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HBEL 1203















Here is the content of the posters from task 1(a) :

Charity and Welfare Club presents Let us help you reach your Goal. Time to

Donate. Help us out! Our school is in need of fund to supplement the running of school. The
school is a place where we are study really hard to achieve our goal in life.
Thus, what are you waiting for? Buy our super delicious cupcakes at RM 3 and every RM 1
will be donated to the fund raising. You can enjoy your food while helping our school. How

cool is that? Come and meet us at School Canteen on Wednesday, 26 September 2014. Keep
calm and Happy Canteen Day.
For this task, 9 words classes will be identified and explained clearly the function of each of
the nine words. Below is the answer.
Word Classes

Explanation and Function

A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. Charity
Whatever exists, we assume, can be named, and that name is a Welfare
noun. A proper noun, which names a specific person, place, or School
thing (Carlos, Queen Marguerite, Middle East, Jerusalem, Cupcakes
Malaysia, Presbyterianism, God, Spanish, Buddhism, the
Republican Party), is almost always capitalized. A proper
noun used as an addressed person's name is called a noun of
address. Common nouns name everything else, things that


usually are not capitalized.

Generally (but not always) pronouns stand for (pro + noun) or Our
refer to a noun, an individual or individuals or thing or things School
(the pronoun's antecedent) whose identity is made clear earlier
in the text. For instance, we are bewildered by writers who
claim something like
They say that eating beef is bad for you.
They is a pronoun referring to someone, but who are they?
Cows? whom do they represent?
Not all pronouns will refer to an antecedent, however.
Everyone here earns over a thousand dollars a day.
The word "everyone" has no antecedent.
The problem of agreement between a pronoun and its
antecedent and between a pronoun and its verb is treated in
another section on Pronoun-Antecedent Consistency. The
quizzes on pronoun usage are also listed at the end of that

This section will list and briefly describe the several kinds of

Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person Delicious
or thing in the sentence. The Articles a, an, and the are cupcakes

the tall professor

the lugubrious lieutenant

a solid commitment

a month's pay

a six-year-old child

the unhappiest, richest man

If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an

adjective, it is called an Adjective Clause.
My sister, who is much older than I am, is an engineer.

A determiner is a word, phrase or affix that occurs together The

with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the school
reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context. That is, a
determiner may indicate whether the noun is referring to a
definite or indefinite element of a class, to a closer or more
distant element, to an element belonging to a specified person
or thing, to a particular number or quantity, etc. Common
kinds of determiners include definite and indefinite articles
(like the English the and a or an), demonstratives (this and
that), possessive determiners (my and their), and quantifiers


(many, few and several).

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part Helping
of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, our school
run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of
being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description of English, the
basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In
many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to
encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. A verb may also agree

with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its

arguments, such as its subject, or object. Verbs have tenses:
present, to indicate that an action is being carried out; past, to
indicate that an action has been done; future, to indicate that

an action will be done

Adverbs are words that modify


a verb (He drove slowly. How did he drive?)

an adjective (He drove a very fast car. How fast cupcakes


was his car?)

another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the

aisle. How slowly did she move?)

As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under

what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs
frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not
ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is
not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely,
lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are

That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood.

If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an

adverb (modifying the verb of a sentence), it is called
an Adverb Clause:

When this class is over, we're going to the movies.

When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts

as an adverb, it is called an adverbial phrase. Prepositional
phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling place and
time, modifying the verb):


He went to the movies.

She works on holidays.

They lived in Canada during the war.

A preposition is a word which shows relationships among Come and

other words in the sentence.

The relationships include meet


direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount.

In the at school

sentence She went to the store, to is a preposition which canteen.

shows direction. In the sentence He came by bus, by is a
preposition which shows manner. In the sentence They will
be here at three o'clock, at is a preposition which shows time
and in the sentence It is under the table, under is a
preposition which shows place.
A preposition always goes with a noun or pronoun which is
called the object of the preposition. The preposition is almost
always before the noun or pronoun and that is why it is called
a preposition.

The preposition and the object of the

preposition together are called a prepositional phrase. The

following chart shows the prepositions, objects of the

preposition, and prepositional phrases of the sentences above.

In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated conj or cnj) is a part You


of speech that connects words, sentences, phrases or clauses. enjoy your

A discourse connective is a conjunction joining sentences. food
This definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech, while
so what constitutes a "conjunction" must be defined for each helping our
language. In general, a conjunction is an invariable school.
grammatical particle, and it may or may not stand between the
items it conjoins.
The definition may also be extended to idiomatic phrases that
behave as a unit with the same function, eg "as well as",
"provided that".
Although many students are taught that sentences should not
start with certain conjunctions such as "and", "but",
"because", and "so", authorities such as the Chicago Manual
of Style state that this teaching has "no historical or

grammatical foundation".
Interjections are words or phrases used to exclaim or protest Hi,

or command. They sometimes stand by themselves, but they buddies,

are often contained within larger structures.



Wow! I won the lottery!
Oh, I don't know about that.
I don't know what the heck you're talking about.
No, you shouldn't have done that.

Task 2
Once upon a time, there lived an unhappy young girl. Unhappy she was, for her mother was
dead, her father had married another woman, a widow with two daughters, and her
stepmother didn't like her one little bit. All the nice things, kind thoughts and loving touches
were for her own daughters. And not just the kind thoughts and love, but also dresses, shoes,
shawls, delicious food, comfy beds, as well as every home comfort. All this was laid on for
her daughters. But, for the poor unhappy girl, there was nothing at all. No dresses, only her
stepsisters' hand-me-downs. No lovely dishes, nothing but scraps. No nice rests and comfort.
For she had to work hard all day, and only when evening came was she allowed to sit for a
while by the fire, near the cinders. That is how she got her nickname, for everybody called
her Cinderella. Cinderella used to spend long hours all alone talking to the cat. The cat said,

"Miaow", which really meant, "Cheer up! You have something neither of your stepsisters
have and that is beauty."
It was quite true. Cinderella, even dressed in rags with a dusty gray face from the cinders,
was a lovely girl. While her stepsisters, no matter how splendid and elegant their clothes,
were still clumsy, lumpy and ugly and always would be.
One day, beautiful new dresses arrived at the house. A ball was to be held at Court and the
stepsisters were getting ready to go to it. Cinderella, didn't even dare ask, "What about me?"
for she knew very well what the answer to that would be:

"You? My dear girl, you're staying at home to wash the dishes, scrub the floors and turn
down the beds for your stepsisters. They will come home tired and very sleepy." Cinderella
sighed at the cat.
"Oh dear, I'm so unhappy!" and the cat murmured "Miaow".
Suddenly something amazing happened. In the kitchen, where Cinderella was sitting all by
herself, there was a burst of light and a fairy appeared.
"Don't be alarmed, Cinderella," said the fairy. "The wind blew me your sighs. I know you
would love to go to the ball. And so you shall!"
"How can I, dressed in rags?" Cinderella replied. "The servants will turn me away!" The
fairy smiled. With a flick of her magic wand... Cinderella found herself wearing the most
beautiful dress, the loveliest ever seen in the realm.
"Now that we have settled the matter of the dress," said the fairy, "we'll need to get you a
coach. A real lady would never go to a ball on foot!"
"Quick! Get me a pumpkin!" she ordered.
"Oh of course," said Cinderella, rushing away. Then the fairy turned to the cat.
"You, bring me seven mice!"
"Seven mice!" said the cat. "I didn't know fairies ate mice too!"
"They're not for eating, silly! Do as you are told!... and, remember they must be alive!"
Cinderella soon returned with a fine pumpkin and the cat with seven mice he had caught in
the cellar.
"Good!" exclaimed the fairy. With a flick of her magic wand... wonder of wonders! The
pumpkin turned into a sparkling coach and the mice became six white horses, while the
seventh mouse turned into a coachman, in a smart uniform and carrying a whip. Cinderella
could hardly believe her eyes.
"I shall present you at Court. You will soon see that the Prince, in whose honor the ball is
being held, will be enchanted by your loveliness. But remember! You must leave the ball at
midnight and come home. For that is when the spell ends. Your coach will turn back into a

pumpkin, the horses will become mice again and the coachman will turn back into a mouse...
and you will be dressed again in rags and wearing clogs instead of these dainty little slippers!
Do you understand?" Cinderella smiled and said,
"Yes, I understand!"
When Cinderella entered the ballroom at the palace, a hush fell. Everyone stopped in midsentence to admire her elegance, her beauty and grace.
"Who can that be?" people asked each other. The two stepsisters also wondered who the
newcomer was, for never in a month of Sundays, would they ever have guessed that the
beautiful girl was really poor Cinderella who talked to the cat!
When the prince set eyes on Cinderella, he was struck by her beauty. Walking over to her, he
bowed deeply and asked her to dance. And to the great disappointment of all the young
ladies, he danced with Cinderella all evening.
"Who are you, fair maiden?" the Prince kept asking her. But Cinderella only replied:
"What does it matter who I am! You will never see me again anyway."
"Oh, but I shall, I'm quite certain!" he replied.
Cinderella had a wonderful time at the ball. But, all of a sudden, she heard the sound of a
clock: the first stroke of midnight! She remembered what the fairy had said, and without a
word of goodbye she slipped from the Prince's arms and ran down the steps. As she ran she
lost one of her slippers, but not for a moment did she dream of stopping to pick it up! If the
last stroke of midnight were to sound... oh... what a disaster that would be! Out she fled and
vanished into the night.
The Prince, who was now madly in love with her, picked up her slipper and said to his
"Go and search everywhere for the girl whose foot this slipper fits. I will never be content
until I find her!" So the ministers tried the slipper on the foot of all the girls... and on
Cinderella's foot as well... Surprise! The slipper fitted perfectly.

"That awful untidy girl simply cannot have been at the ball," snapped the stepmother. "Tell
the Prince he ought to marry one of my two daughters! Can't you see how ugly Cinderella is!
Can't you see?"
Suddenly she broke off, for the fairy had appeared.
"That's enough!" she exclaimed, raising her magic wand. In a flash, Cinderella appeared in a
splendid dress, shining with youth and beauty. Her stepmother and stepsisters gaped at her in
amazement, and the ministers said,
"Come with us, fair maiden! The Prince awaits to present you with his engagement ring!" So
Cinderella joyfully went with them, and lived happily ever after with her Prince. And as for
the cat, he just said "Miaow"!
*Yellow = Simple Sentences
Blue = Compound Sentences
Grey = Complex Sentences


of Explanation

Example Sentences


A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, 1.


contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a spend long hours all alone

Cinderella used to

complete thought. In the following simple sentences, talking to the cat.

subjects are in yellow, and verbs are in green.
1. Some students like to study in the mornings.
2. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon.
3. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.
The three examples above are all simple sentences.
Note that sentence 2 contains a compound subject, and
sentence 3 contains a compound verb. Simple
sentences, therefore, contain a subject and verb and
express a complete thought, but they can also contain
compound subjects or verbs.


Cinderella could

hardly believe her eyes.


A compound sentence contains two independent
clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are

Suddenly she broke

off, for the fairy had


as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint:
The first letter of each of the coordinators spells






coordinators are always preceded by a comma. In the

following compound sentences, subjects are in yellow,
verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the
commas that precede them are in red.
1. I tried to



and my friend tried to speak English.

2. Alejandro played football,
so Maria went shopping.
3. Alejandro played football,
for Maria went shopping.
The above three sentences are compound sentences.
Each sentence contains two independent clauses, and
they are joined by a coordinator with a comma
preceding it. Note how the conscious use of
coordinators can change the meaningof the sentences.
Sentences 2 and 3, for example, are identical except
for the coordinators. In sentence 2, which action
occurred first? Obviously, "Alejandro played football"
first, and as a consequence, "Maria went shopping." In
sentence 3, "Maria went shopping" first. In sentence 3,
"Alejandro played football" because, possibly, he
didn't have anything else to do, for or because "Maria
went shopping." How can the use of other coordinators
change the relationship between the two clauses? What
implications would the use of "yet" or "but" have on


So Cinderella

joyfully went with them,

and lived happily ever
after with her Prince.

the meaning of the sentence?


A complex sentence has an independent clause joined
by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence

When Cinderella

entered the ballroom at the

palace, a hush fell.

always has a subordinator such as because, since,

after, although, or when (and many others) or a
relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In the
following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow,
verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their
commas (when required) are in red.


The pumpkin

turned into a sparkling





became six white horses,

while the seventh mouse
turned into a coachman, in

1. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give

the teacher the last page.
homework after she noticed the error.
3. The students are studying because they have a test
4. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to
the movies
5. Juan and Maria went to


movies after they finished studying.

When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator
such as sentences 1 and 4, a comma is required at the
end of the dependent clause. When the independent
clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the
middle as in sentences 2, 3, and 5, no comma is





carrying a whip.

2. The teacher returned the





subordinators in sentences 2, 3, and 5, it is wrong.

Note that sentences 4 and 5 are the same except
sentence 4 begins with the dependent clause which is


followed by a comma, and sentence 5 begins with the

independent clause which contains no comma. The
comma after the dependent clause in sentence 4 is
required, and experienced listeners of English will
often hear a slight pause there. In sentence 5, however,
there will be no pause when the independent clause
begins the sentence.

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grammatical structures for adult English language learners. Journal of TESL-EJ, 11(2).
Burgess, J., & Etherington, S. (2002). Focus on grammatical form: explicit or implicit?
System, 30(4), 433-458.
Dekeyser, R. (1995). Learning second language grammar rules. In Ellis, R. (Ed.), Measuring
implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. Studies in
second language acquisition 27 (2), 141-172.
Ellis, R., Loewen, Sh., Elder, C., Erlam, R., Philp, J., & Reinders, H. (2009). Implicit and
explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching. The UK:
Multilingual Matters.
Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: