make lOme
short llights from the army lighler_
than-air buc at Fort Omaha in
Nebnuka and from Fort Meyen in
Baldwin built two other aiDhipi. Hu
second daign was sold to Germany
while hu No. 3, named C4iijorniOll
Arrow, Wll3 piloted by the well-known
aeronaut Roy KnabelUbue, who made
c:xh.ibilion nights a t a number opla.....,
including the St Louis World'. rair in


Sp! -j6_tiOD of 'U.S. Military P

Vo/IUIU: ~o,ooo cu.ft (s6(i'3 cu.m)
Unl"': 96 ft (29'~6 m)
Diamdn.- 19'5 n (5'94 m)
&tiM: One 20 h.p. Curtiss fourcylinder water-cooled
Lijlu,u/Wity: 1,370 Ib (&'11 kg)
UufolloU: 500 lb (22 71q")
Mui_ JjJd .. '9-6 m.p.h. (s1'S

C" w: II men
34 The WWo_ alnhip.
meat Thompson Willows ( 1886-1936)
was the lOll ofa Cardiff dentist, but airlhipl were his main interest, and today
he is remembered as the only true
British airship pioneer. Already in '905,
at the age of ninetcc:n, he completed hu
fint ainhip, of 12,000 CU.ft. (S40 eu.m)
capacity. In November 1909 thc:rc. followed Ihe fint flight of hu Wil/oWJ Il,
of 2
ClI.ft (595 cu.m) capacity,
which aJso carried only one penon. The
envdope cover "'"as really balloon


with a Wile lending it&elf to mechanical propuWon. Its wpe was main_
tained by mtanI of a ,58 ft. ( I 7"7 m)
long bamboo and steel tube bar IUSpended from a lirong canvas band
sewn round the bottom part of the
envelope along ita full length. The
envelope also was kept fully inflated by
means of an interior ballonet, tile cubic
capacity ofwhich was 10 per cen t of tile
main mvelopc, A triangular steel cage,
ruspc:nded by cabla below the boom,
carried the engine and a _t for the
pilot. A balanaxl rudder wilh fIXed
horizontal stabilising lUna ..... was at_
tached at the rc:&l end of the boom. The
ruddcr had no area of 56 sq.n (5'2
sq,m). There WaJ no elevator, but the
airship would climb or d: 1:end when
the two counter-rotating Handley Page
propeI1cn were moved up....ards and
downwards to alter their angle ofthrulll.
This wu a novel and original idea,
introduced by Willows and laler
adopted for lOme of the British Army
ainhipa built at the Balloon Faetory at
Farnborough, If a eustomer had come
forward who wished to order an airship
of bigger aize than Wil/owr JJ he couki
easily have bec:n accommodated in this
mpect, but the main concc:rn of the
airship deaigner was to prove hu layout
a pnetical one. When v."ed for military
purposa it WIlt an additional advantage that the Willow, ainhip .... as easy
10 dismantle and trampor! on a honedrawn carriage.
At 6-45 in the morning of .. JUlIe
1910 WilloWI ascended from his work$hop on East Moon, outside Cardiff,
and ItVm minuta later landed close
by the Town HalJ. Thirty minuta later
he lOOk off again and returned 10 hu
workshop where he stored the ainhip
in its small Ihed. He JpCnt the night
himsdf in a little hut on lop of the roof
of the Ihed 10 guard his ainhip against

in""""'Willow. ltarted on another flight on

' 49

of 6 August 1910, in the

damaged in the lubsequent landing,

glare from !he bcadJighu of his fathel"1

car. 'Ibil time the CryllaL Palace in
South LoDdoo was to be his destination.
He navigated by the stan and allo
plotted bis coune from the lightJ of luch
cities u Br~lol, Hungaford and Reading. When in doubt about his when:about&, which happened IeVCral times,
he just throttled back his engine and
dntnded lo an altitude
about .500
n (I~ m). Then, through a speaking
trompet which he carried along with
him, he wouJd /Uk for directio", ahead
from the ailloundcd people, probably
out for an evening sltOll. He I'CIIched his
destination at 5.40a.m. on Sunday mom
ing, but waJ now confronled by II new
problem. There was no one present
who could help hold down the ainbip
on the ground, and allo on the Bight he
had 100t the grapnel of his anchor rope
wben it became entangled in a tree.
He finally managed to land a few miIe.
further on with the assistance of a night
watchman. He had then covered a d~
lance of about ISO miles (240 km).
Aner a little hydrogol replenishment
Willows finally reached !he Crystal
PaJace by airship the next day.
There followed several more w(('
ful Bights abcII!e and around London
and then Willows dcc.ided that he
would try to By to Pari". He intended 10
be accompanied by a mechanic on thi.!
voyage, 10 he sct about lengthening the
ainhip gondola. By 4 November Wil10Wi WIll ready, and, C&lT}'ing W.
Goodden IllI a passenger in his ainhip,
he arose at 3.25 p.m. rom Wonnwood
Scrub! on the outskirts of London. The
IVilloWl /I (sometimes aJ..,o known.., !he
CityDJCtutiiff)UO red the British eapital
and lcn thc English coast ncar Bcxhill
at 6.35 p.m. Two houn later !l,C Frcncll
cout came in sight, and then at 10 p.m.
a heavy ground fog added lo the clark
nClS so that Willows J(IOn 1011 his beat
inp. As only the airship gondola was

!he Almighty must have held OtIt a

protecting hand ova - or had we better
say under? - the two air travcllen. A
Frenchman hastening 10 the ~t in.
formed them that they ~ dote 10
the village ofCorbehcm, oulltide Oouai.
Shortly aftcr, !lU'CC coIlllmblcs and a
customl offICeI' arrived. The ronnel'
guarded the ainhip .....hile the laller
demanded tlte paymUlt of 750 frana
dury beca\ae the landing had nOI been
advised in advance. Willows had plans
lo By on to Paris, but had to drop !lltm
owing to foul weather, so he packed hill
ainhip and had it senl on to l'ar~ by
There was evidence of the high
estcem in which Willows was held 1.1 an
airship designer when, in February
1911, the Royal Aero Club mucd its
first four ccrtificalCS to airship pilots.
WilIOWI was the sole civilian to receive
one; anny officers were Ihe recipients of
the other three.
With the coming of the war in 1914
Willows ecascd hi.! activities com
pletely. He had then built a lotal of
five ainhips,
whieh one each went
to the anny and the navy, !he laller
being given the naval designalion of
'No.2', later changed. lo 'SS I'. Hi.!
last design was the 'SS 2' which Willi
built to the order of the navy by tbe
Holt Thomas Ainhip Co. Ltd. This
ainbip WI.I one of the forerunners of the
many .mall non-rigid dirigibles later
used e:r.tensively on wbmarine paltOl,
the IO-C&lled 'Sea Scouts' or 'Submarine Scouts' (tee No. 48).
When World War I ended Willows
tumed professional ac:ron.a.ut and gave
many exhibitions as a balloon pilot.
During a Bower festival near Bodford
on 3 Augusl Ig26 his balloon Willi
assisted down by .pcctaton, who in
their ignorance muhandled the trailrope. The envelope: ClC&pcd from its
Detling &nd disappeared, while the

!he evening


balkct, with Willows and four pal1CIlgtn, plunged to the ground. All
wen: It.iUcd. A tragie fale indeed, that
the only troc British ainhip pioneer
would end his aeronautical career 1.1
an itinerant lIhowman operating a cal"
tive balloon.

Sp edO... tion of 'WWow . 1I'

YfJ"",,: 21,000 cu.ft (s95 cu.m)
14ttk: 86 n (26'21 m)
Ma.rimum Jiammr: 112 n (6'7 m)
&tiM: One 35 h.p. John A. Prell.
with (JAP) eight-qlinder air-



35 Zeppdln LZ 13 ('Ha . .. ')

Mter the accidents sustained by hill
fint pwcngtr ainhip! (_ No. 21 ),
Count Zeppelin pbyed hill final trump
card on 15 July 1911 with LZ 10
~, which finally turned out lo
be: a lucky ainhip for the Zeppelin
concern and the DELAG operating
company. Under the command of Dr
H ugo Ecl:ener, SchwtJht/1 carried a
total of 1,553 pasrngcrs on 218 air
voyaga before being lost by fire in
Diissddorf on 28June 1912, fortunately
without any 101$ of human liva. It had
by now been established that commcr-cial airship! could be operated IUce' 1
fully, and DELAG already had a
*XOIld Zeppelin, the LZ II ViklDri41
lAw, in tervice. Later additiOili to the
DRLAG ainhip Beet were LZ 13
HIIIUII, and LZ 17 &duni (Sutllli4l).
The Gennan authorities wouki have
liked 10 tee them maintain reguLu,
scheduled lCrViccs between the ITUXt
important cities, but the DELAO airship!l mOldy carried out air cruise. of
two hoUD' duration with a maximum
.of twenty passcngen on eacb circuit
.around the cities where ainbip lIhedt
had been built. Anny and nlVY per.
"$CIonel rtteivcd training on many of

these: flights. The Zeppelin airship com

pany built a KI its of this type, fiflcen in
all, including the anny ainhip!l LZ 9
(Z II ) to LZ 23 (Z VIII ), which bore
evidence of much technical advance.
They still maintained the same Ui
ICCtion throughout the length of the
hull, e:r.cept for the tapered ends, the
ratio between el'O$ll fCClion and hull
length bcing I :1O'.n. A favourable
flreamlining of the hull had not yet
been coruidered.
Like her ailter ainhip LZ I I Vi.ttDri41
u.Ut, LZ 13 H_ was of the so-called
Gtype and made ita maidUl air voyage
Of> 30 July '912. It was ltationed fOl' a
time at Poudam and later based in
Hamburg. From both places this air.
lIhip made a number of short and
longer duration Righu. Dy the end of
October 1913 Ht111S41 had accumulated
a total Bying time of 632 houn, and
had covemJ a distance of 2 I,230 miles
(34,166 kIn) . Including the crew, this
airship had then earried 6,2t1 pa.ucn_
gen. On Ig September Igill H_, to
prove the progreu made in the lighter
than-air (>dd, made the fint inter.
national voyage of any commercial
airship, when it flew from Hamburg to
Copenhagen, and after an intcrmc:d.iate
landing there to change p'r:ngen
returned to its home airport via Malm6
in southern Sweden. Dr Eckc:ner WIllI
as usual in command of HIlJISII, and on
thi.! occalion Count Zeppelin hinuclf,
now sc\'enty-fivc:-ycan old, was present
in the control gondola, and lCCDled
none the wone from this round trip of
435 miles ( 700 ltm),
With the outbrak of hOllilitics in
1914, HatU4 was commandeered by the
Gennan Anny and housed in the airship shed at DOsscldorf; it was later
taken over by the German Navy and
transfened to the central Bying field at
Jobannisthal, ncar Berlin, when: il WIU
UJcd to train CJ'CWI for the growing floct
of Zeppelin naval airships. Bd'ore this



venerable ainhip ended ill long career

it bad made more than 5000 flighll. It
wu hooOUJ"1lbly dilcharged. 10 to
speak. when it WlUI finally divnanlled
a year or 10 laler.

Sp,d6... tioa of LZ '3 'Han .. '

Vat-: 660.360 cu.rt (18.700 cu.m)
LmJIh: 4S56 t (14S m)
D illmdn: 4S"9 t (1 4 m)
ENgi"": Three 170 h.p. M.aybach
ex ,ix.cylinder walU-cooled
Uuful hNui: IS.sag lb (6,300 kg)
MtuillUllll spud:
m.p.h. (78



OjJtroJitJMir:tliJi1l(: 50250 (1,600 m)

CnliJi"l rllAp: 683 mi~ (1,100 !un)

36 Zeppelin LZ 18 (L!,I)
With LZ 18, LuftlCbifTbau Zeppelin
reached a new devdopment I~ that
repH:seu led .eYen.1 Pl'O!l"eliSive Iter- in
the lidd of airship coillltruclian. It was
the lirst lpecimen of a senl':S of ten airships which were to form the bas;' of
the new building programme of lang
range airshir- for which the Minister
of Naval Affain, Grand Admiral Alfred
von Tirpil%, had heeD granted approval
in Janu&i'}' 1915. ru early as 1910 the
German Navy had JeIlt one of its mOil
IkiIled Ihip desighw., FeliI PieI%Ur.
to the worla on Lake Cowlance, 10
keep in dote touch with the devclopment of the Zeppelin ainhips. LZ 18
WlUI deaigned to incorporate Pieuker'l
ideas of bow to improve these a ircrafl,
although the engineen at the Zeppelin
worla had certain rcscrvations about
several of these reatures. The Gennan
Admimlty had, as ill minimum de
mand, Itipulated that the new ainhips
be able to teach the IOUtbern coast of
England carrying a certain load cl
bombs. This called for a sizeable incnuc: in the cubic capacity of the
ainhip comparai with previous Zcp-

pelin daign.. Thus LZ 18 wu al together the largest ainhip built prior to

World War .. It WlUI equipped with
rour engines, iilltaUed in two gondola&,
wbile tbcn: wu a separate and cnc1a.ed
conlrOl gondola about SO n (IS m)
ahead of the forward engine gondola,
and attached direclly to the huU.
LZ 18, with the naval designation
L 2, made ill maiden air voyage on 9
September 1915. Afta lOme addi lional
trial rulll the ainhip Will flown on 20
September to the Johann;,thal fiying
lield oullide Berlin, where the navy
could conduct ill acceptance ICilI and
famiJiAriM: the future naval crew wi th
their new ainhip. On 10 October. L 2
ltarted in the morning on ill tenth
Bigh t to conduct an altitude tCit.
Lieutenanl-Commander Freyer wal in
command and, besides Ihe regular
aew (numbering 14 men), there were
alao IOlDC repra<:nlatives from the
Zeppelin worla and from the Cerman
AdmiBlty on board, including Piel%m. Due 10 Ihe great number of pillICrlgen thus carried, several memben
or the crew had to be ldt behind on
the ground. One of the crew mcmben
not 01'1 board on this
engineer G. Sehoowildcr who baa,
indeed, lived a charmed airship life and
today raidca in Copenhagen. He _
one of the rew IUrVivon 0': the firsl naval
Zeppelin aiMip L I (LZ 14) which
auhed in the North Sea off Heligolan.-i
at the end of September 19 13. On the
day of the L 2 dinner he had been
ordered by his IUperiGn to represent the
lurvivon or the L I crew al the funeral
of one of the drowned naval officers.
Q).ile brieRy, Sch6nwii.lda was alao a
crew member of the German naval
Zeppelin ainhip L 3 which in early
1915 wu ICnt to the Skagerak 10 look
for reported British submarines in thai
area, was caught in bad watha and,
on the return trip 10 Germany. devd
...~.d engine 1I'OlIble. The ainhip WIll



unable 10 reach ill home hue and jlllt

managed 10 land on Ihe IOUthernmOlt
tip of the Danish island of Fanoc, near
10 the German bonier. where the ue ..
ICI fin: 10 it OD the beach and were
interned in Denmark for lhe duration
of the war.
But 10 return 10 L 2, which wu
delayed lOme houn by engine lJ"OUbles
before il eventually took off on what
wlll 10 be its linal Oight. Shortly after
the 3tart the 'pectaton on the ground
wilOCAed an appalling light. From the
forward engine gondola a long name
WlUI ejected and lOOn an explosion fol
lowed which engulfed the interior of
the ainhip in an ocean of lire. Then the
ainbip began 10 plunge to the ground
like an enormous IOrch. and 01'1 the way
down a second exploaion occurred
which blew in at! the windowpanes in
the neighbourhood. By the time the
wreck hit the ground only the buntedout framework remained. The hut few
bunts heard were caused by the exploding fuel ta nu. From the sad
remains of the ainhip, ulvage crews
pulled away' three badly-burned per
IIO<U, .till alive. but they lOOn joined
the ranks of their twenty-live dead

On beb;o lf of the Zeppelin worlu, Dr
Eckencr DOW aa::taCd the German Admin.lty in public of not heeding the
warninp of the experienced airship
designers against the 'improvemmll'
which Pietzkcc had inlisted upon. It
wu .ub5equenlly estahliUled that the
disaJta was cawed by the large windIICreenJ which encased the fron t of the
engine gondolas at Pietzl\er'. reqUClt.
They created a form of vacuum in the
gondola u a result ofwhich the engines
were ....bjected to an explosive mixture
of Nrplua hydrogen and air from the
in terior pa.ssageway.
When the victims of the L 2 di"Ua
"'U'e being buried there WU II. bitter
a;IO tention between Coun t von Zep-

pclin and Grand Adm.ira l \"Ofl Tirpitz.

TIle ainhip builder blamed the disuter jointly on the dead Piewa
and the Admiralty, and their partnership almost ended there and then.
Thereafter Count Zeppelin WlUI only
the figmebc:ad of the Zeppelin airship
company and began iDllead 10 take an
active interest in the building of large
aeroplanes. He wu reported, Ihortly
before bis death on 8 M arch 19t7, to
have remarked that aiMips no longer
inlerCited him in the leut!

Sp ed6 ... t.Wn of LZ 18 (L It)

Vok_: 935.500 euSt (117.000 eu.m)
LenfIh: 518'4 t ( IsS III)
.DUztndw: 54'5 t (166 m)
~: Four 160 h.p. ),taybacb
ex Iix-eylinder
Uufollood: 24,471 lb (11,100 kg)
MIlXimum J~td: 49 m.p.h. <79

O/Jmlli(JlllduiJi"l: 9,200 n (11,800 m)
CniiJi1l1 rang': 652 milCi ( 1,050 !un)


The Royal Navy drlbJp 'May_

1nJuly IgoB a propoal by the Admiralty 10 buik! a large ainhip wu approved. With the increasing German
predilection fOr .uch airaaft the Royal
Navy WIll abo interelted in investiga.
ting whether thiI new type eould be
turned to good aecoUilt. The order for
the British naval airship HMA No. I
( R I) w~ placed with Vicken at Barrow-in-Furnc:a., where 11. joint NavyVickers team Wil.$ formed for thil.pccial
task. Thil team drew mainly on its
experiWlce in building .ubmarines, as
the airship experience of the design
staff Wlll limited 10 a fay Righll which
lOme of ill lIIemben had made in Getman ainhips, which Will no IOlid
foundation for the wack in hand. At the
pme time .. the deaign drawinp wtte

' 53

<taCkled a fIoarinS 6od; for the ainhi,

was buHt which, oddly enough, was
termed a 'garage'. Right from the ltarf.
;t was planned 10 moor the airship ..ea, 10 Ihe boltonu of ita gondolas weft
shaped like boata. Another fcauue was
10 be the provision of a moorinS mast,
which was a practice not yet conceived
by the Germani at that timc.
The tcmu of thc contract stipulatod
that Vickcrs was responsiblc for the
framework of the ainhip while the
Admiralty would supply the sa" celiJ
and tlle covering. The rudder and
elevator control arrangement closely
followul the practice from submarines.
Whal followed was an endlCII tICquence of changes, delays and difficulties. Vickers wanted to build tbe
hull of wood, while the Admiralty
51eadfastly insisted upon the use of
steel. This dilemmo. was solved by a
compromise when the new metal alloy
dur.dumin available. It had
originated in Germany, where some
componenl5 for thc Vickers ainhip
wen: made, but the Germans had nOI
yet gained much experience with this
material and no fewer than 7$ per cent
of the parta supplied from Germany
had to be n::je<:led. The material for the
PI ceJb was another difficult problem.
Any number of modilicatiOllll WCTe
called for. but finally, by the spring oC
[910, work had pmgl' .d to the Slage
when: a crew could commence training prior to the lirst trial flight. Concurrently, the shed at Barrow W83
heavily guarded.
On t3 February 1911 the engine
IClII5 began, bUI the actual trial ascent
of No. I (or Mtt)Ji.J, as this airship had
by now been unofficially named) had 10
be poltponed because of a political
baltle then being fought in Parliamenl.
This concerned which country should
be the approved supplier of hydrogen
for the ainbip, since national production of that gas was insignificanl at the

dIne. Finally, on 2+ May, tUp towed

,MII:J":J OUt of it! d>ed; it ...... then
mOOled to a Boat in the Cavendish
Dock, an operation wbid1. called for a
helping hand from many tugboats and
IOfl'\e three twndred marinen. It had
been hoped that the maiden air voyage
of MttJifJ might become part of the
naval ton:Inalion parade before King
George V. but the airship had bttome
slightly damllg! while being hauled
away from ita shed lind had also proved
much too heavy. 10 it had to return to
iu shed for a stay of some scvetlll
months. As cvcnl5 were to show, the
name Ma:JJf:I was to prove all too pr0phetic, for the airship nevcr did, in
fact, ny al all. However, by ~il September [91 I. the ainbip had been lightened

()V<:rboard, whereupon the rear portion

of the airship promptly
The Fint Lord of the Admiralty al that
time, Winston S. Churchill. _ panly
rapoosible for the fact thaI the findings
of the investigating committee for this
ainhip di'uler _n:: never published.
The navaJ airship detachment w.u disbanded in January 1912, and AlII:JJi.J
wa.s left 10 il5 own resources, gradually
deteriorating in il5 noating .hed al



the extent that it was reported ready

once mote. The inllation with hydro-gen from 1,"]62 tanks required lot hours
to eomplclc, and then the naval airship
len il5 !bed again. II had scarcely
emerged before a strong squall caused
it to heel right over, and although the
airship lOOn righted iudf, no sooner
did the handling crew begin to tum it
around. 10 point il5 nose 10wards the
dock, than a crashing noUe was heard
from the cenlte section of the airship.
whereupon the envelope fractured, and
the long-wlfering MII:JJI:J, her back
broken, gradually collapsed on 10 the
waler. The terror-stricken crew memben in the rcar gondola all jumped


S8 Cha1a l ...M e ..d on 'FIe....,..

When World War t broke out in
Augusl 19[4. the French Army posINsed about fifteen ainhips, IlKIII of
them withoul any military value. The
anny aeroplane and airship forca compri3ed three groups: the finl grouP. al
Vc:naillca, had combined ainhip and
aeroplane bue, at Saint--Cyr and
Toul. and aeroplane-only bUel at
Bue, Ch1teauforl. tampa, Villa_
coublayand Nancy. The second group,
at Rclms, had combined ainhip and
aeroplane ba," at Reinu, ChAlons.
Verdun and Maubcuge and aeroplane-only bases at Douai and Ie Crotoy. The
third grouP. at Lyons, had ainhip and
aeroplane Ivm. 11.1 Belfot1 and Epinal
and aeroplane-only ballCl at Lyons,
Amberieu, A\"Ord and Pau. However,
this wbole organisation _ in a pretty
miserable plighl at the outbreak of the
war. The build-up was panly incomplele and the activities of the army
ainhip and aeroplane uniU WCTe
mainly of a sporting natun::. Civilian
finns such ., CMment.Bayard and
Zodiac dominated the airship fidd (Itt
No. 29), and military production of air.hips was in an embryo .tate at the
ChaJais.Meudon eslablishl1\alt oUllide
Paris, where it had all begun with the
ainbip La. F,II/IU (1Cf! No. 19).
This military centre 0( aenmautieal
activitiCI "'-;u of a limilar nature to
its British experimental COUIllc:rpart 11.1

Farnborough and during the fint three

years of the war built ainhips exelu
livdy for the French Army. all of them
king of the non-rigid Iype. The lint
army airship, FlNnu, left the ChalaisMcudon workshops in t911Z. It had an
efficient lhape, derived from wind
tunnel tesl5 carried out at the Eilfel
laboratory in Paris. The CUmenl
Bayard factory built the engine for it,
as ",<:II as il5 gondola and certain other
componenll, which ClIplllinl why this
airship is often abo referred to as the
C.B. V. In thc lisl of C1~entBayard
airships FInnvs, or c.u. V, is mown as
a smaller liIler-.hip of the army ainhip
L'AtljvtJtlIIl Vi_lor C.B. IV of
353,150 cu.fl (10,000 cu.m) capacity.
Flnaw participated in the )1n::nch
Army maru%UVtel in 1913 and there-after was ltationed in a.hed althe Pau
base. On a3 Seplember of Ih:1I year the
airship aJCMlded again and headed for
the Saint--Cyr base. This 4-211 mile (680
km) trip was completed in lixtcen
houn at an a~rage _peed of S3,6
m.p.h. ($4 km/hr). the airship mainlaining on this Oighl an altitude of
between il.&.:tS and 3,1180 ft (Boo and
1,000 m).
At the OUIJCI of the war the French
Army c:ommanden direetttl the air&hips on bombing raids, but they wen:
carried out 11.1 night due to the vulnerability of the ainhips. Under the command of Captain Tixier, FkIm<s conducted the first ainhip raid of the war
from VcrdWl on 9 Augwt 19[+' At the
New Year of 1917 the French naval
ainh.ip servic:e WlUl established, all the
serviceable army airships serving u il5
nucleus. Thcy wcn::: D',Arltwlu. CIumr.
/lflPU. u",lIi'll and w"'rin, as wdl as
Flnmu and MOfIlPlJin. Ihe lasl two
now iletVing as Inining ainhips. ThCllC
ainhips now palrolled the leaS and
hunted submarinea, particularly in the
Mediterranean, and towards thc end
of the war from basa on the roasl of

' 55

North Africa. Ainhip commends. and

meet..rUa ""ae trained .t lhc Roc L fort bate. H\"f"C F'-tu _ dcIuorcd in
JWIC 1918 wbm a German ~
dropped bomb whkb oct the .inhip
.ned lin m and. owed lhc alnhip
ochooI. to be tnnIkncd 10

oi the Gcnnan Admiralty in 19 14 ..

undcnillbk-. a1thot.wb diHlolt c0nditioN poIh.J1cd in the alnhip divition
ct the German Army. whkb then
already bad Iwdyoe Wlita.1 ito di'pqzl.
Until the German N.vy Maned ita
aOC:iaa...,. prosrammc. which mmpi . d the buildinr ct. Kiia 01 ten
alnhipo 01 the L 2 Iype (_ No. s6).
and bdoo: thiF pr-orramme ruUy COl
PIlf. the German N.vy bad 10 N:ly
8Gldy on L 3, which durillf thc fint
monthF oi the war dKi indeed fulfil
numl:c 01 importanl r WOima _ _
t"h. Dl1rinc dIC night 0119-20 January 19150
and. L4 (LZ27) carried
01.11 the 6nt Germaa uval alnhip ntid
..-ina! Enpod, .tIVki,. indu.wia.1
...... u .Iong the Riva Humber. On
thIS ...........ion both ainhipo CLi l kd fuel
for tbiny houn and load oleitbt
SO q: bombo and. len or daw 28 kt:
incendiary bombo. Each .inhip bad
crew ol mtccn men. A third .inhip.
L 6 (LZ ' I), took o ff lhc arne nichl
and beaded for tbe 'I1I.amct area. Pel"
Strum _
011 board this .inhip to
co-ordinale that night'. air .nark. on
En,1and, but L 6 bad 10 tu.rn back
bcca\ItC it !v:o ..... "'-eiahed down by
coatu. of
A ItrOiIf beadwind
L, 01F ill coune and il reached Gra l
Vannouth with only two of itF three
mgineI opaating. 'The hiat ........ pbh-e
and ir.cmdiary bombo ... ae d.toppld
bapbazatdly aDd oURd Iittie damafc
in the town, bul two penon. ""ere killed,
the 6nt 10 die in an air raid. L S then
diuppcand in the
and darknc. and
beaded lOr home. L 4 appcuecl ncar
Bacton, in Norfolk, aboul 78 miltll
( 1 2~ km) ....... ~I oi the Hwnbcr.
The bom.. droppod later by thil .irmip did ~t dlmaBe in tbc: town of
Kina'. Lynn. L 4 rctunxd to fuhJt.
bilttel.1 10 un. on 20 January,
arrivi.... thcK ... co minulCl after L ,.
On 16 Febnwy 19 150 Petet- Stn I
ra:a~ olo1i.... &om the uval .taff


39 ZeptMcu. LZ Sf ( L s)

Bcint:.tnletup,.o1LI(LZ I4),exccpt
ror iu !DOh powtlrul ~ the .....-.1
a.inbip L S ol the Zeppelin M-type.
made ita maiden VO)'aF on I I May
1914. It lata made an endurance Bigh t
ot no Ie. than
aDd .na-warcb waF .pPrOYI and .ceeptecl by
the German N.vy and 1Ila1~ in the
Fublab<lud ainhip obecI near Hambura:. IIdon: the outl:reak ol war it bad
participated in number ollleet mana:uvres aDd _
the only uval Zeppdin .vailable when bo.tilitico bqan.
It wu, ofcounr:, an impl -ble taP 10
patrol both the North So and tbc:
Baltic excllllivdy with L ,. 'The rmted
obecI in Fubbbiiud wu ...... the only
available ODe on the North Sea CONI.
becal.lX althout:h the tbcd.t Nordboh:,
ne.r Cuxhafcn, had bern Iw-ted, il
W&J oot yet completed. 'The Gcnnan
Nary had already mablished an airahip Itttion under Commanda Pcttt
Stntt:l, bul for _Ie H IOn the Gc:rman AdmiraIly did DOt,. im"1""1iatdy
upon the outbreak of wu, bring pes~ to btu on the Zeppelin works to
belild Iatrtt and better a.inbip t}lI
But thiE aIIort.1Cdnca on the put

'S noun.





to oapiltcb IWO ainhlpt 10 _teb the

.ctivilita of the Brililh uvy 01F tbe
N.... qiao
Slnt,,-9 bltnlMtd
IWO ol hiE moet \";I<~ ainhip
rommandcn, Lc-Cdr Ilam t--ritz (in
tbarJc oiL s) and ~tqn\IF _ PIalenli.llcnnund (commandina L 4), witb
thil talk, and the two ainhipo Id\
fuhllbilud the I&lrIC aoeni,.. The next
momirc, 17 February, L S _
UlaavandJbuJr. on lhe WtIIt coati ol
J utland, ballli", ........ th-alltnly _ _
atOm! of incftuiu, foo:e. The irrq\Uar
JUlu proved harmful 10 tbe popeUe....
and thtoo.a&h them iodinlctiy abo
a!reeled the tnt:inea. At 9 arm. one
~ beok down and IWO boun later
one lDiWe" IE d functionins. At I p.m.
LS _
.beeut of H_thoIm, wbm
fritz do- j..kd, to FCDd radio _ 'ce
thai the airship was
cd and
would return, h........ the WCII COUI
of Jutland. 'The ainhip had to ckKCocl
to ISO n (SO I'll) above FCa level bcca\ItC
"bibility _ pra<:1;cally nil in the im_
penetnblc ~torm. With only onc
weine ltill runnin(, the Danish city of
Eabjcrg _
pa'llil at S p.m. and the
p.I DOW wu 10 reach the ainhip but
at Tondcm just Ix)Oild the Danish
b .....:k:r. Then the last of the three
mcinEI IUIppCd, and Fritz bad 0Illy
one rhoke 1elI:: to land kb t the airohip was dri\'Cfl out to FCa_ PTovidmtially, the oortbern tip of the Daniah
island of F&nOt -lichted, when: L,
wu landed on the beach al S-4S p.m.
Ldt 10 its own dc:vias, with no landing
Liew to usist, nor any .helterlne facililieo .vailable, the ainhip reoted on tbc:
wet .00 with iu back b-oken. After
llIfW"inI bimlelf that all hio mm "'tiC
unhurt, Fritz dewoycd hiI kOd papen
and then .. daed the atw 10 leayoe the
ainhip. He puli:w:med bis .... duty ..



' IV , _ ' , br -e

c., 'P h..

wIw> _


'k. . .........

......... dULl ....

r.n:,hoohL .,.dL,.br+

w. .

...... _howrdL . _ ... """ . . fII ...... t't

oommandcr ol the ainllip by ordain

il 10 be II!! on Ii~; Incn, with hiI crn.,
aan"endued to the Danilh .uthorities.
They all inwocd at FiJOIlC barracb io 0dcDw; wbtrc tbq ipWl the
remallUlll war yean.
L 4Iikcw-.- bad itF Wllna dlmaced.
le.lucky than itF Fitter ainhip.
II _
lOteed down in the brcaken ofT
ilIaal'luyb,hulr. further north up the
WCSt coql of Jutland when: cIe\'Cfl
members oflhe aew tECaJled from the
omashed control fOiIdola. Rdieooed of
Ihis weicht, the ainhip atCended ..-in
and disappeared fotuu 01.11 """" the
North So with the rest of the ocw,
comprilinc lOur IIMlChlnia. in the rear
pndoeh TllCin 'Wac the lint li'1C7 10
be 10M in tbc: war by the ainhip divilion
of the German N.vy. I n lime many
mon 10 "''ftC 10 1OIJow.
n- twin d .Ien at/kJecd by German n.val airobipt dcill...... tntcd
dearly bow poeM' the German meleorological Kn'Kc then W&I. Extended \'Of&ICI OUt """" the northern opetl walen 'Wtie DOl resumed 1.Ultil
Iatrtt .nd mole powttful ainhipo

wt ......




m,slS (111\ ("0470 (II.m)

~184n (lsSm)

Di w:0t8-7ft( 14-8)m)
&tiNs: Three lIOO b.p. Maybz dl

ex IU-eylindcr

UsifW /.oM ..

~2S21b (9,200


Aiu; w 14,.-: 53 m.p.h. (8S


O~"jlilw: 9,200 n (1,800 m)

en.ui",,~: 68s nUb ( 1,100 kat )

40 7 Pl*'l'n L7 fO (L 1_)
The Gennan Admiralty bad prcdictcd
in November 1914 that the lint larrc
ainhipo ol lhc Zeppelin P_type, with
a PI tlI:mlenl oft,,05!MtO a,U\ ()o,ooo

' 57

cu.m) would be n-ady inJanuary 191~.

~ ,"Ole L 10 (LZ 40) and L II
(LZ 4 1), but did not in fact brmme
available until 13 May and 7 June
rapoctiw:ly. The Gcnnan Navy wu
lhen able to compete 00 an equal footing with the German Azmy, whteh
already had made detcnnincd air !"aids
againat England, and in panicular the
London rcgioa, with Z Xl I ( LZ 26),
LZ 37, LZ!B and LZ'9 from ba ; in
Belgium. The lint naval attempt of that
nature took place on 19January I gl~
(tee No. 59) and was, u ICpotted, not
rul. A previoua calCgoric:aI ordtt from the K.i .... forbidding the bombina of the denldypopulated quarten of London, and
urilIy Buckingham Pa1aoe, had
meanwhile been ncinded.
On 4 June 1915, L 10 left the Nord
holz buc neu Ctohaf'en al abonly pul
Il1idnia:hl, Wlda the command of
LI'Cdr Hinch. The ainhip had orden
to attack the London region, for which
PWJYT it carried two 100 kg and
lwenty 50 kg higb-explolh-e born!:. and
go iDocndiary bombl. Delayed by an
ilia- lIing headwind, Hinch was unable to reach Loodon, and instead
dropped his bomba on Harwich and
Gra~CICi1d, where the!:. let
the yacht club (used u a milirary
hc.pital) on lire.
On I.5June L 10 ICt forth 00 another
air attack on England, this time
aa:ompanicd by L II , which hoWC>iCi
expo "nced coginc trOUble and had
to return. At nightfall L 10 had
reached the oout of Northumbedand
when the kIokout man on top of the
hull reported an enemy aeroplane
ahead. But thiI turned out to be a falx
alarm. Hown>er, the coutal baltcrics
opened fire on the ainhip, which then
dropped its born!:. from an a ltitude of
70.550 n (If,300 m) over an area with
brigbtly.ahining blast fumacet at South
Shick" More datnaae wu cauxd to


!be ahipy.rd al J &i IOW and 10 a chemical p lant al Willingion. NOI once on
thiI raid wu the ainhip caugh t by the
~ighu: which were dreaded 10
L 10 made a total of twenly-cighl
milirary f1igbts, five of whtc:h 'Ime air
n.idl over England. The final aooml
was made in ordtt to reconnoill'C at IClI
on the aftCnlOQ."l of, Seplember 19 1.5Shonly bd"ore making ready 10 land at
Nordholz, the ainhip IIc:w through a
thundemorm and wu hit by liplt
ning. It wu lhen valving bydrogen in
preparation for the de. :en l and a
violent expk:moa raulted. The ainhip
plunged 10 the ground and the wreck
burned for R!' ea al houn in a.halIow
walera jutl off the Neuwttk Uland.
Hinch and his caew of nineleCi1. men

Sp ! d6 ... tlon ot LZ 40 ( L 10)
VIIhmw: 1 ,1\16,~ 3w.ft (3 ' ,goo
1Aw11t: 5S6-4n (163'5 m)
Di_IIr: 61'4 n ( 18'7 m)
&,i/IU: Four 210 h.p. Maybach
Uufid fH4 : '.5,7 1 ~ Ib ( 1 6,~ kg)
M4rimum lpud: 59 m.p.b. (95



Di"lJIiDMl tlfifi/tl: Ilf,800 n ("goo


Cnrisilll mil' :




mila (If, l50

Zep.Un LZ.7 (LZ 77)

The ainh.ip diviJion of the Gcnnan
Army during World War 1 made IIIC
of a total of thirty five h
It of Zeppelin make. Sixleen of thae ainhi",
W!:re 1011 in action, bur were wrttked,
three made fOtC<d laodinll in home
territory and one wu cauicd a_y by
a heavy .tonn. On all the different
i"n;mtl a total 01'282 bombing and leconruri=ano:e tri", wen: made, and 188 or


&em can be ~ .1II _( ....roA. 1"

al l thac activities only thirt,... aew
r....mben wae IIIIt. When the Genn&n
Anuyoc I. dainhipoperationsin 19 17
jl had thirteen er fourteen of rne.e aira2fl1eft which were either ~
to the a inhip ta:tion of the German
Navy or w~e broken up. The Gennan
Army and Navy had different ideal
abowt the Ulpgunent of ainhi] in the
war. The German Army right r~mothe
lIart of the war employed its ainhi",
for taaical, and latOl" few .rraqic,
t'lh which wele only feuible .. JOlt(
:III the Alliel were mort fi acreplana 10
Cilp(C lhe enemy ambipa. The Ocr!1IafI Na...,. on the other band uxd its
aimi", few bombine raiell againat
England and as a parallel employed
them on very important i't\t(M'iUlinance
work. Ourine the prelude to the Battle
of Jutland in 1916 a I!;OfC of ainhi",
thlla kept the Chid of the Gea-man High
Seas Fleet, Vice-Adminl Scltcu, polled
on the poIilMm. of the enemy by .upplying important infonnation, but in
Ihis rapcct the limita tionJ of the airahi", were abo app&rCil1, u the prevailing weather conditions hindered
their aaivitica.
The Chid of the General Staff of the
Ccrman Army, Gencn.l of the I nfanlry
von Falkenhayn, announced .. early
u October t9 14 that be intcodcd to
launch bombing raids apinst England and uked for the m-opea ation of
the Gc:nnan Navy. I mmediately fol
lowing the outbreak of war French
aeroplanes had begun 10 bornb German cities in reply to Gc:nnan air raidl
their bombfollowing a fabe charge
ing a Gennan town: a plan which the
Coman Army decided would Jive it fint
pl(:cedenoc in .he 'retaliation' bombing
of Frencb cities. A higb penally wu paid
for the lint three Coman altaeb ofthiJ
characta. They wen: made in late
Auguat Igl4, in broad daylighl, and
0011 the _
of four ainhi",: Z V


(tZ .0), t: VI (LZ III' , Z V I] (LZ lf2')

and Z VI II (LZ liS). NOI thac
ainhi", had been replaced did the
Connan Army rum itt attention M
England; and, not being ()IIntent I.

limil rne.e aaivila 10 thoR! ni(hM

when there WIllI no moon, oonduc:&ed a
number ol tellts with LZ 77 (ZcppdiQ
worb number LZ 0 ) in the Ccllope
area in November 19 1,. The cond ...
lions rom thae llightt. IiKd10 bethat
even at Iul l rUlu an ainbip paNing
everhead was difficull to dilQl'Tll from
the grotmd. This w .. later to pl'O'>'C a
fatal deduction and one Ittonlly qw:shoned by the ainhip section of the
German Navy, which contended thai
it wu the induslrial smoke pRVaiIing
above the Ruhr region which explained
the veiling of the LZ 77 a inhip. The
Navy a.ndUCIed iu: own lats in this
lapeel with L 16 ( LZ 50), from T he
Hague: buc by the North Sea, and
proved concluaively that the ainbip
was visible from the ground in clear
moonlighl and coukI be kepi in ligh t
(OIlItan tly by a f"hler pilol fCilt up 10
look lOr it.
LZ 77 of the P-type wu ac:cc:ptcd by
the Gcnnan Army on lf4 AUffUlt 19 1 ~
and WIllI bitl cd at Spich, neu Du.eldon, on 6 September. Only a week
lattt, on I, September, this airahip
made a raid on London in the company
of LZ H (worb number LZ 44) and
the following month LZ 77 dropped a
total of 14,71 1 lb (6,700 kg) of bambi
over French territory. LZ 77 wu to
IUffer the tragic: tOnICqllCnCCl of the
fabe deductioot ftOm the very !.(Sts it
had p lCiiously conducted in friendly
skies, and rdl a victim to than in action
0\'Cr the Watero front. On the t:venine
ofll l February 1916, the day thai the
German Army began its maai\'e attack
on Verdun, LZ 77, oommanded by
Captain Hom, took off in oompany
with three other army ainhi] to bomb
the railway junction at Rcvigny,


behind the rront. The .'rench antiairaaft gunnen anade out tl,e shapes
of tbe ain/lips clearly in the monnlight,
and hit LZ 77 with an incendiary Ibell
amidships. Engulfed in Dama, it
plunged to the ground at Brabant-IeRoi' another ainhip, LZ 95 (works

number LZ 65), WlU abo 1000t on thll

SpedficatiOD of LZ ..7 (LZ 77)
Vol_: 1,1 116,53' eu.n
(, 1,900 cu.m)
u.,1h: 53&4ft (163'5 m)
D~: 61'4ft (18'7m)
&tUtu: Foot 210 h.p. Maybach
Uliful W: 35,7151b (16,200 kg)
Maxi_ spwJ: 59 m.p.h.
(95 km/hr)
Op,raJiDMl r.tilu.,.. 111,800 ft
(3ogoo m)
CnIisint rtml" 1,336 mile.
ArIIUI/IIlnt: Two 0'3 in Maxim
machine-guns, mounted on a
platform on top of the forward
hull, as se1f-dcfenoe against
enemy aircnft-


Thio waoltaOCbrd .rmanM:IIl equiP"''''''

1.....' all .-tcmporvy Clenna.D alnhl ....

At the beginning of 1917 the Zcppdin cow.p;uay halted the building of

ainh.i~ for the German Army. Thus
the Ian anny air attack with an ainhip
was made on 16 February of that year
by a lingle veasel, LZ 107 (works
number LZ 77) of the Q-type. The
ainhip started from Hanova and
beaded for Bou1ogne in France where
3,1971b (1,450 kg) of ixmlbl were
dropped from an altitude of 9.350 ft
(11,850 m). LZ 107 Dew above tbe
cover of clouds and wu directed by an
ot.aver who hung in a lowered ea.r
below the cloud. and communicated

with the control gondola in the ail'lhill

by meanl of a tdephone cable. ThiA
particular hapless obsefver had to
spend sew:n long and londy hoon in
his 1lJl.811 ear beeaUIC the winch that
was to haul him back up jammed.
4Il Zeppelin 12 h (L 30)
The third and moat decish'e stage in
the devdopment of the Zeppelin ai ...
hips was the lO-C8.11ed 'Supcc-Zeppelin' that appeared in early 1916. The
prototype of IhlI fonniclllble weapon
was L 30 (LZ 611) of the R-type which
made iu maiden voyage at Friedricbhaten on 118 May. Under the command
of Lt-Cdr Horst Baron Treusch von
Dutt1ar-Brandenfeb this ainhip was
two da)'llala tranlferred to Nordholz,
ncar Cuxhafen, in which air voyage the
old Couot von Zeppdin abo participated. Thil zeppelin had a gas content
of 1,949,373 edt. (55)'XIO cu.m) which
meant a considerable increaMi in
Ii:u: over the previ0u3 types, and tlle
hull was better Itreamlined. ThC$e airIbips were powered by $ix enginCl, two
of them in the rear gondola which
drove, through tn.nsmimion Ihan" a
port and ltarboard propeller mounted
on outriggen from the hull, a return
to a former, l(lrIIewhat clullll}' ar
rangement. At one time thC$e aif!hips
were equipped with ten machine-guns
all a defence again" attack from enemy
aircraft. Three of thC$e guns were
installed on top of the forward hull.
MOIIt of the remaining Zeppelin airIhips to be built during World War I
were of thil type, but improved with
furtha refinements.
The very large siu of L 30 made it
a difficult ainhip to handle on the
ground. The asmtance of many men
"'..... required each time the ainhip
was hauled out from, or ba<::k into, ill
shed 'Nora', and might be rendered
impoaible even if tllere was only a
relatively digltt u .... wind in relation to


the longitudinal uiA of the &bed. The

~ wen: handicapped by the
availability of only one fairly amall
double-Ibed ('Hertha', later 'Nobel')
of the turntable type at Nordhob:,
which could house two ain/lips.
The driving force of the ainhip
.ection of the German Navy, Captain
Peter StnIlSer, and his ltalfinvstigated
the potentialities of L ~ thoroughly
and thiA ainhip made five trial flighll
before 5 July 1916, when it lOOk off on
il5 fint war assignment; reconnaiaance
over the North Sea. Thil ainhip was to
complete thlrty-one ftighU of this nature
during iu lifetime and, Itrangeiy
enough, was not camoullaged. 'I'hiI
Ityle of war painting WIll fin! introduced with L 35 (12 80), and eontinued in the ruceeeding ainhi~ of the
R-das up to and including L"I
( LZ 79), which was painted dull black
on the undenide of ita hull.
The BritUh intelligence ~ce lou
no time in procuring detaiil about this
new Zeppelin type, which WIll promptly
nicknamed 'The Supet'-Zeppdin'. Ita
German ru..ignation was Gtrwhlmpft.JIH (large war type).
took part in nine important air
raids on England, but in 'Pile of von
ButtJar'. boasts to the contrary, never
actually attacked London. That the
ainhip failed in this Telpcct can be
ascribed mainly to the poor navigational facilities of'that period, and to
the bad weatha encountered. L So was
one of the uniu in the fleet
naval and five army ainhips that during
the night of II~ September 1916 conducted the largest German operation
of iu Dod during the war. MOlt or the
ainhiptt were unda orden to bomb
English cities, and mainly London,
while II few of them were to c:arry out
a distracting air attack On the Humber
distri<::l. Fourteen of the lixteen ainhiptt
reached the English coan, but two had
to tum bad::. The army ainhip SL II




of the SchOlle-Lam: type had ltarted

rrom Spich,

near O " eldon, and was

the only one to croa the British c:apital,
where the bomhl dropped caused little
damage. Shortly IIftcrwanh it Will Ihot
down in flames by F1ig:ht Lieutenant
W. Leefe RobiOlOn, piloting a B.E.lle
biplane, who was awarded the Victoria
ero. for accomplishing the lint downing of one of the dreaded and despiJed
'Zeppelins' in Dritiah skies (very few
then knew the dilferem:e between the
two main types of German rigid airship). The light of the burning ainhip
liishtened the rest of the attacking
German ainbip rorce. All of thae
ainhiptt immediately turned around
and tcattered their bombl al random.
L So stayed only brieRy over English
tenitory and unloaded ita bombl oya
the town of Bungay on the CIIIt CO&IIt
about 90 miles (1.15 km) from London.
On the night of 113-4 September,
L 30 and iu three lister ves.scil LSI
tLZ 72), L 3~ (LZ 74) and L S3 (12
76), as wdl all a group or eight older
ail'lhiJl', again raided England, and
their attaclr. orden were the lIUIIe all
thO'e for 2-S September. Once more it
ia questionable whether von Buttlar
reac:bed the city at all, u he main_
tained, but Naval Rest:rve Commander A10is B&:ka did so, witll L 31 ,
as be had picked a more direct course
than the other ainhip eommanden.
Shortly after midnight (on 114 September), he dropped two 300 kg, eight
'00 kg and thirty-two 50 kg high_
expiOllive bombl over eaat London
from an altitude of 111,800 ft (3,goo m),
but was ea.ught in the beaDll from the
tearehlighu and was rubjceted 10 heavy
anti-aircraft fire. The ainhip was hit
and forced to land at Little Wig_
borough, near the Jdand of Menu. on
the east eoast. B& managed to have
hia ainhip set on fire before he and his
crew were taken pcisoner.
In the -prins of 1917, L 50 and L 51


( LZ 7S), I~ with lOur of the

army ainbipt, wee lraI....... ed 10 the
Sh"WN lIME on tile Baltic:. ncu the
cily of KlinipherJ. Here Iheb"
wk _
to watch the R,.i"" ket
mOHU)Ultt. They mel with little interfc:rcoce rrom R"';at1 anny ....d .... val
pilotl u the memy milituy f _
Jtayed quite inactive once the March
revolution had broken OUI in R' a
Later the Ciamam ran. Ibon of rtld,
and L,., _ laid up al S 'ap-)ii" in
A~ 1917. There _little mote to
IEpoil aboul LSO Wllil after the
Atmittiec when., along with three mot e
airlhiPl abo laid up there. it wu taka!
OYer by the IDter-Allied Conttol Com
miNion, wbo banded il over 10 Bclaium.
nu. C'O'Intry bad no r.cilities lOr
bon';", an ainbip of thai Pze. 10 "koi
lillO bebrokenup altheGcrmant I,.

Sptdflcatt- of LZta (L SO)

Vo/Mw,: 1,949>373 cu.f\
(SS.200 cu,m)
/.n41A: 649-6 ft (1gB m)
Diavf#r: ]8-6 ft (i2S"9S m)

Six ll4Oh.P. lliybac h

HSLu Iix-cyliodcr inline

UJtfoI INti: 7',6YJ lb (s2,SOC/ ka)
AfuiTirn".,.: 6t m.p.h.
( 'OS km,lhr)
O;.rIll~otili1ll: 17,700ft
(5,400 m)
Owisill( rll1lfl: 12,300 miles
(s.700 km)

4S zlP1*ll n LZIGe (LB) - the

N -ylhd 'Mricaa' alraIdp
In Aupst 19'7 the Zcwlin ainhip
COIDJ*ly brouc;hl OUI a new rnodd
which for Inort than a year wu 10
remain Lhe ltandarci type oC Ihe airlhip
teetion oflhe German N.vy. It wu
the JOs<:ailcd V.type, which _
comprUe tcrI ainbi~ ).'rom the rourth
oC thel:, L,58 (LZ I~) onward, they
bad mcioes innaUed of the new

i260 h.p. Maybach IU~ Iype.

IA lCloioc 'hac: 1,977,hoaa.ft (s6.aoo
aun) ainhiPl Cltab&hcd their hip
technical qualitio,oa.
AI the lame time the naval ltaff
d- ided 10 eome 10 the relief olCcnelal
VOII Lettow.vorbeci. and hit troop,
wbo for thtee yean had telilted Allied
fona in German East Africa. The
neatelt but of tbe Cc:ratral Po .. o.
&om which an ainhip could take off
lOr MabenI' in Tanpnyika _
Jamboli in BnJpria. From there the
diJtance 10 the German buc in Rut
Africa amotIDted 10 .omc S,600 mUcs
(50800 kill). and IhlI ainhip voyqe
would lui between four and five da)'l.
Whm the ainhip wu abo rcquiml 10
carry a I.IIdW load of k"1'" 16 tOm,
IhlI called lOr an airship of about
i2.sfi6,.oRo cu.ft (67,000 cu.m) caa-city,
and ~ _
then no suc.b ainhip
.vailable. The German fOHa in F.ut
Africa had alzcacty been advile::l by
t&d>o that the ainhip would arrive
here towaniI the end of October, 10
10 ave time il _ dccidexl 10 Icncthen
the ttiU-uDfinithcd L S7 (LZ I") by
the intatioa of two extn. PI mk, mch
of 49":2 ft ('5 III) length. L S7 wu of
the W ainhip type: and made ill II'lidm
V'O)..,e towanb the md of5eptunber,
but by misfortune wu badly dama(td
in .tonDy wealher on. 7 Oetobcr 1917.
It wu under the command oC Lt Cdt
Ludwit Rockholt, wbo _ partly 10
blame for the milbap, yet be _
plan...! in dIarre of the hUhic:dJyrebWIt rq>I.aocmcnt airlhip L 59 (LZ
104), Ance aoy I\utbet time delay would
have jcopatdiocd the pyc, ful vr"'n_
plishmcnt of thit importanl expedition.
On the morninc oC S November 191 7,
L 59 len the Zeppelin factory at
Staaken, near lkrtm, and bcadM ror
Jamholi. The ainhip cau icd in iu
bold an C\OnDOUI _ _ ''''''711 oC muni1M:Jnt u wdl u thirty m'chine I'\IIlI
with tpare partt., lixty-one Ip oC


medical atores, alatJe quarllily of mail

and variouI bopK:al outfill. Due 10 the
-ront kin aDd heal in Africa, L 59
wu without the _'.1 black pocc:ctive
_tine It had aIIO been taken into
aounl thai the ainhip would DOt
mum 10 Europe, 1!\11 thai the fabric
romin, of the rramc:w.,..k of the hull
could be lurned ID many
in F.ul


and .ldlar 00..:1 vationl. With

nishtfall lhe ainhip oookd down
and became heavy, and kcepinc it
trimmed .urned inlO a lleady W'Ug1e.
Shnrtly pul midniah t one oC N,uQl'.


reca1l IiJnah finally lOt

iu ton.a mum trip IOJambnli., when: i.
From Jambnli, Boc=khoh made t_ arrived on. i2S November after an un_
unto ... ' ... attcmpu 10, ch A1iica,
intenupted lltay in the air I,i....
wbue the Cc:rman iC"Olillial fooca
ninety-five Under exbemdy
nwhile wue in dapc:rate"";tt.
difficult and II)'iu( mnditiom the .i....
They could no 10...e _and lhcir .&b.!P had wvered a diJlance oC 40"40
ground .,IUut .he Britiab, wbo had
rnik:s (60500 kin), and all Iwenly.l_
nx:ei~ information oC Ihe impending
manbcn of the ae ..' wen: ulterly
arrival oC L 59. On 121 November the nb.UJled. Cran..ed that L 59 did not
ainhip made. thinlallempl .1 aeuina _ ~b what it lei OUI 10 'ccom.
throua;h 10 the African
at_ plitb, IhlI trip yet rem'i.. one oC the
arms, unaware of von Lenow., Vorbeck'J proudest Mes in the annals oC the peat
IurTmdc:r the day bd'ore. The po"oful ainhip acb;.c..mocnu, and it remaiN
rae;OO 1t'anJm.i1tc:r in N.IM:D, near
only 10 add thai upon the return of
Berlin, tried 10 rcal! L.59. but in
the ainhip 10 Jambol.i Ihae _
vain. The .inhip meanwhile Qi cd Il1fficien.I fuel Idt in the tann for
Turkey and. al 6 p.m. wu the another m.y.four boon' Bight.
eastern lip of Crete, where thunderThere now folkJweci an iIllC!Ve
IlonJ1 wu brewin( and ~ rae;OO
debate, in which even the German
u:ception impo-ible. Early nexl mot .. _pCiOi became inwolval, rqardinf
inc L S9 reached the WUI oC North how 10 IIIe L S9 to belt advantace
Africa ncar M_ M'lrub. The b.a "'" ..... I:nrth. The chief of the ainhip
.tJttCb of banen Libyan deltrt f.crd tcetioo of the German Navy, Captain
the .inhip; the bumina SUD 100II Peter Stra I I, wanted the .inhip
heated the PI cdb 10 that the valvet recaUcd lOr lecoMa' I nCI: me, but,
iD each Ihm aUlOmatkaUy relemd
by-paMin, hit rupc:rion, Rockholt ad,
hydroJen. The hull became u dry u
dr :d blmidf 10 the N.vy naff
a bone ....d ~heavy II lhe ainhip,
directly, ~ thai L.59 remain
roIlillJ and pitching in the beal waVEl,
.. , I.t Jarnboli 10 altack. from eben::
c:ontinucd JOUthwani. At S.'" p.m. .......l1Iy "'aeb in Italy and the Jr.tiddle
L59 peucd over the IIaUrianI palm.
F.ul. I n Jaouary '918, the Caman
tree ilOues of the o.kbjl,b "'iI, with empCiOi finally dujc'..d in Cavour of
everythina aboard ...iIl ainhip ,hpe.'. propuilion, aflO" the ainbip
An hour laler one of the five msines had been rebuilt lOr that pWJI''IC .t
broke down; il wu the OtIc: drivi .... the worb in Cc:rmany.
ae ....... lor ror the radio Innt.miuer and
L 59 wu back in Jamboli on
wuldnot berepaircd..Thitmeanlthai II February 1918, and on 10 M.rch
the rem.ining qines had 10 be .u.cPvd Naples from an .hilude of
Duncd in tum. AI 10 p.m. the ainhip
11,800 n (S,600 m). On Ihit '"TaPon
al pi the Nile al Wadi Halra, ~
atotalofI4,ooolb(6,S50ka) ofbomt.

brae"", ..

~ evidmcc of bow accurately

Rockholt navicaced by relyinc on hit


dropped on the naval base and

importan t industrial etl.ablilhmmll with good effect, acrording \0 Bod:holl,
An attack on Port Said on 20 Man:h
could not be carried through, .... the
ainhip crew W8..I lurpri5ed nt daybreak
to meet a llrong headwind. Thi, happened again on an attempt to bomb the
Britiah naval ba.$e in the Bay of Suda
on Crtte. On 7 April 1918, L Y.I
IlJOefIded from Jamboli for the last
time. This time the ainhip was headed
for Malta, and uo 7:d the Balkan
peninsula and the Strait of Otranto
behind the heel of Italy. Here the
Gennan lubmarine U'53, at 9.30 p.m.,
oblerved lOme glimpse!! of light fol.
lowed by. tea of ftamct thaI lit up the
whole horiwn. Simuhaneot.Wy, the
ceho of an explOilioo resounded th7'0U8h
the atr& L Y.I had finally oome 10 iu
end, with the roaming submarine at the
only eyewitnca of the diJasU:r. Some
oily patcho and a few pieeal of wreck.
age lublitantiated to the inVCItigating
U'~3 the lpot where the ainhip and ill
crew had found their watery graves.
Neither thc Italians nor any other
allied forca ever cl.a.imed to have
brought down L 59, 10 it can only be
SUnTIj,ed that the 8Q"ickntal calUC
occumed on board thc ainhip.

Sped6cadoo of LZ 104 (L 59)

VollUll6: lI,4'9,057 cu.ft
(68,500 cu.m)
LmtIA: 743" ft (226'5 m)
Dill1Ntn: 78.6 ft (23'95 m)
&,i1l#: Fivc '240 h.p. Maybach
Mb IVa lix-eylinder
UufullOlUl: 174,860 Ib (52,100 kg)
MIUi.murn spnd: 67 m.p.h.
( l08km/ hr)
OpmJiorwl ,riIiIJg: 1I6,goo ft
(8,200 m)
Cnrisin, flUlge: 4,970 mile.
(8,000 lun)

+t- Zepp _]I. LZ II<!: (L,.)

The final ~on of the 'Super-Zq,pelin' w&J an outstanding airship. I ts
ability to climb 10 high ahituda was
now the mOlt important performance
feature, in order to outclimb anaeking
aeroplana oycr the North Sea and
Great Britain. These Zcppelilll of the
X_type: now carried more than thirty
tons d fuel, enabling them 10 enler
the Atlantic by a cirt:uw roule,
rounding tbe nos-th of SeotIand and
then ltaying at lea for .cveral dara in
support of the Geml.3n submarina.
By now it WlU evident that the WIlt
WIll fast drawing to an end, but the
Zeppe:lin worb managed to finish two
of tlle planned total of four airahips of
th.U type. The third of them, L 72
(LZ 174) WIll completed after the
Annilstice and w&J delivaed 10 Fnlnce
under the name of ~ (.ee
No. ~::;). Th_ X-type Zeppelins were
only to have been a transition ,tage to
a aeria of ainhips with the dC!!ignation
L 700. They were 10 havc had fI gas
capacity of S,813,99O cu.ft (108,000
cu.rn), a !engdl of 780-8 ft (238 m)
and minimum uaefuJ load of
780,780 lb (82,000 kg).
L 70 wu the prototype of the Zeppelin X_type, and the only one of tbate
aiO$hips equipped with seven engine.;
L 71 (LZ lIS) and L 72 were fined
with lix enginC!!. L 70 made its maiden
air voyage from Friedricluhafcn on
July 7918 WIder the command of the
dashing, but It ill relatively ino:perienced, Lt Cdr Johann von lonnilur.
Thils trial Bight and the succeeding
0IlC!! confirmed that the airship would
be able 10 cany ill designed bomb load
of 8,000 Ib (5,630 kg) OIl raicb over
Grat Britain.
TIle fint wllr engagement of L 70
was on August 19t8 when, IIccom
panied by two other Gennan ainhips,
it WIU .enl in the early morning houn
OIl a routine reconnai"ance ulignmenl


over the Dogger Bank an:a. Simultantoualy, a British naval fora: a.mpr"ing light c:ruUcn and denroycn
Jeft Harwich. It was L ~ ( LZ lOS),
the ItIOIt westbound of the three
ainhips, which, through holo in the
preny solid banks of doucU:, detccud
and reported thc Brii.Uh fleet unita,
bUI olherwise kept ill distance. L 70
on Ihe other hand, imrn<:diatcly upon
picking up this ICpm I, hcadet.l for the
position and von LossnilUf" managul
to light the enemy. Daringly, and WI'
disturbed by thc heavy anti-airerafl
fin: from the wanhips, he ordered ten
700 kg bombs to be dropped, hut could
not oblerve the result. He ICnt a radio
report home about the engagement,
then oontinued his disrupted patrol
work. ThiI determined air altack had
taken the BritDh by surprise, and they
rcgletted bitterly that they had not
stOf"Cd a O)Uple of figbter ainnfi on
one of the cruisen before heading out
to lIta.
Although the Germam were then
alteady in light of lOlling Ihe war, their
naval ainhip lICction launched one
final air raid agaiNt the Brilish main_
land. It WIll carried out on lhe evening
of ::; AUgult by an ainbip lleet composed ofL 55 (LZ 100), L 56 (LZ lOS),
L 63 (LZ 110), L 65 (LZ" I) and
L 70 (LZ (12 ). Captain Peler Strasser,
the chief of the Gennan naval airship
divilion and ill driving force through_
out the war yean, was in penonal
charge and ltayed aboard the L 70,
his latat ainhip. Von IAlISnitur 11m
commanded L 70, which on this raid
lIored eight bombs of each of th~
siu;s: SO, 700 and soo kg.
This airahip force flew to the attaek
in V.fOnTIation and planned to CrolS
the Brilish COlISt al an altitude of
76,400 ft (~,ooo m), but w&J obterved
before it had grown completely dark,
IUId a number of British aeroplana
immediately look olf to engage the

ainhips. A de Havilland D.H.4 bi_

plane, piloted by Major Egbert
Cadbury and canying Captain Roberl
Leckie .... o~, dOllCd with L 70
at 9.4::; p.m. and attacked at once.
The explOlive Pomcroy Ihells fired by
the machine-gum of the British aeroplane Itt the airahip on fire in a short
while. III nOie lint pointed upwania,
then the airahip plunged thousandl of
feet inlO the IC8, engulfed in flames. At
had happened 80 often before, when the
fC!Jt of the altadting ainhip force JaW
thc lead Ihip afire they gave up their
intentions, lurned around, and dropped
their bombl ovcr open water. Thc air
ship attacks on Great Britain had
ended with the l~ of their organiser,

Peter SU"aIICZ".
This is a fitting place for a review of
their influence 00 the war of t914- t8.
The real damage caused by the bombl
dropped on British telTitory by the
German ainllips WI.7I not lublitantiat,
but British war production was a10wecl
up to IOmc extent by their actual or
repocted appearance in British .kia
and the airahips lied down anti-aircraft
Wlill and aeroplanes to fight them on
the home front that otherwise could
have been Itnt, along with the penon.
nel manning them, to the battle tine.
of the actual thcatr~ of war. 'The
Zeppelins' also made the British people
very 'air-COlUCious', .... they drove home
to the populalion that its Wand isola_
tion no longer afforded any effective
protection. Could the Loodonen and
othcn in the United Kingdom then
have gazed inlO the future, these few
aiO$hips would have been found 10 be
harbingers of intCfllive developments
on Ii. much largtT seale a quarter of
a cenlury [ater.
When World War I ended, a
total of one hundred and fIfteen
Zeppelin ainhips had been buill. A
oompilation of their fat~ reads at
follows ; 22 oblolcte and broken up


after extended, utefullCrvicej 9 handed

over to the Allies aner the Armilltice
(including L l' awarded to Greal
Britain) j 1 delilx:rately damaged by
their own ercwsj 17 destroyed in the
air by enemy aircraft or anti-aircraft
guN j '9 damaged in the air and then:after wrecked in landing; 1 landed in
enemy or neutraltemtory; 8 destroyed
in their sheds by enemy attackj and iJ6
lost as a result of pure accidents IUIlained either in the air or on the ground.
Exp" :d in human lives, about 40
per cent of the SO or 10 ainhip el'eWl
trained by the ainhip lCCtion of the
German Navy, more than three
bundred and eighty -aut. in all, were
killed on active 1CJ"Vic:c.
Sperl6catlon of LZ UII (L 70)
VolWIlt': iJ,IgG,573 cu.1l
W.llll.o 6g3gn (iJ lI 5m)
Diamdff.o 186 f"t (iJ3'95 m)
Engillls.o Seven 260 h.p. Maybach
Mb IVa lix-eylinder
URjuJ food: 95,goo Ib (43.500 kg)
MlUimum spud: 81 m.p.b.
Opnalimwl uililll.o iJiJ.970 ft
(1,000 m)
Cruisilll rrmp: 3,730 miles
(6,000 km)
45 Schiitte-bns 5L3 (C I )
Lufuchiffbau Schilttc-Lanz (The S-L
Ainhip Company) waI founded in
Mannheim-Rheinau in 1909, by ahi~
building Profeaor Johann Schiltte 01'
Danzig, with the financial IUpport 0(
a number of local indlUtrialillu, the
foremo&! being mc:mben 0( the LanzROehling family. An additional worb
was founded in Igl6 at Zeescn, near
the Berlin mburb of K/:iniglWUltCl"ha\UCll. 111;" conc;cm was to build a
rigid airship with a wooden framework.
ofplywood. whieh in Profeau SchOtte'.

view was both lightCiT and more

flexible than the aluminium and
duralumin used by Count Zeppelin.
The lint Schiille-Lanz ainhip, 51. 1
(A-type) had a gas ca.paeity of
688,631 eu.n (19,500 eu.m) ;md made
its maiden voyage on t1 Oetober 1911.
h was allotted to the Germ= Armr,
IU w.u SL iJ (B-type), eompleted in
February 19'4> which in<'ClqXlt3ted
many novel fcature! that were revolutionary for their time. Thu. the
buU waI carefully streamlined ;md the
stabilising 1ilU, rudder and elevator
alike wen: of a clean design. The en_
eloacd and we1I-equippcd control gondola was a ICpU1IlC unit, and the four
Maybach enginea drove the propcllen
directly. The triangular ked amtngcment waI placed iruide the bull.
TIle Schutte_Lanz company always
felt the keen competition of the
dominant airship coneern in Friedriehsharen and the tangible goodwill of
high esteem unfailingly extended to
Count Zeppelin and his activities by
the German nation. It was also a mis.
fortune for the Schutte-Lam: eoncern
when during the war ainhip operatiolU
became the exchJllive domain of the
German Navy, for it looked upon
wooden airships with much disfavour.
It had good cause for thi! attitude,
as the wooden framework of the
Schutte-Lanz naval ainhips absorbed
much moinure on their voyages over
the NorthSca and thus beome hcavier,
resulting in a poorer performance. It
must not be forgottCD, either, that the
glues employed at that time did not
have the wataproolqualities ofmodcm
glues. Thus, of the total of twenty-two
5chiitlc-Lanz airship' buill, the German Navy ordered and used only eight,
and Profeaor Schiitte with Teutooie
ItubbomncuItuek.10 hil wood principle
for too long. When he linalIy developed
a metal framework of his own, made
up of oomponenl5 of duralumin tubing,


it w:lI too laiC. Thil airship w~ not

completed bcfon: the war ended. The
other SchOlle-Lan~ ainhip' were employed by the German Army, and even
here thill airship-building conec:rn ran
inlo ill luck, for two new dCli"" were
destroyed in the OODltructioo stage when
tnc shed hOU3ing them caved ill. On
the other hand, as the Genoan Navy
gained practical cxperiCDu from the
airship! it operated, ilS mginccn
reported dcfccu and suggested improvemenu to the Zeppelin company
in J-' ricdrichshafcn, who alto adopted
many of the features and practices lint
introduced in the SchOtle-Lanz airmip'.
Returning 10 SL iJ of the German
Army airship division, early in the war
it made a ra;:onnaissance trip on the
eastern front for the AWltrian headquarten at p rzemYl1 in Poland. On
iJO March '915 SL iJ participated with
twO more anny airship', Z X (LZ iJ9)
and LZ 35, in a planned air attack on
Paris, SL iJ was damaged by Freneh
anti-aircrall flre,1O her captain elected
irutead to attack II. Frcneh Anny headquarten elOle by in Compi~e, when:
the ainbip dropped ',984lb (goo kg)
0( bombs.
SL 3, of the C-type. was ready for
lCrViee in February 1915. It was the
German Navy'l fint SchUue-Lanz
airship and the larJest ainhip then
built. The naval order oompri"d 5L 4
and 51. 6 as well.
SL 3 appcaKd for the lint time ovaBritish. territory on 'I- June 1915, together with 1. 10 (LZ 40). 51. 3 was
commanded by Lt,Cdr Fritt Bocmaek,
who had arden to attack Hull. Shortly
after midnight he dropped three bambi
on what he took to be a railway junction in the rcs:ion of bill target, but
they aetuaUy feU in open country,
causing no damllgc. On thill raid the
airship could not carry a bigger bomb
load bccaU3C it had become heavy

from absorbing moisture III ICa and

could only rise 10 an altitude 0(6,560 rt
(11,000 m).
In the evening of 3 July 1915, a
British naval force COIIWting of three
light eruiscrs, wtecn destroyen and
two seaplane tenders headed out to lea
from Harwich. Its datination waI the
German Bight, and ill aim 10 act as
decoy for enticing the German airship'
to a'""':l and reconnoitre the fonz,
whereupon it waI conceived that Boatplanes of the Sopwith Schneider type,
carried by the Britiah surfaoc~" -Is,
would attack the ainhip&. Otha- Britilh
seaplanes wouJd at the same time bomb
the German naval ports located alonr
the Bay of Heligoland. Six German
naval airships, SL 3 being ODe of them,
no.-aIlowed the bait. The SchOlle-Lanz
ainhlp spotted .nd reported one of the
eru;,cn and lwelve of the datroyc ....
The British. Ichemc failed completely,
however, because none of the lighten
was able to take offfrom the
and the bombers either had engine
failUfes or were rep"h'd by Gennan
aircraft. The German ainhip units fdt
good about the evtnUi of3- 4July, which
they considered to be "their ownlhow',
since none of the Gennan Navy'. surface falces had been involved in the
On 1 August, S L 3 was in the .ir
again, thill time acting as a lookout for
a German minelayer. Off BlaavandIhuk, on the west coast of Jutland, the
ainhip turned bomcwa.rd again and
became 10 heavy in the rainy weather
that it failed to . uptn.ld properly 10 the
OlIltrols and W'llS badly danuogc:d while
landing at the Nordhol:t base ncar
SL 3 made about 10 flights in aU u
a naval ainhip and IhanxI the fatc ol
most of the otha- air$hips. At a fairly early ftage of the war
it was stationed .t the Baltic base of
Scddin, ncar Stolp in Pomuania, which


a reatively rnnda.ry theatn: of

war. Hen: it met ill fate on I May 1916
when it plunged into the sea belweeu
the Swediah i3land of Godand and d Ie
town ol Ku.rland in R ussia. The c:n:w
w:a:!I rescued, but the airship ...... completely Wll:clr.ed.
The lut dC!lign widl a wooden hull
from the Sch u ttc--Lan~ ainhip worb
was SL ~2, with a gas content of
1,g88,:l14 w.n (56,300 cu. m). It
completed in June 191 8, but the Gaman Navy declined to accept it.
ainhip WIllI dismantled aner dIe
Annilltice and various parts wen:
dilttributed among the Al1iCl for
further examination.

7 '


Spcd6 ea tioD of SL3

VoJUIIII: 1,147,7:17cuJ\. (3:1 ,~cu.m
u..,fIt : 502 ft (153 m )
Di_I#: 148 ft (19'75 m)
&,inu: Four :110 h.p. Maybach
Usiful /txJd: so,865Ib (t4,OOO kg)
Maximum spud: 53 m.p.h.
(85 ir.m/ hr)
OJwrolimW ",iii",: 7,875 f'I (2,;fOO m)



The Claquot captive ball_

The French general slaff decided in
19 1:1 to diJcontinue altogether the U$C
of captive balloons for observation purp!*I. By the end of 1914 it became
evident that the Germaru wen: using
for artillery observation on the west_
ern rront. The French - and later
the Britilh - reacted quickly, but fill' a
while countered this threat with
!phericaJ balloons that were completely unruited for this purpose in
windy weather.
A French officer, Captain Albert
Caquot, came to the rescue of hi:.
genual .taft'. Basing his pl&I1ll upon
the German kite balloon .tyle. he

designed a new and beuC!'1haped type

equipped with three .tabililing firu
spa.....! 1:10 apart. Thil arrangement
rendered. th_ b&l.loons very Iteady in
the air even ifltrong winds were blowing. The fint two Caquot obicrvalion
balloon typel were designated 'L' and
'M' respectively. In their final form
they were built in four Itandard si~es:
~4J6 cu,ft (750cu.m) (P) ; :18,9511 cu.n
(&ocu.m) (P .2) ; 3:1,843 cu.n (930cu.m )
(M.:I) and S5.S'5 cu.ft ( 1,000 cu.m)
(R). The French Navy UItd the I'
and 1'.2 si~es en board smaller Vi e!.
as protection against German IUbmarine .tlacQ, while large Beet uniu
carried the R si~e 10 direct their gunfire. Balioonl of the P size could earry
two ol:Jletw;n 10 an altitude of I,/i.t.on
(:;00 m), while the R size c:ould carry
three oblerven to this altitude or two
obJerven to an .Ititude of 3,360 n
( 1,000 m). On I July 1917 the French
Navy p-u "ed a total of 10 Caquot
b.UoollJ. Twelve mondu later this
number had increiUed 10 200, and 24naval Velie!' had lpecial equipment fwthe handling of these halloofll.
The French Anny JikcwUc wed
Caquot balioonl extensively. CBdually
76 companies were formed 10 guard
the ....nous IeCton of the front by day
and night by means of these balloona.
This task could lClIn:ely been
performed aatisfactorily by means of
ordinary lleroplllnCl. Life in the open
basket wat far from being pleasant.
Not only were the ot.crven eq>oted
to the capricious weather, but ol\en
they also had to jump hurriedly by
parachute to save their lives, when
attacking enemy aircraft turned the
balloon envelope .bove their heads into
a sea of Hames. Certain fighter pilots
Oil both lidCl lpecialised ill attaCQ on
these captive balloons. For instance,
the Gennan 'ace', Captain Heinrich
Gontermann, lowan::Is the end olWOI'ld
War 1 bad 18 Caquot bal100w -


hesida 21 aeroplanes _ to hill eredit.

The:n:fore it WIUI ol the utmOIl im_
portance that an observation balloon
could be hauled down when
warned of an impending attack on il.
To thilend the Fn:nch in 1915 and 1916
used a mOlor winch of Ihe Saconney
type, driven fint by a 32 h.p. and hIler
by a 60 h.p. Delahaye engine. From
19'7 onwardlthe motor winch wu of
Caquot'. own make and driven by a
'JO h.p. de Oien-Bouton engine which
hauled the ot.ervation balloon down
at a .peed of about 20 rl (6 m ) per



ballooa. ill World


I n 1917 the Germans began atlacb

against Ensb.nd by day and night with
large ac:roplaDel after the ainhip had
proven W1Suited IU a weapon ofoffence.
The British counter-measures were
ICBrehlighta, anti-aircraft gu... and
fighter aireran, to which a quite new
form of passive defence WWI added in
the form of balloon barragel. They
were p le.....!ed by many experiments
befon: proving their value and in_
Huenc:ing the conduct of aerial warfare
to a certain extent.
There was a 51-mile-long (8:1 bn)
balloon barnge established around
London hy the middle of 1918. It was
of the to-called net Iype, where the
balloo... were arranged in groups or
three which were interwnnected by of a steel cahle from which a
number of light CIIbles of about 1,000 n
(300 m) length bung vertically. Thil
net banage, or 'apron' as it was abo
termed, WIU mounted 110 hiSh that
enemy aircraft arriving to attack would
have difficulties in lIying above it.
German pilou taken prisoner, on being
intellogated, apr ;;1 great fear of
th_ ban-aga, 110 evidently their
psyc:hological effect alone was important. Although the balloon barraga

generally were placed in denselypopulated areaa, they remained very

much a KClU weapon and. the general
public learned lillie about their true
Other nalio ... lOOn followed lUit.
I taly had already hung balloon barrages toan altitude of 9,840 n (3,000 m)
around Veniee from 1916 onwanb,
but there the baUOOnI were not inter_
connecled. France planned the fannalion of 150 barrage balloon detachmerIts witll to balloons each, but had
only tltablilhed a total ol7SO ballOOl1l
when the war ended. The Germa ...,
who never len anything untried in
the field of new w.)'1' of active and
passive warfare, adopted thil procod~
in J anuary 19 , 8, and lOOn had 10
bal100n detachments, numbering 50
balJO!'lffI each, primarily for guarding
indUitrial inltallatioos.
BallOO<! ban-aga were one oC the few
protective meuures that wen: reCltablillhed alrnotlt unchanged when
World War 2 broke out in September
1939. It WWI 500n found that these
barrages could be wed and compounded in many more ways than
during Work! War I (lee No. 74) .


The SS o r 'Sea Scout" e ....

ainhJps of the Royal Navy
On I January 1914, lCVen month.
before the outbreak of World War I ,
all govcrnment-owned British ainhips
were turned over to the Admiralty.
They included Willows IV, a Paneval
ainhip dclignated 'No.4' and the
three expairoental ainhips Dd14, El4
and. Gtm=tWl which had been built at
Famhomugh. The. Britilh Admiralty realised the value of airship!
for patrolling at Ea. The problem,
however, W1llI how to initiate a production of really luitable typa for thil
IJ)Ccial purpose. The non-rigWl. ainhip,
in which the lhape. of the balloon
eovclope WIllI maintained by 1'.... un:


aerted irWde the enveiopl':, W&I

Idccted .. !he mot/. eJ'prdient type.
The prototype of thcx Inlali and
limplctoo-build ainhir- ..... ~y Cor
ita fint teat ftight in March 19'~' It
a compoaite of !he envelope Crom
Wtlr-.IV (ICICNo. 34) and the ruselage
of a B.E.2e aeroplane lIun, \lIKlerneath, complete wilb ita cnainc and
propeller. Durina: the WaT tome ODe
hundred and fifty 01 thCIc: ainhi~
'IOae built in three diffCZ'U\t Corma, with
a nWDber of them pn, to Franec and
Italy. They 'IOue termed the SS cI'u,
the initiah ltaDdin, for 'Sea Seout' or
'Submarine Scout'. ColIoqu.ially they
alwaY' were rdb lcd to .. 'Btim~'.
Over the yCIn ..... ua1 apI-nations
have beat advaoad about the Ofigin
of thil word. The __t common one
ill that in the military vemaeu1ar the
Type B _
mU led to .. 'limp baa',
whlcb W&I limply abbreviated 10
'blimp', ArI alternati ... e cxplanatioo ill
that on ~ Dea:lllbcr 19 15 A. D.
Cunningham, R.N., who des~cd the
SSZ type, ftipped the envelope 01 a
non-rigid ainbip with hil finacn during
an iNpcctioo, wbich produad alOUl1d
that he pronounced .. 'blimp'; and that
the word then caugbt on .. the nick
name Cor a11 anaIl non.rigid ainbip!.
The fint a;,.,hip! of the SS claII had
a PI content of only ~ w.n
(.s8o'~ w_m); in later typcl thill W&I
irn;zaKd to 60,000 and 70,000
(1,6gg and 1,g82cu.m). In 1917 tbe
original type W&I ruccccded by the SSP
(P .tandi ... , C(W plllbcr propulsion),
with a I(IrneWbat improved peri'onn
ance. A variation of tbQ _
the SST
(T Cor Twin, with two entintl.) Neitha
the SSP DOl' SST ainhi~ wac ~i
wlarly ....Ct- rul, to only aix and IWO
respectively ,",ae buill. Shortly aftu
the SSP type the SSZ (Z for Zero) W&I
produoed. A total 01 ninety-Ihree of
them _
ordered, but only aixty-m
WCie dcli~e,cd 10 Ihe Royal Navy. or

the .i" ' Blim pa' transferred 10 the U.S.

Navy in 1918, tWO "'~ ol the SSZ
type, numbu'cd SSZ 23 and 2+ Only
the laller ainhip reachcd America,
it bon: the d"ign.tion A~72.
1 and 22 went to France.
The SSZ ainbipa rendered 1000
8U"Iicc in 1917 .nd 1918. Their en
vdopc wu made of Iaycn 01 r.bric:
reinforced with rubber. The inside
prmrurc wall maintained by meaN of
two air-fuled balloneu. the PfCllUrc
ol wl,iell was rcgulated with intake
nor!l" mounted in the di~trt1Ill 01
the propeller. Vkwa:I from the bow,
the (OOdola, wongly buill and lhaprd
like. boat, ltated -from front to l'C&l"the wirelca opeI.tor, the pilot, and
methanic. The rudder WlII operated
with foot pcda1I and the devator wu
manipul.ted by mcaru of a wheel
mounted on the port side ol the
cockpit. The ..-mamcnt WlII Lewis
macbinc-gun. The bomb 10ad could
vary, but normally compiKd tbK-c
100 lb bombt. The ainhip was even
provided with. listening device which,
Cutened to line, dr.ggcd in the water
(the forerunner of the tonobuoy).
The ainbi~ of the SSZ type wen:
built .1 the R.N.A.S. Capela;,- station
near Folkatonc. The lint rpccimcn
was, .. an aperimcrll, tow! by one
of the una1lcr n.val
dl to
the vicinity of the Bclaian coast, from
where the ainhip continued under ita
own power. Non-rigid ainhi~ ",ae.t
fint DOt lOG weil adapted to thill proadun:, but with improved tccluUque
,ood I"C$UI~ were later achieved by
th .... incrcasin, the ftngc of the air-

tcldom prevroted these small craft from peri'onnina: their

worI<. I n the period rrom 1 J.nuary
1918 \lIltil the Anniltice, thac were
only ninc daY' on which the .inhipn
,.ele unabk to undertake their tllk'
In these ten and haIC monthi they
were in the air ror a lotal 01 ~S.S~
hoo.Ln. Tbc I'CClOtI:b in the .rehiven of
the Admiralty reveal that in the o::owtC
of the wbole wu period the va.riou.
typa of 'Blimp' ipOlled a IOUI of
forty. nine enemy .... bmarinc., and it
has been "tablishcd that they "'Cie
responsible for twentyvCil
being .ttacked and. goodly number of
thac sunk.. A type like the SSZ airship
could indeed .tay in the air for a 10llf
lime. Se ... en houn W&I ita norma.!
Hying duntion, but ftigh~ luting
lwelve or even twenty-four houn wttC
DOt W'iCIOCllJ!"IOn oecum:nccs. The remnl.
was hek! by SSZ 39 which, in the
summer of '918, Hew with rull w.r
equipment u.nintcrrupted fot fifty




Sp ~ d 6 _ doe of the
Vote.-: 7O,OOOW.n (l,gB2 CIl.m)
LmtIA: 143 n (43-6 m)
~: S2 n (9'75 m)
EtvW: One 75 h.p. Rolls-Royce

wnac::c \'

The ICOUUn, British .inbipa joined
in battling the submarina in
the "'.nMI and in the Bay of Bilcay.
They alJo ICfVCd at convoy CiCOi ta and
th .... rck. ' d a IarJc number of lighl
cruiscn .nd dcltroycn. that could be
ill spam:!. for such duty. Bad weather



'-I: 7,2751b (3,300 kt)

Mtui_ spnd: 48'4 m,p.h.
(77.8 km/hr)
Ovisu., sJtmi: :WS m.p.b.
(55-6 km/ btl
NOJJfIDJ nuIur_: .pprm.:. 7 hours

The 'NS' or 'NOI1hS ra'clu.

airlhipt of the R oyal Navy
The wt and moH advanced type of
RIIall non-rigid ainhip IIICd by Great
Britain WlII the 'N'S' e o (the initials
ltanding for NW'lh Sea), developed
both. for ro-opcration with naval
wU~ and for convoy duty. I I had a



minimWD endurance ol twenty-four

boun. The envelope wall compo- Ii III
2.3000 patcbel 00IItc:d wilh si lver
(a1wniniWD pifIDCilt) cokNr, after Ihe
lutra-Toul:n fuhion, mulling in
trefoil W.II lection. The prcviotu typcl
had beat improved. upon by the pro... ision of ItpIlRtC control .nd en,ine
aondoIu- The control pdola WlII .nd houJcd the crew oltal
men who worked in tWO Ihin.. Thil
division of fOndolu .nd equipment
.lto meant. bella distribution oltbe
weight ova- ,reater area ol the
en~"CIopc. The fOOdolu hun&' .......
pcnded by linn .ttached to the en
.....:Iopc by a nllDlber oIpatchcs.
TbiI airship type fint entered na....1
IU'Vicc in February 19 17. By June or
the I&mC year NS I left the PuIham
buc in Norfolk and completed an
endurance trip of Corty_nine and ..
houn' d\U'&tion. On thill ocuuion the
twelve ruel tanb wuc inltallcd inside
the envelope, and each time the Cud
IUpply was required to be twitched
to anotbcr tank, mechanic had to
climb on top 01 the envelope 10 peri'onn
the cbangc. On later ainhipa ol the
claII the Cuel .... pply change could be
made &om the control soMol&.
Due to certain engine IrOtIbl"
originally apcrienccd., only twd\"C
01 thc:Ic ainbipa were built initially.
and &om July 1917 onwards all "'Cie
stationed .t the East bue in
the Firth. of Forth. However, aftu
the end of World War 1 a total of.bout
IWO hundred of thClC ainhi~ had been
built, including NS I", complelCd. in
November 19'4, which was handed
ovu-to the U.S. Navy and rcnumbelcd

One hundred .nd three of thac
'Blimpa' IoaW service during the war.
They puformed their lut !Uk on ~ I
November 1916, On thisdatc lhe Britilh
tile Firth. of Forth Cor a rmdczO\UI with the Gcnn.n n.vaI Coree. thM


were to IUl'Rnder to the Allies in ac:conianee with the terms of the Arminice. The cruiKr Cmdilf, with RearAdmirnl SincIait on board, _ the flagwip of the aixth light cruiser squadron
whi ch htld the tuk of atablilhing the
lint contact with the German naval
forca, comp..wng sixty-nille large and
lIllall VI ell. Overhead wuCtmlijf',own
captive balloon, with NS 7 on guard
to starboard. In addition, NS 8 Wa:5
po.itioned above the centre of the
British main force, and this dramatic
eru:ounter pa":d without any untoward incidents.
It may finally be recorded that airlhips of the 'NS' clll$ll on teveral occasiOlll made particularly long-lasting
individual flights. NS II at the beginning of 1919 set an endurance
..::cord of one hundred and one boun
SO minutcl, covering a distanec of more
than S,ooo miles (4,828 km). I n July
of the .ame year this ainhip WIll lost
and its crew perished when it was hit
by lightning and plunged into the lea
off SalthoUJe, on the eatt CO&lIt, while
out looking for mines.
Sptdfic:a.tJOD gf tloe 'NS' du.
VQZuw: 360,000 w.ft ( to, 194 cu.m)
ullllh: ~62 fl (79'9 m)
Width: 56 ft 9 in ( 17'!! m)
Enginu: T wo We h.p. Fiat A. 12
Ustfullood: 8,400 Ib <3,BIO kg)
Maxi_ ~pnd: 57-6 m.p.h.
(g2'7 km/hr)
(hi.tilll spud: <j.!l6 m.p.h.
(68'6 km,thr)
50 ~3 aDd 23X cia.. rlsid a1rt:bJpe:
of the Royal Navy
Even though the British non.rigid air_
ships were w......mul in World Wat I,
and in spite of the failure with the naval
No. I MlflfiJ, the idea of building rigid
airships had DOt bo:en abandoned in

England. I n 1914 the BrilUh government ordered !he rigid liMA (H it

Majesty', Ainhip) No.9 from Vickers,
bUI u a rault of rubsequent cancellation and re-ordering this ainhip wu
already virtually obsolete by the lime
that it eventually made i,. mllidcn
voyage on 16 November 1916. It was
broken up in June 1918 after having
flown for only 19B houn and 16
After many protracted political discw:siom the Admiralty lucacded in
having the building of four ainhips of
the III>C&lled~!! clus, a modified venion
of the NO.9 design, approved. Vicken
wlU to build No. 2S, Beardmore No. 24,
Armstrong W hitworth No. 25 and
Vicken apin 10 build R 26, the fint
rigid ainhip to be designated with the
letter 'R' denoting 'Rigid'. This 1Crie!
WIll originally to have towled ten airships, but only I;"; of !hem were built.
The IlIIt two, Beardmore's R 117 and
Armstrong Whitworth's R \19, were of
a JOmewhnt changed and improval
daign, known ILl the 2!!X clau. The
vwble difference between the two
cl~ees wu mainly that the 23X airships lacked the distinctive c:xJaior keel
arrangement which on the 2s-dan
airships mainly served the purpoK of
dilltributing Ihe weigh t. In the 2SX
design thu W:l! achieved by mam of
interior, circubr cl'OSJ-frame!.
The 23 cllWl can best be dtlCribed M
a 'fattened' edition of the NO.9 ainhip
and really wu not a bad design at aU,
but unfortunately it was well behind
the timel. Plain evidence of this was
provided when, two monthl before the
fint airship of the 2!! clan made its
maiden voyage, the German 'Zeppelin
ainhip L 4fI (LZ 95) WM shot down on
English territory and turned out to
rtprClCl1t a class of veeel capable ol
carrying a UlCfulload nine time! larger
than that mGreat Britain's nCWCIt rigid
ainhip. Thu surprising reality wu a


contributing factor in 0lICC ~ almott

shauering a Briti&b ainhip building
The daign work on NO.2!! ltarted
in June 1916 and the maiden voyage
was planned for the autumn of that
year, but the .elected engine! lOOn
turned out to be 4.400 Ib (~,OOO~)
100 heavy and varioWl altuat iOlll to the
airship had added another !!,!!oo Ib
(1,500 kg) of ClICC:1S weight. The ainhip
was nOI ready until August 1917 and
it WlII atablished during the fust trial
trip 011 19 September thaI, with the
four Rolla-Royce engines ;,ulalled,
there Will a lifting capacity of only a
little more than 11,000 Ib (5.000 kg)
left, which called for Dew and dtutie
No. ~!! c:..-ricd out a number of
patro1a over the North Sea, participated in lOme victory parada in
November 1918, and later that month
acted .. flagship when the Gennan
lubmarine! arrived off Harwich to
surrender. MOlt of the time No. !IS
served as a training ainbip. For a time
towards: the end of the war the Admiralty feared that the British ainhipi
might be attacked by the German
Zeppelil1ll and were insufficiently pro\eC:ted with the guns mounted on the
plationn on top of the forward hull,
10 in the lummer of 1918 a number of
experiments were made in turning No.
23 in to an Ilircraft carrier in a limited
way by luspending two Sopwith Camel
fighttrl from the ked below the airship.
They wue to defend it after being
rekaoed, but could not return to the
ainhip. However, it WIll realised that
the superior German ainhips would
probably adopt the same practice, and
then nQthing would have been gained.
In the spring of 1919 the bow of No. 2!!
WIU reinforced prior to conducting
JOllIe te!1I with a mooring mlllt, and in
September of that year the :rJnhjp
was finally broken up.

Landing te!1I of atladullent to, and

rei ... ", from, a mooriol" ffialt were a1Io
made with No. 24, which aIJo wound up
as a training '" tl fo~ new ainbip
crewa. The Il\OIIt noteworthy air voya~
of No. !l6 wu an c:xtended flight of
over forty houn' duration on 4-sJune
19 19.
Sp ~ -Ifie-dOD of doe It:3 claa.
Vollt!M: 942,000 cu.ft (26,675 cu.m)
LmttJt: 525 ft (11ls'1 m)
Dwndn: 53 ft (16.15 m)
EngiMJ: Four ~50 h.p. Rolls-Royce
Eagle twelve-cylinder
Uufollood: IS,~28 lb (6,000 kg)
Maximum spud: 52 m.p.h.
(B4 krn,thr)
CrttUiIll ,jIffli: 40 m.p.h.
(6..j. km/br)
Opmdi(INI/ crili",: 3,000 n (914 m)
&,..b Iotut: Four 100 Ib bombs
CrtuJ: 17 men

SpedRcatJoQ of the a3X claa.

VQlume: 990,600 cu.ft
(28,050 cu.m)
Ltttglh: 539 ft ( 16<j.!! m)
Dianul#1: 5Sft (16' 15m)
&tit<u: Fou~ ~50 h.p. Rolb-Royce
Eagle I II twel\'e-cylinder
Uuful. W: '9,000 Ib (8,6IB kg)
M<lrilllllm ,pud: 55'3 m.p.h.
(Bg kIn/ ht)
Cnrising spud: 4\16 m.p.h.
OpualioMJ iii",: 6,gooft
(2,100 m)
&1mb loo4: Four 220 Ib bombs
CUrD: I 7 mal
R 27 was built a t the worlu of
Beardmore in Scotland and was completed by early lummer 1918. After
having been in tbt air for a toW Hying
time ofSg bours and 40 minutCS, it wu
dmn:ryed in ill abed. a t the Howden


bale in YorDhin: on 16 August Ig18.
Thill aocidcnt was caused by a anall
non-rigid ainhip. SSZ 23, which was
being packed in !he &ame shed for &hipment to the United States (Ie(. No. 48)
Its American crew was cleaning the

ainhip gondola with petrol. when the

wireless openllor began al the lame
time 10 lest hill equipment, which
evidently created lOme sparb that
ignited the petrol fumes. Instantly the
,hed was an inferno, but all exeept one
man managed 10 escape.
R 2g waa built at the WOl"D of
Armstrong Whitworth at Selby in
Yorbbire. It was the only complelely
IUC(f ,fuJ ainhip of the whole teries,
III ill ex ..... lifting capacity amounted
10 18,000 lb (8,16~ kg). It abo became
the IOIe Britilh rigid ainhip to engage
German JUbmarine. in battlc, and this
on DO fewer than thN:e l)(:C8uons. The
fint JUbmarine escaped, the second hit
a mine and lank. The third encounter
between R 29 and a German submarine, t11is time the U-IIS, lOOk p!.&.ce
on 1.19 September 1918. One of the
emoke bomb. from the ainhip marked
the .pot where the IUbmarine dived,
and it was then IUnk by British naval
surface vcacll. R 29 was broken up in
October 1919.
SI The R S4 .r.-.hJp of the Royal
In 1919 two rigid ainhipt otdered by
the Admiralty were completed. They
were R 33 and R 34- built by Amutrong
Whitworth and Beardmore rapa:lively.
clas!t of airship was ba$ed upon
the German Zeppelin L 33 (LZ 76),
hot down at Little Wigborough in
E"C'X on 1.14- September Ig16, and in
corporated other improwmenll as well,
which had been found in the L 4-9
(LZ gG) ainhip which made a fozcu:l
landing in Ftance in 1917 and was
captured almost int.act. Except for the
gondola arrangement these two British


ai&ipl followed !he Cerman plIuern

e ..... ly. but it waa a mere coineidence
tN.t the Gcnn&n '33' Iig1.U'C was
n:peated in !he Royal Navy rigid
airship lCqu...,ce
The: hull or the: R 33 clas!t ainhipl
can be de.cribed .. ."ru-strcamlincd
inumuch as OIlly a minority of the
croa-framo were of the I3.IlIC aize.
T'hen: wu a slight 'plIce between Ihe
control gondola and the forward engine
gondola, but viewed from a distance
they appeared 10 be a single unit.
About 'midship!! tWO $lngle ...,gine
gondollil wen: mounted ,ide by ude.
Hen: the ptOpClJen were rcvcnible and
their braking effect would thua slow
up !be airship when landinjj;. In !he rear
goodola three engines were inltalled
originally, but one W1I.I later rcmo-."Cd.
Tbetc enginell drove single twoN'de wooden propeller.
and R 34 were planned priR
marily for reconnaiJsam:e at sea, but
undoubtedly their ultimate commercial
UIC had aha been considered. R 33,
alleMl, wu at one time fitted with two
gun platforms, on top of the forward
hull and in the tail CODe.
R!l3 was in .ervice for a long lime
and conductcd many inl.Cl't$ting experiments. When dimm1l1ed in 1928
it had aCCUtnulated 800 houn of flying
R 34- gained !he world', renown for
ill double clc:aing of the Atlantie, but
came clc.e to being wreck.ed on ita
maiden !light when the elevaton
became.tuck in the downward position.
At the end of 1918 the Admiralty
came forward with the proposition tN.t
the Air Ministry could take over its
airship!! and !heir ground facilities on
a loan basis. The pw-poac wu that the
airships be alTotded an opportunity to
prove their suitability III pa-cnger
eauia. by malting a number of long
air ~. A "!""Cial invit.ation WIll
nx:eived from the United States. 10 it



WIIS decided that It 3~ would pay a visit

then: during the Slimmer of 1919. In
the .pring of that year this airship
made a oumber of lr;t.ining Ilighta
especially to tesl ita navigational equipment. One ofthcse voyages W1U a cruise
to the Baltic via Copenhagen.
The ainhip departed for New York
from the East Fortune base on the
Firth of Forth at 1.4-2 p.m. on 1.1 July
Iglg. Major G. H. Scott, It.A.F., wu
in command of the ainhip and its erew
of thirty mcn. The acvcnly fuel lanD
held a total of 4,900 gallons (22,27S
litra) of petrol hesida 2.300 gallolll
(I0.4-SS l.itrel) or.6;J and 3 toni of water
ballast and other req~ equipment.
Thus !he useful load of the ainhip
amounted 10 almost34-'S toni- To ~tain
the maximum amount of bydtOgen in
the eighteen gas celh of !be R !l4-, Scott
had right from the ltart 10 fly .. c10se
10 the ground !15 posaiblc, 10 molt of the
time the ainhip .tayed in the cloud!
or in fog. All live engine. of R!l4- were
operated for more than thirty hours,
then the fifth W!15 stopped 10 fud.
Juat about that time a .Iowaway reported at the bridge to give himself up.
It was a former crew member, Private
W. Ballantyne, wbo had been ICntched
from the list to save about ~ lb
(g l kg) of weight and instead carry
tN.t additional amount of precioua
fuel. Events wae later to prove how
foolishly this man had bebaw:d; for,
u a matter of fact, he came clo.e to
having this east-IO-wcst air ol
the Atlantic end in failure. One mon:
unaccounted-for passenger was 10 turn
up, but causccl less concern as it was
only a small cat. There were two mon:
animals on board, in the form of
carrier pigeons, but they were true
'members of the aew'.
Up until that time everything was 10
schedule, except for lOme bad weather
encountered about 300 mila (4& kIn)
east ofNcwfoundland which fDiced the


10 (limb higher. Then: also

{)()(:l1rm(\ the incident when

the IOtai supply ol chcwinJ gum on

board the airship WIll consumed in
plugging a leaking cooling conneetion
on one of the engines. In the evening
the aituation grew 10 critical that Scott
pondered the altematiVCI of having an
American dotroyer take the airship in
tow or of malting an inlennediale
landing in Montreal 10 refud. H owever, on Ihe morning of 6 July he
decided 10 go for the: Montauk naval
base on Long Illand, and .. the headwind had also diminilhed he finally
gambled on reaching New York illClf.
Then !he R 34- at 1.20 p.m_ hovered
above Hudhunt and prepared to land
at the R.o<-Nclt flying IicId in Mineola.
One I.ut. ICfiout problem remained to
be IDlvcd. Earlier, when R 34- bad
radioed that it ....-aII in trouble and
would probably head for Bolton, the
awaiting l.a.ndinjj; party wu hurriedly
dapatehed to that city. ThIU t11ere Will
only a lmall and anxiow, but unlr;t.ined
.talT left at ROOiICVeit Field. The diffi
culty WIll IOlved by an ollker on board
R 34. Fit Lt J. B. M. Pritehard, who
jumped by parachute from the ainhip
and took charge on !he ground. Half
an hour later R 34- WIll ..rely anchored,
having taken 108 hOUR and 12 minutes
to complete the fint eutto-west air
ao-ing ol the Atlantic. The ainhip
then had barely enough fuel left in ita
tanks for another two houn' flying.
Had the .towaway not been on board
there would not have been any doubt
about the ability of the ainhip to reach
New York, whieh was a pre!ltige
question of no little imporlanee.
The R 34- and its crew were duly
applauded by New York, and then
on 10 July the ainh.ip began ill p'age
home to Great Brit.ain. The forward
engine of !he two in the rear gondola
broke down completely on II July, but
otherwite nothing untoward happened


en route and al 8 a.m. an 13 July the

ainhip landed at the Pulhllm I;ta,e in
Norfolk 75 houn after leaving New
York. The relum to Pulham, illItead
ol East Fortune, was at Ihe rcqUClt of
the Air Ministry. The R 34 had become
the linl ainhip - indeed, the lint
aircraft of any kind - to u . . the
Atlantic in both directiont.
The career of R 34 came to an end
eight~n months later, reran 28January
1921 it maintained too low an altitude
and wu badly damaged when it hit a
range: of hilb in Yorkshire. The crew
managed \0 retum the ainhip to the
nearby Howden base, where it was
damaged 1Ii11 more, fortWlateJy without the 10. of any lives.
The achievement of the R S4 had
no lasting effoct on In.l\SoAtlantie air
lr:avei, as it was evidall that neither
from the economical 1101' the safety
angle could ainhips of the R 3S cla.a
cope with wch a long route; it would at necea.itate several intermediate
landings, for instance in I celand,
Newfoundland or the Azorcll. In 1919
Ihe equipment simply wal too cottly
and too unreliable to be used on
regular air ..:hcdules.
SF I d6cadoa of the R S3 d . .a
yohtnu: 1,950,000 cu.ft
(55,218 cu.m)
unglA: 6,13 fI. ( lgG m)
Di6mdn': 78'75 ft (24 m)
&,inu: Five 250 h.p. Sunbeam
Maori twdve-eylinder
UJ(/vJ /oIu/: .)8.430 Ib (1I6,SOO kg)
Mui_ spmI: GIl m.p.h.
( 100 km/hr)
Crt/isi,., sIM.J: 45 m.p.h. (72 km/hr)
CTlW: 22 men
52 R s6 - Grn.t BrltaJn'a tint
puHDJer alnbip
The R 35, R s6 and R 37 woe the lUI
rield ainhips otdered by the Admiralty

during World War I, but R 36 was the

ooly oae of theIe MH:IlUed R 35-claa
ainhi~ to be completed and to By.
This design _ originally bad upon
the German Zeppclin L 48 (LZ 95),
but at a fairly early ltage it wu
decided 10 lengthen R 36 and R 37
to achieve a gteater lifting capacity and
a higher ceiling. When the war ended
other IIMS had to be foWKI for the air&hip! already built or then being built.
The only telUibie IOlution seemed to
be to have them carry p,nengen as
well as cargo. A route between London
and Cairo was being eonsldered, but
.lighueeing trips to the battlefield. wen:
aiJo prop<llCd, u well as tourut ex_
cur.lion flighll to the Riviera, Denmark
and Sweden. The Britilh government
felt unequal to this talk financially, and
hence offerm all ill available large
ainhipa, and the ground facilities for
them, for Ale. No buyers immediately
came fol'WllJ"d, however.
In these circumstances, and in Ipite
olthe anything but promising PfOIpe<;1l
for ainhip' in tbe future, the decision
was made to adapt R 36 to carry
pmmgen.. The civil air authorities
estimated that R 36. 01' G-FAAF to
give it ill civil regislr:atioo, abould be
able to carry thlrly p3!R1CTlga'l and one
ton of cargo (rom England to EsYpt in
72 hOUl", Al it turned OUt, these
ope<;tationl were far too optimistic.
R 36 was buill at the Inchinnan
works ol Beardmore in Scotland. Work
on this airship commenced in 1918,
but ill maiden ~ did not take
place unlil April 1921. Much wu
c:xpa;tcd ol this m.1 paS!: nger ainbip
in Great Britain, even though it WD.I
not a completely new design. A total
of fifty passengers could be carried
in the ISO ft (39'6 m) long centre>leCo
lion right below lhe huD, an of the
control gondola. The passenger Aloon
was fumUhcd with wicker chain and
tables; there 'W ae cabinl with bertha,


loile" and a g;illcy. The crew comprded four offieen and thirty1Our
other ranb. Their quartU'S were inside
the bull. jusl aheM: the gondola. The
crew of the R 36 worked in watcha, as
on large paacngcr &hips.
On 5 April 1921, R36 wu almOit
involved in dUailer. The ainhip waa
on a cout-to-coa:st trip and, when off
Bristol, the top ltabilising surface and
the ltarboard ICCtion of the tail surface
suddenly fokicd up. Contrary to the
practice on the R 33 ehn, for illitance,
thes: componenll were not IUpported
by ltay wira. The ainhip divu:l
from an altilude of6,SOOft (I,980m)
to 3,000 (t (9 14 m). The wellknown
Major Scott was in command of the
ainbip on thil OCCP'ion, as he had been
on the two lr:aDl-Atiantie trips with the
R 34. He had all engina stopped at
ooce and onIcrcd the whole crew an,
which rcIItoccd the equilibrium. Then
the R 36 managed to return slowly to
ill ba$e with the engine! operating at
low r.p.m. This mishap made a Itrong
imprellion on vanOUl naif memherl of
the Air Miniltry, who participated in
this f1igbt and \hUllcamed at m.1 hand
we risks run with airships. The R g6
was not really used 10 any great dcglt:t:,
and the uncenainty prevailing about
how to UIC IUch a large ainhip 10 good
advantage is perhaps iIlwlr:ated bett
by melltioning tllat, on 14 June 192 I,
it W&l filled with newspaper rcportcn
and then SOlt IIloft to help the police
d~t lraffie to and (rom the Ascot
racet. The newsmen were pcrhar- unimp" -n, but eommUltcd favourably
on the "eady and quiet ride 01 the
a.inhip. They all however had one
complaint in common: the lack
lift in the 120 (I (36'6 m) tall mOOTing
mast, by which means all pa!ICngen
boarded the lIinhip.
This very mooring mast caused much
damage to R 36 on 17 June. During a
landing manoeuvre the mooring cable

from the ainhip became jammed in

the winch at the hue of \he mooring
mast, which then overturned U a rault,
and pulled the ainhip fonvanl. and
downward apinJt \he mast, thereby
bending itl bow badly. A Iterm W81
brewing, 10 it WIll imperative that the
airship be got under cover.
However, the only mitable abed avail_
able already boo'! -;I the German
Zeppelin L 6+ (LZ log), which had
been commandeoed u Wilr booty.
The unolfending Gcnnan ainhip be
came an unfortunate victim of cin:um
IIances, for although it mUit be acknowledged to have been a superior
vessel to R 36, no time was lost in

SF ~d6cadoD of R :J6
Yohmu: 2,100,000 cu.fI.
(59.465 cu.m)
ImgtA: 663ft (202 t m)
Diamdu: 80 fI. (114'4 m)
Enginu: Two 260 h.p. Maybaeh
Mb IVa- lix-eylindcr in Ihe
forward gondola, and three
350 h.p. Sunbc:am twelvecylinder in the rear gondola
Uuftd liNuJ: 36.3& Ib (16,500 kg)
Mazinumt lpud; 65 m.p.b.
(t05 km/hr)
Cn.wng spud: 51 m.p.h.
(8~ km/hr)
n .......,io.. _r~ from L l' {LZ ",)
which w .. ac:qI.Lircd .. war buo'y.

pulling it out ol the shod and attaclcing

it with axa aDd other weapons of
destruction, in order to effect a positive
grounding. To perfoet the madhouse,
the grolUlCl crew managed to rurther
damage: the R 36 while it Wlll being
pulled inJide the shed, U it WillI knocked
againJt the abutmcnll of the entrance




The repair work on R 36 was not

ltarted until Augult 1925 bccaUIC the
whole British ainhip situation WaJ

t 77

gun and (or two Lewis machinc-guaa.
Two more Lewia machinc-gww were
mouDted in the Item tip and ...
additional number of rnachinc-gunl
in the varioUI gondo.... Provl.ion was
made 10 carry eight ~:JO Ih bonti:. in

bcing ddibeTated anew. Meanwhile

lhc R
had cnshcd, which was to
have been .uppltcd 10 the U.S. Navy
u the ZR~. nus had happcnc:d on
24 August t~ I. when on a lest Bisht it
broke in two ewer the Humber enuary
aad forty1Our ae ... members, including aixtoe:n from the U.S. Navy, IoIt
their lives. Only five of IhC': 011 board
rurvived the dipner. The R s6 was
finaUy ratoRd, but did Dot Oy again
and _
hroIIcn up at the end ol the
twenties. There was now only one giant



airship Iel\, the R 80 (_ No. "). ol

the various dalgns planned during
World War I.
Rio of tlle Royal AU Foree
The R 80 wu tbc: lut British rigM!.
airship to be planned. hd'ore World
War I ended, and was in llWly
respects ... interettina: ~d advanced
design. R 80 wu built by Vicker. and
_ daigned by B. N. (now Sir Barnes)
Wallit, the c:ngineeo ....d tcientisl ol
later World War ~ renown. It is n0teworthy how well .tream.lincd both the
hull ~d the gondolu of R 80 were,
compared. with earlier desigN: for
i1uIanCe, the '-d raistanee was only
one-fifth olthat at the ~3 d.. R 80
was indeed the lint uuly .tream.lined
a.inhip; the hull was dLaped like a
10rpedO, without ~y paralld or
.traight ICCUoIli to awe VWlex
(ormatiON. The combined control and
forward engine gondola was plaoed
well forward and was, li.kc the two
rear engine gondoW, built of alumin
ium with an ubcsto. bouom covering.
Afcty , , - Of edluloid. TIle fuel tanb
wcae installed in the hull below the
fifteen gu cells, and a paaageway in
Ihe kcel extended throughout the (ull
length ol the ainhip.
On top ol the forward hull, a piat
fonn wu planned on R 80 (or the
mounting ol a rapid.1in: two-pounder


Cooditiona prevailill( at the time

the Armistice ddayed the completion
of the R 80 10 that it _ finally towa:l
out (rom ill died on 20 June 1920.
The maiden air voyase Iwtcd out
dangerOUliy, u Ihc airship rotC very
rapidly bccau.c it had stood Ctpwcd
10 the broi1ing IUD for a 100, timc,
which created toO hich a prcaure in
the gu celli Scvca-al tat lIighti wcae
made in J .... uary I~ I bcCorc it was
handed 0'ICi" to the Royal Air Force.
In tcm'\I of.uc the R 80 wu not a his
Spedfi_ doa of R 10
Vot-: l,lt50,ooocuJ't
(3,.,g6 cu.m)
u..,1A: ~ ft ( I&.za m)
~: 70ft (lt l'4m)
&,i1tU: Four ~30h.p. Wobclq.
~1aybach Iis-cylinder
UMfolliNuJ: 37,+80 Ib (17,000 ka;)

M...._spud: 6, m.p.h.
(105 km/hr)
CMri"llpud: ,)0 m.p.h.
(80-, km/hr)

16,..ooft (.s.ooom)


r#llp: 6,400 mil ...

( Io.soo km)
airship,)'d. it _
fast, even tboua:h
the fabrie co.caing OD the hull wu DOt
tight. UnfonW\&tcIy for the d~
both the military &ltd civilian authori
tiel ahowed a lack cl interett, not
knowing how to employ this airship.
It KCilIl to have been tluatmed with
tbe fale ol being broken up a1mOIt
from the ltart, but this lillJe.uxd airwp cnjo)c:d a brief respite when
placed. at the dispO"] of the pc....,ood


&om the U.s. Navy who had p!'eviouIly trained with the R,~ which
then bem, relind, and wbo were
waiting to aoccpt the ill.aled R 3a

(_ No. ,~).
1bc R 80 made iu lalt brief flight,
from Howden in York&hire to Pu11wn
in Nonolk, on 20 September I~I, and
had then only been in the air (or a
total of 7' houri. The ainhip wu
finaUy tx-oken up in 19.z40 hut pam of
the hull wac kept intact to ... iO'C u
uhibiu in the invutigationl of the

R,a d~ter.

54 Z PiAu.. LZ I " 'Bod-pue'

On ~ I June 1919, the many German
naval ~ ell that aincc the Anniatke
had been kept interned at lhe British
naval bale at Sc:apa Flow, in the
Orkney Iw.nds, wca e ICUtticd by their
own ae .... nus act wu alia the li,gnal
(or ...... lOtmcl at the Gcnnan naval
ainhi p bam at NordhoIz and Will
mund, on the North Sea cout, to enter
the IIhcdt there undetected and remow:
the IUppona from under the .tared
ainbi... The huge hulll coIla~ to
the t.CCOmpanimcnt of gigantic auh
ing noiJCI and RUled on the Door u
worthkli heap' of metal and fabric.
The AlIicI wa c thlll deprived oflad]
ainhip in this fashion, and there now
wac only a (cw wartime Zeppelins
lc:ft. 1'bQc w<:re a t the Ahlborn a;..,rup
bale ncar Oldenburg where, fOf 1Otr>C
l'e31Ot1 or other, &imi1ar dauuctions
did not take pI.aoe.
The I nter-Allied Control Com
million promptly. l"lI'lded with reo
pria&ls for thnc ddibeTate acu of
dCltruction by demanding that all
German ainhiPl lcfi .bouId be ~ed
over. 'They included twomWl Zeppelin
parrnger airahiPl. l..Z.2O lJodAm
(Lake Corutance), and l..Z n I Nonil/mr (North Stat), which had. been
buil t ror the revived DELAG airline
after the Anniatice. To am\"C al a

rigid ainhip type that wu both relatively fut and capable of earrying
a profitable payload, thcIc DCW Zcppeli1u wae much smaller than their
(oruunncn. The hull arnidlhiPl was
oflarJe diameter, but wu welllt=lined. I n the beginning there WCi'e lOme
problcatu of atability and control 10
oo.UCQtlle, but thCIc silter ainhip. IIOOCl
establiahc:d thcma:lvu u a vcry sue
( ful d .gn.
The LZ I lK) Bpd, ... made io maiden
voy:tC1: at Fricdrichahafcn on 20 August
19 19. It bqan regular opcrationl
be tween the two Zeppelin works at
FricdriemhaCcn ....d Staakcn, ncar
Berlin, on ~4 AU(UIt, coverin, the
,)'6 mile (60s km) journey bctWeul
the Swill border and the Grnnan
capital during one day and makiDg the
retum trip the nelI t day. /Jodnuu had
a Kating capacity fOf twenty pasICIlfa'I ....d by I December, when
opcaations C'QIld for that 1Ca0!Vf due
10 lack of fuel, a lotal of 4.050 pasa:ngcn and aew had been arril on
103 triP'- The mmpany had not
expected to 6.11 every leal, but the
German railways were in a deplorable
state and the lcrVicc _
poor in the
aftermath from the war, 10 thea: long.
dillancc air tickctl were in great
demand by European travcUen on the
Continent, and oftcn one IUppicmcnt
ary teal. Of" more, was proYidcd in the
fonn of an extra wicker dlllir. Thil
was no pat problem during the
autwnn and winler montha with the
grc&ter carrying capacity f'O"ible in
the maier air, but for the foUowint
year Be iMN _
10 be Icnathcncd
with one ,~8 ft (10 m) ICCtion, and
more lift was provided by the addition
tt..... cin of an additional gas cell of
90,0,)0 cu.ft h,5,)O cu.m) capac:ity. Thil
would brin, ~ into line with i ..
new liaterairshipN~su", which, ba,ed
upon the opelational expcrimoe pined
with &dnu, wu right from the ltart


built to thi. inercucd capacity. Iu the

JltmlJlnrt name hints, thi. ainbip _
dwined lOr DOrthcm akiCI .. a S.. c.!ih
airline comjny planned to order it
lOr IICI'Vic:e bet.een Stockholm and
Berlin. To this end &hw made a
commercial danowuation ro\UId trip
betwom the two European capitala.
Th_ plalll 10 ae uptet when the
Intrr-Alliod Control Couuni-jm reacted on the Gemwt -botace com
mined at the Noeth Sea ainhip h i , "
Tbe official justification advanood for
the demand that the two civilian airshi~ abo be turned over ...... that they
bad been built of fUl]>lus material
from the war prodlX:tion 0( ainhipa.
Inc remaining Zeppdin ainhi ..
wae distributed amoDI the Allie. ..
follow.: France .eoeivcd the anny airIhip LZII! (LZSs), the paFFCi1F
ainhip LZ III JI.nstmt (which it
renamed Ml4i/n'ruJlh) and the naval
ainbip L?I (LZ 114) (ICC No. ~) .
Great Ikitain _
a1loned the naval
airship' L64 (LZ I09). and L?
(LZ I I!). Italy received the paMcnger
ainhip LZ I~ Bdruu. and the naval
ainhip L6 1 (LZ 106), which _
.ubeequently wrecked the fint lime it
landed during Italian 1ICI'Vic:e. Bdgium
...... given the naval ainhip L!o
(LZ 6'l) (_ No. 42 ), .nd the naval
ainhip L!1 (LZ 7~) Wal .U(l(1!tcd
to j.jn, but both of theIe countries
bad lhcir ainhip' broken up at onoe.
&dDUN Id't Friedrichshafen dcstinnl
and completed the S'l6 mile (',3'l9 km)
.rip in "i bows. Here the Italian
Army 10011. delivery of il and renamed
it &~. It IUbKqucntly made lOme
10flJ air voyagetj amotlI them, one
from Rome 10 Barcelona aod return
may be menlioned. nu. .irship participated in theItalian Beet m.noeuvrcs
of 19'27, .nd lhcrcafIer there wue no
LZ II . Nqrislmc made ill! maiden

voyage on 8 J UDC 1911. and w:u .hen

immediacely handed over to the
French N.vy, with which il ICI'Vt ..
trainina: ainbip.

Spe-ls... ti... of

LZ 1Il10

VIII.".,: 7'lS,?I! cu.ft
('lO,5S0 cu.m)
LAlli!: 4'l9' ft (. 30S In)
Di-m; 6 1"3Sft ( IS7m)
&,i_ .. Four 'l6o h.p. M.yb.c h
Mb I V .u:..cylinder
U.folloU: 11,0451b (.0,000 q )
CnM", spnJ: 81 m.p.b.
(ISO 1r.mfbr)
O/JmllillVl "iJi"l: 6.s60 ft
('l,OOO m)
RiIttt.: .ppIOX. .,143 milet
('l,OOO 1r.m)

Zeppelin LZ 114 ''

The naval ainhip L 71 (LZ (14), of
the Zeppelin Xtype. _
a w:tu air
ship of L70 (LZII!!) and L71
( LZ II!). It bad just been completed
when the Anni.ticc _
elfocted in
November 1918. but had not then
n:<:eived illl military equipmenl. 1'bttefore the Gemwut maintained tbat ..
this .inhip bad not yet officiaUy been
turned over to the German Navy it
mUll be COIUiderl the privale propetty of the Zeppelin company, and not
war booty 10 be delivtted to the Alliet
in aecordana: with the Armiltice
temu;. The I nter-Allied Control. Commi-ion decided otherwise:, and handed
L 71 OYer 10 France, .Iong with the
anny .inhip LZ 113 (LZ S3), and the
paaenger ainhip LZ III N~dslmt, :II
part oflhe war rcpaDlioru.
Thus on 10 july 19'1O, L 71 lefl ill!
bue.1 Friedricluhafcn 10 p.m.
and, manned with a German crew,
I....ded {or FDnc.e. At I a.m. on
Ii july the ainhip .iTived .t the
M.ubc:ugc bale and was handed ovU


10 the I'rench miliwy aUlhoritiea. The

.inhip wu rcnamoed Dix.a.tlt, and a fter
-ome thort trial Highll left for i"

pcimancnt buc at eu-Pil!lTdcu,

neat Toulon. In the aprina: of 19'21 the
. rench gova-nment .lloc.ated I million
fn.1lQI COl" repain to the gas celli of the
ainhip. which became Iong-dn.wnOI.It, 10 .bat the ainhip w.. not
back in lcrYicc until the IUmmer of
Dil '1, then entered upon an aClive
career. On I August '9'23 the .inhip
made a auix of 18 houri' duration,
act . . KlUthcm France extcoding from
the I talian to the Sjnish border. On
9 Augutt Di, "JI covered tbe distance
Cuen-Port Vcndrcl-Ajaccio and return
to Cucn in 14 bows. Next the ainhip
headed out 0\"Cf the Mcditcrranun on
30 AUgusl, and Hew via Algicn, SousIc,
Tunis, Uizcrta. Sardinia and Coniea
before returning to ill hue on I September, h.ving .hen covered 1,740
miles ('l,800 km) in 60 houn. On
I~ September il began a truly longdistance .rip. .. urual ulKkr the com
mand or Lt Cdr jean du PleAis de
Grencdan. The ainhip lim headed lOr
the Sahara dncrt region and on
30 Seplember wound up the auix with
circuit over Bo~ux and Pan..
When it landed again in Cuers the .ir
ship bad ltaycd in the .ir ODf\tinlIOUIly
few liS boura 41 minutet, thereby
Cltablilhing world', endurance record. Dixmw/. made another circuit
over Fn.nce pi oper, l.uting 44 houri,
CO\-er1ng tbe period from 17- t9 October, and on this QCCa$ion alIo participated in lOme ffiallCC\lvres of the
Fren ch Navy olfToulon.
TIICK various perfonll.nca Kemed
to bring out Ih.t DiX1fllllU w.., a 'lucky
ship', as the ,.ying lOCI in ainhip
circlet. This view was borne out again
when Di:muuIt pulled thi"Ollih WC'U on
a flighl !:utina: from 'l1-2. NO\-cmbct-.
in spite of. raging Itoem encountered


off Cap .'cmtl on the IOUtbcnl co:ut

of France. On that oecuion the .inhip
.bIOcbcd a1i1lO1t nine IOIU ofrain water,
but ltill the crew managed 10 return the
ainhip 10 iu buc we and mund.
On 12 December, however, fate
finally caught up with thil by DOW
famous ainhip. It bad lefl iu borne hue
on 18 Dvcmbcr aoo bad om:e moce
beaded for the S'b.ra rqion. There
...... a IOtal of ~2 people on board.
Durina the nigbt of 11-21 Du:cllIbctDi 1, was on the return leg when it
ran into a bad .tonn out to _ over the
Mcditcrnoean. The lui petition reported by the ainhip wu halfway
between &i .xa, on Sicily, and the
island of PanteUcria, off Tunis, .t
'l . m. on l'l December. About '20
nUnutet later a IIash wat noticed in the:
Iky followcd by an explolion. A .troke
of Ii(hbliog wllol . .umcd to have
cawed the din.ter. An extaWve ~
for )X*ible lUi'Vivon _
poomptly, but in vain: all had perished.
00 'l9 Dccctl1bcr IOOlC Italian fiabcr,.
men picked up a body which they
found Boating alnOn3St bill of wreck
~. It turned out 10 be the rcma.illl
of the youthful commander of the

No other trace of the kill ainhip was
ever found and many C'Oftioc:tuJU wae
ad\-.nctd about the outcome of thit
di"lter. One, a higbly unrealistic one,
...... th.1 only the ODf\trol gondola bad
dropped into tbe _, while the JUt of
the ainhip with the remaining trew
drified MkIlhwarda toward. the wide
African dClcrt rqionl. where lUtVivon
might lliU be fouoo.
More IOber reHcx:tion led to the con
clusion that after this diluter I'ranee
had beller .bandon any rurthet ide:u of
large rigid ainhipt:, and both LZ I 13
(LZ Ss), and Ml4i/n'rtJ1lltU (the former
LZ lIt JlmiJlmI, ICC No. s.) IOc.e
bro1r.a1 up.
'The ipClCification of LZ 114 [)i...Jf

is 10 all praclical intcntll identical to

that of LZ 1111 (aec No. 44)


It.lI.n Army IUld Navy airs hip. of the M clas.

Molt of the Italian ainhips from the
World War I period were built at the
government arsenal for equipment in Rome: Stabilimento Conatru
zioni Ac:ronaulica. The airship' wac
divided into four categOria: 'Piccolo'
(P), meaning lmall; 'Mediwn' ( M),
the intermediate au; 'Velore' (V), the
fast type; and 'Grande' (G), meaning


The semi-rigid, M-daa airship' were

modilied extensively during the war.

They wen: IDCO "ively powered by two,
three or in lOme imtancel by four
engina. Separation walla divided the
envelope into lilt P' sectiona, each of
them having two control valvCl. The
ballonet imide the envelope CX-Iended
Ihrough the ful! lengul of the envelope.
The forward end of the interior ked
was joined to a reinforcement of the
bow, while mounled at itll rear end
wac the stabilising lint, with their
split rudders, and the flXCd tail lur
faea. Attached to the aft end ol the
envelope were also tWO Im:tU horizontal
lina, one each on the port and Ita:rboard
side; and, IOmewhat further forward
on top of the envelope, a larger vertiCllI
fin. A gun mounting wu provided
forward on top of the envdope. The
gondola wu short and thick. The tWO
enginCl were mounted on OUlriggt:iI on
the sida of the gondola.. The variable
pitch propellen were shan-driven, and
the blada were abo reversible.
The Itali:ut Army Fj( T:d three
airships of the ltamiard version of the
M ciasII, while the Italian Navy UJcd
an equal number 0( a special version
for bombing pUf'PO'CS. TIle Italian
AnrIt had altogether six airships al ill
disposa.l, while the Italian Navy had
twenty o(thae aircraft and both anned

forca used them extensively and actively. T hese .hips made a total of 650
wartime Rights of .:t,2OO houn' duration
adding up 10 a collective distance of
86,990 miles (140,000 kID). On .:tsS 01'
thelle cruises +10.9110 [b (2OO,ooo kg) of
bombl were dropped. The main targel3
attacked included the Austrian- Hun
garian naval base at Pob. the St Ma n::o
docko, railway junctiOtlll and other im_
portant in.tallations behind the AlIStrian lina. It was imperative lhat the
Italian ainhips should be able to
attain high ceilings because they v.ere
JUbjocted to very inleme Auslrian anti.
aircntft lire, whereas in their cue speed
and endurance ranked a.I qualities of
[ess importance. becallilt they seldom
had to cover long distances on their war
trips. Yet M_.:t, M-j. M-4, M-8, M-I j
and P_IO were all [ost due to enemy air
aUac&', while M-5 crashed a.I a nsult
of mechanical failure.
In 1918the BritishAdmiraltyordered
an lIinhip of the M class from l ta!y.
It was Rown to England on .:t6 October
that year, and there designated SR!.
TIlis ainhip became part of the rather
costly and much criticised experimental
ptOglamme condueled by the Royal
Navy with small non-rigid airships, the
.o-called 'Blimps'.

SpedficatlOD of the M clas.

VGUmv; 441.437 cu. ft
(IlZ,SOO cu. m)
lntfir.- 117.:tj ft (83: m)
DUtmdtT.- 55.8 n ( 17 m)
&,ifIL.s; Two .:tSO b.p. ltalaMay
bach four-cylinder
UuJu/ k<u/.- 6,377lb (3,800 kg)
Crvisinl spd.- 43'5 m.p.h.
(71) kIDjhr)
OPtTtliiona/ui/inl'- 6.560 n (2,000 m)
EnJ/lTana; 6 hOUt$ with a bomb
load of.:t,.:to5Ib. (1,000 kg) ; l.:t
hours for scouting at sea


57 The U.s. Navy ai,..hip ZR' I

'Sbea.andoah' ('Daug hter of th e
The deaign of the lint rigid airship
of the U.S. Navy dalCl from 1916. The
framework _
to be of wooden CODIU\iction while the choice of incom
bwtible helium .. lifting gas, inslead
of hydiOgtn, was more far--sighted.
However, thae plaDli were dropped in
\'aVout of a I'IlOre conventional design
to be patterned on the Gennan Zeppelin airship L 49 (LZ 96), which had
been forced down in France in October
1917, and had been caplured almost
u ... dlmaged. Thus aluminium was
.elected .. the final building material
for the framework, and hydrogen III u.e
gas to be used Cor filling the ainhip,
since helium at thai time was lIil1 only
available in the United States in very
limiled quantities.
The drawing. for ZR- I, later to be
named ShmanMoh, were produced by
the U.S. Navy'. Bureau of Aeronautics.
Construction of Ihe C(lmponents took
place at the Naval Aircraft Factory in
Philadelphia, and thac: were then
transported to the Naval Air Station at
Lakehurst, New Jeney, for uscrnbly,
since thil was the only place where a
shed of the required si~e was available.
ZR-I made ita maiden voyage on 4 September 19113, but pl'O\-ed heavier than
atimated because the ainhip on this
ocraion WIll filled with helium, which
does not have 10 high a lifting capacity
as hydtogen. The performance figuret
therefore did not rome up to specifica
tion. So with an eye to the \III: of
helium for filling the ainbip at a future
date, the dec:ilion ....111 made to lengthen
the hull of ZRI by 33 fl ( to m). A
novel Ceature of the ainhip was ill
rcinf.. ctd bow enabling il to be \eft OUt
in the open moored to a masl.
On later occasions ZR_I was moored
experimentally 10 the Navy depot vessel
Palol.:lJ, wbich had been spa:ially fitted


with a mooring mast for this purpolC.

(It is surprising indeed that in .pitt of
aU the enterprise-displayed by Germany
in the ainhip fidd, mooring ItIQII
had never been tried out in that
During il3 two yean oC tervice
~ made a total of 37 Righll
including a transcontinental uOliing in
both directions. MOil of thac: air
voyage were actOIIlplished with minor
mishaps only, though on lOme
ocrasions the ainhip ran into thunder-ltonm and other very ro~h weather.
ranging from heavy snowfalls to, in hot
climates, windniscd sandilorml. On
16Ja.nuary 19114 the airship tore away
from ill mooring mast at Lakehurst
when II storm came up luddenly. Some
of the gas cells wen: abo damaged and
leaked. Only a proportion of the crew
was nn board the airship at the time.
By and by the enginCl were ltatted, yet
it was almost impossible to keep the airahip under control. At one time during
the nigbt Sh#fwltloah passed over New
York City, where lhe red and green
warning ligbts of the airship C(luld now
and then be seen through the cloudl by
onlookers on the giOund. Gradually the
storm abated and the officer of the
watch on board, Commander M. R.
Pierce, who by now bad eharge of the
airship, was able to rIIdio the report
that all danger _ over.
But a less happy incident WIll to
follow. On the night 0( 3 September
19'25, ZR'I was Hying from T akehur1t
to Scott Field in llIinois when, above
Byesville in Ohio, it passed through a
violent stann. The updraught of a
aquaillifted the airship beyond the we
Pl' IJre altitude, resulting in some 0(
the 19 gas cells bursting as their safety
valva had been deliberately elosed in
an ende;""()Ur to avoid any waste of the
couly helium with which Shnumd4:JM
was filled at the time. SlrnuJllIllNIII alternated with the other rigid airship of the


Navy, ZR., 1M ~ (.ee No.

58) in Uli'li the availlble IUpply of th.
uJe guo The e-p~in of &m.wt-*d,
Commander Zachary Larudowne, and
hia Novi,gatin, offlCCr, Commander
Charle. E. R(lIendahl, made 1:\'(:1 Y
effort to their ainhip. but did not
IUcceed. With a rreat Arusrlc:
JMJt had bccfllowered to an altitude of
Ie. than 6,000 n (1,830 m) when it
bepn to roll and pi((;h, -'OOCl to break
into thtee parts. The navigaling olf.oer
wu in the bow of the ainhip alana: wilh
aix otha memben oC Ihe Clew and
decided to handle this ~n .. a (ree
balkJem. All hour later they IUcceedcd
ill making a $arc landing. The rcac pan
of the ainhip, ...ilh 1111 crew manbcn,
likewise made a we ckr :ent, even
Ihough it wu al"OU8h IandinS. The rest
of the crew, numbering ' 4 men inc::lud
ing Ihe e-ptain of the ainhip, ilid not
.~ a chance. Their mUons ...-en:
cither in the control gondola oc in the
f:Il8ine gondolas, all of which t~ from
tbe centre ~tion and plunged to the





(59,890 cu.m)
vrifilUlf ImttA: 680 n (1107'3 m)
Du.-tn: 79 ft (114'1 m)
Hri,M: 93'5 ft (118'5 m)
&tUtu: Six ,00 h.p. Packard
Afai_l#JId: 60 m.p.h.
(96-/) km/hr)

grwnd. Wben the OCW day da.... ned

the inviting, but hilly, Oh)o landvapc
tay strewn wilh broIIm palU of Ihe
'Daughter of the Sun'. the proud
I ndian name that the ainhip had


'I1tc e-UIC of this disaster has a.ltcady

been touched upon brielly. Tc;n of the
18 automatic wely valva regulatiol
the ph un: in the p i ttlls, and ICYCD


mano:uvrin, valvo, IuId bea,

ranoved prior to the Oighl. The re-

of the

maining valva, altacd 10 manual

manipulalK>n, wen: unable 10 n:lease
rufficient IJU WI enough. The ainhip
had been deprived of unimpcdecJ 'free
btealhing', 80 to .peak.


The U.s, Navy airship ZR.,

'La. AaJe1ea'
The United StalCl oC America wu the
only one: of the (lUI Allied Powcn
DOt to receive anythiDa: in the way of
booty when the German ainhi", ...... e
diluibuled after Wocld War I ended,
although on,inal plans had inchJdcd
the alloc:alion of tWO wanime Zcppdi ...
to the U.S. Navy. The U.s.A. wu,
b(n.'(\'CZ', to be QOIllpenaated in a
different way, a\thOush il did finally
ra:civc an ainhip. After pn>tnetcd
negotiatioN and deliberatioN among
the Allies, it wu finally d:idcd to have
the ZeppeLin worb in Fricdriehlhaf~
daign and build an airship of a lile
t'OITCSponding to LZ 70 ( L 70) of the
X-Iype (_ No. 44) for lhe Amerieau
rovcrnmenl_ This 8OIuUon abo mam
the wrvival oCthe LuflM:hilTbau Zeppelin, u thi. activity enabled the ainhip
worb to keep toscther, and have work
rar, an wff in 'Pite of the
ICVCre financial Itrai... 1'olIowin, the
war. I n IgIIS it further led to a parmerl,hip with the Goodytal' Tore &. Rubber
Co. in America, .. the IWO ooncerm
ormc:d the joint Goodyear-Zeppelin
~...... ture. The Germana ... ele more or
lea oblipl to accept this arrangement
bccallle of the aircraft buikling ruwlioN; impcld upon Germany by the
Venailla treaty. S-ida the lBnRer
ofthc patent righu, the chief enginea
of the Zeppelin Worb, Or Ka rl
Atmtein, and twelve other
EXpo ~ WCie employed by the Amcric:an

a.inhip company.
It it to the credil of the Ccnn...n


pelio company that in LZ



pai... takinJly built the bal ainh.ip of

which they "'Cie capable. I ncidentally,
then: wu ill d.aIUC rulrictiil( it to
civilian UIC ocllUively, (Yen though the
U.s. Navy plaoed the oroCf.
LZ 126 made itl maiden voyage al
Fricdriclahafcn on :17 Aug\IIt ' !r-I4t
and three more trial ftighb wen: undCf
laken on II and 1t- :l5 September
rupec:tivdy. Then the 4,660 mile
<7.500 km) 10.1( delivery Oisht. from
Fricdriehahafen to Lakchunl, New JerICY, US.A., W&I accomplished during
!he poind from 1:1-15 October, and
on this O'X"'ion the airship _
t:OOlmandcd by Or HII(O Ec::kener who
wu abo by Ih. time chainna.... of the
board of LuflM:hiffbau Zeppclin. This
wu na ly the a:w.lod WClI-bound air
Cl'OIling of the Allantic::, and the ainhip
carried a tOlal of S\I JXliON. The Bight
luled 81 hours 17 minula. Shortly
after the ainhip had been bowed in
the Jhcd then:: it wu lranIf'erra!. to
U.S. government ownenhip, and about
the finl aclion the new American crew
undertook wall 10 drain the IJU cd ... of
their hydrogen, and awail the arrival
ofZR" ~ at Lakehunl, .. Ih.
ainbip contained practic:ally the total
fUpply ofbclium available a t that time.
The prcciowI PI was then tranlfulcd
to the rourteen PI celli in I..Z 126. IU
a result, ZRI n:m.aincd earlhbound
for the nexl eighl months while ZR-S
1m Aqdu, .. LX 1\16 had now been
named, made a number or Righu, IWO
of them .. u Bermuda.
The _ of the Sb""Mt ...~ (and the
only IUpply of hdium) in early Seplember 19I1~ (_ No. 57), was a (lUI
blow 10 the American public, y.:t mOiIl
eircla sencra1ly n:m.aincd in fa''OUr of
further IUppo! t ror ainhi.,.. At:lll
extremdy high cott a new IUpply of
helium W&I produced for Los Mi'ks,
wbich IOOf\ IIew again under the com
m.and of the hero (rom the
!lim!cr, Capu.ln Chane. E. Ro.end.ahl.

SI-_, *

During the nat three yean; ROI',,,bhl

rutored confidma: in airab.i", b.ud
upon the ttrength and reliability and
the Me perfonnanc:e of ZR-,.
This ainhip demonstraled in 1976
that il could be moored 10 the mother.
ahip P"oh, which had been fitted with
a Ilk' i1 moorin&' mut. A further Itcp
wu taken in 19':l8 when Los Jhlltils
ICltkd .1.1 cue 00 the flichl dedI. of the
aircraft carrier S"n"'p. On S July
the Los Alfttlu in turn became
an aircraft carrier of a differu\t kind.
While the ainhip eruioed in the air at
a opted ofabout 78 m.p.h. (11I5ir.m/hr).
a naval Voughl UQ..I ICOUt hiplane,
piloted by Lt A. W. :Jake' Gordon,
cautioully appioachcd the undenide of
the hul l and eopga:I a book 10 a
trapetC fWd to the ainhip hull. The
fint of a king line of8O--Cal1cd 'trapeK
arlisu' had thlll pF;d 'the ICA' with
8ying coloun.. The U.S. Navy'. interal
in joint air mano:uYra of acroplana
and airship' dated back 10 the end or
Wocld War I. It ...... nOI a nO\'C! con
cepl, .. the idea had been ICIIled prev)ousiy. in Germany and Creal Brilain.
and tbe U.S. Army had abo moducted
80mC IU~(' ful operimcnu along thClC
lina in 19:1-4, when an aeroplane
booked iDeif on to a 'Blimp'.
Los.t.plu wu taler comma.ndcd by
Capcain Herbert V. WiIcy, who in 19!0
wu lU(c::eeded by Captain AIgtt H.
Drael, and the experiments with hook
ing acroplaoa on 10 the ainhip and
then rdealing them again continued
thl"OU8hout '9S':l, with different 'anists'
and types of aeroplanet, Mlcb as the
CoNoIidatcd N':lY-1 and thc Curl;'
XF9C-1. The military value of theIC
operimenu had been atabliahcd by
now and this display alwaY' made a
!tit al the variot air mtttinp held
around Ibe country. Los Anltlu and ill
aucndant lmall aeroplana mUlit have
runinded the lpec: .... lon of a hll8'= lOW
with her thinly fUCkiinp.



In the ''Immcr of 1!F6 Ltu A~1u

added anotha ' lint' to ia endi!, but
thill _tiona! DOVClty only became
generally mown at a later date. It
became the one and only ainhip eva
to.taru:I on ia IKK on top of the Jl'fOOI'ing malt. A pile bi_ tuddcnly
pined rorce and then blew directly
rrom the oppoIitc way. Lot ~Iu had
been swinging leiMIrely at the mooring
mast and now tried .1O follow the wind
like a weathcr........ k, but inItcad of
*Wincing Udewaya the airship chotc to
mike the change upward inItcad. The
aew on watch _
caugbt napping
and after a long liidc lOOn round themItlva in the IKK of the a.irship along
with all kinds cl unf'utcncd gear. 'The
puplcxed and astonillxd po.Ohllel on
the grouIId watched hclplculy what
_ goirlc on. Mer nanding on iu nwe
for a brid' inltant the 6s8 n (lHlO-6 m)
long hull turned grud'ully around ia
axis and then gradually II:ltled in ill
former poIilion on the leeward aide of
the masl. Alide from a
tcan: in the
rabric cl the hull. neither the ainhip
DOf the ae ... on had 1U1I'~ any
damage 01' injurica.
I n 'Pile cl thill incident and otha
minor adventura the Los A1/lfllJ CQ)oym a long and dUtinguiahcd JCrVice..
FOI' many yean thiI ainhip !lew a greal
number cl ouutanding P""ot'le to importarIt evenu in many of the states,
while numuous DCW ae ...1 aimult.aneOO$Iy reQ:ived their training in the
handling of a.inhipa. Only once did
ZR-S play the part of a military aircn!t, the rormer Alia panting their
pecial pumillioo on this OQCaion. This
during the American naval
tnan<J:Uvn:I in 1931. The airship optt_
a ted from the mother-ship p.tote 011'
the WClt coast of Panama, II::I'Ying as
a ICOUting aircraft of the 8cct rorce
defcndillg the Panama Canal.
Other e.:tcnsivc Ilightt beaideo tho.c
al~ady mentiooed included one from

Lakchunt to Panama. of 39 houn 45

.runutet duration. on 26 .'ebroary 'glI6
Two da)'l lata lhe airship continued
from Panama 10 CulM where il w&I
moored 10 pe* befOC'e returning to
On SO June 193~ , Ltu AntIUs rell
victim to the dcpaion which hit the
U nited Statea economy in a Ierious
way. Laying-up of the vcud w&I eonJ.idttcd only. temporary expedient, but
the pn.!Ud airship w&I never 10 take 10
ii, b'UCelcmcntapin. On itsSS I !ligbu,
Ltu A~lu had 'POIt a total of ....'98
houn in the air, to which must be
added another ~,ooo houn mooted to
its malt out in the open. The linal
breakinr-up cl this ainhip did not
oceur utltil catly 1940.

Sp dRcatloa. of za.., "I.-





(70,000 eu.m)
l.tJfl1A: Gs8 n (~m)
DUmtdn .. 90'5 n (':17'6 m)
&,iMs: Fivc400 h.p. Maybach VL
I twdve-eylinda wata'-alOled
UStJui '-': 101,4'5 Ib (46,000 kg)
i1ftuti_ J/lN4: ']6 m.p.h.
( 12~ kmjhr)
CntUi", J/I4: 7D m.p.h.
(liS bnjhr)
Rmcp: 7>770 milea ( 1 ~,500 bn)


59 Witla Roald AmuadHft _10. .

tbe Nonb Pole i.a N I 'No a'
The IWO Zeppelins allotted to I taly as
part of the WOI'id Wu I I"Cp&.I'itioni
had no g1orioul careen in that ODUntry.
L 61 (LZ 106) was IOOIl. wrecked while
landing at the Ciampino air but Dear
Rome, and tilt expcricncct pined with
EJpm., the rOlmer LZ 120 &tkoun (ICC
No. )4), wcre conducive to I talian
oooccntratioo on ainhipi of the non
risid type:. This led 10 the intemtil'lg
bieed, the ~ed lCmi-rip:I


Iype:. whieh CGnIiated of a hydrogeri_

filled UlVCIope with a full .length,
bible keel built in IeVCI"LI lCCtioni.
Due to thill lIcxibility the gu prcaturc
ill the envelope could maintain the
required ihape and yel the ipine-like
ked WII rigid enough ror the mounting
of a combined control gondola and a
paucnger com~nment .
III IglIS a acmi-rigid ainhip 0( thia
type was buill at the a;,..nip works of
lhe Italian govcmrncnt lieu Rome,
under thedirectioo of Colonel Umbcrto
Nobile. "The fint trial Righu were made
in March 1 9~4, and proved to IUCC'
ful that they called lOr no changca in
the daign. I n 1926 this .. irship, N "
was chanered to the famoua Norwcgian
Arctic oplarel' ROild Amundaen and
hiol panna and financial backer, the
American Lincolll Elbworth. The
terms of the Italian transactioo wac a
rMlO'UIbly low sale price, with an
ofl'er to buy back the airship after the
expedition provided that it was still in
a rcuonahly 8000 ltite. The deal w&I
abo conditional upon live of the I talian
munbcn being .igned on rOl' the Polar
flight. Amundlen, who ..... then 53
yean old, had been in 191 1 the lint
man 10 ruth the South Pole. I n 1 9~5
he had tried to get to the North Pole: by
aeroplane, but had to abandon the
auunpt. Now he felt that he .tood a
belta' chance 0( ruccu:ding with his
lecenlly-aequired .. irship which he
named ){url' (NDrWlIY). The mo......
wby this Italian ainhip was placed al
AmUlldsen'. dispou.l on eaI'f terms
may well be that I taly'. 'Itrang man'
0( that paiod, tbe Fuciat leader Benilo
Mu.olini, saw a chaDCe to gain glory
ror his country, although he had 10 drop
his demand that the ainloip fty the
ltaliall coIoun on thill polar trip.
Amundaen w&I on this ocx:asion accompanied by X'o-aal countrymen 0( hi.,
one of them being LI Hjalmar RiilcrurlCn, ... ho 'NaIl the only Norwegian


on board with any actual ainhip

txpericncc, and was appointed the
n ..vigational oft"occr. Of the l6-man
ae .. , six (includillg Nobile) were
ItaliaNj Nobile, althooah nomin..lly
captain 0( the VCIICI, relt and objected
to the act that he 100 was eoouioknd a
'hired h;o.nd'. Thill cawed friction beI... CUI Amuncbcn and Nobile, and their
conho.caaKa during and after their
joint air voyage Ioolred as if they woukI
cany beyond into ruture yean urltil
later on with the death of one 0( them,
all ant;o.gonilm dramatically departed.
J(M" wu rerried rrom Rome to
King'l Bay, SpiabugUl, via P\llham in
England, Oslo and Lenillgrad. The
ainhip anived at iu ltarting point ror
the Polar trip on 7 May 19~8, just in
time to ICC the Arnmcan naval pilot,
Conunander Richard E.. Bynl, return
from hill Right to the NOI'th Pole by
aeroplane, a trimotOlul Foller ~
pllUlC named JOStJIhiM 1-0,4, having
taken 011' from the Norwegian Wand
t...o d.ys before. This undoubtedly was
a disappoinlment 10 Amundlcn, who
ncvertbelCli Ihowcd good lportlman
.rup, and the mcmbcn of the tWO
expeditionl joiI'Itly ccJchrated the
American lUo
Amundsen may abo
have reflected and OOI'lI()jed hirn.elr
that his OC)ming \'altW'C was mort .. mbitious, II he not only planned 10 ( I e:.
the North Pole in his ainhip, but Ihen
abo mntinuc to Nome in Alaska.
Nur" uct"ndcd rrom it:e InOW-OOVtr'ed
but at 8.55 un. local time on II May.
'The 1i1'l'U'}' ainhip circled iu ltarting
point once, then headed north aa ...
the wide rrozen exparuca. At ~ a.m.
the rollowing day the ainhip had if
rived O'I'U' tbe North Pole, where the
Norwesian, I talian and American 0..,.
were dropped. Then the munc wu XI
for Point Barrow ill Alaska, and thill
lurned out 10 be by far the mott difficull
.tage. The airship encountered a dcnIc
Arctic rOS dwing the day and the fint

ice formatio, .. QlI the gondolu and

wires mado; thenudvea fell by tho;
weight increuc. The two magnetic
comp'''es on board alto began to behave erratically, nickering without purpoee, and it was a credit to the naviga\ional ,kill of RHler-Lancn that the
counc was maintained through the
neo:t night. The morning of 14 May
ga\..: liUldfall not far from Point Darrow,
from where the eo;J..I;t was hugged touthward while: a brewing Ilonn gained in
foree. In the neighbourhood of the
.kimo village of Teller, not far from
the destination city of Nome, Ihe airIhip Willi no longer equal to haltlingthe
IIOnn, making no headway nhhough
all three engines wen: operating al full
r.p.m. Amundsen then ordered a landing, which was aecomplilhed IU......... fully and the ainhip crew managed to
convey to the acited &kimOi why Ihe
lnnding ropes were lowered and how
Ihey d10uJd go about handling them.
As the main gondola touched the
ground the rippi ng panel.l of the envelope were pulled. Shortly aflerwards
/lOT" rested, empty of gas, aemu the
keel and gondolas, napping in the
wind. A distance in the air of
!I,4t7 mila (50:,00 km) had been
covered and the J(<<g' ainhip and i~
crew had accomplished exaetly what
they had act out to perfonn.
This achievement was acclaimed by
the whole world, but the emu;ng
b ickering and renewed dispute of com
petenee between !"mUDdlen and Nobile
was very trying and most unbecoming
to eithu of them. Both antagonists
~ ouutanding dUlIaeten and aired
their differences in a series of arlicles in
newllpapen and magazines which be:wildered the general public. Amundlen
aCCUJed Nobile of nothing less than
incompetence. It was AmUDd$en who
had originated and planned this
Arctic apedition, but Nobile countered that only his clever ainhip had


made it ptWible to ace it through, and

maintained in tum that Amundsen

had only played an inactive part in the
dLpedition by occupying a chair in the
amhip. It may be difficult 10 lay that
either of them was entirely right, but i,
is certain that here the leed was planted
which _ shortly to .hape the destiny
of both men, dramatically aud fatefully.
Sp ~-i 6aotiOD

of N 1 'Norce'
Volumt: 670,980 cu.t
(19,000 cu.m)
Unllh: 347.8 n (,060 m)
Dimmltr: 64 It (19.s m)
Enginu .. Three 245 h.p. Maybaeh
Mb I Va lix-cylinder
Ugfid lld .. 18,2431b (6,275 ka")
Maxirrumt JJwd: 70 m.p.h.
(1 13 m / hr)

60 The alrship.N 4 ')tali .. ' the

disa. ter in the Arede O eean
As a result of his quarrel!! with Amund
ICI' following the crossing of Ihe North
Pole in the NOf,' airship (sec No. 59),
Nobile decided after his retunl to Italy
to lepc::at the expedition which, this
time, was to be aD entirely Italian
venture, with regard to planning,
equipment and manning. Nobile mean_
while had been promoted to General,
and MUSlIOlini hCllitatingly endo,-,w the
Arctic project when Ille Royal Geographical Society of Italy \'Ouehed fot
Ihe K:heme. The filUlneial end "'11.1
handled by the city of Milan, whid,
became sponsor to the amount of
million lire, while the ainhip wu the
contribution of the I talian Air Minisl!'}.
The lICientilie aims of the apedition
were: to explore the coast of Siberia,
and in p&rtitular T$al" Nicholas II
Land; to penetrate to the North Pole
and 10 land Ill~ ; and to aplore and
map the COUll of Greenland and



NobiLe now proo;~eded 10 adapt his

newesl ainhip to, and to lit it for, this
eha.llenging dLpedition. The daign and
performance of this ainhip, N .. fliJlilt,
~ eompan.ble 10 thOle of the N ,
N~p, dLc:ept that the overall length
waulightly redutcd to 34'2 n ( '04 m),
and the weful load wall ;ne~axd by
aboul 2,865 Ib (1,300 kg). Muimum
spcc:d was about 62 m.p.h. (100 km/
After the completion of the Cl<'enaive
preP;ll1uiotu for this apcdition, flaii..
Hew from Rome 10 Milan on 19 March
1928 and at the aar.te time Il,e two
awtiliary vuseb Cit4J tli Mikmc and
Hobby left La S~ia \0 proceed to
King', Bay on Spilllbc:rgen. On Ihe
night of 14- 15 April, ftaJitl left for the
same datination and arrived then:
on 6 May. Intermediate landiJtp: had
been made at Stolp in Germany,
and at VadsO in the north of NOI".
way, on this lint ltage of the apedi.
tion. Upon ill arrival in King'. Bay
the ainhip Willi housed in Ihe Ihed
Lhere which meanwhile had been
The planned Ilighlll to Franz joad'.
Land, Tsar Nitbol;u II Land and to
Novaya Zemlya .....:n: made on II, 14
and 15 M"y ..:apectiv~ly. Particularly,
the ICCOnd air voyage was $Ucccssful
and profitable with respect '0 aeientilie
At 4 a.m. on 4 May, the ai,mip began
its journey to the North Pole and cat_
ried a crew of 16 men, plus Nobile'. fOll
terrier Titina. All or the former ere.... of
/I'g' we~ included in the prescnt
crew, and in addition Nobile had invited three acicntisu to participate in
the apedition. They were two ph)'lieisu, Dr Aldo Pontremoli from Italy
and Dr FrantiilCk Behounek from
Czechoslovakia, and the Swedi&h
mettorologi,t Dr Finn Malmgren. The
lastnamed h"d aoo been a member of
the Nor,. dLpedition. On boanI _Iso

was an I talian reporter, UfO Lago,

Itptcsenting the pt"CIt. Aided by a
Ilmug following wind d,e IliJlill ainhip
arrived at the North Pole al 20 minutes
past midnight on 114 May, having
covered the 885 miles (1,425 kro) from
the base at King'. Bay in 18 houn
19 minutes. The planned landing 'on
top of the world' had to be abandoned,
but the auC()N,fuJ completion of the
6nlltage of this trip was marked by the
dropping of the following objecu: a
large a .... donated by Pope PiUll XI,
the Italian tricolour, the city anrur of
Milan, and a .mall locket with a p0rtrait rqtraerttin, the 'Madonna of the
Fire'. This Will to be the end of the
Ilighlll of flaiia and its crew who up till
then had lCCffied under a lucky ltar ;
from then on everything ....enl wrong.
Dr Malmgren, who also aeted as the
navigalor, had Nobile head the air_
&hip straight back for King'. &y
when: more lCientille work awaited Ihe
ain:nfi. This was a decision which Ille
commander of the ainhip was to live 10
n:gle! bitterly for, after despatching a
radio ~port to Cill4 tli /IIikmo, fltlJitl
began to bailie against a ltorm which
incrra scd in force, ill headwinds retarding tlte ainhip'. lpeed wbeze pre_
viously it had aClOd u a tailwind 10
aocc.laate the veacl. The ainbip al50
begun to accumulate an evcr-thicken_
ing coat of ,now and ice. At one time
the devator was broken and only
makeshift ~pain to it could be effected.
At 10.30 a.m. on 25 May Nobile
received the report: 'the ainhip is
heavy'. Thil rerultod from the ludden
loss of an amount of gill from IOQlC
unCltablilhed cawe, and a moment
later llaiitl hit the ice with great foree.
The control gondola Wat tom off and
partly smashed. 'nLe envelope with the
engine gondolas and the four crew
memben in them, and Dr Pontremoli
alld Ugo Lago u wdI, asocrukd apin
and their falel remain unmo...-u to


.by. I n the wit,d 0( the tonll"Ol pndoIa

IOUC!.en pao-;M, all o(whom IOUC in-

jured IfIOiC 01" Ie. K~udf. Nobile bad

broken hill ript arm and Iq. They
wen: in dapuate ItnI.;1J, even lbool'"
it iumcd OUI lata that Ihill hanlhit
little CIOW _re only abool 218 mile!
(5,500 kiD) away (rom the bate.1 King'.
Ray. They had manarcd 10 talv.,e
0( thcU cquiplhU.t, bowevtt, in
dudinc. lent and, iDOIt imponanl, an
CfIlCr1UICY radio ttanlmittcr. 'The
acapiDf ainbip had aIIo teattercd K"11C
..-nall wW containin( mi aniline dye.
They UKd this to pWlt the !.ent and
make it COI'IIpicuoui (rom the air, when
airuaft could be expecta:l. to.:an:h for
them. "'The Red Tent' WIll indrn:I to
lo.. '-\Ie the lOcal point in eomc 0( the
~ extenaive air n:acuc activitict ever
undertaken 011 aD in_tiona! teale,
and (oUGhed with i n _ worldwide
.ruddy, day by day. Howc<o, it wu
only on ,JIlnC that the oullidc _Id
rccciYCd intdligence that there wac
aorvivon (rom the Il#Iitt, (0.- on boud
the Ciu. IIi Afil_ motha--v' eI ibClf
they WOlC Q()( ~ ..ed with listening
lOr the
Iipala rqularly tn.ntmilled thtoo&h the op.....tor Iioro "'The
Red Tent'. Ratbtt ""wi lily, the radio
fbtion on the Italian lIlip did Q()( listen
(or thCIc vital aigw 0( life from the
Iwitt uew, being already ovcrlo.dcd
by the dapatch 0(. ne.a-cnding Bow
of lepoell 10 Rome. An alert R
amateur radio fan in An:banl'bk.
Nikrda SchuUdt, fine. picked up the call rom the mal on the bti", I, tbcir number ........ nwhile
havina bcuI redlK'Oi (rom 1m 10 Ax.
The mechanic Vincenzo Pomc11a had.
been killed by the impact of the engine
gondol.a on the ice. Two 01' the navip
ton, Adalba-to Mariano (who had been
tcctAdin-oommand 01' the /UJli.) and
Ydippo Zappi, had, &pintt the protCSII 01' Nobile, Idt the Imt camp on
SO M.y, in tbrir endeavour 10 reach


the mainland .t the North CalK. They

wac Keompmio:d by Dr Malm&IuI
who WIll injured .nd lick.
The relief now being orpnitcd com
pritcd four Norwqian .ircn.n, one 01'
which wu piloted by Lt Rir--I.......-n,
IeVCfl ftom Sweda., O<le each from
Finland .nd France, ci8ht from Italy
and two from the Soviet Union, which
alto bad the icebreaken
Mllbrill in .c-lion. Tbere was poor c0ordination, or IIOOIoe, arnonr the variowI
ULpedi'iom of thac ...... LntriCl ; (or it
had more the .ppearanc'P 01' keen
rival...,. bctweol thuD. ThUi ~ Red
Tent' wu Q()( Iocaled until 17 June,
by one 01' the It.lian ftying.boalS.
On 25 J unc the Swediah pilot Lt E.inu
Lundlxq, with Lt Birger Schybcrs
U his 01;. I .0, landed their FokkoC. V biplane, ilS uk ..arria" fitted
with 1Itit, on the ice Roc cite I I by the
tent. Lundborg advised that be could
carry only one additional pa ".
guo and had Olden to retum with
Nobile to the Swedish bate, when: they
rcl! that the latter was indispmu.ble
ror the guidance 01' rurther i"CICUC work.
Nobile protcsted that .. the Icackr 01
the Italian ULptdition be IhookI be the
1ut maD to leave the camp on the Roc,
but finally complied with Lundborg'.
demand. Whm Lundborg returned
and a!tempted hil K cond landin,there,
hill.iraan overtumed and hill alii land
ina gear wu damqed. Now Lundborg
himlc:l( wu detained at ~ Red
Tent' or the time being, althoush he
was eventually
up by Schybcrt
on 6 July.
UnfaYOUBbie weather COllditiont
then ptucuted unhct I!yins and fin.lly
it ..... the
that cot thtouJh the
heavy ice and readied. the Red Tent
camp, 10 liberate the five men remain
in,lhere.. They had borne up patiently
undo- miteBbic co..ditions and at lon,
last wuc rc:liccd. To lOp the i"CICUC by
lIlip 01' the victim. 01' the ainbip diluter






icd. kcr bad,

July, by
Itra.nrc JOOd Iud;
d to _tm
A~ and Zappi rom othe:rwix
CU"Wn death, wbu!. the ......
carried on board wu launc:bcd to ICOIII
01" them and obterved the two wandcr.
ing on the icc. They bad, unfortunately,
had to leave the dying Dr M.J.mven
behind. than, .nd his body was 1lC'o'(;l"




The ;UCated 11111;' Atetic ainhip

oamptditioa was )"CI to ooet additional
liva.. A Ynmeh La'6r:oI.Ie frinI-boat
bad IIown to NOI _y to join the.c:an:b
for ill munben. Wben it len lOin lbcrc,
northward bound on ilSgrim!uk, thU'C
wae aIIo on board, bGidcs ilS crew 01'
three, R".1d Amundsen and the Norwegian Fit Lt Lei( DietricbIro. Wben
At/mooun learned that '' QC,..L.t help in the AIetM; hiI
pall quaneb wac in:unc:diatc1y for.
rotten, and he was delUlL.ined to come
to the R'CO'Ur 01' Nobile and hil men.
But nothing was evct beard again
from 011 No. 47 le,. 1M after thiI
8yin(-bual took. off on ill million of
lliCiey. The R ..i 11 pilot Rabulhkin
and bilJunkcnJ 13 ain::raft, (tom the
icch.. ker MM., wue ro.Ctd down
and spcnt K.aal days on the ice
dunn, their ~ lOr the 11II1i.
1Dcrc remaiN only to lepoet thai,
being raeucd, Nobile WIll discredited and am_ 01' 1IlirkinJ"
duty and failina hiI men. Upon bil
return to Rome, Nobile was courtmartiaIJcd and convicted 01' d.iIbonourlo, hil ...... lfttry. Embittered and broken
in tpirit, Nobile wcot .brotId and
worked fint in the Soviet Union and
then. in the United St.1CI as a consul
tant on, .nd dCliguer of, ainhi ... In
1943 Nobile rc:tumed 10 Italy where he
hOW liva in .echlli -I The OinkS un.
jUlti6able acxutatioDt have been red! I
I and be hal beat granled run




61 Z IP; u. LZ . -, 'G"""Zl pp dl . '

After the 1raull"0" 01' the LZ 126, and.
aIIo 01' the palmi rilhlJ, (rom the Loll
IdLifl1:.u Zcppdin IOAmu ica (ICC No.
~), the futore pwpxa 01' buikIinf
additional ainhi", in Germany looked
anythinf bot bright. To be 1Ul'C, the
Zeppelin worD lli1l ~tcd, bot Dr
fkkmcr bad only the butst number
01' ltaff manbcn len upon hiI return
Iioro the United States. Ilowcooa, wbu!.
the Locamo treaty WIll COi ...hded bethceu BeJsium, Yra.uce and Germany
in 1!p1 theac COUIItriUI mutually
"Iced to bonoo.1t their K.aal fronlicn,
and, what is more, the I'CItriCl)oru on
airship building activilia in Germany
wac abo iCpealed. N bead of the
Zeppelin W(JI ka Or Eckencr lc.t no
time in inaururatinc new ainhip 10
po" 10 the _Id .t Iartc the (euj.
btl.ity 01'
fonn 01' pa lip" KI"vice.
The fint problem confronting hin1 was
01' an economic nalure. The ,0,0111ment cwld Q()( guarantee any financial
....ppot t .. the Weimar Republic f.ted
dilfieultics 01' ill own. So Dr Eckeuct
and a....;.tcs Iauocbu:l. upon an
ULtentive 01' ketora: and once
ltIOie manapd 10 toIicit COillribut....
rom the ....,k and 6ic 01' Germany
dum. 1925 and 1926- EYCI'I the
unaUcst .l"OUnt WIll welmmcd - olten
the COiltributions dropped in the coUcclion bovs weiC litcta1ly in penna yet &t the Iinal COUIIt the IIartioa c:apital
amounted 10
million Wbut
the go,allment finally contributed
anocher I' million marb, the bllildina
01' the new ainbip was ptnntcal..
The hull 01' the LZ 127 bad ,hdct
cunu, but ia outlines -.otiC Q()( tbe
np'imuOl efficiency .ttain.ble, as lbey
had been dictated by .ndl'Cltricted to
the Q%c 01' the abed .vailable (or the
COiIIlruction olthe ainhip.t Fricdric:Nharm. Yet it did not fare too badly by
comparilou with the lh(Wt advanced,
pea:ul-day Nfe:&D1Iined dCIigN. De-



cause the framework wu built of

duralumin the hal'll weight of the hull
wu only '"7,868 lb (~,ooo kg), and
the ainhip Wal capable 0( flying 6,1114
mila (10,000 kIn) with a payload of
:J3,069Ib (I 5.000 kB) at a lpeed of
68 m.p.h. ( IIO km/br). The control
gondola and the p'rcnger ICCtion
were joined and Itreamlined. The
bridge was divided inlO a pilot boux,
a navigation IOOiin ....d radio compartment. Next followed an electrie
galley from wbieb one cnlercd a
Ipaciow drawingroom having four
large windows and equipped with
c:omfortable fumitute, with red curtains
and carpctl. The pauenger acc:ommodation wu
0( thil., in the fonn 0(
IWO rows 0( five adjoining cabi.... with
twin bcrtlu, divided by a c:orridor.
Toikt and waabroom facilitia were
abo provided. There _
a crew of
forty men 10 handle the airship and in
altendance on the normal number of
twenty pasacngcn. The erew kept
watches in three milb.
The .i,"able quantity ofhydros;en in
the LZ 127 wu divided off into sevenlecn separate g:u COnlainen. Inside the
fabric covering IeYCnteen fuel tanb
were mounted at the bottom of the
framework and, contrary 10 urual practice, did not conlain petrol, but were
filled with a new fuel, the 1O-ca1led
'blue gas'. The five engine gondobu
were mounted in meh f..mon that the
traetion 00 the bull was evenly distributed and aoo kept the rear propc:llen out of line of the Ilips~ from
the forwatd ones.
The 8th of July 1928 was Ihe goth
annivenary of the birth 0( Count
Zeppelin, iUld on this date the lil\cy
giant was named 'Graf Zeppelin' aner
him. The ebrialening ceremony was perfonned by tlle daughter of the old airship pionter, Counteu \ '00 Branden.
ltein-Zeppelin. The ainllip made itll
maiden voyage on 16 September, and


three mol'll Ihort flighlliater that ... rne

month. Then, on II OClober, Gra!
<:lPJltli" left on a circuit of Germany of
S~ houts' duratioo, 10 afford aI many
of the c:ontributon all possible a glimpse
in the air of the outcome of tbcir scJfACrifice. For oine Ioog yean tbis airlhip was to rule its element as a true
'queen of the skiet' and a report of all
the nights of the Cra! ZtPJltli" wou1d
alone fill a whole book.. In t928 and
1929 alone, a total of fifty long
distance flights waa acromplisbed by
this ainhip. However, the bigbligbll in
the ouotanding career of the Grll.!
Ztp;di" mait a recording bere.
The a ...iog of the Atlantic, to the
Lakehurst air but ouuide New York,
was the fint long air voyage of Gra!
.<)pptli" in 1929. It lasted from 12 to 16
OclOber and a distance of 6,167 miles
(9,926 lml) was covered in ~II .houR
44 minutes. Out at tea. the ain/lip ran
into a violent Itorm, and DlOII or the
c:overing on the port side of the fixed
tail mrface Wal tom to pieces. Skilled
memben orlbe crew, oDe of them being
Knut &kcner,1OfI of Dr &kener, made
makeshift repairs in the air from their
prariotU holding positions out in the
open. 'The ainhip carried twenty
p,rcogen and a load of 62,000 letlen
on thiI occasion, and with io crew W1III
recei~ and feted in grand ,tyle in
New York during its stay there, which
lasted until 'l9 October. On the return
air voyage 10 Friedricbshafcn another
ltonn wa:I enc:ountercd, which Cra!
ZlPJItlilC once more weathered well, and
the ainbip landed safely at its home
bale after JpCDding 71 hours 51 minutes
in the air on this occasion.
During the following montht Cfll.!
ZIPJltlill made nine fligho over home
territory. Then on "' March '9'29 it
ttl out on its fint MeditClTlU1ean cruDe,
with twenty-nine ptlS$CIlget'l, among
them the German Minister of Traffic,
the presiden t of the German parliamenl

' 9'

and the praidenl of W!lrUernbcrg. A

dmtanc:c of 4.971 miles (8,000 kIn) was
covucd in 8, bout. 2~ minutCl, with
OUt any inlennediate landings, and the
Hightel:tented via Italy 10 Palestine
and back. Next rollowed a dmilar
flight to Spain. Then, on 16 May, the
ainhip headed for South America, but
had 10 cut the trip ahem due 10 the
failure of four of its five engine uniu.
The an.1Ie _ tnloed to IOII'IC newlyinttalkd clutches, which tallied ICYCn:
vibno.tio", wilb enruing fatigue of the
IIccl wbich resulted in Ihaft breakages.
To play safe, the ainhip _landed al
lhe French ai ...hip blUe of Cucn-Picrrcfeu at Toukm, and after rcpain there
Cr.! ZrHt1i" returned 10 Friedric.h.
Thereafter the ainhip telebrau!d
triumphs galore. In I August '929
Cra! Z,,,,,tlilC commenced ill renowned
circumnaviptional air trip, On tbe
fint stage the airship headed for
IAkdllust 10 pick up the pusengen of
Ihe American newsp;lptr maanate
William Randolph Hearst who, jointly
with .arne German ntWIpaperl, defrayed half the CQO ofthil global air ventun:, in return for the aclusivc riSbli
on boanl 10 rcpon iea prog II The
n:mainiog amount derived from the
&ale of ~er lickeea and from pay_
menea from llamp colkcton in many
c:ounttict for the privilege of having
their COVCI"1 (poIu:ardl and CI'lvclopcs
franked with commcmontivc 'tamp!!
and/ or Itruck with IpcciaI cacIlelS)
carried by Grtif <:.tJIptli1l on the variouI
Ilqa of thil flight. The ainhip carried
. '"" .L~_ ~ on .L'.
uog ('>I' "100
and thOlCjoining at Lakehunt included
Lady DrummondHay, as the rcprcICDtative of the Hcant pn:a, thefamout
polar explorer Sir Hubert Wilkiru, the
American ainhip pilot Captain OIarle$
E. Roscodahl, and the millionaire
I Ed .. hUiband or Ihe Grand Duchess
Xenia of Russia. Friedriehshakn _


cotUidercd" the true Iw-ting point 01'


(34.200 km) flight, &I

the airship had returned there from the
Uoited Stat", and on I~ AUlfUlt Grll!
ZIJI/Itli" Itt out on iea worldwide
adventure. The lint stop wu made at
Tokyo, 10 whieb Dr Eckenct plotted a
eounc aao- Berlin, East PrusRa, the
Baltic Stat(:l and Tobob;!. and Yakullk
in Siberia. The ainhip landed in Tokyo
on t9 August, and tbe nexl ltagc, 10
Lot Angel", was covered bctwu:n .,
and !16 Aupot. A rew days later CF4/
Z -H 'Un continued 10 r.akebunt, and
thus eircIu:I the northern hemisphere
in III days ~ bOUJ"l 31 minutes. Both in
Lot Angek:o and New York the airahip,
u well all its uew, were Jhol'faed with
demonstrations of honour, while the
crew wen: feted at a never-cnding
arTIly af c:e.leb.-ation luncbeol1l. On
.. September the Grtif ZtPJltlilC once
mol'll landed safdy in Friedriduthafcn,
but without Dr Eckcner, wbo lIayed
behind in the United States 10 negotiate
a joint German- American Ilinthip
navigation concern whieb later led to
th-c formation afthe American Zcppc:lin
TratIIporI Corporation. On the lut
stlI8e of the global trip the muter of
Grtif Z~i/NIUr WlII EmJl A.
Lehmann, who was tceOnd in eommand
of the ainhip, and this IcgoCthejoumcy
wa:I c:ompleted in 57 houro i20 minutes.
More suttt ful fli8blS followed.
From 18 May 10 6 June '930, the airlhip made a trial run &-om SenIle in
Spain 10 Rio de Janeiro in Btuil, as
lOttrunncr of a rcgulat airline ltrVice
auor the South Atlantic. InJuly 0( the
JIlIIIe year followed a lCa$OOal cruix
with lourists to Spillbcrgen, and in
April 1931 atJOther Mcditemlllcan

There bad been no plans for exploring the Arctic regions with the Gr~!
ZtfllXlin while thiI ainhip was being
built. Dr Etkmer had certain IUCiva
tionI abool the tile of ainhips in the


poW- 6cld _ no doubt 1141.. wu on hia

mind _ yet on 24 July, in Friedriebahafen. be ordered 'Let JO of the bolding lina of et-.j {,1fPf1j' and headed
the airab.ip (or Jod"'I Land 10
rendCZVOUl willi the Soviet iczbh . ker
MitI.1fi'" Thil lime tha-c nue fOrtylilt; people 01\ boanI. !he ainhip, including puty of GernIan and R"Mian
IclmIilIJ. The iccbc-caket ....... mel on
27 July, and amoog thOle pi :nt 01\
the Soviet ~I wac the American
pol... expIortt UntolD Ellnvortb and
the It.alian ainhip cla.igner Umberto
Nobile. et-.j {,tJtlltllitt I'Clted on the
water for .an hour ...hile gTeClinp and
mall WCie excbJngtd, then the airship
.. ' I-ted again, and via T ..r Niehow
II Land, the T.imi r peninlula and
Leningrad, returned 10 Berlin.
no. ainhip accompiilhed many
more: .&it voyagat in the tuoe:: ding
yean. Thu-c WCie flighll 10 G~t
Britain .and the Soviet UDion, and
many abort tourl.t ocu.niooJ.. They .all
contributed 10 a rising 'Zeppelin
(CYCi"'. 'The GrtI"' ....... .an impraaw:
Ii&bt as the ainbip IK*rCd m.ajatkally
.along, borne on the waVCI of the ait......,.,.,n.and lookins:!"or all the WOI"Id like
a buce Niver IiIb.. 'The onlrlcn ltood
IpeUbound on terra firma and envied
llIe few lucky lCIectcd individuak
roamins: the ui ... aIoll
In September 1"3 GrG! .?!/IINfill
began 10 opelate a more or kII
mail and puICf18et IU"Yioe betwt:a.
Rao de Janeiro and either FriedrichtWen or FnllIkfurt-on-Main. I n 1933,
ei.hlCCll II.IdI round tri~ "'Cie eomp1etedj in 1935. Iilt;tCCllj and in 1936,
t..-c1w:. One of the two capt.i.... EmIt
Lehm.ann or Max Pru., eomm.andcd the
ain.b.ip on mo.t of thac tripa. SU1.!o'..a_
rol~ 1W~[Xa.~

But on 6 May 1937, the ".OYUd'C

ainhip to GrGj {,,,,.u... the LZ 1119
HiII.fnhu,. exploded 1.1 Lakehunt (ICC
No. 71). which curtai led the activiti...

of lIIe w:tcran ainhip. The Gr.,j" .?lJll>fI;"

lander! al Fricdriehahafen for the latl
lime on 8 May. Ainhi~ inaaled willi
byditllen "'Cie DOW conAdcrcd 'danand the Uniled Stats bad a
mOilopoly on the we (and Itntcgically
important) hd.iwn. For tome yean
Gr.! Qp;.li" w:u laid up in ililhed at
the Rhein- Main air bax outaidc
Fnnkfurt-onMain, ill p i ccI.b deflated, and JerVCd as a mUlCWll picc-e
wbieb wu vic.ed by many viliton..
The vetenn ainbip could look back on
a long cana lJ*IU'ing fiw: hundred
and ninety ll.igbll. It bad rpenl a toW
of 17, 178 boun in the air.and covemt
a diawu:e of I ,o53,'Sg mib (1.6g~1l71l
lurt) while carrying about 16.000 paying
and ..til!icd ptnmgen in .all. The
GrG! {,lJIfItlitt was finally brokUl up in
May 1940> when !he tame rate abo

.a. . . '

befell llIe bnnd new LZ 130

~iII II. evaI though the btter


oo1y flown on very few OCC'I"iona.

51url6cadon of LZ




",08,040 cu.1i



Iii '


7762~ Ii (1136.6 m)

Diav/tr: 1()Ool Ii (30.~ m)

.&,i1lU: Fiw: 5Bo h.p. Maybaclo
VL II Iwdvc.cylinder
U#fol t-/: 160,937 Ib <7,,000 kg)
including: a payload of 33.069 Ib
(I~ooo kg)
Mm-l;td : '9~ m.p.h.
( 128


Cr.isi"l'J-l: 68 m.p.h.
( 110 bn{hr)
MIIXimMIII r"r (with only four
engin... running all the time):
7t4$fi mil ... ( 12,000 km)


The Brid.b ~H.~ r

dnhl~ R 100 and R IDI
After the R 38 dil.,ter in August 1921
(_ No. ~2 ) , it w:u decided to dilband


the BriLiah military ainhip ICCtion of

the Ro,..l Air Fortt, .and 10 w.pend
all fwther ainhip devdopment work.
The Brilish governmenl, howe-oe did
not wish 10 ICC all ainhip activit;'" len to
other nauDnI, and wiIIlhcrcforc open to
Ullertain piotx*t>ona for commercial
u<ploitation of thil type ofain:raft. I n
1!p2 Cnmmanda Dennil Bumey,later
Sir Dennilioun Burney, adVlUKled a
promising .cherne of .ainhip ICrVioeJ
linking the variouJ paru of the Brilish
anpire. The pI.aru called (or lubltantial
.... btidi ... and wuc aitic:iIed lCVCI"dy by
the Labour govenuneot. an
u<tauive polilical tug-of-war and
1)1" :d upon a wiele-ranging u<perimen_
tal programme with tellI (lI)D(iUCled by
the Air Miniltry on R SS, among other
aircnJI (ICC No. ~I ) , the dcciJion _
made 10 build two large airshipa. One
of than, the R 100, _ to be built ill a
private enla ..... ile by Sit- Dennilloun
Burney'l own eoneem, the Airship
Guarantee Co. al Howden (in which
finn Vicken held a inlUUl)j
the other airship, RIO., w:u to be
built at the go_ailment ainhip worb
al Carding:ton. Thil expIa.inI why they
wea promptly nicknamed I ... pccuw:ly
the 'Capitalilt Ainbip' and the "The
Socialist Ainhip',
While thac ainhi~ W'trC in the
planning I.age the Air Ministry w:u
charged with the orpnisation of an
ain.hip route from London to India
with.alloec try &bedI, moorins: mull,
weather It.ationl and 10 on.
It wall ... timated that the two air
Ihipa wo,dd be completed in five ye.ara,
but the d ... is:nen of R 101 lOOn Bn
into eo<Uc. lDap from bureaucBtie
officialdom and Ullalled-Cor interference from officiab at .all levels.. At
the time lhe enginoen 1.1 Carding:ton W'trC on their guud apirut the
prolusion of instruetioolto iDOOi pontte
all kindl of new (and in molt cal'l
.... pcr8\1OU1) pdgeu. The lpecilicatlons

ror R . 00 and R .01 wac idmtical,

yet lhe outcome wu bound to differ
.as their two d.,.;gnen, 8. N. Walli. and
Lt Col V. C. Richmond ftSpectivcly,
worked wilh varyinaorganisationJ. The
R 100 had the best air performance.and
was of Iimpli6ed construction, ill
d~ being convenlional; the R 101,
on the other hand, w:u the more inICl"'Cltin. in ill l.ayout, and ....... of
IUpel lor workm.anlhip. A common
(ca.un: of both ainhip. ..... their limplified and luooger framework by

eompariaon wilh the Zeppelina; abo. their paMICJlfCi" ICCtionI wac
illWipontted inside their hul .... Bulany
similarity bet...een than .aIIo mded
there, ror right &om !he ltan the R 10 1
turned out 10 be a eomplete Cailun:.
III maiden voyqe on 14 October 1929
clearly revealed thai the ainhip _
dans:erously over-..-c:ight and underpow~, Mer the ainhip had made
tUl 8ighll il wu deci<kd to Ieng:then it
by n (14(12 m) and 10 rebuild
(though DOt to lighten) the engin ....
The rebuildillf w:u completed by
Il~ September, by wbkh time the RIo.
had CCltI the Britiah tu:paya- more than
1,000,000, and Mill the md was DOt
in siehl.
The altentionl WCi"C a qualified 1110CCII, but lOOn new probIUI1I elDaged,
The c:ovcring had a tendency to tear !he lame thing: ....... 10 happen l.ater
with the R 100 - and lhe elevatof1
OCC'Ilionaily tome Ullurplained
and dangaOUI control eomplicatioru.
Meanwhile the privaldy-built R 100
had demotUtBted ill s:ood ainhip
qualitieJ. On 16 Dec;:.ember 1929 it _
cautiously takm oullide ililhed by four
hundred IDIdien, and made ill maiden
voyage Cor which it had already been
trimmed beforehand. It proved \'eI)'
Ii&ht and everything ...enl well. The
ainhip completed ill trial rum and
there ...111 little that n-ecded to be
eh.anged.. Then, on 29 July Igso, the


IclI. Itl

btU-. pi'

I d Cor time, it was eut down

to 17 hours. Tbeo. when the R 101
eventually Id\ ila moorinr mut "
Cardincton on what wu to be iu lint
and 1ut mmm;-j""ed flichl. _
the udd'!lll chaplert in the bitt}' of
ainhip devdopmcnt wu written. An
OYtI""med uew, in an unlinilbcd air
launched into an altocetha pootly
pbnned ftiaht of an tnOi
11 j ..t bad to ipCl1 diUter, and the
6nal c:awtropbc c:a..... tcrrifyincly


rnut a t Quo..
WIlII\OG and, with ae ... of 42 rom
and with
~ on baud, llet
counc lOr Monuul wxla the com.-nd of Sqn Ldt R. S. Booth. The
ainhip meW Mootrcal on , ..... upM
and the oat}< 1&.... .,..,.111 of peril occutn:d
wbile the R 100 _
r 7,i nl -\on( thc
51 La" i ~ river and ran into
vioknt local thundentorm. 1bc Ilinbip
pi.ciwd and mlkd creal deal. 50011)(
'<.tt' wut 10m m...., ca'UUlIUIcm.,
ot:.c rw ;'- I.bc ainhip -"'ined no raJ
dama&e. thanks CO iu .tronc aJntUvO.
tion. Dutq i .. .tay in Canada ,M
R 100 Bc:w to Otta_ and TorOPto; ;.
then a e i .1 the Niapra Fait. and
Dew __ the .... tc of New York. 'The
ainhip _
t.dr; in Eqland on .6
Aup. af\cr Ye:Y .... .w tnp.
While the weabound trip had luted 78
bows 51 minutes, the return trip _
w:complishcd in )6 boun SO rnmulca,
with the _Istance of tailwind.
Aftc:r lh_ tWO -mp olthe Atlantic
the ainhip had wdl-dCO(; , .cd rat in
its Ihcd a t Canlil'llton and then _
tborou3bIy overhauled in prt...,..tion








The air f 7 at _ IOUlbem Ene

land wu dow and diffieull. One of
the enaiM:l IOOfI bad to be atopped lOr
tql&in. The R 101 wu "'kinl and

aln:ady ., heavy when !'nehi .... the

Fl uocb eoul WI ila ehana:t even ol
tetuminc .rely to Caniinston under
the inc:rcu:Uta;1y impGl'ibk weather
c:ondi tioru ml.lll ha\"e be.... nil. n.e
(:(lffimandu- of the R 101, Fit La H . C.
I rwin, and hilt OEW oll"otty-one m('ll
mUfllh('ll already have had their lrave
doubu abou t the behaviour of tbe ai,.
ahip. 'Tbu1: ViU E 10m( promill('llt
p" toilE" on board ioduWlII the
Bri tilh Air Min.ter, Lord TbomWWl ;
the DireelOl" of Civil Aviatioa. Sir

rortt,.... ..;n. Ior:lc-diltanoc

Meanwhile the PCiiCWlrlC1 a' I.bc Air

Miniltry p:oddtod the ~ lUI!'
of the R 101 and wpd thttn 011. 'The
Britiah " ,'U lUncIl t waf .,." 10 have
thiI ainhip inaupntC the pIanDed
route 10 India in Occoba" 193 1.
Apinat the better judctnenl of the
r~ at tbe yard they rd\IC.tanUy
! CpOI led the ainbip ready. Some or !he
~ bad their Ine doubtt in &hit
IUI,eet. but kept Rlau about it. The

tested at rull
DOC' linda unfaY'OUl'&hk_ther
"' __til__ n.e airthip _
due 10
d-pnn lOr Ismailia and Kanchi on Sat.
urday October 1931, but lint a trial
run _
lIl.ucucd in hebe that date.
ThiI ought 10 have been ol at Ic:ut
... boun' duratioa but. C\oU ,body

R 101
Ipt c:I,



~ b



\'It Sefton Bn!l('rn; the [)ire,euw 01

AiidUp ~t, WI Cdr R. B. B.
Oolmore; and \be I70rmer commander of
\be R S+. Mt,joc C. H. Scott, wbo wu
itt charee 01 thiI air E' I....titian. What
CY'U' their inro; I IU(III. tMol(lhu. the
El'Itin c:ompluilUlt kept their l"ediop
to thcmIttva and dilpla)-cd no QUt
wanal," 01 brio( doonthe:aru:d. Alter
CIIjoyioa an .,...lIml dinner- in the
elaborate dioioe baU they pthued in
the IfI10kc loom and Ii, their cipn,
DOt man,. Ittt away 60m SA' cells
filled with hydrogen. '111m at midnirlbt
they retind to theircomfortabk Ik:epins
c:abild. relieved 10 haVE left the Enllilb
CtanneI behind them. On the bridrt':,
011 l he other- hand, the officcn wue


","Oll ied,

ror the IU'OD(U'" the pie l i E ....

the more IinQ)tllrollabk thr; R 10 1
At I.SOa.m. the ainhip pillFt11 Saint
V.!ery-wr-Somme in Franc:e at ,udI
low altilildE that the ro.r r"ocII iu
,trainine: UlIma rriptcncd villac'mt
OUI 01 their beda. to tumble or daah 10
the windows lOr a akywan:i,Ianoe. Si.K
milett ( 10 km) (unhc:r on the R 101
oel l Ld~, where the inhabitana.
',",Ie mnvinocd thai the boo
wue eoinc 10 be: tom oft" .. the Fanl
VEllCI pill ' .d w,wOY'U'bnd in the pitchdark nichl. It wu now Sunday, ~ Oc:toher, and on board tbe ainhip the
walcb W&I ehanred b tbe aa.t time at
2 m. Nine mmulet later the ainhip
hit the (rOUIld at very Ihallow IIllSIe
AI Allonne, Iltar Beauvais. Mer a
llia;ht "'ip the Riot U'Nbcd 'Pin and
broke asunder. For one .. h,'Id e\'(l1'"
IhinS wu qu>et, th('II huae Dame
,hot Api ... t the rain douds .nd hoi
low boo:>m IOUndcd thrQuSh the ....lIey.
The R 10 1 had perilhcd. So had thole
who dnigncd it, .nd the officen who
had pmblcd on euidins the .inhip 10
ill datination. Only cislo! meiilben of
the erew ( tWO 01 whom di! of their
injuria Ihortly afterwardl) .....-viYCd the
immediate disaster, whic:h COIC the li\"a
of rorty--eit:ht men in all. TIte IUlYiYOR
had been IUtioncd in the rear ensine
pMIoIa.nd the miracle that kept them
alive in the inferno of the 6ueel,..
buminl ...."Itafe _ the tiiltigtllc y
"""'Ier '-".., taolt whidt .111.1: I rwin
had emptied in luI d . 1,, 14te .ttempt
10 AYE hil doooTocd ainhip.
Thit di",ter was. Ie\IErt blow to the
Britirh rYtion .nd the public: lata
derived little _1iIlaC:UOa &om the
invaliptions 10 cttablirh the c:a~
of the calamity. The 1l('It.tal aul'" were
nE\'U pinpointed bu t a U colV:!. DLd
.. eie in
that both human
and ell .... '1 had been COIltn
bulinc fat;ton,. The IllS, OdEI' of any
Brililb inlcrtll len in the buildina of


large ainbij had been extillJUished

lOr ....,.t. S tep! were even taltrn to
endicate rompletcly all tracet of pul
work in thit Seld, (or the R 100, the
old and dea::rvin( Alter ainhip of
R 101, _
dismantled inlO Imall
CCIIllpooUlla and thae remaiN "'tiE
IlatlCDLd with .lteamrOIlcr and 1IOId ..



tloa of


(t,n,2-+B eu.m )
u.,tA ; 709 ft (216-1 m )
p; 4,,"; 133 ft (40 ~ m )
&,;...- Si.K 670 b.p. RcXb-RO)'Ct
II ;

ec.w.. Il IB twclvo-eylindcr
U.fol 1Nt: 160,000 Ib ( 72,)70 q )
including payioMl of Jb
(2+.948 q )
Man- slt'.- 81 m .p.h.
(I,o km/ht)
n..,.: ,,600-50000 mile;

P4' ,""",: 100

511 -16~lio .. of R .01 '

Y"," II: s.5OO,ooo cu.ft
( 1ss.74S ('\I.m)
u..,1A: 777 n (1,&8 m )
Di-ur: I" n (40"54 m )
&t'-': FIVe)8) b.p. BcartImcH'e
Tornado Dietel eicbl-qlioder
U.fiJ 1Nt: 160,000 Ib (72"s70 q )
iocludina payJo.d of

M.w if ' :

74~ m .p.b.

( t 20 Itmjhr)

Rap: S,600-5,OOO miIeI

(5079~-8,* km)

All the





Id d ZM<A
The ZMC.2 (a:rial number t\8t82 )
built by the MElaleiad Ainhip



t OO

diritible at all. ,..:t the rlmi,nOi had
tho. problem well under control by
...... "' 01 eilht bed
""-'"ted 10m(:
way IOrwanI on the Ilem part 01 the
modal mvdopc:o RuddO'l"ae altached
to four of than and elevaton 10 lhe
otben, all eighl movable AJn"CCI bein,
01 the balanced type.
TIle ZMC-2'1 performance _ ned
kilt th""'lhout ill 'P"" 01 len yean of
op.... ation, and it wore out ill ori(in.l
toSinct, which .. ue repbocd by new
ones. The ainhip W&I in the air for the
WI lime on 19 A~t t939. the tenth
anniVU'lat)' oIilllint trial fligbt. After..
wards variouIletll ,"a c condUCled with
it on the vound and il _
broken up in I!MI.

Corpoe.tion ("....... Iy the AircnUt

De",jopeueDt Cotponotion) in Detroit,
MK:hipa.1t WIll a noteworthy innovation. in alnbip build;ng aDd, altboo.h
it WIll datiMd for the U.s. Navy, its
dcsicnation ...... at variance with the
_,.1 J\OUtCI1Clatun: praaXle. 'MO'
.tood Sur'Metal O'd' and the fiIure '2'
indicated the p i content, which ........
200,.000 N.n (5.663'4 N.m).
The balloon envelope wu reirOOza.d
with ri" on the in.kie and conveyed
the impo ion that with thil Itructure
the alnhip belonged to the rip;! type,


.. theenvdope _ made: oImany smaU

'AkJad' duralumin Ihecta 01 0-08 in
(2 mm) thick,_ ,joined~. Yet,
like the 'Blimp", ZMc.::t _
a noDriIid ainhip in whic:b the 1M' :!e 10
mamtain the
01 the envelope ......
aaXllllplilhed by inbtion 01 two bal!oneil imide the mvelope. The ainb.ip
_ fi1Ied with bellum and the p WIll
in direct contact with the envdope, and
nol contained in .pecia.1edk. The metal
a'l\'dope _
made gu-tigbt through


v...: lIOO,OOO cu.ft

Cs.oo,4 cu.m)

Lntttlt: '49 n 5 in (45'54 m)

m-In: 52 fl8in (16'05 m)
}'(~liJIu., ~fWil.J: t2,2.5" Ib

a .pee;.1 manuCaeturing Pt(- - Ai whereby a machine ckvelopod for the purf)(*

au~dcally ~ the Ibin alumi
nium alloy plalel with three millioa
riveta. Pttluopo ill Cipc:1alion can bell be
deoen'bcd .. a kind oC ltitdl JCWing with
a metal thread bring cut continuO'"ly.
The Airaan DeveJopmcnt Cot pot ation_fon ..edfortheopo PWIoC pm:lucinr an ainhip with thiI noveJ
fealure, and the cIaign and developmen t 01 Z Mc.::t bqan in 1922. By
1!I'l6 the Navy _
..tilficd that.n
ainhip 01 thil n.ture _ feuible, and
ordered one aampk. ZM C2 m .de ill
maidm voyage on '9 AUCUtt "929. and
_ a.c:cepted by the U.s. Navy one
monlh laltt.
I n lhe air, the uilllNiil ntio 01 diameier to kRf1h 01 thill .inhip wu con
ipic:uouI. lIS upecl _th.1 oIa plump
A ....
and many pot09&e .. tie 01 the
opinion thai ZMC-2 would DOt pOilt


("''' 'o)

UMfoI '-' .. 150 Ib (540 q)

&,WI: Two 2~ b.p. Wricht
J ~ Whirlwind .cvcn-cylinder


had Nt'" rlilly .... cd .. air IOOUII . t

- . and in Ihadowin.g lhe German IIIIbnw'iDet dwin& the war. ThiI inducaI
the U.s. Navy in 19'1 aDd 1918 10
Oil det sixteen ain.bip of the B cJ.a. 01
whic:b Goodyar _
10 b"ild 8., 10
B-9, Goodrich B-IO 10 8-, ... and Con
........irut AiruW\ B-15 and 8-16. T'bey
woe dclivcacd between JIUIC 19 ' 1 and
J uly '9 18. Goodyeu latd' ~built t1uee
of thcte ainh ipt, which wae then ~
~tcd B- I 7 10 B- ' 90 and also buill
a lIe. a and 1artcr detign, the 8-20.


had a betler pcrformancc. Their dcsiin

_ " I d UpOl1 the Britilh rypa thai

On I D -lIIbcr "9:ti. C-, _

lim ainhip in the woe Id 10 be Sown
filled with hdium.. J-IeDCdOrth this type
01 ... became thelltandard and ..... utcd
oam.;vdy in.1I American military airlIhiJII-

51! I -lflmtJollll or the B cine

(Good year)
V'L,"'" 71.000 cu.f\
(2,180-4 cu.m)
LnvIA: l60n (48'77 m)

The lint of the ... ia oC 8-d.. ainhipt,

the B-1, made ill m.iden voyace. on
30 May 1911. two '" h af\er the
United StalCi decl'red war 0I'l Ga-

One 100 h.p. CurtisI OXX-2



eipWyiiDdct watc:r-ooo&o'"
(72 bn/hr)

The Buffalo and HanunoMspo. ,

(New Yon) planlS 01 the c:uru.
Aernplaoe aDd Motor Co. built _ I
01 the and copc. for the
8-d.. ainhiJII- T'bey ,"oe just lii4!:htly
moxIificd aeroplane ft I rl*p with two

8Cp&I'&le cockpiQ. Bcfwe long their

wheeled undcrcarria(et were rq>laa.d
by air-fUlcd Botation hap. TIte Good
yar CO..",,, abo provided the tn.min,
Cacilitia and had dtatze 01 the prothx:.
tion oC hydrogen b fillin&' thme air-


Tbe B cIaa woe b.tnd 10 be reliable.

aDd wdI JU.itcd 10 their I'Ih On .,

65 n.. B das, alnbJp' or the u .s.

The U.S. N.vy .cquired ill fint
'mimp' in 19t5o Thil anall nonrigid
ainhip bore the original dalgn.'ioo
ONI. and _lata' called the A-daa.
Company ... ' I upun Gc:nnan and
AI.IIlrian intdlicwce and peo.ed a
failure, cbicBy becaUIC il was too heavy.
The B cwuinhipl oC the U.s. N.vy

live up and Jandcd in Naorbtndland

wbere it lOR from ill II'ICIOIinfp when a
Itonn arwe, and diuPi I red ClUIIO_.

leut two 01'"'"'-. ainhipe 01 the B

cJ.a. detected and bombed Gumari
IIIbrnarlna who had been despatched
10 mine the variouI ah.ippiil( I'OUICI
from the port oC New York.
n-e goud i'ef\l11i encouragtd tlte
U.S. N.vy 10 Ofder tm ainhipi oC the
improva:l 0 cJa. in September 19 18.
They .. ele to Ulpge the Gennan 1Ubmarina in wl.n wal~ but tlte
war ended hdfw.e any oC than we~
mmpktcd. In l.1ay 1919 one oItbclc
small ainhipt, the C-,5, made a
auempt 10 IxcOoII:x: t.bc lim ainhip 10
dOli the Atlantic. Ancr ba...... lltaya:l
in the air Sur 2,5 bouts the C-,5 bad 10

0fJIrati-I mlu.,:

,,000 n

(2,15,5 m)
&dr_: a.ppp"",=" ,6 houn
66 The Caaal)'Iu 8eu or adn .....
tlN1 alnbJp'
I" 1925 the Goodyc:u ",",p'ny
do jeW 10 IIart the build"", oC a IIcct.
oC an. 1I non-ricid ainbipl for the tn.inire 01 ac.... and lOr cxperimcntaJ pur_
l" , inc.hriing pNIeofU' and adVU'tising fticbQ.
This do. ' Mi _ b.1 ~d on the ..... nd
re&JOIlin& tha, the Goodrcar ",",pany
.tood a good ch'Ol'" oC abo ieadm, the
way wbat Jarrc rigid ainhipl .. uc 10
be devdo-;..:d in the futW'e. .. ita
opcaimce pined from building: mooc
than one bundrtd;l and tcmirigid ainhip' WOlIId be 01 IOInC con1Cq'1C1lCe. The air-mindcd lOp ~
ment look into consideration that after
the delivery oC 1M lI..,d.. 10 the U.s.A.
(ICe No. !Ill) Germany wu Otdued to
disband the Zcppc:lin ainbip worb in
complill.nce with the talill 01 lhe
ArmiItioe. The uJ)'bot "wid be thai
theit lltaff 01 Ul&inecn and technici._

' ..

would be: katturo, and it Goodyear

wQ e ) ac:quin: theif uoiqu.e .... pa juICe
and lkil! thi. ()Or\(%I'D could do!:ninate
the ainhip 6dd. The nqotiationa to

__ "

th ........ "' E-.-- ...... In an

men! ligned by the Amttiean go.Ubmen! with the Ze~in Luftxbiflbau
in Jo'~en in I !r-I4. Goodyear
acquiral the Zeppelin pIIlenlS, tofIetha
with the rpeci,l equipment olthe worb
there, and enppd .. DUcJcu. of the
nafF beaded by the chid' engineer, DzKarl Amttein, COl" its newly-I'ormed
.ublidiary Goodyear-Zeppelin Corp.,
later renamal Goodyear Aircraft Co.


The U.s. Navy followcd thett develop.

menu with inten:tt, and wbcn the new
ainhip conccm wu Conned they made
advancel and began to wort band in
hand with it.
N already mentioned, Goodyear
wanted fint to pin IDOK experience
from the opualion of amaJl airship'
before tackling larger .;u... t til fint
oompany-owncd airship, the 35.000
cu.n (99'-1 c::u.m) I'fW!1 B/i.." dated
back to 1919- Now, in JWy 1925~ became the finl unit in the IIcet
of Goodyear ainhipa. I I was 611ed with
hdium, u .11 later ones have been
Pi"",,, was abo the lint non-rigid airlhip with an cndoted gondola au.ehed
directly to the envelope. Th..iI anaU airthip became known as An.aic:a', fint
'air yacht' and hopa ran high tha'
wcalthy ipOI"tSI1lerI misht come I"orwud
as protpeetivc buyen of mot'e ol them
for their pCilOllai UIe. Pi/rri.. made ..
total of +65 ftighb before being donated
10 the N.tmaJ Air MUIeUlI1 of the
Smitluonian hutitulion in Washilllton,

came next, in AUIUII 1!J28,
followed in 1929 to 193~ by liflUjGPr,
Vip Uml, VolIaUm', fh/rrukr, Rdim" and
IWol.k, the twO
for "'n fta-T a nd Vip"",l when they
became oblolete. CPb' J .., &wqriM
and Rat,., ",cae the wt three ainhip

wt ..

O(!hit ~iu. Dtj-w ...... the I\agJhip

0( thill fleet of ainhipt. lu enw:\opc
held 17B,ooo eu.ft (S,040"4 a...m) of
belium and. it eo.. 1e! cany 10 ~
while !be other ainhipi had ICIltiDf
capacity for Ax. J),fDllkr was Iattt
acquired by the U.s. Navy (and
dc:Asnated O-I )i ':' were, in February
1942,lUIi_, RIMIhtU, btIn;riJt., R.,,.,
and one more ' Blimp' , R.:tdolt', all of
them beinS t-t 10 train naval ainhip
aew. with 'L' &I the letter designation
of their daa (ICC No. 72),
Special motor vehlda were u.ed for
mooring theae ainhipi and to move
them about on the ground. Afttt the
ainhip had been IOOOCed the vehicic'S
had provision for a 560" rotation, th Ull
enablilll them to follow the mo.:emen u
of !be ainhip.
DifkrUlI manufacturinS peoecdure.
",ue adopled for theIe ainhiJl', and
both lhe materials and engines uxd
rould alIo \'Ilry from one to lhe o~.
A number of envelopes of diffuUlt
lius might abo be experimented with
for an ainhip during iu Iilelime.
Prior to World War 2, Goodyear',
lleel of advertising ainhipi had canied
a totalofaboul 4OO,000p'rmgcnwithout any milbapt., which speab voIumea
lor the ~er of their design.
Spe -i6cad o n o f the Goodyea r
aJrt;hlp ' Pll, rim'
y<tll<lJW: ~7,OOO cu.ft ( 1,614' 1 cu.m )
W I lli : 11 0 ft ( 33 ' ~ m)
~ln : 32 I (9'75 m)
&Ii,.. : One 60 h.p . 1..a ...TeIlu
CttIisi,., spud: 37 m.p .h.
(60 km/hr)
1Wttc: 400 mila (6+1 km)

67 AUJ'Ule Plccard - the COD '

queror of tJae . t .... t" phere
Around 1930 !be free balloon, the
veten.D amana: the various types of

aircraft.f'II..ioTed alma'
to ascenu to hi~

-DCein rqanI
altitudea. TItil became feuible &I the
rault of a nurnber of impeo_auenb,
ap"'i-Ily to whal literal.,. had been
the 'ha,ket', Thia ......... 1 that a Cree
balloon now could climb.:.rne 16,4"" n
(s,ooo m) ab..'C the cei.linp of the
aaoplana of that pu;oo,
Oneolthe milO avail himM:lf ofthill
new type of baUoon wu AUfUlte
Pienrd, a native of Swi~land, who
in t9'2!t had bocomc proCe.or of pb)'lia:
at the lechnical coIlqe in Bm I
Pia:atd Jpt'" ialDtd in the Jtudy of ~
mic ray., and in thY field wu joioed
by bill twin brother,Jean Pkcan:I, alaoa
pbyaidtl. h far hack. .. 1915 the two
brothen had made t.l1oon al""'I to
an altitude ofaboul 10,000 It (3,000 m)
to meuure atmolpberic ph W'CL
With financiallUPport &om a Belcian
foundation for the. promotion of .ei....
tific raeareh, Auguste Picard in laler
yean made a Durnber of"lloon ateenlS,
theuah nooe of them wu of any particular aviation qrufica1'O".
With the PUWlenot characleriatic of
thk diJtinctive a:icnliat, bol'tC'.e;, Piocud by 1950 commanded suflicienl
InOO1CY to order a "I>"" i1 t.l1oon hom
the Riedinger company in Anp
I n nxogdition of the IUpport &twn the
Fond Nationale de la Rechercbe
Sodcntifique, he named thia balloon
F.}{.R.s. Itl gondola ...... made of
aluminium. in the -.hapc of a t-lI, and
immediately attracted world-wide at
teDtion. However, an -teenl on 14 Scptcmlx:r 19!O to an altitude of ~,soo rl
( 16,000 m), planned by Picard and bill
aailtanl, Dr Paul Kipfer, was a complete failure, u the balloon .Imply
rd'UJed to lea,'C the ground, and he beeame a laUfhidf-ltock. His appcarana:
wu againlt him and il did not help
mallen either thai on this ........ Qon he
and hit OOfDpa"ion had tumed up
~ bdmeu with

wickermatl and padded wilh pillowl.

By galenl COIKlCNUI they were now
IfoOdy COIIIidered 0 .." mria.
On 117 May 1951 , however, tbe
ridicule CC3'ud. A new t.l1oon envelope of 4-98,991 cu.ft ( 14, 130 cu.m)
capKily CMily and imP' ive.,. 1iftcd
lbe buaid.>ca1Iy--scd .pherical
doIa with iu automatic oxflen aupply
from the atarting ground al Aupbura:
in Bavaria. In 50 min\ltet the two
KK:nlil .. had riIen to 5t .775 ft (1~781
m). Durin( the de. :ulI the '-J1oon
iOUthwani and the two
men disco~tied thaI their car had
developed .. "ight leak thfllll8h which
air cteaped ilowly, but this cawed no
.edoUlI trouble. Bul their landing at
niahl in the iI'IOW'<Ovued waRoCI of the
Oberwwl:l iCdion of the Tyrolean
AlP' wu quite dramatic. Piceanl. and
Kiper managed to reach an iababited
an:a, bul they had to leave the .. noon
Ul~dope and. goadoJa behind and were
not able 10 lew.'U' l bern. unlil the
following year. By good rortune all tbe
iwtrurncDlS, including the ionisalm
equipmcllt b mcaruring ..... nic ray.,
wac illtacL Necdlcu 10 "y, after hit



Piocard Wal aoclaimcd

the conquaw of the ItratOlJlbere.


Yet the atablitbed altitude IttOId

feillhort of hit aim of 5!t,soo fl ( 16,000
m),.:. Piccanlat once planned anothtt
aiCU\t. A DeW and improved gondola
..... buill, which unloclWlately ..... 10
alit the liYGJ of IWO of hill -utanb
wbm a Iell IIlOdd npiockd in the
wbhop whiM: an nperimcnt .......
being conducted .
On 18 AuguJt 19]2 Pian:l ""as
ready to UCCIld IIPin, thill time from
Diibcndorf airport at ZUrich where
!O.OOO ipCCtalOn WCI'e in a llendan.
l'iccard took off carty in the morning
and thit time was accompan ied by Or
Max Co.ym from Sn.cb, ox)'Sm 10
lut the two men iOr
houri, provi-


Aono lOr



da,.., and radio equip-

_II, . .lha- with Alpine GUlfili lOr

Ibc lWO 1IIoeD. N the "'Iloon fE Cfelldcd.,
Sw...... "loC 0;: CO' ted it to a.a alEitude of 908,500 n C5,ooo m). Thereafter
the IWO men .. oe left to :.heir own
~ They radioed hat .11 _
well, in lIPite of he penetntilll mid,
wilen lbey had uoended. to an altilude
of)II,.500 n ( :6,000 m). At) p.rn. the
next day the ~bitanll olP=:cbien on
be _them IboR oll .Ire Cania in
Italy 11im~ he ,-Uoon, and 10M it
~ 10 land.. "The altimelO' aqis
IEft:d pioof ol the otabiiebtl)CQt ol be
new .lilOOe record ol .s4t 78g n
(:6,700 m).
N befitted. celebrity ol his rank,
Pt.,. w Pic:anl DOW klctwui, but he
OCIOO' te I Jtered he Mrai.,~_ 'e.
When Ii.:rtbc.- '-11000 dLjkl :menll disappointed him hiI: intuut _ direeIo;I
ill the oppoeitc direction and he look
to deep II. diving and underwater re_reb.
twin brother Jean carried
on with b.lloon _1110 hiah altitudet
after <'migrating to the Uniled States.
and on one ol thae triP'. rom Detroil,
he PM) (Y(;cIcd on S October 19$4 in
beaunc the : ec:ord of hiI brotha
AyCIIIte by nearly 11,11)0 n (68) m)
as he reached a.a altilucie of )1,.",1 n
(11"&) m). He __ on thit or. u
Mmpanicd and ...ilted by hiLI wile,
Jeanette, who thus be<:arne the fint
woman 10 penelnlle the Itntolpben:.
Only the R,,-i'n woman astronaut
Valentina Terahir.ova has ltaycd
Iongn', and futtba Otil, in" ce , ThiI
0CI;'lIn"ed with he Vo.tok 6 'PI tcaaft


in Ig&,.

6S '11M strala.phe... "Uun

'EqJlore.r II'
The finl Amoiean attempt to .Kwd
into the .tntOlpbac with a fru balloon
__ made on 20 I: November 1933.


'-'loon, ol Good)-eAr

mWo, _
m.nned, by Major C. L. .'ortlDq and
Lt Cdr T. C. W. Settle wbo lid an

Am iean alLiI'" h ....wd ol )4,61) n

(:6,~ m).
A new ..wid', allilude rcc:ofd __
atabiilhcd in the Soricl Union in
Ja.n~ :m wbm the '-Iloon 0_
lliattiMNCCndcd 10 111, :18 n (u,ooo m)
but during the da:cent the EaI' Ion
kxl: and a 'bed. The three OCCUjl&nll



On 118 June 1934 the Ameriea.nJ

..,.in .ttempted to improve upon the
..wid'. altitude iuxwd in a joinl VUl
ture ol the U.s. Army Air Corp aDd
the National C:"'i, aphieal Soeiety in ....lOO. D.C., which paid lOr the
&,1",: I JltaIOlpben: I:NlUoon ol
3,000,000 cu.n (8t.9): cu.m). Manned
by My;.. W. &. KepnQ' and Captaina
A. W. StevoD and O. A. Ar&IOII, it
had rcvbcd a.a altinlde ol 60,000
(18,188 11,) - a new Amokan .OEd when from down inside !heir t.J1.
thaped rnetalllO"dola the ae.. noIiecd
an C'\ -wideni", lear in the: t.J1oon
envelope. All over the UDilro Stato.n
~ public: lilteDCd 10 the runnin,


ol the: three: aeronauu.

tontmilted diteetJy by radio &om the
s<--iola .. they bepn tbc:it pailou.
desc""" AI an altitude ollOme 6,.500 n
(11,000 11,) the mvdope tore apart COInc:ommc:ntaries

pkEdy and !he ~. co:nmenctd to

pJummel to the: """,'Dd lib: a 'lOOe.

II lexlked like a : epetition ol the aimilar

RUMi.n d~IO', but al hat very
iDltant the throe men coolly lOOk 10
:.heir pa.radwtea and m . . . .~ to land
The foUowinI year SIE\"UII and
ArOOIOil iepcated :.heir attempt 10
climb bill!;Q' than anybody die bel
manaccd 10 bdOte. Jn the IlUmmer of
:m a new ,ianl '-11oon, the F.xpiMtr
11, was rcad>ed at a lpCCi.1 camll, Ihe
'Stnto Bowl' ncar Rapid City in Soulh
Dakota. I II cubic capacity amounted
to ',7CO.000 cu.ft (:04.712 cu.m) and
il had a diameter oll92 n (,sa')11 11,).
The en""lope __ rnacle d : :.s.9I7

...n ('0,110 tq.m) ol ruhoberitcd Cabric.


equi .....ent _
the ElIOIt
compktc: yeI, comprilina hundreda of
inM.nJmenu and pieca olappa.ratus lOr
JCiulti/k P'UPCW' Amonr the INitten
10 be invctti,ued woe fivc dilfuent
forms olbaclrn. and diK. ol planll.
When eumined lata in labcntorics
thae cultuna "'o:e IOund 10 be viable
at hiab alliwd.. It acan:dy need. 10
be added WI ""' boanf the tondola an
air-<oolditionin( unit and the ~..eIt
atyk: of uri0' ~Ien 'NE:e inItalkd.
There __ alao a darkroom, a Ihort
waw radio tn.osmiuer and an ingcni
OUt machine lhal 'UtomllicaJly reo
corded Ihe reading; ol :9 diffcrml
MOIl ol the Plmmer and .utumn
__ tlpCnt in tcstint the numerous
p'ctti ol equipmeul and havm, thc:m
imulled and adjuated The date ol
: a November __ fixed lOr the. "ilL

Ptitw 10 Wt date ~ large LOiiG had

to deliver the 1..1) boll.... ol com
po: td helium requ~ 10 feed 11),000
m.n (6"" cu.rn) ol the P inlO the
EIl\I'CIope, which a:wh '1*;tidcd 10 fillm,
it 10 ahaul _fourteenth ol iu
ca, II prnvided p:f!ic;"'nl lift at
the Itart and the eovdOJpe ....auld beCOiDt rully inllated bdo:e the '-Iloon
reacbcd iu ceil... I>urina the niaht ol
10-11 November be balloon gradually
..umcd iu .... pc with the appearance
ola hUfC montier. From top to bottom
il mcuured ,:) n (gG m), lhe bcicbl
ola _II ..,. ....per. AI dawn SIE\"enI
aDd Anda ...:, wearing panchUICt and
..ooIly poiztted cap', entered the: fOi\'
doIa Ihrouch a IlDaIl opmint;. Then the
weighing-off bqan. The 40 bap ol
'-llalt wac lilled with lead ahavinJ; ol
a total weighl ol 8,000 Ib (s,630 kJ)
and .mounted 10 40 per cent ollbe
Imina capacity olIO, :1) Jb (90 1)1 kf).
A parachule with a di oll!l:r n
( I,S m) wu mounted on top ol the
an added Alcty pitUl,tion.

,,---'-01 ...


The '-'loon climbed ,'eadily, and

withoul any hilChcs. &om the .tart al

a.m. until :9 minulCli put _ "

when il had reached ill and the:

altimeter readina indicaled 14.18) n
(11,6:11 m). During the: _ I the IWO
aerooau~ had ae ' :d the inviJibie
bocda line bet_en the tropOtphere
and the .tntolphe:e at an altitude ol
s6,ooon ( Ei,ooom ). Althouah both
Ste.o:.. and Aroda . ., .. e:e kept I'uJly
occupied jkl b lnine their many dutiea
- one: ollheir '"b being to take infra
n:d phoEofn.pha ol aU oflhe ltale ol
South Dakota exlO'ldinl below them it did DOt aupe their aUUllion thai
their pt ute-PLoof compartment had
IJ>l'lDI a IlDaIl kak, throuab which
their pi" -...,. Plpply ol OX,.Oi "'...
acapinc. Mer INikcshift repairs they
derided to curtaiJ :.heir ltay in the
Itnuwpbu e. When the EaI' IIPin
touched ton firma .t White Lake,
aboul II) mila (-.. kin) &om lheir
point, the two aeronauu had
been aloft I 8 houn :, minUIel.
1ne allitude mcOEd lOr rru "'lloona
now lload 10 lhe credit of the United
StalCli and __ 001 to be beatm until
November 19.s6- 'Ibm il once mOLe
wenl to two Amtricam, Captains
Lewil and R.... wbo ..tablished the
new world'i record when their '-Iloon
climbed 10 an ahitude ol 1),781 ft
(11,,100 m). Valuable KiOlti6c raulll
bad been obtained on both
.".....SiOnJ and they ... e:e to ronn the
roundation ""' which the explontion
ol OtiIO' IJ)&Ce __ to be b ,I in the
yean to iollow.



n.e ZRS-.t Au oo.o aad :ms-,

.~, or tJa.a V.S. Na),


I n 1926 the American Congre:M granted

the: U.s. Navy peE miaion to build two
Ia~, rip:! .inhipe f.",. i'E'COImaiaance.
While the U.S. Navy bad previouaIy
had them built al Navy yank (_
ZR:.Qn ' It, No. )7) it _

time .to ioled 10 have tbcm INilt by

private enla ....'. . Speeibtiont wae
dnwa up with i:
to ~
atraI(th, Mkty net .... and 10 on, and
ICnCkn wen: inviled. TItirly lCVa,
dill'crenl bicb were receival, three cl
them rrom Goodyear-Zepto<lin in
Akron, Ohio, and ...i lh Goodyear'.
ur;WlIoive expea*' ....... in the b .. ildillJ of
ainhiPl thu eonoem wu the ........ rut
biddtt and waf; .warded the oontra(:l
the buiklinc oJ the





In AkI'Ol1 the work ... finl <OIIoeDtnled on the bdp and COIUtnK1jon
oJ. hUJe dock .,.. aha:! in which to buikl
th:lc Linhipt. On 7 NovemJxr 1929
the Qection oJlhe framework oJ the
ZRS-4 wu m.ucuntcd. 'I'be diM:( cl
the _val ainhip divWon, Admiral
W . E. MolI'elt, dtOC. tokl ri~ into
the main b..l.hc.d oJ the ainhip. The
dlid' daicncr. the bmu Zeppelin
expert. Dr Katl Amltcin, and hu !tall'

.... Gle now (.ced wilh tome difficull


Rij:hl rrom the O!IIrly buiklill( ainhip wu in the public
limelipt. RIIlIlCNn ciradrled .bout
... bot,p to vital mmpoocnu oJ the
Crrmcwork. .boul materiab oJ infuior
into the ainbip. awl 10
the ell'o:ct thai the ainbip would be
IOund 100 heavy. All oJ them wac refuled emphatkally by the expcru oJ
both the U.s. Navy and 0( !he yatd.
The ZRS-4 wu an cxa:llcnt .mbip
indC"'d, and in e.a, rap(>CIlUpeaiot 10



Alvtla, for inItanoe (_
No. ~) . TItUi its ciahl aiJinct wae in
(orponted inside the hUCC hull, with
only the po.,.... lien poojcc:tina. Not only
wele tboe prop'llen icoallible (10 provldc brUing cfrcc:t during I.dill(, ir
required ), bul tbey coukl aao be
lWivdkd and paced in horizontal
poIition, potntinc either upwrnt Of
downward to provide an upward or
downwatd pab which wu cl imancnte
value duriDt: the uartioc aDd I'ndina

Whiloc there had only bceft

one P"'ctlay in prev;ou. Zcpto<lin
ainhi,.. no Ccwu than thru WCie
provided in the hull 0( ZRS-+ Two
w<le p.w ill the bottom o(!he hull,
intuNlIlccled by m<anII oJ c.. tun.
nell. The: third ~y aucndcd
r.Iooa: the top put 0( the hull. LuI, but
not leut, ZRS-4 . . . . n:aI .in:rr!t
carriu". It bad hom fo""wi Ccuible 10
.ttrcb an
to w ~lu in
liiabt and later ~""71t il !.pin, bul
ZRS-4 could, while in B.iaht, rctually
IIxeive in l1Cbt liw: IODUI or 7:urula ;"
ancc rcroplanee .od atore them in
!pt' i'l hanpr inside itll huge belly. For
ZRS-4 and iu complctdy idUltic:a1
lister ainhip ZRS-5 wac to ret .. the
cya and ern oJ the N.vy, the 0fpI_
today lepocaeuled by ndar.
The l.RS-4 wu lin.lly chriatcncd on
8 Auguat 1937, with mrny btivitica
that _med arc :air oJ c:rmival elllU"
tainmcn7. Amttica. lint lady, Mn
Herbert Hoover, the wife 0( the Prai
dent oJ the United States, periormed
the hoDoun and gne the airship the
name Ab-007. it Mel 10 "nduro numcr(lUI tata poior 10 the m.irIcn voyrce
and thur il wu 0Iliy on II] ScpccmbU"
thaI Ab-007', lint m"'cr. Captain
Charla E. ROKIIdahl, could Jive the
order ' Ship up' for the lint time. Addi
tional tri.1 triJ (oIJo,..'Cd, rnd on
117 October the 'inhip waJ officially
.ccepted by thc U.s. N.vy. In !pile oJ
minor mwpt _taincd by the ainhip,
the Navy hdd it to be valuable
rdjurw:1 10 the fIoet oJlIUrfacc wllCb,
but Ai".. IIo(>iU c:njol'ed chrm<d
c:arccr. One inc:irlcnl (lOr which the air
sh ip coukl only be bl.",", iodirectly)
happuocd wben _ landinK wu not
completed, and 7hough tbe pouod
uew wt!re O<'de:red 10 let go of lhe
hoId.ina 7opes three uikln bekl. on to
them aod wac cal"ricd aIoI\ by the
rinhip. TIO'o 0( them rclttud lheir
bokh and P'w:ced 10 their deaths.
man=l Vra.



Tbc third cllIIIC to bil tOp< rnd UP

hour later . . . baulal c;m boanI the
ainbip. He wu ill _Ie oJ ahork
bul otberwiIC W1harmcd.
had ItttJcd down in
1Cl'VU:.: the IIM:IIIcd 'Irapeze anutl',
the ptlou of the ImaII Curtill FgC
Sp&n'OWhawka, began to pl"lCtilC hook
01\1 and ~k:H!". of tlx:it rcroplana 10
and (1'0511 the ainhip. by which time
...un. had joined the Atlantic Fl1
di~""". It wu now commM ! by
Captain Ff'UFk McCord, a "'p'bIc
nrval officer but u yet rauly iroapui.
eneed in the handline: oJ rinhipt. On
3 April 7933
waf; readied r.... a
Ilicht in which the airship ... to take
bc:arinp OIl, and chccIt, numba- cl
nonhcrn _tion! on the American
QOIltlnent aJooc the Atlantic ..... u. On
Ihil ot'C"ion itll axnplo "..:nt g( _
planet ..... len behind, bul it caFiicd a
vert impo: Wit puKnger, Admiral
Moffett .
took 011'(I'00I I.aVburll,
ouuide New York, in the evcnin, in
rather bad werther u it was rogy and
thundcUlonn. were rdvrncinK. At
midnight the .inhip wu Car out 10 I(a
over the turbulc:nc Atlantic Ocean in a
vain attcmpltoa-aclcthe riWotlt07a71.
Fmally McCon:l &N ....... ! to "",Vb the
COaIt rpin. Shortly rIlerwanb..u. . . ICized by a .tronc downdrau,ht
.od hit the water with pul rom:. All
lighta went out and the mcmben of the
atw who 'I'I(7e call1ht i ..... ide the hull
broke out through the crnvu co.a
only 10 end in the ice-mkI walU'. By
chanoc a Gcnnrn WIler, ,,... ' lu, wu
by rod had ICC:II. the airship
p/unre into the _. n .... help wu
quicltly II band, yel OfIiy ODe offica,
Oornmander Haben V. Wiley, rnd.
two of the 76-man crew wtie fCltucd,
for the Ak10ll had not carried ..,y life..
bel u.
l...ts than a monlh btl.. e thil diluter
ZRS-s had been completed, teJrer, &_
ill !bed, and named Af_ by tbc wik

oJ Admil1ll MolTctt, who ... .., dIortly

10 be'ifl)( _ w...b ... III Oc:tobc:r t93'
Af_ .......tioIIcd 1\ the naoly.
atablid'l Pacific:
Moffett Held
naval ainhip .... 'ion at Sunnyvale,
CaI;r~. Fnxn tom: the ainhip and
ita acroplanca took part in In'CraI



rul mano:uvrct 0( the Prci6c

Fleet. On. thDc .......'m M_ ...
aepertcdly 1Ubjec:tcd to IU'Iin
wbm "",ki,. .brupt IUmii in CYNive
.... ionr On 117 April 19:J4, .".... _ e
bo.,nd _ _ rmdc hour with a 7U7val
IOn:c in the Caribbean Sea, M_ waJ
~ the _th_em c:orocr 0(
Tcxu and pa'inc through lOme foul
werther when one 0( the IUlior
< on baud oImiied aD inclpiau ruph'rc in one oJ the Irrze c:iraaJu
inIidc (rames in lbc I&CnI rectioro. II wu
the ODC rupponilll the bu- fixed tail
turfaca, and the d. m Ke michl haw:
been thc 3"CIU1t oJ fM:rlcwl mnditiont..
Only temporary repair! by meaN oJ
wooden planb could immedirldy be
pubuled, bul the ainbip returned
..ccly to ill temporary "It, Op-Iocku,
ill florida. Thoroup repairs bad,
ha.."e'Yu, 10 be lkIi;:p,ed 10. Iatcr date,
mel aaurUy IOae naG m,+ u
Itf_ CO'71d iU be!p&l"cd from the ~_
tinued Ikct i7U7D0:Uvru. Here the airIhip played tueb _ IUCCaIf'uI ~ that
evm itll ..,tagonistl hrd to admit that
.iru-aft 0( thu type wtie important



military weapoN.
When M_ rctwmd 10 CalilOmia
"'ICa H. D7ClMJ, wu p--o! I by
Habat V. Wiley. 'fhiI _v:el
hid already hrd _ iooc career with
ainnip:t, u be had ~y IUVCd ill
both And'" and wlt",na and, II
fJready recorded, wu one oJ the vert
JCw PFrVivon (rom the InQ(( recU'l t
di'llter. The U.s. N_vy looked
10 bim 10 exploit (ully lbote quali~
thai .4(_ lord rlrtady OCulOllltralcd.
Wiley n. a .tronc rdY'OCl!e of tbc



btinJ. V~ .. _

&inbip/ acropiane combination. He abo

rrinuoduad the twenty-~ German pnetKe oIloo.,u,", an OOw:hU
in ....n car throuch the w.a 01
,lo",h below the ainhip. In November
1m M_ panie~led in additioNl
_val ewe. . in lbe Paci6e Ocean
with OUIa~ndillf .....c
Both the
Navy Buruu, i<.. ,,"menl circk:s and
the public _med .bout ready to
fotid the airship diJutcn of "",,mer

to the racue
i Ted .t an


and tbe: men on boud

odd tpee"'dr. 1bc: IlIfYivon on the:
"" (cked 8CCCion of the ainhlp - there
"",e dchty-one of them - behaved
like roIM:.omc ",hooIboy. bttaUle they
.. ue tmda the in!umtt ofthc helium
CKapin, (rom the bunt p cdlt. Durin,
lhdr brief in, ..... otioa all of the CI, ..
0( the M_ evm 'POke wilh e&rIlO



The aftenn.alh reaction wu crushin,.


Th.t lb. cruel Calc .muid befall even

the Af_ ainhip was more than the
Amuican public could 1ItaDd. The OUI
eomc ,.... thai the 1Iiord '.iDhip' was
t.nBhcd (rom An.... iea.n ncwspapcn

On I I February '955. M_ ,....

ana: IDOR out on routiDe practice
lliabtl olf the _th com 01 California.
T'heweatbuwunot but
DO one was "'Oi' icd., lor thiI ainbjp Iud
kloc ..., dwiOi"moted ita "nmrpe .1
rdiability. Both !hat day and the nat
ita ..wI FgC .... ".,.."... 'Hae very
AdiY'c in their endeaY'OUn to locate the
'eoemy' IIoet uniu. By 10 a.m. on

and the U.S. Navy



of havinl tDI)f'e rigid .inhi~

builL Eval the old and worthy ' -

IF. d6cadoa 01 ZJtS., 'Mac:vn'


February. Af_ had ruJ61kd ill

aainmall and ...1 ()!,It on ill n:t~
trip 10 Sunnyvale. San M artUl
the rOIl' srew denier and when.t 5 p.m.
the .inhlp was 011' the Point Star light.
bou.e Wiley decided to bed a,...y
(. ocn the eout and lOt the time beine
ttaym out 0Yet the - . Shortly .net.
wanb the ainhip par I throuh a
IlOrm fI rain. A auh wu bean!. and
the airship b Can 10 vibrate.. The bel....
man itpocled thai the bit: whcd fdtquite
.Iad bel .. em his hands. Nobody knew
yet lhat the lOp fix"" taihwfacc. and the
rudder mounled 10 ii, had disappeared

completely. Bul


Yfl_: 6~cu.n

(1 84,060 cu.m)

u,.,1A . 78~ n (~39'S m)

Di_ln : IS2"9 n (40"~ m)

&,illU: Eit;ht )60 h.p. Maybach
VL II t~Ive-qlindcr
n .., --"F
~NI 000 Ib
V I i& ' -r-.>,

(lh,800 q )
P.)'rz': .60,6.M lb (711,86, q )


(140 kmfbr)
CnUi",~: 6S m.p.h. ( lOll km/hrl

Mui_ r..,,: 1.~~~ mila

(111.110 km)
NOll . /,..,. .. ~,480mila (8,82okm)
er,.: 60-7~ men

e.oerybody on
aware of the .mouanc. of

board _
lhe Ntualion .. the whole tail ~ion
began 10 break ofr. The counlet'"
mc:asun:s taken eouk!. not p,'e M_
rrom aharin( the !"ate fI her lister airIhip. It 8000 ruled in the tea, helpkIL
The old and kq;-r pled dama(c
had at lut got the betltt of the ainhip.
Fxcrpt lOr IWO who dwwroed, aU bands
on board managed to climb on to the
nGIC put of the ainhip, which IF:qJt

'1-1: 87 m.p.h.

Allpiu Wal .-erificd. It was broken up

in itllhcd aI LalF:ehunl limply becallK
of (car fI what mighl Ilill be in .tore
lor lhi:t I. minlly indeItruct.iblc air-Ihip.
\\'ben A' 2f 1and M_ a bed they
bad made." and S4 I!ighlS,. 'i"'".tively
with total 8yinc lima of 1,695 and
1."]98 boun.



Z.pp'lin LZ .,'Hl-dF""""
~ by the attainmenb of
GrV z",.lill (lee No. 61). Dr HUCO
Eekcnu and hiI enrinccn in FriedricNh'w:n ia I~ d-.i-\cd 10 Uodlc
nat lhc ideal ainhip (ot rn.n.Atlantic

~"':um~ ~I::ri!d ::. .;::

10 theCilimatcl ourhtto have bcm.ble

10 carry (rom So to S4 puKn(en. The
PI celli were to be inflaled with hyd~
sen. .. in aU prcvioue Zcppdina. Yet.
when the R 101 in 1930 ended AI
Nni"& infODO ia France (tee No. 63)
the Zcpylip company rcalila:!. that
efficiency mUJt yidel to ..rety ia (... Iute
ainh..ip ope.... tiom. 10 LZ I~ WlUI
mopped ia !"aYOUf of new layout,
12 12!)- ThiI ainhip wu to have .boou
the amc ~ capacity and perIOrmana:: AI the rOCUiU j the
difFaax:e bein( that the eare but
Clftremely COIIIy hdi\lJn wu 10 replace
the cheap but inflammable bydlCje..
in the filling of the ainbip. In Friedridu.IWen they lOOk it foe- granted that
the Unit! SUotCl, which _
the only
country when: bdillDl _ prodneM,
would c:o-opcrau: by IUpplyinr the
required quantity ofthil p.t.
In cubic capacity, LZ 1'9 wu to be
aJ.mGIt double the me of GrV Qlt;flia,
yet only lIIiptly moee than 'l9i n (9 m)


Wan on um, the ~ainh..ipyrt to

be concrivcd, bcp.n. in the .utumn fI

193 1. Dr Ludwig Oilrr took charrc of
the;'n. Hil atmdcd c:xpuiehce in
the building ofairshipt wu uorivaJlcd,
.. his ....... ~tion with Count Zeppelin
d.ted back 10 IBgg. Dr. Arthur
"1owble lOr the important.tfCII ~ and cakulataon.,
and the lOll of Dr Ec~, Knul
Eekcncr, wu WOib ~. Aimin
at $lability. the wbolc pur
IUlJ'U" 8eCtion wu mcloMd iNide the
hull which ...... a departW'C from the
da 'Cn of o,.f Z",ni.. 'I'beft: wae

uppu 'A'
aDd a bia 'B'. 'IlIe A deck conlained
a dioi", loom ,.-8ft ( 10m) kto&.
1&. n (~ m) wide wbicb _led 54
JI';1e BcfODd thiI ,"ae 1 di"l
and wrilina loom and tpaciouI
I"'''uce. the pie de rbitl'oce of
wbicb _
a arnaIl. (\ainty BIQthner
lightweia;ht piano. Here wfre'" to be
rouod two 49 n (1,5 m) long ptOincUlde
decb, one each on the port and .tat'baud aide. The dccb wen: provided
with Iatze picture window. affoniing
~ mw.. AU the pa 'en
......~atiom wac painled ia harmonili", coIoun and ckpntly dec0rated.. On the wall. huoa ooicUW
paintinp deplctinr the mikstone C\'OIta
in the de....k~,.,....,.,.t of .... oc.auUa.
F"o.na1Jy. the cc:nttc IICCtion of A deck
WlUI divided into twentyfive .m,ieand twin-benh cabilU. Since rn.n.
Atlantic ainhip par.a=, both in the
northctn and IOUtherD bcmilpberes.
wu much in demand, this airship later
had nine more cabiN added 011 B deck
wbere email zmokina tOOth _
provided. Fot rcuonI which will become evidenl later the untWine 10001
keplltrictly iIoIated, and only one
lilllle. iF_i.1 Liabter WlUI ~ there.
AIIo iD$taI.Icd on B deck ,"ae the toilet.
wuh!IM and pantry. 'The quartU'l of
the -ma.I1 aew (who wocked in
_lebo), and i,ht holds each fll.IOt
Ib (500 q ) capacity. woe provided in
the Iattt triancular lattiec ked run
ning the (u1l icn&th of the airship.
Bulky (NCbt wu handled and ItOrtd
in two additional boIdi of ),5 I 2 Ib and
1.3I1S lb capacity (1I.,ao kr and 600 kr)
two paP-"1tt




With a take-ofr ..cialtt of 5,518 Ib

(2.+2,000 kr). LZ 1119 w;u exuemely
difficult to handk: on the pound, 10 it
was well that even ~ it ('()uk!. mcwe
both IOnvatd and baekwanl wxk:r ita
own FJOjJ",a . . the ainbip _ equipped
with obock... _binc and retractable

whrr" ......._ the COIttnIoI .... h 'z and

......b abe bou..... tail liD.
The pIanI b LZ 129 WCIli awry in
one "',_1: the lixtecn large P cd.
of the ainhip neva inflated
with belium. ConlrU'y 10 all ..... P"'tations the Unital Slata rovcmmcnt
rm.m 10 van. an f "1"'. I pennit b
!hil JUalqic:a1ly imponanl PI- The
-,n ~ why bdium _
not reo 10 Germany wu that the Nub
had tome to poha thcR by lhe middk
cl the Dinctem-thinieL E\'a\ to batoe
the LZI2g co:npktcd. the rd"cu"l
Dr Ed:_ bad 10 P'Y U tribvIe 10

1936- On, May,lbe ~p .... Wd!'or

the lint time from Friedrio::b.hakn and
eompleud the ~ to America in
the .c:uwd time af64 boun)3 anioutea.
Capuin Emtt A. Ldlmann WlU tht;
mula" 01 Hi-hi ,oa lhiI trip and on
... ualoitbelioUowmcma.TballAmc
}'QI'!he ainbip aIIo eompkud RVa1
,...00 triP' 10 Rio de JancinJ and 011
lifty...u. lone and abort b'iJll eanied a

IOIal 01' 1I ,6~ P';z:~n. all or wborn

pnbcd the ..... liCmdy uable Hi .....

for lOme brid" yean

..UC:! in axJ1.
mand of Ccnnany, Hermann Goerinc.

"'" and commented favounbly (In

bowquiel:it_lOtnvdi ' +lhcairahip hull In
Hiv hL., I'eINmCd
iq South Atlantic: a' '''p, kavin,
Europe on .6 March and arrivillf b.cll:
apin rom the lkuilian capir.ol on
I, Man:b, U ....,t ully booked both



" ........ , wloetw,.' thc Onitlchc Zeppelin

Rc:c:d........ the German naviptim OCJID.

h'uled and ..... tn. . .bjOl W,11ed on

of lbc Gennan Air Miniltry, and later

----,-, UI
, ~ .,.........
,"",,""', '
on> , 1IlIU

.,-ny opu ;a( the Zcppdin ainhiJl',

came wA ; go.Clummt control.
'The PI CElli wCle nlt(ftd in IQOl(
1.;<(;11 and the ainhip _..reo
pnnIcd u much u ~bIe npinll:
the ",,,,.tico ckc:trieiry. On
4 Man:b ,~ LZ 129 made iu
nmideD YO"
.. _
- -....
1 _', _
, tIIOi:p without
been chriI:taICI::I. .. the
ckciIioo had been made lone:
name it afIu the 'pnd okt maD' ai
tbe Weimar ftPUblic, Fidel Manhal
ProuJ YOn Hindeobwt. So,"," ...,; that
tl::c dlJistm!n, had boo" poitpoilcd
becatlleotbetcitda:hadpivpc . ' WI
the ainhip be named 'Adolf Hitb'. II
it; tCl'UJin, thouJb, that on the Hi Ie
.-,', a.alth ftict:I, on 26 March, il
_ oblipd 10 joio tk..t Zw Ii" in a
cimUt aiCennanyofthru.daJ1l' duralion, u pan ai the P'1+pnda on
bcN.1f oJ the eomm, Ieackr oJ eer.
Meanwhile Dr Ecktner had arnnpd
with the Ama ic:alI naval authorities
lIMit IIi bfa., would make ten Adanlie a
'", ~ each dittttioP durins


. .K:


L _ O\ttlae .u,"",

B d"* 10 pnwidc additional

I i . . . . uncwl'lico.
I " iO Hn""e the North
aiM;np .cbeduJcd r the
.no.. OR WI mucb-travella:l

com ing

,Iz., _

Ditplnyinc much diplcmalk ilklll, Dr

f.ckaJa bad meanwhile ~ iO
arranae the bmatioa at the Ameriean
Zeppelin Tn'''9'''1 eo.-alion.
rwhidI Germaay'. contribulion wu 10
be the Hi.i-,M, and (10( ItIOi e airIhip, d:.e LZ Iso, then being buill al
Fric:driehshafen, while the two Aiouj..
c:aa ainhj~ 10 I'olIow aUl wClutiU only

the: pIanninc: .,,(.

On 4 May, Hi-/-'= ., left futtope

from the new Rhrin-Main bueouuidc

Frankfurt, on lhe lim ai the cighteCJl
ts to North America planned for
thai year. II wu under the command



Mali Pn., ac:rom.,-nicd

byEnutLdwnannaanoool+'.u . 11le



~ ~ putentom:


aew ai6t. At
p.m. on 6 M.y !l,e
ainhip p'nd 0Ytt the Empire State
Buiq in New York Ciry on its _ y
10 I .kchunt, w~ the c:oaunaodinI
c:6ca ai tbit; air bNe, Capt... 0IarIa


&. R, ilodahl, _ ready 10 IU:ci."C tile

anill;", beadiOlf the 110 _i ..... and 118
civilian. com.....zn.
_.... the I_ ....a:.._
........ at W .
Alio PI :nt wu the ubiqwlOUt aowd
of ftCWlpliper iC ..... ten and ~
Jrapben who intpt.ticntly awaited the
ail "al of the ainhip, eaal boun
oladue at a read! of IocaJ thunder
lIho ....en. The Q U ' - Mu: PnIII kept
cruWnt alOUDCI_itiOlf h the wnilM:l'
10 car. When at 7 p.m. only 11gbt
doucU cv.ucd the Iky on that ..,ring
CUlint, the pride of Germany
mn the 6eJd with aarchJicbu pIa,h..,
011 the ground. loom an alti!Ude oJ onfy
500 It ( 1.500 m) and turned t:owards the
mil". Standinf .t the windowt of !.he promenade deck the ......
....... u, _tehcd keenly AI the rwo
3g)1't lon, ( 120 m) landing '''ilea wae
caugtu 011 the gTOand and ">000 cd 10
two II!l.aII raiJn.d <:an nmnint on
circa1ar lraeb IltOUnd the IDiIlt. The.
deep hurn af the uogina aea:c..doed
10 a roar lince the PI opdlut bad been
mused for bnkillf efrca. In the
ndio cabin of Hid...., the opuator
__ jult tbm. in communication with
er..t ~ which .... uo
South AtlaDtic ""I'M. 'The time now9.~, p.m.
Suddenty IIame up from the
top llide of H i " " juIt ahead of
the top ...utic:al fin. In the C'Ol'ItrtII ear
Max PnIII .eJ1 a jm:; in the ainhip,
and gianciuJ downwardt diK,ltfacd
thai the andcd IOiI of Lakdium _
lit by a ruklit;h lince. Irw'ntly be
~iIa:I whal bad happened and coon,
rd'tained rrom empryiDf the ball.1I
tanb. Now il war: imperative 10 hayc
the ainhip Itttle OIl the "ound AI
u poMbk. The bumina' hull MIlk. the
Jut rew rttt bmcatb an UIOi" ....1II
mlllh.rooro af fire and amo(re wbiIe the
landin( CiC" and nearby onlookus
aM" ran '_y in a ahowu- of
and .... ]q AI rar a thclr Icp would
Ql'1'1 them. Human lOt ..... tumbled out

dthe dotH .. batdo_fi and windowl of

the d)h. ainhip.
The borrifyinr lpCc'ac:le __ OYU' In
tony brid' .aowJs. Moo of the viClioN
oJ the diasttt lay buried below the
siowint hoc metal frame. Others,

Ernst IAm.1UI among IMm, died

hrtu- at the lapital where they wtte
broupL A total oJ "3 pa.mgen and
t2 acw memben. iDdudm, one of the
pound uew, pcriIhcd in thiI dbuttti
miraculotolly, ~, ~ and
a Clot munben IUrVivcd i Mu Pru.
..... one ofthntt. ~I WOld wae
ad'lllnCal u 10 what call1ed !.hit
aol.mlty. Dr Eck.cner_of thcopinioc'J
that lID intulul ttaywire had broken
while ~ .ppuer:tly IaiI.hOi", .intlip
wu being m.nauvred, and piCicl ooe
ai the PI cdll while aimulWlCOtldy





tintina" static

electriciry and ;,rudng

the ClcapiJ!c hrdroJen. Othen altributed it to '5t Elmo', fire', or aid that
the ainhip had been hit by liahtnInt.
Then: were even rumoun of Abotace
when a Luger pit;1()( fiom whkb ~ bad been hd _ ro....d in !be


bumed-OUl WKC~. In the end, howea", all '" E' thar the dirttt (2UM:
WU Ihe dillllroUl bydtOiUl.
The Hw ... ,-, Uo spelled finis for
the G~ <JH-li. and the jUlI..comp/e!ed
LZ 'SO Grtif QHttIi.ll. No mcm: puIeI1gert wen: carried in thac lIW!odons
o(the air, in JPite or.e~ualattempts 10
operate them again.

The K cla .. o r the u.s. Navy

In I~ and 1943 the U.s. Navy
establilhcd lwelve ainbip tquadtoru
and. fintt:n II*' ill ben for them. The
original p~ .... lIed for the ptOC\lI"e"
men! orrOlI1~~ht unaU non.riP! airaIlipa, but after theJapaoae attack on
Pearl Harbor in DeoembeT ' 94 ' , thil
quantity wu auguit!mcd o:orWderably.
TbUl by June I~, a total at IWO
hWldred ainbi~ at the G, K and M wu on order.
'The: U.S. Navy uxd
exlmlively in World War II primarily
for lbcir ability to "ay in the air for
many bows on end, and abo (or their
suitability &I rrmtU for dow-moving
c:otIVO)'I o(reighcen, and in aIladowing
CI1any rubmarines. The vulnenbility
of the ainhi~ wu 0( Ie- ronvquentt,
sina: they "'CIC mainly intended to
opuate along the wide couts or tbe
United States whete no enemy rubmarines ... ue eva in action. And, indeed, throughoul all the war yean,
only ODe 'Blimp' wu bt while engag'
ing an enuny _ I . ThiI was K-14 or
the extenaivdy uxd K d , which on
18 July 1943 (ought it out with the
German IlIbmariDe U-t34 which it
took by IUl"priIe whlIe the Ialler craft
wulWiaeed. TheIUpC!l iot fuepo .. a 0(
tbe lubmarine 1000 had the envelope of
the lUiali ainhip penoraled in Dumer0\11 plaaa, and the Ju. of gas throusb
the many bokaalowly (OIM the ainbip
down in the VBlI!I". All of the ~


except ooe man wen: reICUed.

A lotal 0( ISS ainbi~ of the K d . .

wen: built, bur il iI diflicult to deal with

them in chronological oroa, partly
bccaUM: they were acquired ova a long
.pan of time and partly bceaUM: each
00: .... ph...... ts a number of delign

K_I (IJI!rial number 999\1), of SI9.9OO
cu.n (9.059-6 cu.m ) capacity, W1U
planned by the U .S. Navy in 193/ and
I!OIUtiluted a c:omplctcly new Iype of
non.rigid ainblp. The envelope: waa
ordered from Goodyear whilc: the gondola, to be attached direc:tly to the
mvclopc, "'... built at the Naval Air_
craft YaclOr)' at the Navy Yard in
Phibdclphia. The power plant comprised IWO S30 h.p. Wn,htJ-6-9 rad ial
erlIina. l n K-I the U.s. Navy acquired
an oulltanding patrol ainbip that wu
a big improvcmmt on the IWO types
bOilowed from the U.s. Army in 1937
(the TeIS and TeI4)' Howevcr
neither ofthac, DOl" the X_I, could be
plaecd in -erual K>"Vice &I the parding
o{the couts ollbc UnitedStat~ ...... the
exdusive domain 0{ the U.S. Army,
In that K-I WQ u.ed for experimenta l
PWJlOll!l and &I a training ain.bip.
The development of 'B1im~' began
to make real headway when aU patrol
duties in I g111 bec:amc the I cspolUlibility
o{the: U.s. Navy, which lou no time in
readying lbc404>OOOcu.n (11,+40cu.m )
aU.c K_II povoe.ed by two 5.50 h.p. Prall
&. Whitney R-IS40-AN-1I Wup radial
Ciliinca. The lall!l" production ofK.c;Jass
ainhiJll appean IOmCWhat haphaurd
in rClpecl to the Iequcnc::e
designation numbcn. For ntana:, K-5 up to
and including K-8 belonged to lIIe
II!ries, while KS and K-4 were
of the third lJI!I"ia. K'3, K'4-0 K'1 a nd
K-8 .aved &I training ainbi~; aU
otha K-dul ainbi~ up to and induding K-tS5 performed patrol duties ;
and from K_I. OIl, they had mve~
of a capacity 0{ 4-1150000 cu.n ( 1II,OM' 7
cu.m). Several of the K-cl.ut ainhiJll
...ue not allotted any IJI!riaI numben.


.... ,.id,



ii notewortby aocf poper to

r OlXild ben that the: lint ilOII-ria:id

ainbipa to a .. the Atlantic we.e of the
K d,. Thil 0CCW1"ed in '9440 wben
the U.S. Navy ordered fix K-daa. airWp! to Port Lyautey in French
MOioet:o, wben they were to opuate
as the 14th Squadron. K-IOI, K.IIII,
K- 123 and K,SO .... ae rour of them,
and they IIew from South Weymouth,
MchUldu, to Morocco via Newfoundland and the Azoi es in !IS houra..
After the wu lOme of the K-daaI
ainhipa ... el e modi6ed and rebuilt
e:x.tenaively. With a DCW gas c.apacity of
Sp e d6 olK-'4 to K-'l5
VIIl_: 4-1150000 cu.ft (12,1134'15
t-,tA: IIS " 7 n (76711 m )
Din rn: 6\15 (t (19"05 m)
r:..p,u: Two 5SO h.p. Prall &.
Whitney R- IS40-AN'1I Wup

.... OJ




(12 1

C..wl!( S;tM: 47 m.p.b.
<1s km/hr); 11,000 miles (S,IIIIO m)
C,tu1: 12 mal

&eve:iOped after the:


&om the

X (bll, bul they no klngcr had mueb

in common with their ~C" '*'ft.
Th_ ainbi~ bore the designation,
ZP4K and ZPSK, later ZSG-4 and

Bet.idI!I the d'll E' already mullioned
the U.S. Navy during World War II
abo had ainbi~ of the L (1,., but
they .... ae ooly uxd (or the training of
ae ....
1'bc: U.s. Navy ordu-ed the lint airaIlip ol thil d1I, 1..- 1 (1JI!ria1 numba11110) in '931. L-2 and I..-S were
orda-cd in 19fO. 1..-4 to 1.-8 were
Col l i d Goodyear advutiaing ainbi~
(lICIt: No. 66). 11tUl 1..-4 (KTiaI number
ogSol) w&I the former Volatmwhich aiong with Afa.1j1....on and VitilaJ dared all the VBy to I~.
I..-S (1Crial number og802 ) wu e:x.&tn;rW, 1.-6 to L-II, the former
Rtfimra, &Wow and Rmr,n. No IU"iaI
numbcn "'tie allotted either to thete
Jut three of the (onner advertiaing
ainbijll or to the J.,.g to WII production ainhi~ of the aame model.
1S The N elu. o f the U.s. Navy
Only ODe ainhip of the ZPN- I type
wu builr. I n I~ il was redesignated
ZPG- I and WQ the prnIOtypc: of a
planned oo:ia with extra 10lIl range.
The gondola Wal provided willi an
upper and a Iowtt ckck.. The IWO
pwher propdlcn "'tie intelWtll'll!Cted
to that one engine could drivc both of
them wben the ainhip cruilcd al a low
IF I. The four inclined tail fins ol the
N ainbi~ wen: a diatinc:liv( (eature of
this dUll and broke with the previoul
tradition of having the fins mounted

Sp pl6catloa Or the L da. .

v.t-: IIIS,OOO cu.ft (3,483 cu.m)
Lnfttll: 149 n (4S42 m)
J>Uu,wJtr: S9ft ( II8gm)
&,illU: Two 14S h.p. Warna"
R-.5OO""1I/ 6 radial
.M.w._sJMd: 6om.p.h. (g6kmjhr
miles (80s km)
Cr_: 4 men


\-ertically and boriwntally.

S21,OOO cu.! (14,gII3 cu.m) twooflhan

tl!Cl!ivcd the: designations ZPIIK and.

The next oo:ica 0{ 'Blim~' at tbe

N daaa incorpotated In many change.
that they wen: giVUl the new type

ZPsK (lata" ZSG-II and ZSG-3) while

the unmodified K ainbi~ bceame the
ZPK da StiU newer modda ... ue

designation ZPIIN. ThiI became ZPC-II

wben the new U.S.N. dd.ignation
IyIlun (01" ainhi~ WQ introdl.ll!l!d in



lint ZP.G-,W aiqhip

IIew in July 19,58In June '960 one oC the Z~W
alnNp. ....ijaJiKd in. tbe air out 0'rCr
tbe Atlantic willo the low 01 am-t all
on board. 1"hiI _
a cootn~
actor in endi,. !be- buildiol 01 air.
.... ipt lOr the U.s. N..,., a1lho"'p by
then !he latter Iud all' dy to
dieoontioue tbe . . arSon of 1iP__
th'" i, enit. Tbe fina.I d " rn CO' do

'"". A total 01 twelve alnhip oIlhe

ZPlIN- , cia. _
ordnni and We
lint of \hem ~e ie. makien .."...
in Muc:b '9M. The extnonlinNy
ranee IItMI eoduru1cc were .... danon.
waled in a mnvincin( way. Com
rnMdcd b)' c:.omm.nder M. H . pp ~ ..
one of rt , I ~ .mip ~blishcd the

rowed. undWImpd ill. ItS+. cI tt.ay-


in the ... for !tOO hourt 6 minuta

withoul m'N'lIil\(. Thm: yean a.1IIa"
U10tber Un/tip of UH. cI,., n 7 DO"
5 'irJ, \lOOror the _ 0 0 olemuxkr J . R. Hunt. belltftd th.
iCeord by 64- t.ow.. it. ~OJ..e
lOr II da.y..oct nipb and '4 minutet.
'I1Ie CIIIlne i>l.1owed __ &om South
We1mouth in M " " d!\FId., ...... the
North AllzIotic, IOUth around the

. , _ _ MlM7d _~June


and lbe Cape Verde

Iaa.ods, then via lbe Vartin l.a.nda on

to Key Welt t'"lori<b, where the crew
of '4 ......... apinKI Coolon IOIId around
011 15 March '957
Five more ZhN ainhipt were
onioed Ialer. They.ue fint d,. ....
nated u ZhN.W and later .. ZPC2W. They .ae fitted with ipial
equipmuol ....d could undertake bow
control and aitbome early waminJ
1aIb. The.e airship '.ae a.y 10 diJ.tinguisb rom the ZPlIN- 1 d-. bec:t.UK
rbey CM l kd .... otItiide radome on
top of the emdopei there _
an addi
rSonaJ radome bnit'oe !he mY'tiope:. The
aew numbuul 21 men.
The last unitl of the N eta. 'Nue
fout ZPG-3W ainhip, the waul eet
bnikI. of the _rip! type, bul alto
die last 01 lb. type 10 be ....ppliut 10 the
U.s. Navy. Their emdopet Jwd

..., rifT 01 105.6,000 aLA (42,gd.

cu.nt) aDd their lenp _
+OS ft
( 1228m). The ..... odob, the radar
cquifXDU,t and the aew ..:ccmmodatioo were the wne .. in the ZP2N,W/
Zf'G..,W airship, but the ensioet
inttalkd in them .. ere the mote PO'Nu




Ba .....I ' ball_a '" World

In the early nineteen-lhinia captive

and barracc balloon... ae completel y
eliminated u military equipntent in
favour at obKrvalx.n ain:rafi with wir
voter mobility and reduced Y\I\n(t
ability. Uow~-a, whee. WOI'Id War 2
blOke out the balkw;w. once elOi e rc-piocII ia imponance. lboo .... only in
the pan at t 7 I .... b&l1oon.
01 aKb ban'apz it to proteCi particularly vulnerable WJeb .,.iN/; altacb
by di-..e-bomben and Iow--lyins aitaaft. Two l'oiil4'l guwue
p-epam:I : .tatiDeary and .....,ale or er
The fint . yte ,.... pI_Md for \.e at
alliluder 01 up to 10,000 ft U,ooo m)
and bcK relatively~, wciIanchorcd
b.Uoon, ... cpe UIC'd. The mobile bal
IoeN lOe.e _1 CO molOr we\lokb.
Ihipt or lihl~ and "uc teldom raiJed
10 altiludtt of WOIe than ' ,970 n
(tIoo m). 11tere,.... Mde", that the.
bal __ were VIlInerable, bul pthoed






German.' _nunpt tooullil "otoltheir

a.irenfi .. 'cable cutten' by reinJOrcirJc
theit wine leadJ", dS ,1OOue ~
mozlul. Finally, the b&l1uon bafl'&l'(li
100ae "ppl'lit-mal by ... ber bIN of
anli-aim-aft ddi:ncc. The b&l1oon barrace aJ1'&ftICD1CI'IU varied awdinfr
10 wbether utc:nded areu or pin.
pointed WJeu like f'actoria and harbours WCf'C to be ptOCtttcd. n.e, U)!,1d
then aptly be dc:kliba:! .. 'circular',
'' and 'pin-point' barrap


c.n.ry h'ncjo

in I.J"O'Ifl' IOf t"h they were

Mill ol OONidcrab\e .... Iue .. they
dreiliOial., cJ lhe ere .... claltatkinf airupedally if they lew i.o
Tin. the Britlata B..,lioon o-m'MI
lOI)Oed iu lim 'victory' Ixbc the
fisbti"l in _ oYer. One day
- Brilith balloon unit in Lc Havre 1Oo'U
able 10 apoit that a Cennaa auod'ne
bad met ib end bci.. ea, the lied ~bIca.
Et!cmy COUfltaooe..
tuoeb .. the.


Almoll aU the warrUl( nations em
ployed balloon barra.r=, bul nowhere
elzot _ Ihil fornt or.'lent and inactive
defence 01 mooe intponanoe than in
Great BriIAin. Already, on 17 March
1957, a .pttlal balloon unit, No.
wu COElIIW U ~n 01 Fichter C0mmand. For '4 c ationlJ.. thJr; unit
wu on I NO'\uubet 1938 i.ncotpcutc:d
in the DCwl,...b illtd, indc:pCiadc;:ut Bal
loon Contmand, the chid 01 wbich
Air V"__ MalWI O. T. &itd.
Wbc:rI the: war broke OUI 011 , Septonbet '939 lbae wu already a ~
atO!.lnd London comprilinc: .... bal
IoonI while an additional .80



100Cle dittributed _ - . the pnMueiaI

cilia. The demand IOf ,,11oon ba.rra.r=
11(", tlcadily and the exbtiO( 18 bal
loon centzu with tbcir 47 balloon
.:juadroN 1Oo~ kepi lloOilC than busy.
' n the early Itasa of the: war the pro.tcetion of 1aJ'IC indUltri.I utablitbmenu aod poru 1Oo'U axwidaed 01 the
lint importance. ... ~, the 1'haJnca

ealuary and othCi" walCF"WaY. ol.unilar

importance had 10 be: denied to enemy
mir>elayen .. much u pow.iblc. Ourilll
tbe Cennau .tteeh OIl the _them
mc.t Ityiur 6e1ele in Enc:1and and 011 Ute
Allied CXIIivoya. Balloon Command
played an imporWll part. DuriO( tbe
'&ttJc of Britain' about ',..00 . .ILr........
100ae in the ait. Tbc PC:UOillle! handlil\(
than often worked w1der diffic:ulf 000'
dilionJ .. many 01 the IIDIIlI tt.atiom
\00(1( 1uea1Cd in tedU<kd 'IIb"
bampaul the Bow 01 ttora and other
"'PP'ia and made the KJ"Vice life very


ID 194-2 many 01 the ...... Ie: paiOFaucl

01 Balloon Command wtle rcplaocd by

01 tbe W.A.A.F. (Wometi',

A"xili.ry Air Foree). Wbaa the Ger
man Hip Command alabout thewne

..... .... 0

Wne launched tbe ' 8n;'xker raidI'

apinat F..n.sliab hiatorical citia tbe.c

aervia:wotnen wele Rlbjccted 10 vot

.ttain, and volwna oould be written
aboul their .crifioel and abou t the
COUJ'3ie they dDplaycd. To meotioa one
Iillgk: incidm., W.A.A.F. ClorporaJ
Lillian Ell.. in May 1943 wu awarded
the Britiab Empire Medal for oowqe
d#pIayod in ......... inWc al her ttatioa in
South Wala durin&" .... ait attack,
tb""up the _ wounded.
The wiut balloon barncc 011
reoot:d compzizcd 1,750 uniu and wu
b ew:d ill 1943 to edt tbe HOb2ot
Dd"ence dw-inl the tlucat 01 the V,
ftying: bomb&. Eipl d.... rod 0I1t.c-c
100 ..... 'Wae dLl;ateW, at a daily
a..a ge 01100 lOr 80 daya. Ofthae 19
per ceot JOI. throu&h to tbe Looldw
area.. Of the ICU..mU. 71 per OCiIt a
tota.I 01"79 VI' ... ~01 by the
t.JIuon hunfe.
Mow ollbe AlIaed opaal. with
the obju:1 01 eltablithinr be ... hs de
011 the coutlioet occupied "" the
d b.. ,. 100ue "'ppuilCd by uniu &om
Balloon o-mand They wac i.o
I!(1jm on Sicily and in Italy, laodtd


will, lloe attacki"g hOO> on Conic:a

a"d at Salerno, and likewile paniei
r-tcd in the Pcnian Gulf and at Suez.
6aJloon Command aoo toiled during
the pe:paratiMs for the invation of
northern Fn.ncc: in 194-4 and afterwarn. had 4,000 men mgagc:d. when
t ' - bridgeht'adI on !he Channd
<AMI! 'Wac atablW!c:d.
Balloon Command wu di.bandcd on
5 FcbnI.aty 1945. as by then there: wu
no 10ngu much likelihood of rc:newc:d
air attack on England, ance the Gc:r.
man Luftwaffe had 1o.t the initiative:.
Yet balloon barnga IUppearc:d in the
final .tap of the war, Montgomery'.
forcel using than in Holland, on the
Rhine and ebewbac:.
One of the standard Britilh typel of
captive: balloon, the IO-Called 'l..Z.'
which WN bal I on the French Caquol
model from 1915 (ICC No. 46), WN8CII!
to the United Statcl during the war.
I n that counuy it became I.hc iNpil'2'
lion for the ZK balloon mut-produccd
by Goodyc:ar. 1'hough the United
States was not thrcatGled by direct
air altaek at any time during the war,
Iix balloon ~uadroN ",-ere formed to
protect naval ba_ and depora. 1l!e
Amuican balloon barraga W'U'C oper ted allnOtl exdlDivc:ly by the U.S.
Army and U .S. Marine Corpe.

.timplicily ibelf. When the wind. Wtlc

favourable the United 5talCl W&I to be
utunted with balloon! cafT)'ing 5 Or
12 kg incendiary bombland IS kg antipenonncl bombl to wleak havoc on
American cilies, forall and uop., and
to kill many people.
A couple of yean were lpent in
manufacturing lhe baUoons with their
bombl and, a bove all, the nee- ury
automatic I'deue equipn.... Finally,
on 5 November 19+4> the fint or
(eventually) IIODlL 9,500 balloonl of thi.
kind were launched. Two da)'l later
~J the in ter_
(" NO'o'ember, having w
national date line), one of thtIC WllI
found bting, without ill load ol
bombl, in the Paci6c Ocean near San
Pedro, 0 1T the c:out of California.
Thit ja~nese coocepl of balloon
bombl rea1lydated from 1933, when the
japanese abo tried to devdop otber
revolutionary weaponl. One of these
apcrimen ll raulted in a tiny rad io-controlled, unmanned armourc:d vehicle
gi\"UIthe code: name ' I-Go'. Another of
theac weapons wall a roekcl idenli6cd as
'Ro-Go' . This artenal wu even to indude an elcctrica1 'deathray', bul
the balloon bomb 'Fu-Co' wu con
lidered the mott pn:!Dlising. The main
problem in connection with this scheme
wu to evolve: a way of maintaining a
"eady altitude for the period clfifty to
tt:YUIly bows required (OT the u ..... ng
of the Paeific., a distance of ~,!)6s miles
(g,600 km), and a meaN of rel
the bomb load in the United States at
the proper lime. ja~nClC ingenuity
toIvcd both problcmt, atleasl on paper.
The PI acapc valve wu 10 be combined with an automatic:: baiwi release
rnecltanilm. Thi. mnsistcd oC ca.! taluminium whcd, mounted hori1ontally, on to wtudt were hooked 32
aandhags. Tbe hap hung in
pain, and each pair W&I filled wi th a
relcale fuse thaI could be: Iirc:d by means
oC an aneroid conncc::ted to a small


75 The 'F~' beU_ bomb

On t8 April t~ Lt Col James H.
Doolittle led 16 North American B-25
Mitchell bombcn in a lUI PI ic nid on
Tokyo. 'They cau-cd little damage to
the city, bul the effect on mcuie was
rar.reac:hing, as an American attack on
the Japanese capital had hitherto not
been considered (cuible llUeh a Ihort
time after Pearl Huber. This air al
tack even inftumccd Ja~n. llrategy
in the Pacific., but at the same time
her military leaden fU\'eIltly dairc:d to
retaliate against the American main.
land. The lOIution plan munded like:


battery. Whenever the balloon A nk to

a pre IOC t minimum altitude, cithcT due
to Jo. of PI or bo:c::aUIC il was cooled
down, a fUle WlII ignited and two oC
the sandbag. ",ue dropped. When the
load of tandbap _ IJ'U'It the bomb
load in ill lurn wu rele' 'Cd and the
balloon would destroy itllCif by meantl
of a small aplOIive: eh.uJe. Ahead of
the balloon. carrying bombl, other
baUOOfII wue rdMud which ealli!
radio equipment 10 IIUld bad; informa_
tion about the weather a nd wind mn
ditiona along the route. 1l!e japanCIC
.dentisll realilcd that thac bombcarrying balklontl mUll be: dapatcbcd
during the win ter monthl., bo:c::autC the
CIlIlerly windl predominate fi-oal 0ctober to Mareh.
The envc:Jopc:a of thtIC balloonl were
made: of thrc:c or four layen oC silk
liuuc ~pcr glued together. The GI\'eIopct had a diamctcror,28 Ii (10m)
and contained ' 9,010 c::u.rt (S<fO c::u.rn)
cI pa. When fully inftatcd with h~
gc:n they had a lifting eapacity ofgg2lb
(4SO Itg) al ground levc:l and of about
~ lb ( 155 Itg) at an altilude or 29,530
Ii (g,ooo m). The: mve:1opa woe COI).
tained in fabric:: 'puaehulCI' which
covc:red their top half and (rom which
liTe bomb load and ballan mcehanism
were JUtpUTded in the UJUai balloon
.tyle, except that the hoop or ring and
cu IUlpUllion of the larter balloon!
Wtit rcplaad by two knou. While the
japanCIC cxpc:rimenled with the 'Fu-Co' weapon they aoo trained ae ... to
handle u.e.e balloona and Elected the
huel from which to release them. Three
""SCI wert I!Stabliahcd, all located on
the cut c:out of Honshu hland. When
the prepantioN had been compkted
a ma3I production of !he balloon envelopes ....-as initiated al ICVC!n.I placa
around To~ Schoolchildren mainly
'IOue employc:d to glue the ahccll of
tilruc ~pcr logether. Later the GIve10pea wee alto made of .ilk.


The ja~nac Major Genual Sue-ywhi Kuaaba \QI in complete chaf8t of

tnc 'Fu-Co' p:tojccl and pcllooally
watched the lint despatches c,,*,ly. He
had mote than 10,000 of tbetoe balloons
available and a time limit of6ve: montha
in which the win<b would be IUff1-dmt1y favourable to pt'O\'e tnc falibility of !hit Khune, .a it W&I a race
&pintt time. The:JapanCIC inleDiguw;:c
ICI'Vicc wu aIu1ed to ron down any
nLehce to the lwlloons that mighl be
printed or broedealt in the United
5 talCl and rcveal OT hint what effect
they had had there.
The: 'Fu-Go' balloonl did actually
reach the United StalCl and for a while
puzzled everybody there. The
of the fint 'dud' hat alrc:ady been men
tioned. On 6 Det:Ul'lber 19, a bomb
cnteTwasdi............ ed nearTbc:nnopoli.
in Wyoming. Tbe third balloon to reach
the U.S. mainland W&I found on
I I Deccmber in the neighbourhood o
Kalispell in Montana. On Dt:u;mbc:r
a b.11oon and .amc oC ira equipment
'IOe.e found at Ellacada in O''IOn;
and IeVral more balloontl woc found
early in january t945. The UPUll oC
the ddcooc: (Oli"", 100ft (ltablilhcd the
origin and putpOk of the lwlloona,.
Dilcm:t invtlltiptiom W'U'C conducted
It W&I mainly the h"ard oC the inc::cndiary bombl to the dry forall that was
fearc:d, Ihe ..rety of the public did DOt
seem at 1Iakc, .a the America.n pre.
aglted voluntarily to abltain from lUIy
refCl't/lCC to the findinr oC thac bal
laona. HOIO'CVU-, the diIt:ovc:ty of the
finl two balloont had a1teady been
mentioned in newspapcn and btw.dcasll, and the Japan ..... PC '
d this


On 5 ~tay '945 a woma ll and five:

children woe: killed in the vicinity of
Lakev;e.,. in O,cgot, when ooc of the
l-lloon bambi aplodcd whi1c: they
were puUing it out from Wldcr lOme
trca.. It wu then decided 10 adviR the

pu"'Oc fUUy .bout lbe 1w11oon bomb.,

evm if' uu. ... ~ ,Id aid 1hr. j.p--.::
What tbe Ama i.... N dOd not ~
.t th.t lime _
that the j.p-nae
had aI~y .bazw:loncd the pro;c.:t,
.bout montb before the Lakeview
More than nine thowand bombl had
bttn de.puchcd, while anochcr 1,000
bad been .... :ctiYe; of the Dwu, ooly
.~ wac .......... nled hr. mot' ofwbic:h
Wfte bloc! all_ the U.s.A., Cen"".,
A1Mh and MesKo In Man:h 19+5
G... Ki.l KUNlba....., tutkknly ordered
to halt hill activita. TIle jlpaDeIe
senera1ltafr now conPdemt thill ... beme
ItupKi and pointJe., since they had

had no evkience of ita eflix:ta.

Thil dotI not end the KIIrJ' of the
'Fu-Co' weapon, ..ilic:h in way an
juIt.Iy be tdmed the fint intc".....lIu<n.
tal m;'ile 00 liXOi'd. On I jlllUIfY
the Amui<:aD ))o"nce Depart.
mml circulated bulletin .bout the
ICttIlt find of fully-live balloon
bomb in "l"k- , and.t the _me time
iIIued the wamins that Ie. a a1 hundred rr.ooe of th; ' ; darJca'ouI--PCXU
miahlltilJ rum up in difLu.t atatCl. It
would be t:rapty if Ammcu Ir.a
Wde IliII 10 be IoIt &..... __ pona UK'd
in ..,.., wbidt ended nlOte than I
quarter of. century -co.


,. n.... "Z.V;""".

The U.s. Navy had loot: wiMwd 10

haw: the JMoc:edun: in c,n.tinc thr;
om.1I p-b'Ol ainhip timpl ib l .. 1I\uc:h
.. ~bIe. FOODOUly it had beat the
practice that the lint pilot h'rdled the
eIev.tor and the IP"wI pilot operala!
the Nddu. In lhill experimental air.
abip il _ a.tran&ed thai one CJ'C\o .
man could handle both onoll'ola. II _
abo the 1m ainhip to have III CIlWIope ofl)r 10 ... 1'hiI f)'Dlhttic mao
Ierial hMl JM"of both llcilln and
IUOrtfU' than the pda of Cabric IIICd


The '5kytacWar' ainhip billboanb

ft by 116 ft U~ )( 7'9 m )
and arc cnml"'lHd d ,,760 blue, ,'CCli,
red and ydlowlisbl bulbi that arc inlel"
councot'lm with 4lIS,u8 n (llI9oooom)
olwiring.The)Loi V are .nim1ed in
lhc _ytc of_dr_per Ot' filtn cartoooL
'J'l.: daittd . " V an: poductd ill
mtIIUl't I~

an eJocuooaic l.bonlOry (XI the ~

the '~ tcqW"K"' are 'dnwn'
wiill lichl pidoi one by ODe (XI a type
of TV ..........." compo-oj to ...... . apoiid
to the patl'il'l'l 01 bulbi on the two .;des
of the ainhip CiI~lope. It it all 1aJ
. u:ozdecI .... u.lIaMOO,lly with the _t
wbic:h it reeordod by a b m of tcJc..
type printer. 10 the .i.... ip the COl)'CD" of the tap n CilIeI' rnur Wlit., didt
of which actiftla all the bulbi 01 CDC
cob.... The end teNlt .. a CoCMXdinatcd
'Super Skytacubr' .nimated film or
elu;:tt it.... Ie in rour coIoun.
America may today be the bett
place 10 UIjoy the lichl 01 an ainhip We
Iligbt, rOt' tIxre you ttand good ch'nce
01....; .. either the Ata,JlZh, C at..

mmt then avail. . . for the detection

and dalruaion 01 ",bmarlnG. 'The
ainhip ..... u.o liu~d with r.cmtics fOl'
rd'ucllill( in the air, bcnce ill Biehl
dutatioo ..... a1ftIOIt infinite. ror by
mcanI of deetriea1Iy-driven winches
IlOrea,. &ab WlW' IUpplia and relic{
ae ..... could .... be taken on boanI
_ywbue and at any rime

Sp e=IAeatJoa ofNIM
V*=': iW2,j'OOCU.n

5I ' I -jO... tJoa of the ZSl'"_"

Va's. ': )27,000 c:u.ft
(14,92' cu.m)
r.n.,11::r66 n (81' 1 m)
&,ilttl: Two ~ h.p. Pratt A,
Whitney R'IS4O'46 Wasp radi 1
Mari_J""': appOL 8, m.p.h.
( ISO knt./ht')
Cr... : 8 men

(5,740 cu.m)
Lnwd: 192ft II in (sa'ssm)
I>iIDttM-: 50 n ('5'24 m)
&tUtu: Two 110 h.p. Continental



The wdI_lnowD K ~ (lICe No. ~)

from World War 1I WN ckveJo,.,1
furttta in variouI wa,.. after the .......
1'hiI r' 'Ited, lOr iDttanoe, iii RJ'of IiI\ccn ZP4K ainhipt irltcr..!ecd ror
anli..ubmarine ,.'kl The prototype of
Ih. erriul 10'11 in the .ir lOr the tint
time in December of 1953. One of ttoc.c
.inhipe., No. 'ss639o _ l u' -j\Cd from
the _'Oa to be dcvcL,.,1 further ud
on 19 Noo mba' 1956 Will aiya. the
dcapalion X7.SG-+


JMe.ioou&Iy. 1)r ' Ion iI one of Goodyear'.

iDDoYalkltll in ainhip corull'UCtioo and
abo baa &be advanta(e of holdins lhe
"- 01 .... 10. minimum. II iI obvious
that thD it imponant in view of the
hip CDd of helium.
In ill 6nal b .... ZSG-4 _ illed
with the ""'Y latal e:tcetr.woic cqui~

alnJUp . , . U.s.

combinalinn of _It and

licity but

If*'I: 50 m.p.h.
(80 bnfhr)
c",iriIIIS/IfN: 55 m.p.h.

i>ti ..."")

&"' Ilru;


'Super Skytaaalar'
$ ..... World War t ended, nonri&id
. ' Jbip exctu.ivdy have b COl iii lei I'lec
iD F, '''''X, japan, &be Soetict Uniooot,
Great Britain aDd &be Uqj!<d Slates,






in actioo.


the liz
IU""'","" _u. thmc arnall, bUIy airjointly travel 1 B5oOCO mile.
(!nopco bQ) or O1Oife 00 Yiai. 10 the:



various ltates. The newest Goodyear

advertising au"hip ill in Europe.
where it wall completed in England and
flown for the lint time on B March
t91~. This is
which has a length
of 19~ fi 6 in (58'6, m) and is powered
by two 'l to h.p. Continental 10-360-D
six-cylinder engines. Thils au"hip almost
came to grief, as iIO many of it! predecessors have done, when on 19 April
191~ it tore away from its mooring
mast at Cardington, Bedford5hll-e, and
was badly damaged when colliding with
lOme treaI near Ihe base.


18 The 'EzcdBior' proJeet

Toward5 the end of the lIineteen-fiftic:s
Captain Joseph W. Kittinger of the
U.S. Air Fon:e made !lOme daring
parachute jumps from previously unattempted altitudes. Then:: was a thtecfold purpose in conducting thae tdlts,
which fonned part of the so-called
Exu/sior proglamme. Firsl, the Air
Force wanted to ascertain whether
the new automatic Beaupre parachule
outfit was capable of steadying the free
falls from altitudes higher than
100,000 ft (30,500 m) which would become normal practice in the fulUll:. It
had been established in laboratory tats
that a man is subjected to a destrocUve
rotation of no fcYX:r than 45 r.p.m.
when he leaves an airaafi (or, for that
matter, a space capsule) at an altitude
of, Illy, 8~,000 ft (~5,ooo m) and makes
a free fall. This drop form is imperative
because of the initial shock, hil supply
of oxygen IIId the frigid temperatura
to which he ils ~. The Beaupre
parachute Wa$ the first really new
parachute daigrt since 19~4. I t wall
provided with a small stabilising parachute with a diameter of 6 ft (18 m) 1101 to be confused with the ordinary
small drogue parachute which unfolds
the main parachute. The function of
the stabilising parachute was to preven l
such rotation. The second purpose of


tI'e CJ<periment! was to tat the ne ....

partly pl'CS!lurc-tight SUil, designated
M eS, under actual conditions. Last,
but not least, the opporlunity would
be taken to gauge a completely isolaled
individual'. ability 10 perfonn all the
demanding procedures of Ihe '!:$Cue
opention without Illy previous training.
Kiltin~r was a thoroughly trained
parachute jumper and an a:pcricnccd
pilot. He had not only made ordinary
jumps, but had abo participated in
the 'Man High' programme, which
can be looked upon as the preliminary
to Exulsillr. Paradoxically, when these
programmes were conducted no air_
craft with the required ceilings were
available. They had to faU back on
the oldest form of aircraft: the balloon.
Two firnu, General Mills IIId Wintzen,
built a pear-shaped balloon of'l,OOO,ooo
cu. ft (56,634 cu.m) capacity. lu envelope was made of poly<:thylene
material IIId it was inflated with
helium. This special balloon for (j,e
'Man High' programme had ascended
to an altitude of gG,121 ft (~9,300 m)
in I hour 15 minutes before this programme wall wound up on ~ June 1957.
Kittinger was placed in a :nnalJ, clOOlCd
caproic below the balloon envelope,
but did not jump on this occasion. It
was n",~rthcless a perilous ascent, as
the O:lC}'gen supply equipment had been
installed wrongly and pumped oxygen
away from the capsule instead of
supplying to it.
The Exu/siorprogramme was divided
into three stages, the wide TuliU'O$\
basin in New Mexico being the place
of departure for aU of them.
&;U/sior Iwas launched on t6 November 1959 and Wa$ scheduled to dimb
to an altitude of 60,000 ft (tB,soom).
During the ascent the fierce beams of
the lUll bothered Killinger and interfered with his instrument readiogs,
almost rendering them impossible.
Thus he exceeded his 'ceiling' and

Cl<p<-Tienced diffieuft;es with the helmet

of his pressure suit as it lifted from his
shoulders. It Wa$ not until he had
reached an altitude of 16,050 ft
(~3,180 m) that Kittinger managal to
leave the capsule to begin his long
descent. After a frcc fall lasting only
III seconds instead of 16, IllI planned,
the small auxiliary parachute v;as
rdeased that was to unfold the stabilising parachute. This the latter failed
to accomplish, since Kittinger wall still
dropping at III insufficient velocity. To
complicate matters even more, the lines
of the stabilising parachute wrapped
thetn5Clves around Kittinger's neck.
After falling rome 16,000 ft (5,000 m)
in this manner Kiltinger fina!1y attained a falling velocity of 4~~ m.p.h.
(680 km/hr), and now his body began
to rotate al a mad rate. He was unable
to SlOp these rotations and !lOOn lost
conseiousnCSII. At an altitude of
I r,000 ft (3,S50 m) the automatic
emergency parachute unfolded, only
in its tum to become entangled in the
wild, fluttering line! of the rest of the
equipment. Fortunatdy, the developer
of the parachute, Francis Beaupre, had
provided for a &ituation of this na ture by
using Una with a low yielding point to
retrieve ruch a perilous dilemma. This
yielding point had been reached and
a:ceeded; the lina gave way, and when
Kittinger recovered he was gently
approaching the ground, borne by
his fully-unfolded emergency parachute.
Some lcuotll had been learned, and
experience could abo be derived from
a film Ihalshowed thils parachute jump
from start to finish. The ascent of the
balloon Exalsior J/ went 011' without
any hitch on II December 1959.
Kittinger left the capsule at III altitude
of 74.731 ft (~~,780 m) and I ~ minutes
3'l seconds later was back again on the
EMelsiot III accomplished the peak
achievement in thils run of a:pc:rimClli.l


constituting the SnMva! programme of

Ihe U.S. Air Force. On 16 Augwt 1960
Kittinger once more saw the de:so:rt
","ds fade away below him. His capsule
was a completely new type, daring to a
deglCe hitherto unheard of, as il was
completely open on one lide and at
the top. Everybody was lupn:mely
confident that Kittinger'. pressure mit
and the rat of the equipment worn by
him would work perfectly. In this
'battlcdrc:ss' Kittinger weighed almosl
StO lb (140 kg) when be took off at
5 a.m. The top of his large shining
balloon projected S94 fl (I~O m ) above
his head. The Schjedllh! firm had built
this balloon and it! envelope WlIS made
of mylar plastic material. Kittinger
got badly scared when, at an altitude
of 48,000 ft (14.630 m), he discovered
that the right glove of his pressure suit
did not function properly. On the
threshold to the 100,000 ft (30,000 m)
altitude his hand was numb and quite
useless.. Killinger was overcome by the
idea of his complete isolation, bu t by
applying great will power managed
10 reason hinuelf out of this psychological crisis. When Kittinger had
reached the altitude of 10~,B90 fe
(31,310 m) - on the thre!hold of space he stepped from the edge of the capsule
with these words on his lips, 'God, I
resign myself into your hands'. Kittinger tape-recorded bis descent and
left all manipulations to hils automatic
equipment, which worked perfectly
in spite of his subjection to a speed
615 m.p.h. (990 kIn/hr) by Ihe time
he Willi passing the 85,000 ft (':16,000 m)
altitude mark. He was not rotating at
all, but that speed is IOmething which
tbe human body has no way of grasping and Kittinger did not fccl it at all.
The full duration of hils descent was
IS minutes 45 seconds, of which the
free fall il$Clf lasted only 4 minutes
S1 seconds. However, when a human
being, even for a few In-ief moments,


;. 'rlvdlinc like a comd. cad> mio"lC

~ like uanity.
'IlIc val .. aH ~ capo;' ...."C pined.
fn.o the EatUiM po"lamD'M' _ the
01.11( .... ..-.... of inlenli'W'C teamwork by
_ y people Oa" an CJlI......ted paiod
but in the end the daWlUe.
contribution of one: "",Ie individual
all-dcciaive in canyin. it to a
I\OC(" ful mneh.ion. TO<arO:b the end
oilh(" fiftie. oUIa' ....luabloC" C"llperimenu
wilh both manned and unmannai
balloons were abo eondUC"tCd. All ~
ttudks wac pre1iminaria to the ("()mint: C"llplotationl and travek in 'P'


T'IN", r d..... lIyda $

1:: " _
'The wdl<FC&bljo.L. I ball ___ped free
balloon, inftatcd eitbC"1' with byd.oegul
or with coal .... hu its CaitMal
d<;,..ot-ca _
toeby in 'Pit(" oia dqtce
01 inh... mt lire baunt. httptlOr the
ran 01 thc two world wan the
inl("fen in this 6dd hu never Raged.
nor doCI il ever lac:k e:xeitcmcnL It is
intc:rnline:. too, that the modern ps
balloon ;. alQlOIt idenlical with the one
that the Frmdunan Cbarle. inll'Odueed
as 1M bzck .. '7Bs (lite No. .).
'Inc aeronaut d tOday brlrnp to a
ana.Il and adusiw: cirde oJ Glth' ..;"..
who tbo.ouPiy enjoy Iheir k;-U'dy
.mal jauna. !carine the Kia .... d
their de.'iD.ltion to lhe e&pim oJ the
wiDd. In spkndJd isolation and a1uW')'
Mk:nce they &.t .... ors the ("Vcrchafllinllandlalpe by day (or nipt,
when an c:n("hanlan, Moon may tum
the -"",nd below into a fairyland).
If they want to ,tay up rex- any length
of time, or hope to rovet' eontiderable
dbtanC"eS, balloon pilob ttill have to
avail thclllKlvct d the .... "led type.
For. C'YGl tbouJb a modern variety ol
the hot4il' balloon hu ............. quite
pop"I", wt ttyle oJ balloon limited
110 triP' d a few howl' duration. The:
IJIOrtUlc elo m.,n cnta's wt.m bal'_ _ are artanpI. The pilou ~,

pealctl diatanoe or mlnlce to land
de7 :It to a pre-fivd pl. 'FOE h",.ml'
are aDOlbC"1' pop'l.. 101m oJ baUoon
competition. One ,,11oon will 'tart as
the 'fox' and the othC"1' paniCpa'"
balloons will ,uive to d....oe..d as ("be
to the kndina FpOt 01 thc 'fOK "linen'
as p!*ible. Today HcNland. SwilZC!i'.
land and Cc:rmany are the moat ac:tiY1:
bF.lloOi1.inl c::ounui .....
Balloon rac:ct re.c:hcd the peaka of
their popularity i.. thc pe'oo. from
7goo to 19'4 and .,ain bet .. e("n 1920
and 1939. TheGoo'doa BnpneU bF.11nen
raas wue the molt impona.nt annual
evcot oJ aD intematioNl eharac:1U.
Jama GocdOil Bennett _ the very
wealthy owner 01 the N_ r".t H".u
newspaper who ofbcd a trophy
beatinc h. name and 12,)00 francs
(wbm moaey was IItill on the ~Id
ttandanI) 10 be oompetcd lOr annually,
thc winner brirta the piklt landina' hil
balloon f.rtheat away from the
point. The int Gordon Bennett bF.11oon
..w _ held in Pan. on 50 September
7906 and _ won by Lieutenant
Frank P. Lalun. U.s. Army. H e IIew
to Yorbhift, in En,:land. a diJtanc:e 01
4(n mi1tt (60 km), in h. balloon
U.w&, .. " The rue was alwa)'l hdd
in the C'OUIltry ol the pouioul ycu',
winner, and in this _
the 6ft1
jC.ieuozuinued Wltil 79"0 inlerrup'ed
only by the war yean. The ..:oond
... iu _ beld from 19lI5 to 19lI8, the
thin! Kia in 19'19 and IgsO, and th("
founh Kn.... &om 7gs2 to '938.
The Cordon Bennett bal1000 rIt"n
werealwa)'lvcrydramatie, but lOn",n.t.
ely IGl .... intarpened with ("()Ill;nl
inridalu. 'IDe mQlt bann:!our ("OW1IC
was thai
!be '9lI' race. held in
Bn h on
September. rift aer0nauts ,",oe killed al the Itan and fh"C
itiOie wac injured. Tbue fatal aec;'
dUlts line ....,-" eilba by
li;tttninr IUltinc the halb"" Of by
compete to dist\l.e. wbo




&ri , "q~n 1., .., ~ evMkncw. 01 tbe abUily ,. the





modem *POi u balloon to ... we a praelieal pwpoK as wetl. I.. I~ the

Britith _.+c'-! ltaY't!icr and ..... _

~per lep"...... Anthony SPUtb, 1Di'

.. ' . ~ the idc8 oJ ( h a Ina: the .... tc:m
part d the A.CricaIl cootinent in a balloon by takq adval\tace
the ~
_ _ _ L ".
K<'i1'lj!\.l.il1 ~I wu....
there durina: the early montlw oJ the
year. The deYer part oJ m..tZlOtlin,
that his .uu.tlyo-drifUnc free bal
1000 would ..... ble him to ~ 1I7""'C' and
it:nmortaJire _ ilm the cop;- and.
diversi6ed wild ani-n) life caYOrtina
on the ... plai.. without diFtw-bi..
the M . . . . . . ill theit natunU cnviroomo:t.... In Bdlium Smith had a b~
c:u.n (800 C"U.m)
capacity built with a toW liI'tinc
ca., ilt 0( 1,695 Ib (769 q). He
Kkrte:l the Zandbar iaIand off the cut
co... 0( ACric:a as hit llartinl poin!, and
tbn'e. be .... tablilhcd a depot with 60


Worfd War s ended die Gordon.

Bennett I 'loon .ac:u b ..., Bal
Iooning_ '~2 ,mcd after the ww and
in the U.itcd SQtI:I t.lkIon '3C(1'lU
eerved as a prelinUDary ..ale in the
training of new aimip pi.... The:
,_11_ ...-cd lOr !hill PWI , 'JJerl 0(
t.bc, 7171 riled ZF type and thtu: dilcr.
CFFI m.. wue 1ACd, 0(9,000, 35,000 and
go,ooo C"U..ft (255. 997 and a.M8"
c:u.m) capacity .tspe'"tieJy.
When in '973 tie German Hup

KauJcn &om ,,...t7 Dr .771. . . . . ' ( iaod

oll.7~ mil-.

(a,.h7 km)
r~ Biltc:ri'dd izl Sa,..,ia to the Pam
diJtritt in R , -a in 87 hours, in h.
b.l1oon J)wj,f.., ol~.5000 euA (1,600
c:u..) cal city, be Id a duntiorl
recotd lOr "Ibm which ItaIQ WIbc:atCII 10 this day. He thea abo tttablithed a world', disW5("C I'C("!QI'd for
balloottJ, bul !hit _
bealen by hil
compatriot HIlnI5 Rudolf Berlina' who,
!be dinanee

on 8-10 February '974> rollowed


route in bis balloon

(1,660("\1. ...)
city. He: ~ OQ, this ..." zion to
0.::.0 a diItanee oIz8., mi ...... (3oOh
bIl), which hal D("\.'tt hem
Z 1,
On this world', dillalI("e tCC"Oid bballooN Bc::rliftC"1' ,u.yed in thc air [or
much thc






" houn.



fled battks C"OI"Itaininr



bydroccn. Another 1110 containcn wae

,Ied in Aruaba in Tanpnyib.
AI the OUIaCt 0/7965], iF bq:an iu
.... oJ the A!ricaD iXIIlti.....,L It
Cltendod G'I'a' a nwober oJ wceU and
" ~ . . . . .0 ...
" iAtal .........
te 1..Yllop
and n:6Uinp. The ez . . . litioa COQri"ed of four Ir+ "'bc:zot. 0IlC 01 them
beint: the weI.Iknowtt pboIoiJ apber
AlaR Root from. KGlya. With his 16
mID Am&::.: moYie camet a atFd" mm
mitt"or n:1Ie. camena, thb C"llpert
1CCW'Cd a Joq apex: ion oJ mlfP"lifieent
Fhocs, with IOUtid dI'octa. oJ the und.
IUi'bed anima.. The hia;hlicht _
_ -,z oJalI-UYc:ompuIiIIc .,aclNl oJ ~
mDII8 bc:zda 01 animab in the Nat;""- I
Part, in Tanpoyika, where the C"llpe.
didoo 1iniIhcd_ They ... ae a IJreMh.
taIJq cbaracter and ,Je_....ralCd wt
Smith "'" richl in COIUidainc the &u
the ideal vebiC"1e lOr an aerial
..w;, The animak DDt only toIu-atcd



}# N, but often _




lhe ,,11oon .. bdoniJinl 10 their own


10 n.. modcra 1Ioot..!r

Today ~, people take it for vania:!
that Wge,lhinin(~ .. ~-Ir
IrUIttcr-of.~, vdlida tnln$I'tt them 10
dinant vacation 'POu in a rew houn.
One reBec.u tbc:rl with rupeo::t thaI
there are ,till Angular individuall Id\
who enjoy nothinjj: better than 10 en
In.t Ihw.d_ to a wi.ektt b"kelt
tltl"l below a ruther-light "lIoon 10
be borne 10 ,\OCh unprcdktabk: ck:stinationI .. lbc wbimt 01 the: wind may
whilk them. Thil a.ama CYCI more
d a romantic Up""1 when the adution
rdtltlU 10 the pOirll wbenoe it ttaned:
lOr the aerial ........, mounted by thae
modem'" roamcn often .e.aL 10 the
bot.air principle 01 the: Montgol6a
brothen' balloon.
The re-binh olthe MOfIIJOIIib-e bal
100II type iJ due mainly to economy, for
the hotair balloon iii the e:heapest way
01 indtllging in thiJ
(working OIIt
10 roushly [I SO po- hour per pamngeI'.) I n Ie.a al c:ountria aeronatlb may
1611, by JOOd fortune. be able 10 pr0cure hyd.. goo c:heaply lOr the Iillm, 01
their baUoonl, the ... chanc:el1O be a
by.product 01 the kol c:banic:al
Ot!....... iIe a 1ilIin( with c:oaI PI may
nut 10 about ['X)O.





~ ~lOb~81~m~

StatCI, where tome IOrty 01 them are

privately owned. I n Greal Britain there
are _
than 'aO hotair ballaona, and
in tehial othc:r (OtIntria two Of tI\ree
_ thouch thae filuru may well be obtole:k' by the time thae Iinel appear, U
"Uoonin( - DOt leut with the bot-ait
type _ lItc.dily gains new adbucnu.. In
Amcric:a Don Piocatd. a r.epbew 01 the

. .~ OplOiU\llle ~lCcard,

.... Clltablirbed hiInKlf .. a m&I1wacttlftt of bot-ait balioonL
Tbe enwJope of a modem lMxair
balloon it generally made ofleal"-ptool
nyian with ~ of an &1_ 1eIni.
cin:u.1ar aba~ '1lIcre are both a val,'t
apmillg and a rippingpucl in the
en'l'1:lope. HOtIIeJ withOtlt conntttkm
to g.. pipclina, and Ql'llvans o/\en
UK a p i ttlpply in the Corm of butane
,~ in 'teel bonks. Propane g .. in
liquid _Ie iJ a limilat heating kKIr,
8UlCIalini m\OCh lint and extOl
lively for induttrial applic:ationa; and
Pn,pute p i iii wdllItIited ... a healiq;
-.n::c ror bot-ait twllotr .. This au D

fed rom pi Jre boulct tnOtI.Dted aboo.'t

the: ear ilIto evaporatitm ipiI'lll Itlbet in
the b.orna. TbeK Ipinb auTOtIDd the
ftamcI that are iii wilh a match. The
balloon UI'I'1:1ope it filled with hot air
on the JTIiUDd by plaring the burner
below the opwins: (mouth) in the envelope, and when the bot air .... call1Cd
the c:n.....dope 10 rile the II.' bottle ;.
mounted in iu place abcm: the car.
Thc:n the balloon iJ ready to axcnd.
By applyinc the full ph .. re of the
burner lOr ..... w; ICco""b, 1.1 inta"vah of
about '" lett. ."
the balloon will
maintain ia altitude 01' dimb. When
the air inride the emclope mob 011"
the twlloon ric nnda.
Matly look tlpon the combination ol
baBoon cnvdope and ope.. lire ... the
hcis::hl of m:kICII lOI.Iy. bul lhe nylon
material iii otten coated with poly.
urethane alld doCI DOt ignite:. ['"CIl iC
the fabric: ahould be KIMc:hed, the boks
created c:auee no ill cll"ec:I. It it obvious
that the OtttIpiUlt 01' OtttIpanu 01 the
hot-air balloon are DOt anxinuJ 10 run
any WtlCi riIb, d~-' iany .. their
cquipmaulcpoCiCIlb a monetarY valt1Ci



ANrrwliJt. 'The circular neck bf;low the balloon envelope throtl,b which it u filled
with gu. 1lle appendix iJ Id\ open dwi"l the trip 10 allow p i to ocape when the
balloon iii heated by the mn.
&dr-to A Jq)antle: bac: inlide the en'l'1:lope in ~t nonricMl. and 1CIIliri3ld
ainhipi which, by meant of a bIo""Ci, can be 611ed with aln""I'bcric air 10 maintain the: pumrc in the enw:1opc if p i itlollt. and thereby keep the trI'I'1:iope CtllIy
lkm " ",.m.,. A vaI\'t mnunted atlhe bottom of an ainhip UlV'\Li;X! and ac:tins: ...
a II.kty valve, bnc:e it 0JiUI' if the pi
're in.jck the en'l'1:iope cxc:ccdt the...rety
limit (from _&.necnth 10 _twentieth of the yield point ofille envdope).
A lilhtcr-than-aitcrall with no piopubion
7 .... normally _ed


""f .


Ep,cr. The muimwn borimntal drc:umf.:rcftc:c of the balloon cmdope.

/0'_"'", I . A lishtcr-than-ait crall with no poopubion mean .. that iJ not mtiOied.
GAs uU. A c:ontainc:r. locally cylindtic:al L'Ml 611ed with pi, whic:b providca pari
or the lift or an airship. The ntlmber or II.' ce1II varies depending upon the zitt:
or the airship. Thcy may abo be d difkrml Wca; thc:n the !arrett celli will be
Cound amKbhi .... 'The more l ecellt ainbi ... v.CiI: provided with (rom t" to 16 pa
celb varying in zizc (rom about 99,000 10 990,000 NJ\ (",Boo to ,,8,000 cv.m).
IItl._. The kooud licblCIII of all elements Cs5.315 cv.n, I N .m 1.1 0 0 ~
,,",55 Ib, 0-16 . .). with a lifUnc capacity 93 per ant of that or hyd>. gm. Helium
it derived Crom natvnt1 ...... a and .... the advantap of brina: noninBammabk.
H;; .b".. "The 1iPL$ of all clo 1I~1a (sS.SI5 aaJ\, I c:u.m, 1.1 0*C, wdcIu Ci"'24" Ib,
0-11 . .). Can beproduc:cd by varioua methods and it inflammable:. Hrdrawul abo
!w. _
c:xpkwive by the addition of ... liltJe ... 6 per c:cnt of air.
Nflft-ritii anlrip. An ainhip ill which the ape of the: envdope it mailltaincd only
by the iNick: pi. LI!J'C.
P.,ltd. The l't\'Ciluo-producint load c:ompriling pall:nacn and/ or c:arp
R~. The kmgul dittanoe that an ain:ntfi can tntvd.
Ri,id .inAi,. An airship in whkb the wpe of the btil1 iii maintained by mcaJU or
a ri,id Cnmework.
Ri"." , /ltMt1. A pancI glued on the: inside of the ba lloon c:nvdopc. When pulkd
durina' landing it IU'VCI 10 CU'lpty the balloon quic:kJy of ib ... c:ontent.
An ainhip with. non-ripI CII'I'1:iope that it attac:hal 10 a c:omponent (ked) whic:b iI rip:! OfaxDPlI :d of c:onncc!cd, rip:! tec:IionI that carry'
the load
Rl. A valve mounted 01'1 lOp of the: balloon 01' ainbip CI1WJopc:. Actuated
autom&ticaUy or by band.





H. YOIl Abuc.on;

~ .abnen


FreibaUon. Berlin ,~

It Ad.oM-Ray ; The And:ft Diana.

New YGrk 19]0, loodon 19'1"
S. Oene: Tnil Blazing in Ihe Sky.
Akron 'Sot3'
C. Mlliw; Les BalIQIY.. PariI 1960.
DoIlr~ H . 8el.uboil and C. Rou8uou ; L' Homme, L'Air et \'i:'spve.
Paris , g65L. 00rT: ,~Jahre Zcppdin.Lufi
.:hiffe. Berlin 19R+
H . Ed:cuer; My ZeppeliN Londoa..
jo'.bril _,.L

Publithcd by A. R.icdinp. Aupbur; ca.. 191 3.

J. C. Fahey: The Shi . . .nd Aircraft
of 'The Uniled StaI05 Pkec. New
York 1945Richard Fern, : How 10 fly. London
19 10 .
K. Grieda': Zeppdine. CicaDtcn da'
UJf\e. ZUricb 1971.
P. Haini",. The [)ream MachiDCL
London 197;)
R. Hicham: The BritiUI Rip! Air
1g08-193 ' .lond.... 1961.
J. F. ~: The Sty of !Unhi...


.ru ..

Loadoo .....
K.. O. Hoffmann : Die: Gachichle dcr


Ainbi.. in Peace and

w.... I nMon 197 1.
Jane'. All the WoOd', AircnI\. Lon.
doG 1909-1938W. Kirchl\U': Fddballon und Luf\.
IfiU I(n. Berlin '939J. Kininen-; The Loot: Lonely l..c.&p_
New York 1961.
F. KoUnwm : Dall ZcppdinlufiKhilT.
Berlin 1!P4.

W. YOIl Lanpdorif: TatehcntNcb


Luftfloucn 19'8-1!P9- Frankfurt

Main u.l.
J. I
The Millionth 0Ian.
1....ton 1957.
It Mabky: The Motor Balloon
'Ameriea'. VenDOl.t 1969.
J. MaKhil: V'U'IIt Cinq ~
d'Aho '1tique F~. Paris



C. Martinc)t.I ....rde: Les Nou'l'CllWl

MOlcws d 'AYiation. Paril I9'l1.
Miw. Maybom (F1yinJ Entap;iIeI):
Early Militaty AireraA of the lint
World W .... ; Vol. II: Ainhipt. Oall. ,
T.,...., 1971.
W. "iOOcbcclt. : Twbcnblacb IUr
.1UCICChnika" und Lufbchiffu-.
Berlin ' 9113.
N Aviation in Review. U.s.
N ...,. 0fIi0ce of the Chod" of N.val

Opo.tiooL WaabinalOrl 1958

Neumann: Oi:> Intemationakn Luft

Luf\naehridltcnllUPPC IJ,I.
Nechl8ullilnd 1 96~ and 1968.


J.du..... :

lil:hitre. I hrc Ilauarl und EigcIlKhaf".

ten nadi dcm Stande \ 00 t'cbruar
1910.01dcnbwJ 1910.
R. NUniuh,: LcilWkn da Lun
tchiffahrt und tlu.tcchnik. Vienna
a.nd Lci~ '909.
Umbo1o Nobile; With the I"";' 10 lhe
North Pole. London 19)0.
UmbcrlO Nobile: M y l'oIar tligbtl.
London 1961.
E. Nargird: The Book of B..l ..........
New York 197 1,
E. QbenaUl: Bau und FilhnIna: von
IWlonrabneuaen unlcr bcIonderer Benlcbichtifun dcr MotorluflSChiffe. Lcipzic 19-:z6.
11.. Picca.rd: Mdlun lI immd Of Jord.
Copenh:t(cn 1!6.
J. Poachd : 1..ufu-eiKn. Lcipzia IgoB.
O. H. Robirwon : The Zeppelin in
C'.oro.b.u. A lIutory of the German
N.y.a.I Ainbip DiviaiOll 19'11-1918.
London 19M.
D. 1-1. RobWoo: LZ 1'29 ' HiDden
burt'. New York 1964.
L. T. C. Roll: The Acrona.uu.. II.
Hiltory of ll.a.IJoooinc: 1783- 1903.

Loadoo .....
11.. S.nIOl-Dumont: My Ainhi ... Lon
don 190...
R. A. S.... ille-Sneath: Britiah Aircnf\
IJ,I. Harmondsworth 19+4.
J. Schutte: OU' LuIbebillbau SchOlleLam 1909-1925- 8U'lin 19116.
II.nlborly Smith: Throw Qui Two
Ii andi. Londoa ,g&,.

R. K. Smilh: The Ainhipl'Akron' and

'M acon'. Annapolil I950.
C. Sprig: The Ainbip. h. Daisn,
Hutory, Opualion and Future.
London 1931.
t'. C. Swanboloua:h .nd P. Bowen;
Uniled Statal NaY)' Ain:rafi aince
1911. London I g68.
C. Tiaandier: I.e Grand Bailon Caplir.
Paris 1879C. T.andK:r: Histoire de mcs Ateen
Nona. Pant 1887.
G. T-oo.icr: HislGire d05 BaJlons 1-11.
Paris 1887 a.nd l&go.
P. 8. Wllkn : Early Ayiation .t Farn
boitOUJh. LondoilI97'.
Peter Wykcbam: SanIOl-Dumont,
Ilud y in ot.e.ion.. London 19M.
Zeppelin. l'ubliahcd by Zcppdin-MetaBwU"ke C.m.b.H. Fric:drichahafm




Paris (nriow

AeropI.anc. Toodon (nrioUl yean).

DculKhe ZeiIKhrin filr Lufbchiff
1"Ihrt, Berlin 1910
fli.hl. London (variow yca.n).

t'orta Amenne Fn~"" Revue

M cneneU.. de l'Auule de l'Air .
Paris (va.riotw yean).
L'A&onautique. Paril (Yllriow yun).
L'Abophi1c. Pa.riI (variow yurt).
The Iloya1 Air Forca Q,=1u-ly. Lon
don 1940""1945-




The first part ofthit inda: IDw aU

and ainhi.,. ill.... trated and d. ribed or
rderred to. Thc K ' 0''0(( p;u1lDw the balloon and ainhip ,,",*<C,. and othen who
pLayed an ~ive. part in the datloponcnl of thck typCli of airtn.n. indudint
dcsipcn, piJou. commMdcn. oft....c... pn :nc'" and acw lDCdl bcn. 1lM: bold
ri(\U'CS in bnekctl aIIcr the names and delicnationll arc the rd"crcncc nwnbcn of
the colour plata and leu daCiiptions of the various balloonlmbi.,. or po, "+-,.

"'ilb. Other rOCW"" in bold type indicate the pap on "'hicb the main tal
dCll;ription r.1llll; addil>onal rd"trenea., on Olher pqa. arc indicated in ordinary

Ad. . ainbip (U.S. Navy). ' 98
Ainhip, 6--7 (diagram)

CA;/w, capti\'C balloon (Giffard),

CaqIlOt captive

..-un.. ainhip (U.s. Navy). lee ZRS-.t

"=ui. ainhip, 15)

C.B.I V ainhip, I L'A~I Vliwillll
C.B.V ainhip, ICe FlnInu
CiJuu balloon, 101

CI "''lII'
unwp, ' S,5
Ch.arics bydtosen balloon (a). ...... 1
Cill "c.qainhip, I Wit,.., /Jl


=1 hUt "'loon, 120


Nt"' and Astn..T(W,t5 ainbi.,.

1.-1 ,1 71
AIlMJit balloon CIS). "',

"'loons C.6). 129, 161-

I&t, '14

Ak"" Ilinhip (Vaniman), ' 4)

Anwric. air..bip (Goodyear) (77). a'7
AMI'I"ie. ainhip ( Wellman) ~). 144Alii

Cif1./ N_ r.,.t b.lloon, I

1.1 lI_ ..,

AI/trW, ainbip, " 9


Clbnent.Bayard/ Astn. ainhi.,.




1..-14. 1

B eJ.a. ainhi.,. (U.s. Navy) ('s)'


Iblloon bomb, ICC FII-Go

B.vrare ..I......... 7.v. 16t, Ill"

"'loon (').

C "- ainbip, _
CJ N II ainbip, " 7
CMsli' .,-,. . .' ...... I I)


Blanchard andJefrria .. I..... C

. ). 103-


B,*"n ainbip, ICC Zrppdin

1.2 IH

B,"lloo\, 130
C CD ainbir- (U.s. Navy). 199
C t ainh.ip, lee Schlltte-LaIUl SL ,
Calif i.,. A~ ainliip, 149
ainllip, 139


n.,-n "'loon, 120

D'ArLmf' airship, 15,;

Difmt- airship. _
IWt. ainbip, 16g
lNv"d/-Pi ainhip, ICC Zcppdin LZ 7
fHw' ....b i lI.inhip, ICC Zcppdin LZ 8
DO. " ainbip, ICC Zeppelin LZ 'I"
DN., airship, 198
Don Picard b.lIlloon (Ia). HW


IIttnlh ~11oon, .07

1/". balloon, n1
II ........' ainhip, ICe uppdin LZ ~
lIin<llldk balloon, ICe ~ tJatJ-l "is
I lot_air bJlllooN (modf'nl) (80). u"
'1)'d~nbaIiOOl .. (modl':m h,).~

Drac:hl':nballon, II':C Kite: balloon

balloon, 1I11 '
Dupuy de L6me ainhip ( ' 7). .!t.4- o:IS
Dwp-J _ 1 S.., ainhip, ' 4'



&,k ballOOl' (U.s. fak",,1 Army), "5

EiJpt ainhip, II':C "ancval "I. 1
UK balloon, lI2.
~ ainhip,lIOO, lI.,
Ea.Itr;rw ""oon, " 4, I I 5
EI..u Ontdl .. 1 ainbip. _ Zeppelin



( II ). 11)-115
""11oon, 107
1_ }{__ balloon, 1'10
I~;' ainhip, _ N4

&/ II:' ainbip, ICe Zeppelin LZ '10
EM ainb.ip, .6g
ainhip, Ill, lII8
Emu;., balloon (U.s. Federal Army),



Llulsi I, JJ _

K cba ainhipa (U.s. Navy)

L; I _II balloons (51).


FIntrw ainhip (,a).




FJ(.R.s. baUooo('7). .~' 1102

Free baliooo, .6 (diafBm)

Fu-Go balloon bomll (15), 214 __ .6

G d.uI ainhipa (U.S. Navy), tlO

G-I ainhip, ICe J)iftfldtr
Ca,.. ainbip, . Sg

CtuiNJdi balloon,


Gammn panchule and b.lloon (, ).

C-" I V RI}1Gl c..
B'"' ' "




C-l' s.w bal~, I ~

Giffatd ainbip (10),
Cl* balloon, 97, 99-100
Cis ".. III balloon, 121
Good)Ul' ad.-crtilina airship' (" aad
77), 133 a", a.HII
Gr41 Ztpptlu. ainhip, _ Zc:ppdin LZ



C,41 Z.;,.Iu. Il


LZ ' 3D
C,,., lVulna balloon,




Cig " ,N".

Gra.-Buenadl M II ainhip, '42


ainhip, tee Zeppelin LZ 13

(~). 2Ia-

IIII, tl6
K ite balloon (tI ). IS (diagram), Ia&-

Ill balloon. (71), ul-

L d.u. ainhipa (U.s. Navy) (72), 200,

all, 2 ' 1
L aiiVUp, _ 7..eppclin LZ 14
L 2 ainhip, K'C 7.q>pdio LZ .8
L 3 ainhip, K'C Zcppdin U 24
L 4 ainhip, _ Zcppelin U 21
L 6 ainhip, lee Zeppdin U 31
L 10 ainhip, II':C Zeppelin LZ 40
L . , ainbip, tee Zeppelin LZ 4'
L 16 ainhip, lee Zeppelin LZ 50
L SO ainhip. IC'C 7.eppelin LZ 62
L 31 ainhip. lee Zeppelin U 72
L 32 ainbip. K'C Zeppelin LZ 74
L 33 ainhip, ice ZeP?' lin U -,6
L 35 ainhip. ice Zeppelin LZ 80
L S? ainhip, Ke leW'lin U 75
L 4 1 &inhip. lee Zeppelin LZ 79
L 48 ainhip, lee Zeppelin U 95
L 49 ainhip. lee Zeppelin LZ ~
L 53 ainhip, lee leW'lin LZ HID
L 56 ainbip, lee Zeppelin LZ I(t]
L 51 ainhip, lee Zeppelin LZ 102
ainhip, lee Zeppelin LZ 105
L 59 ainhip, lee. Zc:ppelin LZ 10"
L 61 ainl:iip, lee Zeppelin LZ 106
L 6] airship. .ec Zeppdin LZ .,0
L 14 airship, tee Zeppelin L.Z .og
L 65 ainbip. lee Zeppelin L.Z I II
L 7D ainhip, I Zeppelin U 11 2





J .. balloon (,,). t U


L 7' ainhip, _ Zc-ppclin LZ 113

L 12 airahip, _7.eppelin LZ 11 +
(..,4 ainhip. _ V'n, co
(..,5 airship, _ &d;rw
1.-6 ainhip, lee ilniat,
(..,7 ainhip, _ Rft'hll'
L-8 airship. I; R-,;'
L'A~ ' ..., Vi ' Itainhip, ' 41
ainhip ( . ,), 1ft-127, 135,
'48, 155
lA ] _ ainhip, _ l.o IF "']rJ1;" ,
I.. Vilk _ Fb_-, "Iioon, 119
I.. Villi J'OrIhu balloon (It>. IllrlU
".].0., I ainhip, ' 39-' 40
L. Otuk balloon, 120
L. FIIJNltu balloon, 99
IA Ciat balloon (10), 1I~1I1
IA Ntp'lX, balloon, 11 9
L'EaJr'/M' 1111' ball00a (6). 106-107
L. PI/, Nn ballooa, 11 2
Lu /4ls-Ulfil '-IIoon, 119
1 itu,Uainhip, 139
Linll~N4111 &111 _ Bt .. 'b"i ainhip, 1]9
1.- ainbip, 155
/AI A'Wtu airship, lee 7.R-3
Lunanli balloon (,). 101-113
L.7.. caplive balloon, 214
12 I ainbip, etc., _ Zeppelin LZ I

M d . . airship' (ItaJy) (56), 1111

M cw. airshipa (U.s. Navy), 210
M II ainhip, _ Cra.-8uI':nach M II
M_ ainbip, lee. ZRS-5
AI&: a .. " baUoon (13), "7-"90 111]-



ainhip,:zoo. 211
"'<001'11111' III airship, 211
M~h ainhip, tee No. I
Midis... I " ainhip, tee Zeppelin LZ


Metaldad ZMC-. ainhip(i4),I31-I,a

MMtpl__ airship. ' 55
balloon, 1'10
Mo.ltpl1er hot-air balloon (I ), 91 33,



Pili' airship, 139


N CWI ainhipa (U.s. Navy) (13), :UI."

N. }("" airship (53). 1.111

N4 fUJii. ainbip (60). ...... 1'1
N . oA ainhip, tee A-"'. (Goodyear)
X.,rI'. balloon, lee us 1Ms-U.u
N"FEP balloon, _ R.."u V_Wi
No. I (MQA,) ainhip (31). 15)-1350


NO.3 (Astn.Tollo) airship, '4 '

NO.4 (PanevaJ) ainbip. ' .p, 59
NO.9 (Vidicn) airship, '12
1"\0.2] and 2]X cJa. ainhipa(5"). I,....


No, 24 (Beantmore) ainhip, _ No, 23

and 23X claM
No. 25 (Am:.trona: Whitworth) airship,
lee No. 23 and t]X cw.
".nblme airship, lee Zeppelin LZ III I
N." ainhip, lee N I
NS (Nortb Sea) daM ainhipa C
e ). 111-


}(IIili $to;

ainhipa bl), 10-144

Otr.erwrtion ballooN (British Army)

(110), 15, ,,,,,,,,,11
O~im balloon, 202

P , ainhip, _ Paneval "L II

P II ainhip, lee Paneval PL 3
P. , O ainhip, 181
Ptneval PL I 10 PL 27 ainhipi (so),
't.-,." 16g
Pmri. ainhip, 14 1
Phd, balloon, 154
Piccatd balloon., _ F.JI.R.s.
PiIP ainl:iip, tee Goodyear ad\'miI-ill( ainhipa
F. ' I



PL 1 10 PL t1 ainhipa, lee Palle\-.1

PN t8 and PN 29 ainh.ipa, ' 43
P/II!1 Blu.; ainhip, 200
baJloon (25), 134- 135
.... -'. __ _ :_L:

r ......


R I ainbip. K'I': No,

R 2] airship, ice No. 23
R 24 airship, lee No. 23 and 23X d_
R 25 ainbip. lee No. 23 and 23X d . .
R 26 (Vicka-a) ainhip, lee No. 23 and
23X d~.

R 27 (Ileardmorc) ainhip, set: No. 2S

and 23X clllSII
R 1I9 (Armstrong Whitworth) airship,
ICC No_ 1I3 and 1I3X clMl
R 311 ainhip, 179
R 33 ainhip, l74, 177, 195
R 34 ainhip (51), 174-1"]6. 177
R 35 airship, 176
R 36 ainhip (52). 176-178
R 37 ainhip, 176
R 38 airship, 178, 179, 19-~
R 80 airship (53). 118-119
R 100 airship (62 ), '94-197
R 10 1 airship (63 ). 194- 197
Rainbow ainhip, 200, 211
Rmtger airship, 200, lIll
RtlUml' airship, 200, lIll
Ripublil/U' class ainhips (lI8), IS9-140
RurJlul, airship, 200
Ruyal VouxJu,1l balloon (lalcr NtJSsau)
Rozier and Romain balloon (5), 105-



Rwsu airship, 139

SIIlh.rtn ainhip,.see Zeppelin LZ 17
Santos-Dumont Nos_ I 10 9 ainhips
("I]). 13-.32
Schiiltc-Lanx SL I to SL 22 ainhips
(45). 161, .66-.68
Schwaben ai",bip, see Zeppelin LZ 10
Schwartz ainhip (n ). 1"19-130
Sea Scout ainhips, see 55 clllSll
S/t(MndODh ainhip, see ZR-I
'Silk Dress Balloon' (Confederate
Army), "5
SL I to SL 22 airships, ICC Schiltte-


S/Ulwbird airsbip, "III!

SR_ I ainhip, see M. cl.ass (Italy)
SS balloon, 221
55 (Sea Scout) clM$ airships (4S), ' 50,
169"-171, 19S-199
SSP, SST and SSZ class ai",hips (48).
11-111, 174, 198-199
'Super Skytacular' airships, .see Good)'Car advertising airships
Swa balloon, 13S
SJIPh balloon (13), 117- 118

TC-IS and TC-14 ainhlps, 210

The Eagle baUoon (Andree) ('If ). 132134. 145
Twmuiin' airship, 139
Tissandier electrically-powered ai",hip
(18), I'I5-" W
Torrb-Quevcdo ainhip, 1l-Lj,1

Union balloon, 115

Uniud StoUs balloon (F. P. Lallm), 220
Uniud Slatts balloon (U.S. I'"edera!
Army), 115
U.S. Military I ainhip (33) 48-149
Vi.o;lor Hugo balloon, 120
Vigilanl ai",hip, 200, 211
Vikloria Luise airship,KC Zeppelin LZ II
Vil/~ d. l.&trIU airship, see Ville tk Pau
Vill~ dt Paris airship (29). 14_141
ViII, tk Pau ai",hip, 141
VobmUef ainhip, WO,211
Wa.mingtoll balloon, 115
WillllWJ I to IV ainhips (34). 149-151,
Z I airship, ICC Zeppelin LZ 3
Z II ainhip, ICC Zeppelin LZ 5 and

Z airship, see Zeppelin LZ


VI airship, ICC Zeppelin LZ 21

VII airship, ICC Zeppelin LZ 211
VIII ainhip, see Zeppelin LZ 23
X ainhip, ICC Zeppelin LZ 29
XII ainhip, see Zeppelin LZ 26
</nith balloon (16), 123-12.4;
Zeppelin LZ 1 airship (a6). 135-131
Zeppelin LZ 2 ainhip, 137
Zeppelin LZ 3 (Z I) airship, 137
Zeppelin LZ 4 ainhip, 137
Zeppelin LZ 5 (Z II) airship, [38, 1';2
Zeppelin LZ 6 ainhip, 138
Zeppelin LZ 7 Dn<ts,hlaNl airship (a7),
l :n -139
Zeppelin LZ 8 lJnJu~hlDnd II ( Ers~t.:
Dmudi/and) ainhip, 138
Zeppelin LZ 9 (Z II) ainbip, 151
Zeppelin LZ 10 Sducabm ainhip, lSI
Zeppelin LZ [I ViklariaLuistairship, IS[




Zeppelin LZ 13 HllAfa ainhip (35). 151Zeppelin LZ 14 (L I) airship, lSI!

Zeppelin LZ 17 SlIlhstn airship, 15 1
Zeppelin LZ 18 (L 2) airship (36), 152-



LZ 20
LZ 21
LZ 2~
LZ 23

(Z V) ainhip, ' 59
(Z V I) airship, 'S9
(Z VII ) ainhip, 159
(Z VIII ) airship, lS I,


Zeppelin LZ 24 (L 3) airship (39). 15~


Zeppelin LZ 26 (Z XII ) airship, ISS

Zeppelin LZ ~7 (L 4) ainhip, 'S6-IS7
Zeppelin LZ 29 (Z X) ainhip, 167
Zeppelin LZ 31 (L 6) >!.i",hip, 156
Zeppelin LZ 35 airship, 167
Zeppelin LZ 37 airship, ISS
Zeppelin LZ 38 airship, IS8
Zeppelin LZ 39 ainhip, IS8
Zeppelin LZ 40 (L 10) airship 40),
157-1s8. [67
Zepp~lin LZ 41 (L II ) ainhip, 158
Zeppelin LZ 44 (LZ 74) ainhip, 159
Zeppelin LZ 47 (LZ 77) ainhip (4.),
Zeppelin LZ 50 (L 16) airship, IS9
Zeppelin LZ 6~ (L 30) ainhip (4-2),
160-1&1, ISo
Zeppelin LZ 65 (LZ 9S) airship, 160
Zcppelin LZ 72 (L ] 1) airship, 16 1
Zeppelin LZ 74 (L 31t) ainhip, 16 1
Zeppelin LZ 75 (L 37) ainhip, 161162, [So
Zeppelin LZ 76 (L 33) ainhip, 161, 174
Zeppelin LZ 77 (LZ 107) ainhip, 160
Zeppelin LZ 79 (L 4 1) ainhip, 161
Zeppelin LZ 80 (L 3S) airship, 161
Zeppelin LZ 83 (LZ 113) ainhip, 180,


Zeppelin LZ 95 (L 48) airship, 171t

Zeppelin LZ g6 (L 49) airship, 174, 183
Zeppelin LZ 100 (L SS) ainhip, 165
Zeppelin LZ 102 (L 57) ainhip, 162
Zeppelin LZ 103 (L 56) ainhip, 16S
Zeppelin LZ 104 (L 59) airship (43 ).
Zeppelin LZ lOS (L S8) ainhip, [62

Zeppelin LZ 106 (L 6[) airship, [50, [86

Zeppelin LZ log (L 64) airship, In.


Zeppelin LZ 110 (L 63) airship, 16S

Zeppelin LZ III (L 65) airship, 16S
Zeppelin LZ 11 2 (L 70) ainhip (f4),
16{-166, 180, 18\!, 184
Zeppelin LZ II g (L 71) ainhip, 164,
166, 180
Zeppelin LZ 114 (L 72, later Di:ltmuth)
ainhip (55). 164, ISo, .80-.1b
Zeppelin LZ ' 20 &dtnJtl (later Espuia)
airship (W, 179-180, 186
Zeppelin LZ 1 ~1 Norihlml (laler
Mldilnra1ll,) ai",hip, 179-180, 181
Zeppelin LZ Ilt6 ainhip, ICC ZR3
1m ilngtles
Zeppelin LZ 1~7 Cra! Zl/J#lin airship
(61 ),191-1904, 1t07
Zeppelin LZ IltS airship, 207
Zeppelin LZ 1119 Hiruknburg airship
(71), 194, ::107 ::110
Zeppelin LZ Igo CM! <tppelin II airIhip, '94, IlIO
ZF type balloons, 112 1
ZK balloon, 214
ZMC-Il airship, sec Metalclad ZMC-2
ZPG- I ainhip, ICC ZPN- I
ZPG-2 ainhip, sec ZP2N.1
ZPG-2W ai",hip,.see ZPIlN-[W
ZPG-3W ainhip, lI I2
ZP2K airship, II I I
ZPSK ai n bip, 111 1
ZP4,K airship, 111 1
Z PSK ainhip, 11 11
ZPN-I airship (73), Illl-::tl::l
ZPltN-[ ainhip, 211--l1 12
ZPIlN-IWairship,Il I I--ll 111
ZR-I ShnumdDDh airship (57), 183-1&t,
ZR-2 airship, see R 38
ilngtles airship (S8), 184,
114-.86, 191, ' 99, 204, IlOS, lI06
ZRS-4 ilkro~ airship (fig), 1I0:)-'l06
ZRSS MIIlOII ai",hip (70),::t03-::t06
ZSG-Il airship, ICC ZPlIK
ZSG-3 ainhip, sec ZPSK
ZSG-4 ainhip (76). 11 11, ::116
ZS2G-1 ainhip,lCC ZP5K



Fraeukel, Knut, 133
Freyer, 152
Frilz, Ham, 157

Allen, Ezra, I 14
Allen, j ames, 114
AmundJcn, Roald (59 .nd. 60). ,86-


Anderson, O. A. (68),~"
Andrte, Salomon Augusl (24), 132-134
Arbnda., Frano;oiJ.Laurcnl, Marquis
d' ( I ), g8 990 100
Arnslein, Karl, 114, 200, 1104
Assmann, Richard, 135
Aubert, Fred, 146-149

Cavendish, Henry, 9
Cayley, Sir George, 9, 10
Charles, jacques Alexandre Ctsar (3),
97, 99-10 ' . lIao
Cheves, Langton, "5
Cocking, Robert, 111-IJa
Cody, S. F . 144
Colding, Johan Peter (8), 109-110
Coirnore, R. B. H., 1!)6-197
Conl!, NieolasJacqua (6). 106-107
c.o.yn., Max, ao I-liOlI
Coutclle, jean Marie joseph (6), 106-


Babushlcin, 191
Baldwin, Thol1lQ !>rott (n ), ItS-lt9
Ballantyne, W., 175
Behounck, FranliJck, 1119
Berliner, H ana Rudolf, 1111 1
Berson, Arthur (~5), 1"-'3:1
Baier, Ltona rd, 111 1
Biggin, Georrc, 101- 103
Black, joseph, 9
Blanchard, j ean.Pien"C (4), 103-10:1
Blanchard, M adeleine.Sophie, 104105, 1114
B6cler, Alois, 161
Bockholl, Ludwig, 1611-164
Boc:rn3ck, Fritz, 167
Bois, 140
Booth, R. S., 196
Boyd, O. T., 1I13
Brander, Sir W. Sefton, 1!)6-197
Bum, George, IllS
Bumey, Sir Dennistoun (&I), 195-197
Buttlarllnndenfds, Horst TrCU$Ch
von, 100-161

Eckcner, Hugo (55), 13, 136, 151-153,

185, 191, 19:J-1!M, !la7-aog
Eckener, )(nu~ 19\I,a07
Egg, Durs, I I
Ellis, Lillian, a 13
EIt.v."Ort.h, Lincoln, 187, 194
ElIdale, H. (20), la7-126
Eppes, M. H., a l2

Cadbury, Egbert, 165

Capper, j . E. (31), IC-I~
Caquot, Albert (46), 168-.6g
Cavallo, Tiberius, 10

Fleuri, 140
Foenter, Arthur, 207
.ordney, C. L., :wa
Fordyce, George, 102


Co)l:wcll, Henry Tracy (13). " 7-" 90

laS- la 4
Croe~.Spincm, joseph Eu.nache, la3-


Cunningham, A. D., 170

Dietrichaen, Leif, 191
Dresd, Alger H., 165, 1105
Dupuy de LOme, Henri (17),


1~- l a50

DUIT, Ludwig, !la7

Duruof,jula, 119
Dutt-Poitevin, 1116

Gager, Oscar A., Ja2, 123

Calileo, 8
Cambetta, ~n, 120, 1116
Giunerin, Andrtjacqua (7), 10']-109
Gamerin, Elisa, 108
Camenn, jeanne Gtneviaoe, 108
Giffard, lienri (10), 12, 11. .113
Glaisher,jarna {13}, 1l] -II!h la3-124Godard, Eugene, 116-117, 11 9
Godard,jules, 116-117, 119
Godard, Louis, 116-117, "9, 145
Gontermann, Heinrich, 168-169
Coodden, W., 150
Gordon, 11.. W., 165
Green, Charles (9), 1I~"2
Grcen,jama, I I I
Grcnooan,jean du PlalSis de, 181
Guericke, Otto Viln, 9
Gusmio, Ilartolomeu de, 9
Haddock, J. A., 123
Henry, joseph, 114
Hirsch, 158
Hollond, Robert, I t I
Horn, 159
Hunt,j. R., 1I111
Hyde, la3
I min, H. C., l!)6-t97
I rwin,jack,146-149
jeffriel, John (4), 1O:J-105
jullien, Pierre, I I
Jul]iot, Henri (aB), 139-ltO, 145

l..ahm, Frank P., 220

LanaTeni, FraneClCO de, 9
Lansdowne, Zachary, 16,.
Lebaudy, Paul (:181, 139-140
Lebaudy, Pien-e (:18), "9-'010
Lockie, Robert, 165
Loc, R. P. (:10), 127
Locfe Robiruon, W., 161
LeiJ.mano, Ernst A., 193, 1!M,:zo8.-:wg
Lewis, Sir Watkin, 101
L<Wio, ,.,
Lolande, 106
l.ossnitzer, johann von, 16-4- 165
Loud, Louis, 146-149
Lowe, lbaddeus S. C. (II ), 113-115>
la2, 135
Lundborg, Einar, 19o
Lunardi, Vineen.zo (3), 101-103
M achuron, Alexis, ISO
Madauie, 1:17
Malmgren, Finn, 169-191
Mariano, Adalberto, 190-191
Mason, T hamal Mond, I II
May, lao
McCord, Frank, !Of 05
Meusnier, jeanBaptiste, II
Moffett, W. A., aD4, 1105
Montgolfier, ~tienne ( _). 10, 97-99
Montgolfier, j oseph (I ), 10, 97 93, 100
Morel, de, 10 1
Morlay, Gaby, 126
Morlot, 107
Morveau, Guyton de, 106
:MOUlItain,johnLa, 114, 123
Mil.IIer-Bres1au, 136
Nadar, Iff Toumachon
Nobile, Umberto <59 and 60), 1~19"


Kaulen, Hugo, alii

Kepner, W. E. (68}, ~"
King, Samuel, 114
Kiprer, Paul, aOI
Kiuinger, Joseph W. (78), 21s....uO
Knabcnlbuc, Roy, 149
K.ret.., Arthur (Ig). 126-127
KUJaha, Sueyoshi, 215-1116

Nordenfeld, 133

Pat$oC"'I3.l, August von (21 and 30),

uB-lag. 141-100
Pauly, john, I I
Piccard, Augusle (67), 134, _0:1,

Piccanl., Don (Bo), !In

Piceard, jean, !Of 0 I -liOlI

Ug<I, Ug<I, 1119



Piteard, Jeanetle, _
Pie.u, M . R., 18]
Pietner, Feli., ISII-I:.3
Platen Uallermund, MaSnUi von, IS7
fu ..dla, Vinnm, I go
Ponlremoli, Aide, I IIg
Priatley, Jottph, 9. 97
Pritchard, j . e. t.l , 1 7~
Prua, t.lax, 13, 1 !H,l108-~II()1""

Simon. M utTay, ' 46-1'49

Si"d, li mn 'rnrodon::, ' 113-1114
Smilh, An'bony Cn ), U I -IIU
Spencer, Edward, I ' ll
Spuller, t:ugb\c:, 1110
SIe\'ens, A. W. {1iI), __
S~, PelCT, 1~' 57. 161, '6" ,65
Suindbtrs. ro;ils, 133
SUri",. Reinhard ('I~), ' 34.-13$

Reisenbera, Felix, 146-149

Renard, Clarles (19h 1111, 1116- 1117,

Templer,j. L. B. (20). 1'17, '4]

"fhomIon, Lord, 196-' 97
T_ndier, Albert (II), 1 1I~ 1 1I6
T'~ndier, Caston ( 16 _d II), 11 11,
1' 9, 1110, IIIJ- I2f, 11I~ 1 1I6
Tixia, l55
Toumacbon, Gas~td f tlix ('Xadar'
(III), 1.6-117, 119
Trichel, Alenndre. ' 110


Renard, Paul, 1111, 176

RtvriUon, 97
Rtvilliod, jOlCph de, 1110
ReynoIds. l lIO

Riclunond, V. c. (i3h '95-197

Riiterl..ancn, Jljalmar, 187, 190-1!) 1
Robert, A~, 99-10 1
Roberl, Marie-Noll ('I), 9!r'OI
RoberllOn, ticnne Caspard, IO!)
Rolier, Paul, 120- 111 1
Romain, Pierre (s), 105-106
Root, Alan, 112 1-2'l11
ROImdahl, Olarla E. (6g), III, 1 8~ .
1 8~, 193, 1IO.f, 1108 \lOg
~, M alcol.m D., 1103
Roziu,Jean.tran~ Piaue de




OEN.-' I

'f' Poch. b

cydoFlodi. of s,.....fti ...,

UlCUT" 0 ........""

Vaniman, M elvin, 145- 148

Vi letle, Giroud dc, g8
Wallil, B. N. (611 ), q8, 195-'91
Walttll, Sir Charla., 1117
WallOn, C. M ., 1118

(I and

Weinling ramily,

' 117

Wellman, Wal ler (311h 144- 141

Weld!, j ohn, ' III

Wiley, Herbert V., 165, IIOS-II06
WiIlOWJ, Emal Thom~ (st.), ,~

Sale, Lc:titia, 103

1 ]~1 311,

Sc:btiowilder, c., 'SII, IS7

Schulte, j ohann CUh 166-168
Sc:bwuu, D.",K! (u). 129-IJO
Sc:hybera. 8i~, ,go
Sc:ott, C . H., 175, 177, 196- 197
Settle, T . G. W. , _
Sbddon,John, 101, ' 03
Sipfdd, II. BarlKh \"On ('II ), 1'11-1'1"




Trollopc:, 1117

~). 9ft " ' 100, 105-106

Sanw.-Dumonl, Alberto (-3).

139. '43

f.acydopuodl. ","World Al rc: ... h


Wile, j ohn (15), I ' 3, 114, 1111-12]. 131

Yon, Gabriel, 113

7..appi, f dippo. 190""91
Zeppelin, Ferdinand. Adoir II dnridt
von ('16, '17, l5 _d :p), II , tI ~
1JS-1390 ' 51- '", 160, 166, 19:2, 107


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