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HT-208:

Heat Transfer in Turbulent Flow

Telgote Devanand suresh-130020030

Gaurav choudhary-130020043

Gondi Venkat Narayan Reddy-130020110

Jayesh Bundel-130020039

Objective and Motivation

The overall heat transfer coefficient is

related to the total thermal resistance

which includes thermal resistance for conduction and convection

So it becomes very easy to calculate how

much heat is going to be exchanged between the fluids at different temperature once we know the overall heat transfer coefficient at the given velocity of hot fluid

To determine the overall heat coefficient by using the logarithmic mean temperature

difference

To find out the individual film heat transfer

coefficient

Verify the Dittus Boelter equation for the turbulant flow heat transfer.

Theory

The total thermal resistance provided to the heat transfer is sum of the individual thermal resistances as the resistances are in series

1

1

x

1

U A

i

i

h A

i

i

k A

h A

0

0

lm

where

U i :overall heat tansfer coefficient w.r.t. inner area

A i :inner area of the tube

A 0 :outer area of the tube

A lm :logarithmic mean area difference

K:thermal conductivity

• ∆x=thichness of the metal wall

h i =heat transfer coefficient of inner film

h 0 =heat transfer coefficient of outer film

Logarithmic mean temperature difference is defined by: Multipliying by A i we get

1

U

i

1

h

i

xA

i

k

A

lm

A

i

h A

0

0

Apply Dittus Boelter equation on the hot fluid :

Nu=0.023(Re) 0.8 (Pr) n

The physical properties do not change much if the bulk

mean temperature of the hot fluid do not change much as we change its flow rate,and so the equation can be written a

Nu=constant x (velocity) 0.8

So the relationship is:

1/U=constant1/(u) 0.8 +constant2

Now plot the graph between 1/U and 1/(u) 0.8 this would be a straight line and this plot is known as the wilson plot.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE

APPARATUS Rotameter

Double temperature indicator-controller

Double pipe heat exchanger

Cold fluid

circulation pump

Heater

Hot fluid circulation pump

Double pipe heat exchanger Experimental Procedure

Switch on the double temperature indicator only and note down the inlet and outlet temperature to get the zero error in digital

thermometer Note down the inlet and outlet temperature of the hot and the

state has reached Now increase the hot

fluid flow rate keeping

the cold fluid flow rate to be constant

Now switch on both the pumps and adjust the set point to around 65 0 C keeping the intial flow rate around 400lph of both fluids Again repeat the

procedure and take 5

more readings for different flow rate of hot fluid

Wait for 6-8 minutes for the steady state to

come and then again

fluid

note down the inlet and outlet tempeature of the hot and the cold  Calculation Procedure

Calculate the amount of heat that is transfered by the hot fluid using the corrected temperatures

exchanger

Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient by using the amount of heat transfered , LMTD and inside area of heat Find out the velocity of the hot fluid by dividing the volume flow rate by cross sectional area of inner

tube Plot the graph between 1/U i and 1/(u) 0.8 (Wilson plot), whose intercept would give the value of 1/h 0 Plot the graph between ln(Nu) and ln(Re),then calcuate the slope of the line that is obtained by plotting the graph Calculate the inner film heat transfer coefficient   Observation Table

 Inlet Outlet Temperature Temperature Error Hot Fluid 31.8 28.0 -3.8 Cold Fluid 27.2 27.8 +0.6

d 1 (inner diameter of inner tube)=1.00cm d 2 (outer diameter of the inner tube)=1.27cm D 1 (inner diameter of the outer tube)=2.20cm L(length of heat exchanger)=85cm

ρ(density of ethylene glycol)=1.085gm/cm 3 μ(viscosity of ethylene glycol)=0.0052N.s/m 2 C p (specific heat capacity)=0.615Cal/gm.C k(thermal conductivity)=0.258W/m.K

 C out Flow H out S.No. Rate(lph) H in ( 0 C) H out ( 0 C) Corrected C in ( 0 C) C out ( 0 C) Correcte d LMTD( 0 C) 1 400 65.8 58.0 61.8 26.8 31.3 30.7 34.743 2 460 65.8 58.2 62.0 26.7 31.5 30.9 34.494 3 520 65.8 58.5 62.3 26.6 31.8 31.2 34.537 4 580 65.8 58.5 62.3 26.6 31.5 30.9 34.69 5 640 65.8 58.7 62.5 26.6 31.7 31.1 34.686 6 700 65.8 58.8 62.6 26.5 31.8 31.2 34.733 7 760 65.8 59.0 62.8 26.5 31.9 31.3 34.778

1.20E-03

1.00E-03

8.00E-04

6.00E-04

4.00E-04

2.00E-04

0.00E+00

Graph between 1/U v/s 1/(u^0.8)  0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

y = 0.001x + 8E-06 R² = 0.912 Series1

Linear (Series1)

Graph between ln(Nu) v/s ln(Re)

1.95

1.9

1.85

1.8

1.75

1.7

1.65

1.6  3.45

3.5

3.55

3.6

3.65

3.7

3.75

3.8

y = 0.753x - 0.931 R² = 0.918 Series2

Linear (Series1)

Uncertainity in measured and estimated parameters

The uncertainity in measurement of the temperature is 0.05 0 C.

The value of the slope of the line obtained

by plotting graph between ln(Nu) and

ln(Re) is 0.75 which differs from 0.8 by

0.05.

So error in slope is 6.25%.

Result and Conclusion

 Q(Kcal/hr) U(Kcal/ hr m 2 u(m/sec ) Re Nu ln(Re) ln(Nu) h i (Kcal/hr m 2 0 C) 0 C) 907.493 978.155 1.415 2952.452 1.646 3.47 44.258 982.485 1166.399 1266.296 1.628 3396.885 1.758 3.531 57.325 1272.544 1214.437 1316.807 1.84 3839.231 1.776 3.584 59.679 1324.806 1354.567 1462.271 2.052 4281.577 1.821 3.632 66.263 1470.961 1409.287 1521.518 2.265 4726.01 1.839 3.674 69.003 1531.798 1494.693 1611.542 2.477 5168.356 1.864 3.713 73.031 1621.198 1521.386 1638.199 2.689 5610.702 1.871 3.749 74.357 1650.634

Results and Conclusion

As the volume flow rate of the hot fluid tube is increased then the heat transfer coefficient increase and the heat transfered also increases

As the velocity of the flow increases reynolds

number also increases and hence there would

be more turbulent and more eddies developing in the flow so more heat transfer.

Reynolds is basically the ratio of the inertial

force to the viscous forces .So as the velocity of

the flow increases the inertial force increases more as compared to the vicous forces and hence flow becomes turbulent

Result and Conclusions

Also the nusselt number increases as the

velocity increases which is the ratio of the

convective heat transfer to the conductive heat transfer

So more and more heat tansferred by

convection as the velocity increases or the flow becomes turbulent.

Precautions

Surfaces of the hot fluid pipes should not be touched

Volume flow rate of the hot fluid should not

be too low so that there is no turbulent flow

Volume flow rate of the cold fluid has to be

constant so that resistance provided by the outer film remains constant