Sei sulla pagina 1di 7

IOSR Journal of Polymer and Textile Engineering (IOSR-JPTE) e-ISSN: 2348-019X, p-ISSN: 2348-0181, Volume 2, Issue 1 (Jan - Feb. 2015), PP 40-46 www.iosrjournals.org

Investigation of Reducing Process of Uneven Shade Problem In Case Of Compact Single Jersey Cotton Knit Fabric with Turquoise Color Reactive Dyes

MD. Ramij Howlader 1 Mohammad Abul Hasan Shibly 2 Ripon kumar Prasad 3 MD. Tanjibul Hasan Sajib 3 MD. Rafiqul Islam 4

(Lecturer, Department of Textile Engineering, BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology, Bangladesh) (Merchandiser, Orion Knit Textiles Limited, Bangladesh) (Lecturer, Department of Textile Engineering, BGIFT Institute of Science & Technology, Bangladesh) (Lecturer, (FDT), BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology, Bangladesh) (Bangladesh University of Textiles)

Abstract: Most dyes do not chemically react with the cellulose molecule to affix the color. True chemical reaction between cellulose and the dye molecule occurs with reactive dyes. But some of reactive colors such as turquoise have definite properties which mostly yield even shade with the single jersey cotton fabric which GSM ranges from 120 to 160. Because such fabrics having quite relatively compact structure that does not allow proper penetration of dye molecules evenly into fiber polymer system. Due to those problems, the knit dyeing factories in Bangladesh have been facing a lot of problems. In present days, these factories are practicing re- dyeing like toping and stripping and dyeing. To solve this problem, the compact single jersey fabric may be treated in different manner in the preparatory stage. The conventional pretreatment process involved scouring, bleaching before dyeing. By using stripping process at preparatory stage may reduce uneven shade problem during coloration of turquoise color of reactive dye. Keywords - Compact Single Jersey, Grey Stripping, GSM, reactive dyes, Turquoise Color.

I.

Introduction

The introduction of the paper should explain the nature of the problem, previous work, purpose, and the contribution of the paper. A T-shirt (or T shirt, tee-shirt, or tee) is Reactive dyeing is now the most important method for the coloration of cellulosic fibers. Reactive dyes have a low utilization degree compared to other types of dyestuff, since the functional group also bonds to water, creating hydrolysis of Reactive Dye. Reactive dyes have good fastness properties owing to the bonding that occurs during dyeing. Cotton is made of cellulose molecules which react with the dye. During reactive dyeing the H atom in the cellulose molecule combines with the Chlorine atom in the dyeing process and results in a bond. Tri-functional dyestuffs also exist [1]. Roll to roll shade variation always confused for matching the batch with standard shade and produces a variety of shade within a batch. This is a result of mixing of fabric roll produced from different fiber lot, yarn count, GSM, structure and even sometime for different machines. So to avoid such problems one has to avoid mixing of different types of fabrics. Patchy is the real uneven dyeing; this may result of uneven absorbency, electrolytes (salt) alkaline pH, uneven and sudden alkali dosing, wrong dye combinations, improper mixing of dyes, improper neutralization after scouring-bleaching and dyeing, fabric entanglement during process etc. If above mentioned points are under controlled then possibility of patchy is very low. It is the solution only for batch to batch shade variation but uneven shade problem need to be considered in case of compact single jersey fabrics. Color spot is the result of improper color mixing (very serious issue in case of turquoise dyes as their dye molecules are comparatively larger), water hardness and presence of heavy metal sulphate, sulphides, sulphites & alkali especially caustic soda. Water treatment plant, sequestering agent and proper mixing of dyes are fundamental solution of this problem. White specks are mainly yarn problem i.e. dead or immature fibers. Moreover contamination in water, improper dissolve of alkali and presence of silica based chemical before dyeing also arise white spots. Excluding yarn quality; WTP, proper handling of caustic and de-finishing removing silica based finishes, incase processing of finished fabric with such finishing chemicals, are necessary to solve such problem. Only color spot can be removed by above this process but uneven shade problem may not be reduced by using this process. So need to be considered solution for reducing uneven shade problem in the knit fabric. Meter to meter shade variation is a typical shade variation problem. Very short dyeing arise unleveled dyeing. Furthermore, it was found that, imbalance dosing time, run time and temperature gradient of each step with cycle time of fabric is responsible for meter-to-meter shade variation. Six batches are dyed with linear dosing system, in case of alkali & per-oxide dosing of scouring bleaching and dyes, salt, alkali of dyeing, on this aspect and described in methodology and result section. By controlling proper addition of dyes,

Investigation of reducing process of uneven shade problem in case of compact single jersey…

electrolytes, and alkali dosing, meter to meter shade variation can be removed but random uneven shade problem may be minimized by adopting grey fabric stripping process in the compact single jersey [1]. Roll to roll shade variation, patchy dye, color spot could be minimized by controlling knitting process, dyeing parameter etc. but uneven shade problem may be minimized by grey fabric stripping before dyeing. Due to the compactness of the fabric structure dye molecules may not penetrate into the cotton fiber core. Stripping may reduce the compactness of the fabric as well as increase the size of the porosity of cotton fiber so that the dye molecules may enter the fiber polymer system. So stripping may be performed in the gray fabric to reduce such type of problem. It may be the latest concept to remove uneven shade problem in case compact single jersey with reactive turquoise colorants.

II.

Materials

2.1 Material used

Compact single jersey cotton fabric

Single jersey fabrics are based on plain structure used to produce fully fashioned knitwear. Plain is a knit structure family, which is produced by the needles of only one set needle with all the loops intermeshed in the same direction. Although plain knit family encompasses a great number of structures all produced on single needle bed. The basic element of knit fabric structure is the loop intermeshed with the loops adjacent to it on both sides and above and below it [2].

Turquoise color reactive dyes

In 1954, dyes were discovered which containing dichlorotriazinyl group could be applied from aqueous solution

and caused to form a covalent bond with cellulose by increasing the pH. This discovery resulted in the first commercial reactive dyes for cellulose, the procion dyes, being marketed in 1956 [3].

Hydrose

Custic soda

Hydrosen peroxide

Sequestering agent

Detergent

Sodium carbonate etc.

 

III.

Different Process/Method

3.1

Scouring process

Scouring is performed to remove any impurities present in the fabric. The impurities (i.e. oil & wax, lubricants, dirt, surfactants, residual tints) are removed using an alkaline solution, typically sodium hydroxide, at high temperatures to breakdown or emulsify and saponify impurities. Recipe

Fino wet-OSR (Detergent)

: 1 gm/L

Caustic soda

: 5 gm/L (Dosing at 60 0 C for 10 min)

Albafluid C (Anti-creasing)

: 1 gm/L

Arboquest 340 (Sequestering)

: 0.5 gm/L

Time

: 40 min

Temperature

: 90 0 C

Neutralization

 

Acetic acid

: 1 gm/L

Time

: 10 min

Temperature

: 60 0 C

3.2 Stripping and scouring combined process

Place illustrations the gray compact single jersey cotton fabric has been subjected to scouring and stripping process for removal natural impurities such as wax, pectin, fat, oil etc from cotton fibers. Here scouring and stripping was carried out by using suitable recipe with maintaining proper time and temperature. After treatment the fabric was washed off two times i.e. hot wash and cold wash and then dried. Recipe

Fino wet-OSR (Detergent)

: 1 gm/L

Caustic soda

: 5 gm/L (Dosing at 60 0 C for 10 min)

Hydrose

: 6 gm/L (Dosing at 80 0 C for 10 min)

Albafluid C (Anti-creasing)

: 1 gm/L

Arboquest 340 (Sequester)

: 0.5 gm/L

Time

: 40 min

Temperature

: 90 0 C

Investigation of reducing process of uneven shade problem in case of compact single jersey…

Neutralization

 

Acetic acid

: 1 gm/L

Time

: 10 min

Temperature

:

60 0 C

3.3 Dyeing method

Reactive dyes can be applied by a conventional batch wise dyeing method for cellulosic materials. Dye auxiliaries were taken into the dye bath along with the samples. Then the dye solution was poured into the dye bath for absorption that was carried out by the gluber salt and migration was done at 80 0 C for 30 min. Finally sodium carbonate was dosed at 50 0 C for 20 min for fixation. Then the dyed samples were neutralized, hot washed and cold washed.

Recipe

GSS (Leveling agent)

: 0.12 gm/L

Arboquest 340 (Sequester)

: 1 gm/L

Albafluid C (Anti-creasing)

: 1 gm/L

Glauber salt

: 35 gm/L

Reactive Turquoise Blue H2GP

: 2.52%

Reatobond Blue RR

: 0.06%

Indofix yellow ME4GL

: 0.64%

Sodium carbonate

: 15 gm/L (at 50 0 C for 20 min.)

Time

: 30 min

Temperature

: 60 0 C

Cold wash

 

Acetic acid

: 1.5 gm/L

Time

: 15 min

Temperature

: 40 0 C

Hot wash

 

Jintex (Detergent)

: 1 gm/L

Time

: 20 min.

Temperature

: 90 0 C

Cold wash

 

Time

: 10 min.

Temperature

: 40 0 C

3.4 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test

The characterization of textile materials has employed many microscopic techniques such as optical and electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) uses electrons rather than light to form an image. An SEM can produce high resolution and depth of field of images, and provides useful tools for examining structural and surface characteristics of textile materials. The specimen to be observed in the SEM must remain at a constant potential during examination. Specimens that are not naturally conductive have to be coated with a thin layer of a conductive material. A development in electron microscopy in the form of an ESEM opens up new possibilities for textile research. In the ESEM, specimens can be hydrated or dehyd rated by controlling the temperature of the specimens and the chamber pressure in favor of water condensation or

evaporation at different relative humidity. The SEM is specifically suited to dynamic experimentation of the micron scale and below. SEM technology allows dynamic experiments at a range of pressures, temperatures and under a variety of gases/fluids. Some accessories can also be added into an SEM to expand its observation capacity for characterizing textile materials. The SEM is able to physically examine virtually any textile materials without any special preparation or conductive coating. [4]. Rapid, high resolution imaging with identification of elements present. Spatially resolved quantitative EDX (EDA) analysis of user defined areas on sample surface. Characterization of particulates and defects. Examination of grain structure and segregation effects. Coating thickness measurement using cross sectional imaging of polished sections.

using cross sectional imaging of polished sections. Fig.1 : Scanning Electron Microscope tester DOI:

Fig.1: Scanning Electron Microscope tester

DOI: 10.9790/019X-0214046

www.iosrjournals.org

42 | Page

Investigation of reducing process of uneven shade problem in case of compact single jersey…

3.5 CMC value measurement

The color of an object depends on the relative quantity of the light reflected or transmitted at different wavelengths within the visible range (400-700 nm). Spectrophotometric measurements provide the numerical description of the reflection or transmission of light by an object. The reflection or transmission spectrum gives

the fraction of the incident light that an object reflects or transmits as a function of wavelength. For color measurement on textiles correct sampling is important. The result was analyzed by a CIELAB color system. CIE (Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage) color coordinates include color qualities in terms of L* (lightness and darkness), a* (redness and greenness), b* (yellowness and blueness), C* (chroma) and H (hue angle, the angle of the anticlockwise movement from an axis of +a* direction, that is, +a*=00, +b*=900, -a*=1800, and –b*= 2700). The ΔE values of differently dyed fabrics. ΔE value contains the information of color depth, shade, and the hue of a sample [5]. ΔE value is calculated by using the CIE L*, a*, and b* values with the equation; ΔE = (ΔL*2 + Δa*2 + Δb*2)1/2 where ΔL*, Δa*, and Δb* values were the difference between L*, a*, and b* values of a pair of color standard and sample.

The values of C* and H are calculated from a* and b* as; C* = (a*2 + b*2)1/2 H = tan-1(b*/a*)

The larger the ΔE value, the greater would be the color difference between this pair of color standard and sample. The experiment was carried out under light source of D 65 at 100 and the outputs showed satisfactory results remarked as “pass” for pairs of samples having a value of CMC DE value less than 1.00 will be an acceptable match.

3.6 K/S value measurement

Colorant formulation procedures for spectrophotometric matching use the KubelkaMunk equation relating the absorption and scattering coefficients and the concentrations of the colorants in the sample with its overall reflectance [5]. The global KubelkaMunk K/S value at a given wavelength is:

K/S = (1-R) 2/2R Where K and S are the respective values of the absorption and scattering coefficients of the various dyed and of the undyed textile materials. R is the reflectance of a sample of fabric that is sufficiently thick to prevent light transmission through it.

IV. Results And Discussions

4.1 SEM result

Following mention the pictorial representation of scoured white fabric and combined striped & scoured fabric

surface structure.

and combined striped & scoured fabric surface structure. Fig.2 : SEM representation of the scoured white

Fig.2: SEM representation of the scoured white fabric

Investigation of reducing process of uneven shade problem in case of compact single jersey…

of uneven shade problem i n case of compact single jersey… Fig.3 : SEM representation of

Fig.3: SEM representation of the combined stripped & scoured white fabric

The SEM result of scoured white fabric showed that the fabric appeared brighter may reflect more light due to its compactness and finer cross-section (5.6 μm, 10.1 μm, 12.8 μm, 16.2 μm etc.) was found that express the smaller size porosity than the combined stripped & scoured white fabric. That may limit the dye molecules absorption by the fabric. But combined stripped & scoured white fabric absorb more light due to the looseness of fabric structure and coarser cross-section (9.43 μm, 14.2 μm, 19.3 μm, 21.7 μm etc.) was found that occupied larger size porosity on its surface which might allow easily penetration of lager size dye molecules that may reduce the uneven shade problem.

4.2 CMC value test result

reduce the uneven shade problem. 4.2 CMC value test result Fig.4 : Graphical presentation of CMC

Fig.4: Graphical presentation of CMC value

In the comparison between separate stripping & scouring verses combinedly stripped & scoured samples gave CMC DE value 0.12 (sample 1) and 0.50 (sample 2) that express pass because their dye molecules absorption were same. In the comparison between separately stripped & scoured verses scoured samples gave CMC DE value 1.36 (sample 1) and 1.29 (sample 2) that express fail because their dye molecules absorption were not same. Similarly In the comparison between combined stripping scouring verses scouring gave CMC DE value 1.26 (sample 1) and 1.59 (sample 2) that express fail because their dye molecules absorption were not same.

Investigation of reducing process of uneven shade problem in case of compact single jersey…

4.3 K/S value test result

n case of compact single jersey… 4.3 K/S value test result Fig.5 : Graphical presentation of

Fig.5: Graphical presentation of K/S value of different dyed samples

The reflection of a standard sample closely matched that of dyed samples using a mixture of similar dyes, where the pairs of samples had a CMC DE value less than 1.00, the value of K/S for the standard sample at any wavelength was approximately equal to that for the matching dyeing at that wavelength. Where the pairs of samples had a CMC DE value more than 1.00, the reflections was not matched as well as the K/S values were also unequal. These outcomes showed the instrumental compare for color matching assessments.

V.

Conclusion

The study found that grey fabric stripping reduced in uneven shade in case of compact single jersey knit fabric when it was dyed with turquoise color of reactive dye. On the other hand conventional dyeing process gives uneven shade and need to be stripped after dyeing and re-dyeing to match the shade with losing fabric strength and other fabric quality. Different types of physical quality tests also exhibited that the combined stripping and scouring process gave better result than other processes. Ball bursting strength of the separately stripped and scoured dyed fabric is 1.95 N less than that of the grey fabric. The wash fastness and rubbing fastness tests of different dyed samples may not be revealed significant difference. In the comparison of combined stripped & scoured dyed fabric and separately stripped & scoured dyed fabric would be tabulated pass with CMC DE value 0.12 (sample 1) and 0.50 (sample 2) but in the comparison of combined stripped & scoured dyed fabric with the scoured dyed fabric would be showed failed with CMC DE value 1.36 (sample 1) and 1.29 (sample 2) due to non-uniform absorbency of dye molecules. In case of SEM combined stripped & scoured fabric would be shown larger porous on the cotton fabric surface due to the action of hydrose but only scoured would not shown larger porous on the cotton fabric surface due to the absence of action of hydrose because partial breakage of hydrogen bonds. As a result larger turquoise color dye molecules could be penetrated more evenly into the cotton fiber core of the combined stripped & scoured dyed which might help to reduce uneven shade problem in case compact single jersey knit fabric. Due to the lack of larger capacity machine, higher amount of sample could not be dyed at a time that deviate the exact result in the different physical quality tests. Hand feel, softness, hairiness could not be determined due to lack suitable testing equipments. Stripping only carried out by using hydrose but it may be carried out by bleaching powder or enzyme.

Acknowledgement

At first the author would like to express his heart-felt thanks to Almighty Allah for his kind blessing for completion of his project work successfully.The author like to express my sincerest gratuity to his respectable supervising teacher Abdul Hannan, Associate professor, Department of Textile Engineering, DUET, for his kind and valuable guidance, suggestion, encouragement. He never felt boring as the author have wasted his valuable time and had done constructive criticism throughout the project work. The author is very great full to express his deep feelings & heartfelt thanks to co-supervisor Mohammed Abdur Rashid, Assistant professor, Department of Textile Engineering, DUET. The author intended to him for his valuable aid, proper guidance, superintend, encouragement and concrete help during project work period. His thoughtful evidence, untiring efforts make possible for author to get information from different organization. He guided the author like a family member and again inquires the author to project work procedure and gave the author tips for gathering knowledge and information from the factory.The author is really great full to the Managing Director, HR, Admin & Compliance, management authority who has permitted him for doing this work and him also grateful to all of the staffs of the factory.The author also likes to thank Mr. Seminur and all the staff of Bangabandgu Textile Engineering College. Finally, the author would like to thank the people, who have made a significant contribution to make this report. Their guidelines, suggestions for performing this difficult task & inspiration helped me a lot.

DOI: 10.9790/019X-0214046

www.iosrjournals.org

45 | Page

Investigation of reducing process of uneven shade problem in case of compact single jersey…

Reference

[1]

Moin, C. J., & Mahabubuzzaman, A. (2006). Process For Level Dyeing Of 100% Cotton Knit Fabrics With Reactive Dye.

[2]

Spencer, D. J. (2001). Knitting Technology: A Comprehensive Handbook And Practical Guide (Vol. 16). Crc Press.

[3]

Ahmed, A. I. (1995). Reactive Dyes Development: A Review. Textile Dyer And Printer, 28, 19 -24.

[4]

Broadbent, A. D. (2001). Basic Principles Of Textile Coloration (Vol. 132). West Yorkshire: Society Of Dyers And Colorists.

[5]

Standard, A. S. T. M. (2008). Standard Practice For Conditioning And Testing Textiles. Astm International, West Conshohocken, Pa.