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Jazz Pedagogy Journal

Geoffrey Dean

The Ensemble

The Match System is a tuning system where the lead player plays four
beats and stops, then the next player plays the same duration to try and
match tone, and so on.
The Sustain system is where the lead player sustains the tuning note while
the other players join in to match tone.
The Intervallic System is where the lead player tunes using intervals of a
third, fourth, fifth, and sixth in addition to unison and octave. The piano
player will first play the A or B-flat, then strike and octave with a fifth within
Fretted instruments can take the low E from the piano and tune the other
strings to eachother using the following method:
1- Play the 5th fret A on the low E-string and tune the open A-string to tat
2- Play the 5th fret D on the A-string and tune the open D-string to that
3- Play the th fret G on the D-string and tune the open G-string to that
4- Play the 4th fret B on the G-string and tune the open B-string to that
5- Play he 5th fret E on the B-string and tune the high E-string to that pitch.
Tune open G to piano. Harmonic at G string 7th fret to D string 5 fret (unison)
Continue with other strings.

The legato-tongue articulation (D attack) is the basis of most jazz articulations.

The traditional style of tonging T attack is generally reserved for special effects.

Breath articulation or pushing is a form of tonguing in which the tongue is

not actually used. It is produced by a huff from the diaphragm using the
syllables HUH, HOO, or WAH.
The half-tongue results in a note that is not clearly tongued or sounded
and is produced by a narrowing or partial closing of the mouth cavity with
the back of the tongue. This can be achieved by using the syllable DUD-N
along with a slight breath articulation.
The doodle tongue is used to facilitate speed and smoothness.
There are breath releases and tongue releases.

Breath release player stops flow of air through control of the diaphragm.
The second is the tongue release in which the tongue is used to stop the
flow of air.


The avoidance of rushing is achieved with a delay of the eighth note by

conceiving it in a triplet form.
The Kick Beat is a dotted quarter note immediately preceding a bar line and
is always sustained and accented.
The highest note of a phrase receive accents or emphasis.
Two types of releases are the breath (diaphragm) and tongue release.
Generally shorter notes incorporate tongue while loner incorporates breath.
The Dixie land background emphasizing two and foul is called the two beat
Polkas are always cut-time.
The Rhythm Section
Rhythmic kicks can also be referred to as Bombs
In a big band situation the bass drum can be played very lightly on all he
beats to underline the bass.
If a drum part is sketchy the drummer is best off looking off the part of the
lead trumpet
Rock drummers generally tune their drums down to achieve a deader sound
while jazz drummers want a more open sound or drums that have a little ring
to them.
The bass drum requires the most attention and is filled with materials though
the method of centered-sound muffling. Using cloth a special on he batter
side and using a 2-inch strip
Ride symbol can also be called ping cymbal.
On a high hat the bottom half of the cymbal is heavier than the top.
Another symbol coming into more common usage is called the swish-knocker
Vibes parts are often written into charts doubling some horn part.
On the bass fast tunes will use a little more treble than on slower tunes.
Rehearsal Techniques

The most widely used and best arrangement for a tight band is called the
stack. Another is called the spread which puts saxes on one side, rhythm in
the middle, and trumpets and trombones on the other side. The third is the
horseshoe as implored by the Stan Kenton orchestra.

In a big band setup, 3 presence microphones are distributed for the saxes.
One microphone for trombone and one for trumpet for solo purposes and one
for the piano.