Sei sulla pagina 1di 48

VERB FRAMES IN

TURKISH
AND
THEIR ENGLISH
EQUIVALENTS
YKSEL GKNEL

2015

WWW.YUKSELGOKNEL.COM

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


NOTE:

Different parts of the sentences given in the following


example sentences are in different colors. They are as
follows:
1. Subjects and personal allomorphs are blue.
2. Verbs are red.
3. Objects, nouns, prepositions and coordinating
conjunctions are black.
4. Adverbs, adverbials, adverbial phrases and
subordinating conjunctions are green.
5. Subject and object complements are brown.
6. Adjectives and Modifiers are purple.

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


SOME EXAMPLE SENTENCES OF THE VERB FRAMES IN
TURKISH AND ENGLISH
It may be useful to give further explanations on word stress before giving
some more example sentences on the verb frames. There are three kinds of
stresses in Turkish: weak stress, secondary stress, and primary stress.
If a syllable is printed in normal type, it is weakly stressed.
Turkish words generally have weak stress on the first syllables. The
syllables following the weak syllables are all secondarily stressed, and when
a word is thought important, the last secondarily stressed syllable is
primarily stressed. If a root is monosyllabic, its single syllable is naturally
the last syllable, so it is secondarily stressed. However, there may also be
some other secondarily stressed syllables in the first syllables of some
borrowed words.
If a speaker thinks that a word is important, he strengthens the last
secondarily stressed syllable of a word to make it dominant in a sentence.
This definition, however, differs in verb compositions because the verb
roots, stems or frames, whether monosyllabic or polysyllabic, are suffixed
by several inflectional morphemes. In verb compositions, the verb roots,
stems and frames, and the following syllables are all secondarily
stressed. Only one of these syllables in the verb compositions can be
primarily stressed, which does not depend on the speaker's choice.
Besides, some of the morphemes used in the verb compositions are formed
of two or more syllables such as me.li, ma.l, e.cek, a.cak,
e.bil.ir. Only the last syllables of such morphemes can be primarily
stressed, except for "e.mez", a.maz, which are negative making
allomorphs.
One can change the meaning of a sentence by changing a secondary stress
at the end of a word (except the ones in a verb composition) into a primary
stress:
(an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor )
In the sentence above, each word has several secondarily stressed syllables
that are printed in italics. The last secondarily stressed syllables in each
word are not only secondarily stressed, but they also imply the hearer a
suspended juncture as if another word is going to follow it.
The word roots and stems may have one or more syllables. If a word stem
has only one syllable, it is naturally secondarily stressed. If it has two or
more syllables, these syllables are secondarily stressed except for the first

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


weak syllable. When the stems are suffixed with inflectional or derivational
suffixes, these suffixes are also secondarily stressed together with the other
secondarily stressed syllables. Consider the secondarily stressed syllables
in the following words:
(ter*lik), (ter*lik*i), (ter*lik*i*lik); (ba*ba), (ba*ba*s) (ba*ba*s*nn),
(ba*ba*sn*dan); (yz), (y*z), (y*z*ne), (y*zn*de), (y*zn*den)
However, when one wants to primarily stress one of these words, he can
only primarily stress the last secondarily stressed syllable in a word such as:
(ter*lik), (ter*lik*i), (ter*lik*i*lik); (ba*ba), (ba*ba*s), (ba*ba*s*nn),
(ba*ba*sn*dan); (yz), (y*z), (y*z*ne), (y*zn*de), (y*zn*den)
Compare the following sentences:
(an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) means, My mother is swimming in the
sea; not any other woman.
(an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) means, My mother is swimming in the
sea; not in a lake or a river.
(an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) means, My mother is swimming in the
sea; not sunbathing or chatting with her friends on the beach.
Another point to consider in a language is its intonation, which is the music
of a language that influences its meaning significantly. To describe a piece
of music using words is almost impossible. Therefore, listening to native
speakers speaking it in their own native languages is of vital importance for
students of languages. The longer one is exposed to a foreign language, the
easier and more soundly, he can learn it.
In the following example sentences, some frequently used verb frames and
their syllables are given in brackets. Most of the primarily stressable
syllables are also printed in bold face, but this does not mean that the other
important words in a sentence cannot be stressed. Any one of the words
that is thought important in a sentence can be primarily stressed. The open
junctures (pauses) between words are showed by / slashes.

a:
iek-ler sabah-le.yin a-ar.
(i*ek*ler / sa*bah*le*yin / a*ar )
Flowers open in the morning. (Open is an intransitive verb.)

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Jack kap-/y/ a-t.
(jack / ka*p*y / a*t )
Jack opened the door. (Open is a transitive verb.)
Jacke kap-/y/ a-tr-d-m. (Causative)
(ce*ke / ka*p*y / a*tr*dm )
I made (had) Jack open the door.
Kap-/y/ a-tr-d-m. (Causative)
(ka*p*y / a*tr*dm )
I had the door opened.
Kap bil-in-me-/y/en bir kii tarafndan a-l-d. (Passive)
(ka*p / bi*lin*me*yen / bir / ki*i / ta*ra*fn*dan / a*l*d )
The door was opened by an unknown person.
Hava a-l-d (at). (Reflexive)
(ha*va / a*l*d)
The clouds scattered and the sun began to shine.
Kap, Jacke a-tr-l-d. (Passive causative)
(ka*p /ce*ke / a*t*rl*d )
Jack was made to open the door.

al:
Kitap- al-d-m. (Transitive)
(ki*ta*b / al*dm )
I have taken (received, bought) the book.
Kitap- satn aldr-d-m. (Causative)
(ki*ta*b / sa*t *nal*dr*dm ) (Liaison)
I (have) had the book bought.
Kitap- satn al-drt-t-m. (Double causative)
(ki*ta*b / sa*t*nal*dr(t)*tm ) (Liaison)
I asked someone to have the book bought.
Kitap satn al-n-d. (Passive)
(ki*tap / sa*t*na*ln*d ) (Liaison)
The book has been bought.
Kitap- satn al-dr-d-m. (Causative)
(ki*ta*b / sa*tn / al*dr*dm )
I have had the book bought.

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Aldr-ma! (An expression)
(al*dr*ma )
Never mind!
Elma-lar Ahmete al-dr-l-d. (Passive causative)
(el*ma*lar / ah*me*te / al*d*rl*d )
Ahmet was made to buy the apples.
Elma-lar- Ahmete al-dr-d. (Causative)
(el*ma*la*r / ah*me*te / al*dr*d )
She had Ahmet buy the apples.
Bu elma-lar geen hafta al-n-d. (Passive)
(bu / el*ma*lar / ge*en / haf*ta / a*ln*d )
These apples were bought last week.
Bu elma-lar satn al-ma-/y/a de-mez.
(bu / el*ma*lar / sa*tn / al*ma*ya / de*mez )
These apples are not worth buying. (subject complement)
Yarn bana bir bilgisayar al-n-.yor. (Passive)
(ya*rn / ba*na / bir / bil*gi*sa*yar / a*l*n*yor )
A computer is going to be bought for me tomorrow.
Sz-ler-im-den al-n-d. (Reflexive)
(sz*le*rim*den / a*ln*d )
She was offended by what I said.

anla:
Jack ders-i anla-d. (Transitive)
(jack / der*si / an*la*d )
Jack understood the lesson.)
Ders anla-l-d. (Passive)
(ders / an*la*l*d )
The lesson has been understood.
Onlar anla-t-lar. (Reciprocal)
(on*lar / an*la*t*lar )
They (have) reached an agreement.

anlat:

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Jack biz-e bir masal anlat-t.
(jack / bi*ze / bir / ma*sa*lan*lat*t ) (Liaison)
Jack told us a story. (transitive)
retmen masal- Ahmete anlat-tr-d. (Causative)
(*ret*men / ma*sa*l / ah*me*te / an*lat*tr*d )
The teacher made (had) Ahmet tell the story.
Masal anlat-tr-d-m. (Causative)
(ma*sa*l / an*lat*tr*dm )
I had the story told.
Masal dn anlat-l-d. (Passive)
(ma*sal / dn / an*la*tl*d )
The story was told yesterday.
Masal Ahmete anlat-tr-l-d. (Passive causative)
(ma*sal / ah*me*te / an*lat*t*rl*d)
Ahmet was made to tell the story.
retmen bir konu anlat-.yor (retiyor). (Transitive)
(*ret*men / bir / ko*nu / an*la*t*yor )
The teacher is teaching a subject.

art:
Hz art-t. (Intransitive)
(hz / art*t)
The speed increased.
Hz- artr-d. (Transitive)
(h*z / ar*tr*d )
He increased the speed.
Hz artr-l-d. (Passive)
(hz / ar*t*rl*d )
The speed has been increased.
Ona hz--n artrt-t. (Causative)
(o*na / h*z*n / ar*trt*t )
He made him increase his speed.
Hz- artrt-t. (Causative)
(h*z / ar*trt*t )
He had the speed increased.

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Hz Jacke artrt-l-d. (Passive causative)
(hz / ja*ke / ar*tr*tl*d )
Jack was made to increase the speed.

bala:
Oyun bala-d. (Intransitive)
(o*yun / ba*la*d )
The game (has) started.
Hakem oyun-u balat-t. (Transitive)
(ha*kem / o*yu*nu / ba*lat*t )
The referee started the game.
Hakem oyun-u Ahmete balat-t. (Causative)
(ha*kem / o*yu*nu / ah*me*te / ba*lat*t )
The referee made Ahmet start the game.
Oyun Ahmete balat-l-d. (Passive causative)
(o*yun / ah*me*te / ba*la*tl*d )
Ahmet was made to start the game.
Oyun balat-l-d. (Passive)
(o*yun / ba*la*tl*d )
The game was started (by someone).
Oyun-a bala-an-d. (Passive shaped intransitive verb)
(o*yu*na / ba*lan*d )
The game was started.

bat:
kinci Dnya Sava-/n/da birok gemi bat-t. (Intransitive)
(i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da / bir*ok / ge*mi / bat*t )
A lot of ships sank during The Second World War.
kinci Dnya Sava/n/-da ok gemi batr-d-lar. (Transitive)
(i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da / ok / ge*mi / ba*tr*d*lar )
They sank a lot of ships during The Second World War.
Sava-ta birok gemi batr-l-d. (Passive)
(sa*va*ta / bir*ok / ge*mi / ba*t*rl*d )
A lot of ships were sunk during the war.

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Parmak--/n/a bir ine batr-d. (Transitive)
(par*ma**na / bir / i*ne / ba*tr*d )
She stuck a needle into her figer.
Parmak-m-a ine bat-t. (Intransitive)
(par*ma**ma / i*ne / bat*t )
A needle stuck into my finger.

bul:
Yzk--/n/ bul-du. (Transitive)
(y*z**n / bul*du )
She has found her ring.
Yzk--/n/ koca-/s/-/n/a bul-dur-du. (Causative) .
(y*z**n / ko*ca*s*na / bul*dur*du )
She got her husband to find her ring.
Yzk koca-/s/-/n/a bul-dur-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(y*zk / ko*ca*s*na / bul*du*rul*du )
Her husband was made to find the ring.
Yzk--/n/ bul-dur-du. (Causative)
(y*z**n / bul*dur*du )
She had her ring found.
Yzk- bul-un-du. (Passive)
(y*z* / bu*lun*du )
Her ring has been found.

al:
Birisi o-/n/un anta-/s/-/n/ al-d. (Transitive)
(bi*ri*si / o*nun / an*ta*s*n / al*d )
Somebody stole her handbag.
anta-/s/-/n/ al-dr-d. (Causative)
(an*ta*s*n / al*dr*d )
She had her handbag stolen.
Geen hafta onun anta-/s/ al-n-d. (Passive)
(ge*en / haf*ta / o*nun / an*ta*s / a*ln*d )
Her handbag was stolen last week.

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Jack piyano al-a.bil-ir. (Transitive)
(jack / pi*ya*no / a*la*bi*lir )
Jack can play the piano.
Hakem ddk--/n/ al-d. (Transitive)
(ha*kem / d*d**n / al*d )
The referee blew his whistle.

arp:
Top pencere-/y/e arp-t.
(top / pen*ce*re*ye / arp*t ), or (top / pen*ce*re*ye / carp*t )
The ball hit the window.
(Turkish is intransitive; English is transitive)
Klp-im sen-in iin arp-.yor. (Intransitive)
(kl*bim / se*nin / i*in / ar*p*yor )
My heart is beating for you.
Araba-/s/-/n/ elektrik direk-i-/n/e arp-t. (Intransitive)
(a*ra*ba*s*n / e*lek*trik / di*re*i*ne / arp*t )
She hit her car to a lamppost.
Kap-/y/ arp-t. (Transitive)
(ka*p*y / arp*t )
He slammed the door.
Kap arp-l-d. (Passive)
(ka*p / ar*pl*d )
The door was slammed.
ki kamyon arp--t. (Reciprocal)
(i*ki / kam*yon / ar*p*t )
Two lorries collided.

al:
Almanyada al-.yor. (Intransitive)
(al*man*ya*da / a*l**yor )
He is working in Germany.

10

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Motor-u al-tr-a.ma-d. (Transitive)
(mo*to*ru / a*l*t*ra*ma*d )
He couldnt start the engine.
Kar-/s/-/n/ al-tr-ma-.yor. (Causative)
(ka*r*s*n / a*l*tr*m*yor )
He doesnt let his wife work.
Eskiden otomobil motor-lar- el-le al-tr-l-r-d. (Passive)
(es*ki*den / o*to*mo*bil / mo*tor*la*r / el*le / a*l*t*r*lr*d )
In the past car engines used to be manually started.
Bu fabrika-da kask-sz al-l-maz.
(bu / fab*ri*ka*da / kask*sz / a*l*l*maz )
It is forbidden (dangerous) to work without helmets in this factory.
(Passive shaped intransitive verb)

atla:
Bardak atla-d. (Intransitive)
(bar*dak / at*la*d )
The glass (has) cracked.
Kaynar su bardak- atla-at-t. (Transitive)
(kay*nar / su / bar*da* / at*lat*t )
The boiling water cracked the glass.
Bardak- sen atla-at-t-n. (Causative)
(bar*da* / sen / at*lat*tn )
You made the glass crack. (You cracked the glass.)
Bardak atla-at-l-d. (Passive)
(bar*dak / at*la*tl*d )
The glass was cracked.

ek:
Bu baca iyi ek-er. (Intransitive)
(bu / ba*ca / i*yi / e*ker )
This chimney draws well.
Anne-/s/i-/n/e ek-mi. (Intransitive)
(an*ne*si*ne / ek*mi )
She seems to have taken after her mother.

11

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Araba-/y/ iki at ek-i.yor-du. (Transitive)
(a*ra*ba*y / i*ki / at / e*ki*yor*du )
Two horses were pulling the cart.
Kl--/n/ ek-ti. (Transitive)
(k*l*c*n / ek*ti )
He drew his sword.
Ac ek-i.yor. (Transitive)
(a*c / e*ki*yor )
He is suffering.
Eskiden insan-lar kuyu-lar-dan su cek-er-di. (Transitive)
(es*ki*den / in*san*lar ~ / ku*yu*lar*dan / su / e*ker*di )
People used to draw water from wells in the past.
Teklif dikkat-im-i ek-ti. (Transitive)
(tek*lif / dik*ka*ti*mi / ek*ti )
The proposal attracted my attention.
Araba-am ek-il-di.
(a*ra*bam / e*kil*di), or (a*ra*bam / e*kil*di )
My car has been towed away. (Passive)
Araba-am- ek-tir-di-im.
(a*ra*ba*m / ek*tir*dim )
I had my car towed. (Causative)
Bir di-im-i ektir-di-im. (Causative)
(bir / di*i*mi / ek*tir*dim )
I had a tooth pulled out.
O ekin-i.yor. (Reflexive) (*She is pulling herself)
(o / e*ki*ni*yor )
She is avoiding.
Onlar eki-i.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(on*lar / e*ki*i*yor*lar )
They are struggling with each other.
Can eki-i.yor. (Reciprocal)
(can / e*ki*i*yor )
He is in the death agony. (Subject complement)

12

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


k:
Ev-den k-t. (Intransitive)
(ev*den / k*t )
He (has) left home.
Ceket-i-/n/i kar-d.
(ce*ke*ti*ni / *kar*d )
He took off his coat. (Transitive)
apka-am- kart-t. (Causative)
(ap*ka*m / *kart*t )
He made me take off my hat.
Dar k-ar-l-d. (Passive)
(d*a*r / *ka*rl*d )
He was taken out.
Boyuna sorun kar-.yor. (Transitive)
(bo*yu*na / so*run / *ka*r*yor )
He is always creating problems.

z:
Bir problem z-.yor. (Transitive)
(bir / prob*lem / *z*yor )
He is solving a problem.
Problem-i baba-/s/-/n/a z-dr-d. (Causative)
(prob*le*mi / ba*ba*s*na / z*dr*d )
She got her father to solve the problem.
Tm sorun-lar-m.z z-l-d. (Passive)
(tm / so*run*la*r*mz / *zl*d )
All our problems have been solved.
Bu dm- z-e.me-i.yor-um. (Transitive)
(bu / d**m / *ze*mi*yo*rum )
I can't untie this knot.

daya:
Merdiven-i duvar-a daya-d. (Transitive)
(mer*di*ve*ni / du*va*ra / da*ya*d )
He leaned the ladder against the wall.

13

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Merdiven-i duvar-a dayat-t. (Causative)
(mer*di*ve*ni / du*va*ra / da*yat*t )
He had the ladder leaned against the wall.
Merdiven duvar-a daya-an-d. (Passive)
(mer*di*ven / du*va*ra / da*yan*d )
The ladder has been leaned against the wall.

dayan:
Bu ayakkab-lar daha ok daya-an-r. (Intransitive)
(bu / a*yak*ka*b*lar ~ / da*ha / ok / da*ya*nr )
These shoes last longer.
Bu scak-a dayan-a.ma-.yor-um. (Intransitive)
(bu / s*ca*a / da*ya*na*m*yo*rum )
I can't endure (tolerate) this warm weather.

dal:
Deniz-e dal-d. (Intransitive)
(de*ni*ze / dal*d )
He dived into the sea.
El-i-/n/i su-/y/a dal-dr-d.
(e*li*ni / su*ya / dal*dr*d )
He plunged his hand into the water. (Transitive)
Onu deniz-e daldrt-t.
(o*nu / de*ni*ze / dal*drt*t )
He got him to dive into the sea. (Causative)

dei:
Sen-i son gr-dk-m-den beri ok dei-ti-in (deimisin).
(se*ni / son / gr*d*m*den / be*ri / ok / de*i*tin )
You have changed a lot since I last saw you. (Intransitive)
Ev-e gel-in.ce giysi-ler-i-/n/i dei-tir-di.
(e*ve / ge*lin*ce~ / giy*si*le*ri*ni / de*i*tir*di )
He changed his clothes when he came home. (Transitive)

14

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Eski lastik-ler-im-i dei-tirt-i.yor-um.
(es*ki / las*tik*le*ri*mi / de*i*tir*ti*yo*rum )
I am having my old tires changed. (Causative)
Kirli masa rt-/s/ dei-tir-il-di.
(kir*li / ma*sa / r*t*s / de*i*ti*ril*di )
The dirty tablecloth has been changed. (Passive)
Futbol kural-lar- degi-tir-il-e.cek.
(fut*bol / ku*ral*la*r / de*i*ti*ri*le*cek )
The football rules are going to be changed. (Passive)

dinle:
Syle-dik-im-i dinle.
(sy*le*di*i*mi / din*le )
Listen to what I say. (Turkish transitive; English intransitive)
Bana ark-/s/-/n/ dinle-et-ti.
(ba*na / ar*k*s*n / din*let*ti )
She got me to listen to her song. (Causative)

do:
Ben Adanada do-du-um.
(ben / a*da*na*da / do*dum )
I was born in Adana. (Turkish intransitive, English passive)
Gne alt-da do-du.
(g*ne / al*t*da / do*du )
The sun rose at six. (Intransitive)
Geen ay bir olan dour-du.
(ge*en / ay / bir / o*lan / do*ur*du )
She gave birth to a son last month. (Transitive)
Ay da dou-dan do-ar.
(ay / da / do*u*dan / do*ar )
The moon also rises in the east. (Intransitive)

dol:
Okul hemen ocuk-lar-la dol-du.
(o*kul / he*men / o*cuk*lar*la / dol*du )
The school soon filled with children. (Intransitive)

15

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Sepet-i-/n/i elma/y/-la doldur-du.
(se*pe*ti*ni / el*may*la / dol*dur*du )
She filled her basket with apples. (Transitive)
Sepet-i-/n/i bana elma/y/-la dol-durt-tu.
(se*pe*ti*ni / ba*na / el*may*la / dol*durt*tu )
She made me fill her basket with apples. (Causative)
(onun) sepet-i elma/y/-la dol-dur-ul-du.
(o*nun / se*pe*ti / el*may*la / dol*du*rul*du )
Her basked was filled with apples. (Passive)
Sepet bana dol-durt-ul-du.
(se*pet / ba*na / dol*dur*tul*du )
I was made to fill the basket. (Passive causative)

dn:
Tekerlek-ler yava yava dn-.yor.
(te*ker*lek*ler / ya*va / ya*va / d*n*yor )
The wheels are turning slowly. (Intransitive)
Geri dn.
(ge*ri / dn )
Turn back. (Intransitive)
Sa-a dn.
(sa*a / dn ) (Normal): (sa*a: ~ / dn ) (Military order)
Turn right. (Intransitive)
Sonbahar-da yaprak-lar sar-/y/a dn-er (sarar-r).
(son*ba*har*da / yap*rak*lar / sa*r*ya / d*ner ), or (sa*ra*rr )
Leaves turn yellow in the autumn. (Intransitive)
Yz- kzar-d.
(y*z / k*zar*d )
Her face turned red. She was ashamed. (Intransitive)
Kasa-/y/ a-mak iin anahtar- evir-di (dndrd).
(ka*sa*y / a*mak / i*in / a*nah*ta*r / e*vir*di )
He turned the key to open the safe. (Transitive)

d:

16

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Kalem-im yer-e d-t.
(ka*le*mim / ye*re / d*t )
My pen fell on the floor. (Intransitive)
Kalem-im-i dr-d-m.
(ka*le*mi*mi / d*r*dm )
I dropped my pencil. (Transitive)
Ben-i dr-d.
(be*ni / d*r*d )
He made me fall down. (Causative)
Ar bavul-u-/n/u dr-d.
(a*r / ba*vu*lu*nu / d*r*d )
He let his heavy bag fall. (Transitive)
Dr-l-d-m.
(d**rl*dm )
I was made to fall down. (Passive causative)

ge:
Araba-lar n-m-den ge-i.yor.
(a*ra*ba*lar / *nm*den / ge*i*yor )
Cars are passing in front of me. (Intransitive)
Snav- ge-e.me-di-im.
(s*na*v / ge*e*me*dim )
I couldnt pass the exam. (Transitive)
Onlar iyi gein-i.yor-lar.
(on*lar / i*yi / ge*i*ni*yor*lar )
They are getting on well with each other. (Reflexive)
n-m-de.ki araba-/y/ ge-ti-im.
(*nm*de*ki / a*ra*ba*y / ge*tim )
I overtook the car in front of me. (Transitive)

gr:
Yanllk- gr-me-di-im.
(yan*l*l* / gr*me*dim )
I didnt (notice) see the mistake. (Transitive)

17

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Yorgun gr-n-.yor-sun. (Reflexive)
(yor*gun / g*r*n*yor*sun )
You look tired. (Tired is a subject complement.)
Bu teklif ilgin gr-n-.yor. (Reflexive)
( bu / tek*lif / il*gin / g*r*n*yor )
This proposal sounds interesting. (Interesting is a subject complement.)
mkn-sz gr-n-.yor. (Reflexive)
(im*kn*sz / g*r*n*yor )
It seems (sounds) impossible. (mpossible is a subject complement.)

gl:
Bebek gl-.yor.
(be*bek / g*l*yor )
The baby is laughing. (Intransitive)
O ben-i her zaman gl-dr-r.
(o / be*ni / her*za*man / gl*d*rr )
She always makes me laugh. (Causative)
Gl-dr-l-d-m.
(gl*d*rl*dm )
I was made to laugh. (Passive causative)
Bu sorun-lar-a gl-n-mez.
(bu / so*run*la*ra / g*ln*mez )
It is not decent to laugh at such problems. (Passive shaped intransitive)
Kz-lar bahe-de gl--.yor-lar-d. (Reciprocal)
(kz*lar / bah*e*de / g*l**yor*lar*d )
The girls were giggling in the garden.

hatrla:
Onun ism-i-/n/i hatrla-.yor-um.
(o*nun / is*mi*ni / ha*tr*l*yo*rum )
I remember her name. (Transitive)
Kar-m k-lar- kapat-ma-am- hatrlat-t. (Transitive)
(ka*rm / *k*la*r / ka*pat*ma*m / ha*tr*lat*t )
My wife reminded me to turn the lights off.

18

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Bu eski fotograf bana bykanne-em-i hatrlat-.yor. (Transitive)
(bu / es*ki / fo*tog*ra *lar / ba*na / b*y*kan*ne*mi / ha*tr*la*t*yor )
This old photograph reminds me of my grandmother.
Bu zafer uzun sre hatrla-an-a.cak. (Passive)
(bu / za*fer / u*zun / s*re / ha*tr*la*na*cak )
This victory will be remembered for a long time.

hazrla:
Annem le yemek-i-/n/i hazrla-d. (Transitive)
(an*nem / *le / ye*me*i*ni / ha*zr*la*d )
Mother has prepared the lunch.
Annem yemek-i bana hazrla-at-t. (Causative)
(an*nem / ye*me*i / ba*na / ha*zr*lat*t )
Mother made me prepare the lunch.
Yemek hazrla-an-d. (Passive)
(ye*mek / ha*zr*lan*d )
The lunch has been prepared.
Hazrla-an-.yor-um. (Reflexive) (*I am preparing myself.)
(ha*zr*la*n*yo*rum )
I am getting ready. (Ready is subject complement.)

i:
Annem her sabah bir bardak ay i-er. (Transitive)
(an*nem / her / sa*bah / bir / bar*dak / ay / i*er )
Mother drinks a cup of tea every morning.
Annem bana her sabah iki bardak st i-ir-ir. (Causative)
(an*nem / ba*na / her / sa*bah / i*ki / bar*dak / st / i*i*rir )
Mother makes me drink two cups of milk every morning.
Bu su i-il-ir. (Passive)
(bu / su / i*i*lir )
This water is drinkable. (Subject complement)

iit:
yi iit-e-bil-i.yor mu-sun? (Intransitive)
(i*yi / i*i*te*bi*li*yor / mu*sun )
Can you hear well?

19

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


O-/n/un Londrada olduk-u-/n/u iit-ti-im. (Transitive)
(o*nun / Lon*dra*da / ol*du*u*nu / i*it*tim )
I heard that he is (was) in London.
Onun yalan syle-dik-i hi iit-il-me-di. (Passive)
(o*nun / ya*lan / sy*le*di*i / hi / i*i*til*me*di )
He has never been heard to tell a lie.

sr:
Havla-/y/an kpek sr-maz. (Intransitive)
(hav*la*yan / k*pek / *sr*maz )
A barking dog never bites. (a proverb)
(Sen-in) kopek-in dn bacak-m- sr-d. (Transitive)
(K*pe*in / dn / ba*ca**m / *sr*d)
Your dog bit my leg yesterday.
Kuduz bir kpek tarafndan sr-l-d. (Passive)
(ku*duz / bir / k*pek / ta*ra*fn*dan / *s*rl*d)
She was bitten by a mad dog.
Ben-i kopek-i-/n/e srt-t. (Causative)
(be*ni / k*pe*i*ne / *srt*t )
She made (let) her dog bite me.

ka:
ki hkml hapis-ten ka-t. (Intransitive)
(i*ki / h*km*l / ha*pis*ten / ka*t )
Two prisoners (have) escaped from prison.
ki kii be ya-n-da bir ocuk-u kar-d.
(i*ki / ki*i / be / ya*n*da / bir / o*cu*u / ka*r*d )
Two men kidnapped a five year old child. (Transitive.)
Herkes gen kadn-n kar-l-dk--/n/ dn-.yor.
(her*kes / gen / ka*d*nn / ka**rl*d**n / d**n*yor ) (Passive)
Everybody thinks that the young woman has been abducted.
ocuk-lar- bahe-den kart-t. (Causative)
(o*cuk*la*r / bah*e*den / ka*rt*t )
He frightened the children away from the garden.

20

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Grev-in-i yap-mak-tan ka-n-ma-ma.l-sn. (Reflexive)
(g*re*vi*ni / yap*mak*tan / ka*n*ma*ma*l*sn )
You shouldnt avoid doing your duty.
Herkes dei-ik ynler-e ka--t. (Reciprocal)
(her*kes / de*i*ik / yn*le*re / ka**t )
Everybody ran to different directions.
Akl-/n/ ka-r-d. (Idiomatic) (Transitive)
(ak*l*n / ka*r*d )
He went mad. (Mad is subject complement.)

it:
Ben-i kenar-a it-ti. (Transitive)
(be*ni / ke*na*ra / it*ti )
He pushed me aside.
Kenar-a it-il-di-im. (Passive)
(ke*na*ra / i*til*dim )
I was pushed aside.
Araba-/s/-/n/ bana it-tir-di. (Causative)
(a*ra*ba*s*n / ba*na / it*tir*di )
She made me push her car.
t-i-i.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(i*ti*i*yor*lar )
They are pushing each other.
Ben-i kim it-ti? (Transitive)
(be*ni / ki mit*ti ) (Liaison)
Who pushed me?

kandr:
Adam ben-i kandr-d. (Transitive)
(a*dam / be*ni / kan*dr*d )
The man cheated me.
Kandr-l-d-m. (Passive)
(kan*d*rl*dm )
I was cheated.

21

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Ben-i kandr-ma-/y/a al-ma! (Transitive)
(be*ni / kan*dr*ma*ya / a*l*ma )
Don't try to deceive me!

kap:
Kk bir ocuk anta-am- kap-t. (Transitive)
(k*k / bir / o*cuk / an*ta*m / kap*t )
A little boy snatched my handbag.
anta-am- kap-tr-d-m. (Causative)
(an*ta*m / kap*tr*dm )
I had my handbag snatched.
anta-am kap-l-d. (Passive)
(an*tam / ka*pl*d ) (an*tam / ka*pl*d )
My handbag has been (was) snatched.

kapat:
Kap-/y/ kapat-t-m. (Transitive)
(ka*p*y / ka*pat*tm )
I have closed the door.
Kap-/y/ bana kapat-tr-d. (Causative)
(ka*p*y / ba*na / ka*pat*tr*d )
She made me close the door.
Bahe kap-/s/ hizmeti tarafndan kapat-l-d. (Passive)
(bah*e / ka*p*s / hiz*met*i / ta*ra*fn*dan / ka*pa*tl*d )
The garden gate was closed by the servant.
Dkkn-lar saat yedi-de kapa-an-r. (Reflexive) (They close themselves.)
(dk*kn*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*nr )
Shops close at seven p.m.
Gen kadn kapa-an-d. (Reflexive)
(gen / ka*dn / ka*pan*d )
The young woman veiled herself.
Hava kapa-an-d. (Reflexive)
(ha*va / ka*pan*d )
It has got cloudy. (Cloudy is subject complement.)

22

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


karla:
Araba-/s/-/n/ ben-im-ki/y/-le karla-tr-d. (Transitive)
(a*ra*ba*s*n / be*nim*kiy*le / kar**la*tr*d )
He compared his car with mine.
retmen bana ngilizce/y/le Franszca/y/ karla-trt-t. (Causative)
(*ret*men / ba*na / in*gi*liz*cey*le / fran*sz*ca*y / kar**la*trt*t )
The techer made me compare English to French.
Mutluluk-la znt karlatr-l-a.maz. (Passive)
(mut*lu*luk*la / *zn*t / kar**la*t*r*la*maz )
Happiness and sorrow cant be compared.
Onlar sokak-ta karla-t. (Reciprocal)
(on*lar / so*kak*ta / kar**la*t )
They came across in the street.

ka:
Ba--/n/ ka-d. (Transitive)
(ba**n / ka**d )
He scratched his head.
Srt--/n/ kar-/s/-/n/a kat-t.
(sr*t*n / ka*r*s*na / ka*t*t )
He got his wife to scratch his back. (Causative)
Srt-m ka-n-.yor. (Intransitive)
(sr*tm / ka**n*yor )
My back is itching.
Kpek ka-n-.yor. (Reflexive) (It is scratching itself.)
(k*pek / ka**n*yor )
The dog is scratching.

kr:
Vazo-/y/u sen kr-d-n, deil mi? (Transitive)
(va*zo*yu / sen / kr*dn / de*il / mi )
You broke the vase, didnt you?
Vazo dn kr-l-d. (Passive)
(va*zo / dn / k*rl*d )
The vase was broken yesterday.

23

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Sen ben-i kr-d-n. You refused me. (Transitive)
(sen / be*ni / kr*dn )
You hurt my feelings. .
Klp-im-i kr-d-n. (Transitive)
(kl*bi*mi / kr*dn )
You broke my heart.
Kr-l-d-m.
(k*rl*dm )
I was hurt.
Tahta kutu-/y/u bana kr-dr-d.
(tah*ta / ku*tu*yu / ba*na / kr*dr*d )
She made me break the wooden box. (Causative)

kz:
O bana kz-d. (Intransitive)
(o / ba*na / kz*d )
He got angry with me. (angry is subject complement)
O ben-i kz-dr-d.
(o / be*ni / kz*dr*d )
He made me angry. (angry is object complement.)
(O) kz-dr-l-d. (Passive)
(kz*d*rl*d )
He was irritated.
Bu-/n/a kz-l-maz. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(bu*na / k*zl*maz )
This is not a matter to get angry.

kzar:
Balk-lar kzar-.yor.
(ba*lk*lar / k*za*r*yor )
The fish are frying. (Intransitive)
Balk kzart-.yor. (Transitive)
(ba*lk / k*zar*t*yor )
She is frying fish.

24

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Tm balk-lar- bana kzart-t. (Causative)
(tm / ba*lk*la*r / ba*na / k*zart*t )
She made me fry all the fish.
Tm balk-lar kzart-l-d. (Passive)
(tm / ba*lk*lar / k*zar*tl*d )
All the fish have been fried.
Yz- kzar-d. (Intransitive)
(y*z / k*zar*d )
Her face reddened. She blushed with shame.

kok:
Bu balk bayat kok-u.yor. (kokmak is an action verb.)
(bu / ba*lk / ba*yat / ko*ku*yor )
This fish smells stale. (Subject complement)
Bu ekmek dilim-i sarmsak kok-u.yor.
(bu / ek*mek / di*li*mi / sa*rm*sak / ko*ku*yor )
This slice of bread smells of garlic. (Subject complement)
Her sabah gl-ler-i-/n/i kokla-ar. (Transitive)
(her / sa*bah / gl*le*ri*ni / kok*lar )
She smells her roses every morning.
Bana yeni parfm--/n/ koklat-t. (Causative)
(ba*na / ye*ni / par*f*m*n / kok*lat*t )
She made me smell her new perfume.
Kokla-.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(kok*la**yor*lar )
They are smelling each other. (Transitive verb)
Bu balk kok-mu. (Subject complement)
(bu / ba*lk / kok*mu ~)
This fish is rotten. (Subject complement)

konu:
Onun-la yarn konu-a.cak-m. (Intransitive)
(o*nun*la / ya*rn / ko*nu*a*ca*m )
I will talk (speak) to him tomorrow.

25

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Polis onu konu-tur-a-bil-ir. (Causative)
(po*lis / o*nu / ko*nu*tu*ra*bi*lir )
The police can make him talk.
O, iki dil konu-ur (konu-u.yor). (Transitive)
(o / i*ki / dil / ko*nu*ur )
She speaks two languages.
Trkiyede Trke konu-ul-ur. (Passive)
(tr*ki*ye*de / trk*e / ko*nu*u*lur )
Turkish is spoken in Turkey.

kop:
p kop-tu. (Intransitive)
(ip / kop*tu )
The rope broke.
Aa-n bir dal--/n/ kop-ar-d. (Transitive)
(a*a*cn / bir / da*l*n / ko*par*d )
He broke a branch off the tree.
Aa-n dal-lar-/n/-dan bir-i-/n/i bana kopart-t.
(a*a*cn / dal*la*rn*dan / bi*ri*ni / ba*na / ko*part*t )
He made me break off one of the branches of the tree. (Causative)

ko:
Baz ocuk-lar okul-a ko-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(ba:*z / o*cuk*lar / o*ku*la / ko*u*yor )
Some children are running to school.
At--/n/ drtnal ko-tur-du. (Causative)
(a*t*n / drt*nal / ko*tur*du )
He made his horse run at a gallop.
At- drtnal ko-tur-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(a*t / drt*nal / ko*tu*rul*du )
His horse was made to run at a gallop.
ocuk-lar bahe-de ko-u-u.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / ko*u*u*yor*lar )
The children are running about in the garden.

26

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Bu tarla-da ko-ul-maz. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(bu / tar*la*da / ko*ul*maz )
It is impossible to run in this field.) (Subject complement)

kuru:
iek-ler-im-den baz-lar- kuru-du. (Intransitive)
(i*ek*le*rim*den / ba:*z*la*r / ku*ru*du )
Some of my flowers dried.
Yaz-n baz nehir-ler kuru-ur. (Intransitive)
(ya*zn / ba:*z / ne*hir*ler / ku*rur )
Some rivers dry up in summer.
Kzgn gne iek-ler-im-i kurut-tu.
(kz*gn / g*ne / i*ek*le*ri*mi / ku*rut*tu )
The hot sun dried my flowers. (Transitive)
Sa--/n/ bana kurut-tu. (Causative)
(sa**n / ba*na / ku*rut*tu )
She got me to dry her hair.
Islak ceket-in kurut-ul-du. (Passive)
(s*lak / ce*ke*tin / ku*ru*tul*du )
Your wet coat has been dried.

oku:
Osmann baba-/s/ gazete-/s/i-/n/i oku-u.yor. (Transitive)
(os*ma*nn / ba*ba*s / ga*ze*te*si*ni / o*ku*yor )
Osmans father is reading his newspaper.
Mektup-u bana okut-tu.
(mek*tu*bu / ba*na / o*kut*tu )
He made (had) me read the letter. (Causative)
Btn hikye bana okut-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(b*tn / hi*k:*ye / ba*na / o*ku*tul*du )
I was made to read all the story.
u ana kadar on sayfa oku-un-du. (Passive)
(u / a:*na / ka*dar / on / say*fa / o*kun*du )
Ten pages have been read up to now.

27

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


onar:
Musluk-u sz-an bir boru-/y/u onar-.yor. (Transitive)
(mus*luk*u / s*zan / bir / bo*ru*yu / o*na*r*yor )
The plumber is repairing (fixing) a leaking pipe.
Bu sz-an boru-/y/u onart-ma.l-sn. (Causative)
(bu / s*zan / bo*ru*yu / o*nart*ma*l*sn )
You must have this leaking pipe repaired.
Araba-am henz onar-l-ma-d. (Passive)
(a*ra*bam / he*nz / o*na*rl*ma*d )
My car hasnt been repaired yet.
Anne-em krk vazo-/y/u bana onart-t. (Causative)
(an*nem / k*rk / va*zo*yu / ba*na / o*nart*t )
Mother made me fix the broken vase.

otur:
Onlar bir bank-ta otur-u.yor-lar. (Intransitive)
(on*lar / bir / bank*ta / o*tu*ru*yor*lar )
They are sitting on a bench.
Kk ocuk-u masa-/y/a oturt-tu. (Causative)
(k*k / o*cu*u / ma*sa*ya / o*turt*tu )
He made (helped) the little boy sit on the table.
Ke-/y/e oturt-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(o~/ k*e*ye / o*tur*tul*du )
He was made to sit in the corner.
Hl otur-u-u,yor-sun.uz. (Reciprocal) (Complaint)
(h:*l: / o*tu*ru*u*yor*su*nuz )
You are still sitting and doing nothing.
Kadkyde otur-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(ka*d*ky*de / o*tu*ru*yor )
He lives in Kadky.
Bu ev-de otur-ul-maz. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(bu / ev*de / o*tu*rul*maz )
It is impossible to live in this house. (Subject complement)

28

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


oyna:
ocuk-lar bahe-de basketbol oyna-u.yor-lar. (Transitive)
(o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / bas*ket*bol / oy*nu*yor*lar )
The children are playing basketball in the garden.
Ko onu ma-ta oynat-ma-d. (Causative)
(ko / o*nu / ma*ta / oy*nat*ma*d )
The coach didnt let him play in the match.
Ma-ta oynat-l-ma-d. (Passive causative)
(ma*ta / oy*na*tl*ma*d)
He wasnt allowed to play in the match.
Onlar oyna-a-.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(on*lar / oy*na**yor*lar )
They are carrying on a love affair.
Sahne-de oyna-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(sah*ne*de / oy*nu*yor )
She is belly dancing on the stage.
renci-ler bir piyes oyna-ma-/y/a karar ver-di-ler. (Transitive)
(*ren*ci*ler / bir / pi*yes / oy*na*ma*ya / ka*rar / ver*di*ler )
The students decided to perform a play.
Bu saha-da futbol oyna-an-maz.
(bu / sa:*ha*da / fut*bol / oy*nan*maz )
Football cant be played on this field.

l:
O, 1920de l-d. (Intransitive)
(o~/ bin / do*kuz / yz / yir*mi*de / l*d )
He died in 1920.
Onu yanl-lk-la ldr-d. (Transitive)
(o*nu / yan*l*lk*la / l*dr*d )
He killed him by mistake.
O-/n/u o-/n/a ldrt-t. (Causative)
(o*nu~ / o*na / l*drt*t )
She made him kill her.

29

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


O, ona ldrt-l-d. (Passive causative)
(o~/ o*na / l*dr*tl*d )
He was made to kill her.
Vatan iin l-n-r. (Reflexive)
(va*tan / i*in / *l*nr )
One can sacrifice himself for his country.

rt:
Koltuk-lar- toz-dan koru-mak iin rt-t. (Transitive)
(kol*tuk*la*r / toz*dan / ko*ru*mak / i*in / rt*t )
She covered the armchairs to protect them from dust.
Mobilya-/y/ bana rttr-d. (Causative)
(mo*bil*ya*y / ba*na / rt*tr*d )
She made me cover the furniture.
Duvar-lar boya-an-ma-dan nce btn mobilya rt-l-m-t. (Passive)
(du*var*lar / bo*yan*ma*dan / n*ce / b*tn / mo*bil*ya / r*tl*m*t )
All the furniture had been covered before the walls were painted.
Ben-i gr-n.ce rt-n-d. (Reflexive)
(be*ni / g*rn*ce / r*tn*d )
She put on her scarf when she saw me.
She covered her head with a scarf when she saw me.

t:
Ku-lar t-er. (Liaison) (Intransitive)
(ku*la*r*ter ) (ku*lar / *ter )
Birds sing.
Hakem ddk--/n/ t-tr-d (al*d). (Transitive)
(ha*kem / d*d**n / al*d )
The referee blew his whistle.
O gzel ark syle-er.
( o / g*zel / ar*k / sy*ler )
She sings beautifully. (Turkish transitive; English intransitive).
Ddk-m- t-trt-t. (Causative
(d*d**m / t*trt*t )
He made (let) me blow my whistle.)

30

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Ddk al-n-d. (Passive)
(d*dk / a*ln*d )
The whistle has been blown.
Ku-lar t--.yor. (Reciprocal)
(ku*lar / *t**yor )
The birds are singing. (Intransitive)
Horoz-lar t-.yor. (Intransitive)
(ho*roz*lar / *t*yor )
The roosters are crowing. (Intransitive)

v:
O ben-i v-d. (Transitive)
(o / be*ni / v*d )
He praised me.
O, kz karde-i-/n/i bana v-drt-t. (Causative)
(o~/ kz*kar*de*i*ni / ba*na / v*drt*t )
He made me praise his sister.
O, karde-i tarafndan ok v-l-r. (Passive).
(o~ / kz*kar*de*i / ta*ra*fn*dan / ok / *v*lr )
He is praised a lot by his sister.
Boyuna v-n-.yor. (Reflexive) (He is praising himself.)
(o / bo*yu*na / *v*n*yor )
He is always boasting. (Intransitive)

patla:
Bir su boru-/s/u patla-d ve ev su/y/-la dol-du. (Intransitive)
(bir / su / bo*ru*su / pat*la*d~/ ve / ev / suy*la / dol*du )
A water pipe burst, and the house filled with water.
Bir bomba patla-d. (Intransitive)
(bir / bom*ba / pat*la*d )
A bomb exploded.
Bir bomba patlat-t-lar. (Transitive)
(bir / bom*ba / pat*lat*t*lar )
They exploded a bomb.

31

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Bomba-/y/, ona patla-at-tr-d-lar. (Causative)
(bom*ba*y / o*na / pat*lat*tr*d*lar )
They made him explode the bomb.
Bomba ona patla-at-tr-l-d. (Passive causative)
(bom*ba / o*na / pat*lat*t*rl*d )
He was made to explode the bomb.
Bomba onun tarafndan patlatl-d. (Passive)
(bom*ba / o*nun / ta*ra*fn*dan / pat*la*tl*d )
The bomb was exploded by him.

pi:
Yemek pi-i.yor. (Intransitive)
(ye*mek / pi*i*yor )
The meal is cooking.
Anne-em mutfak-ta yemek pi-ir-i.yor.
(an*nem / mut*fak*ta / ye*mek / pi*i*ri*yor )
Mother is cooking in the kitchen. (Turkish is transitive; English is
intransitive.)
Anne-em mutfak-ta bana yemek piirt-ti. (Causative)
(an*nem / mut*fak*ta / ba*na / ye*mek / pi*irt*ti )
Mother made me cook in the kitchen.
Yemek pi-ir-il-i.yor. (Passive)
(ye*mek / pi*i*ri*li*yor) (ye*mek / pi*i*ri*li*yor )
The meal is being cooked.

sakla:
ocuk, oyuncak-lar--/n/ dolap-n arka-/s/-/n/a sakla-d. (Transitive)
(o*cuk / o*yun*cak*la*r*n / do*la*bn / ar*ka*s*na / sak*la*d )
The boy hid his toys behind the cupboard.
Jack, yrtk gmlek-i-/n/i bana sakla-at-t. (Causative)
(jack~ / yr*tk / gm*le*i*ni / ba*na / sak*lat*t )
Jack made me hide his torn shirt.
al-n-m mal-lar bir maara-/y/a sakla-an-d. (Passive)
(a*ln*m / mal*lar / bir / ma*a*ra*ya / sak*lan*d )
The stolen goods were hidden in a cave.

32

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Kedi koltuk-un arka-/s/-/n/a sakla-an-d. Reflexive) (It hid itself.)
(ke*di / kol*tu*un / ar*ka*s*na / sak*lan*d )
The cat hid behind the armchair.

sark:
Duvar-dan sark-t. (Intransitive)
(du*var*dan / sark*t)
He hung down the wall.
Sepet-i pencere-den sark-t-t.
(se*pe*ti / pen*ce*re*den / sar*kt*t )
He let the basket hang down the window.
(Turkish is transitive; English is causative.)
Sepet-i bana pencere-den sark-t-tr-d. (Causative)
(se*pe*ti / ba*na / pen*ce*re*den / sar*kt*tr*d )
He made me hang down the basket from the window.
Sepet pencere-den sark-t-l-d. (Passive)
(se*pet / pen*ce*re*den / sar*k*tl*d )
The basket was allowed to hang down the window.

sars:
Patlama yer-i sars-t. (Transitive)
(pat*la*ma / ye*ri / sars*t )
The explosion shook the ground.
Yer sars-l-d.
(yer / sar*sl*d )
The ground was shaken. The ground shook.
(Turkish and English are both passive and reflexive.)

sat:
Eski araba-/s/-/n/ sat-t. (Transitive)
(es*ki / a*ra*ba*s*n / sat*t )
He has sold his old car.
Eski araba-/s/-/n/ bana sat-tr-d. (Causative)
(es*ki / a*ra*ba*s*n / ba*na / sat*tr*d )
He made me sell his old car.

33

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


(Ben-im) eski araba-am sat-l-d.
(es*ki / a*ra*bam / sa*tl*d )
My old car has been sold. (Passive)

sev:
Sen ben-i sev-me-i.yor-sun. (Transitive)
(sen / be*ni / sev*mi*yor*sun )
You dont love me.
O bana kendi-/s/i-/n/i sev-dir-di. (Causative)
(o / ba*na / ken*di*si*ni / sev*dir*di )
She made me love her.
O herkes tarafndan sev-il-ir. (Passive)
(o / her*kes / ta*ra*fn*dan / se*vi*lir )
She is loved by everybody.
Hep-im-iz sev-in-di-ik. Hepimiz mutlu ol-du-uk.
(he*pi*miz / se*vin*dik )
We all became happy. (Mutlu and happy are subject complements.)
Onlar sev-i-i.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(on*lar / se*vi*i*yor*lar )
They are in love with each other. (They are carrying on a love affair.)

seyret:
Boyuna televizyon seyret.i.yor. (Transitive) (Complaint)
(bo*yu*na / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor )
She is always watching television.
Anne-em bana televizyon izlet-tir-me-i.yor. (Causative)
(an*nem / ba*na / te*le*viz*yon / iz*let*tir*mi*yor )
Mother doesnt let me watch TV.
Byle televizyon program-lar- seyret-il-me-me.li. (Passive)
(by*le / te*le*viz*yon / prog*ram*la*r / sey*re*dil*me*me*li )
Such TV programs shouldnt be watched.
Byle televizyon program-lar- ocuk-lar-a seyret-tir-il-me-me.li.
(by*le / te*le*viz*yon / prog*ram*la*r / o*cuk*la*ra / sey*ret*ti*ril*me*me*li )
Children shouldnt be allowed to watch such TV programs. (Passive)

34

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Baz televizyon program-lar- seyret-me-/y/e (izlenmeye) de-mez.
(ba*z / te*le*viz*yon / prog*ram*la*r / sey*ret*me*ye / de*mez )
Some TV programs are not worth watching.

sinirlen:
Onun ne syle-dik-i-/n/i iit-in.ce sinirlen-di-im. (Intransitive)
(o*nun / ne / sy*le*di*i*ni / i*i*tin*ce / si*nir*len*dim )
I became angry when I heard what he said.
Kz karde-im ben-i sinirlen-dir-di. (Transitive)
(kz*kar*de*im / be*ni / si*nir*len*dir*di )
My sister made me mad.(angry).
Sinirlen-dir-il-di-im. (Passive)
(si*nir*len*di*ril*dim )
I was irritated.

sou:
Hava sou-du. (Sou is an intransitive verb.)
(ha*va / so*u*du )
It became (turned) cold. (Cold is a subject complement.)
-me-den nce limonata-an- sout. (Transitive)
(i*me*den / n*ce / li*mo*na*ta*n / so*ut )
Cool your lemonade before you drink it.
Sou-du-um. (Intransitive) (Idiomatic)
(so*u*dum )
I have lost my interest or desire.

soy:
Patates soy-u.yor. (Transitive)
(pa*ta*tes / so*yu*yor )
She is peeling potatoes.
Elma-lar soy-ul-u.yor. (Passive)
(el*ma*lar / so*yu*lu*yor )
The apples are being peeled.
Patates-ler-i hep bana soy-dur-u.yor. (Causative) (Complaint)
(pa*ta*tes*le*ri / hep / ba*na / soy*du*ru*yor )
She is always making me peel the potatoes.

35

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Banyo yap-tr-mak iin bebek-i-/n/i soy-du. (Transitive)
(ban*yo / yap*tr*mak / i*in / be*be*i*ni / soy*du )
She undressed her baby to bath.
Dn gece bir banka soy-du-lar. (Transitive)
(dn / ge*ce / bir / ban*ka / soy*du*lar )
They robbed a bank last night.
Dn gece bir banka soy-ul-du. (Passive)
(dn / ge*ce / bir / ban*ka / so*yul*du )
A bank was robbed last night.
Soy-un-u.yor. (She is undressing herself) (Reflexive)
(so*yu*nu*yor )
She is undressing.

syle:
Bana bir ey syle-me-di. (Transitive)
(ba*na / bir / ey / sy*le*me*di)
He didnt tell me anything.
Ne iste-dik-in-i bana syle. (Transitive)
(ne / is*te*di*i*ni / ba*na / sy*le )
Tell me what you want.
Ona herey-i sylet-ti-ler. (Causative)
(o*na / her*e*yi / sy*let*ti*ler )
They made him tell everything.
Byle ey-ler syle-en-mez. (Passive)
(by*le / ey*ler / sy*len*mez )
Such things are never mentioned.
O boyuna syle-en-i.yor (homurdan-.yor). (Reflexive)
(o / bo*yu*na / sy*le*ni*yor )
He is always grumbling.) (*He is talking to himself.)
O-/n/a, o-/n/u tan-dk--/n/ syle-di. (Transitive)
(o*na ~/ o*nu / ta*n*d**n / sy*le*di )
He told him that he knew her.
Polis ona herey-i sylet-ti. (Causative)
(po*lis / o*na / her*e*yi / sy*let*ti )
The police made him tell everything.

36

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Ona herey sylet-il-di. (Passive causative)
(o*na / her*ey / sy*le*til*di )
He was made to tell everything.
Bana herey syle-en-di. (Passive)
(ba*na / her*ey / sy*len*di )
I was told everything.

sus:
Sus-tu. (Intransitive)
(sus*tu )
He stopped talking or crying.
retmen renci-ler-i sus-tur-du. (Causative)
(*ret*men / *ren*ci*le*ri / sus*tur*du )
The teacher made the students stop talking.
O sus-tur-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(o / sus*tu*rul*du )
He was made to stop talking or crying.
Bu kpek havla-ma-dan dur-a.maz. (Intransitive)
(bu / k*pek / hav*la*ma*dan / du*ra*maz )
This dog cant stop barking.
Sus-ma-/y/a.cak-m. (mpolite refusal)
(sus*ma*ya*ca*m)
I wont stop talkng.

spr:
Kuru yaprak-lar- bahe-den spr-d-m. (Transitive)
(ku*ru / yap*rak*la*r / bah*e*den / s*pr*dm )
I have swept the dry leaves out of the garden.
Anne-em bahe-/y/i bana sprt-t. (Causative)
(an*nem / bah*e*yi / ba*na / s*prt*t )
Mother made me sweep the garden.
Oturma oda-/s/ henz spr-l-me-di. (Passive)
(o*tur*ma / o*da*s / he*nz / s*p*rl*me*di )
The living room hasnt been swept yet.

37

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


sr:
O araba-/s/-/n/ dikkat-li sr-er. (Transitive)
(o~ / a*ra*ba*s*n / dik*kat*li / s*rer )
She drives her car carefully.
(Ben) tarla-am- sonbahar-da sr-dr-r-m. (Causative)
(Tar*la*m / son*ba*har*da / sr*d*r*rm )
I have my field ploughed in the autumn.
Tarla-lar k-n sr-l-mez. (Passive)
(tar*la*lar / k*n / s*rl*mez )
Fields arent ploughed in winter.

ssle:
ocuklar Christmas iin oturma oda-/s/-/n/ ssle-di. (Transitive)
(o*cuk*lar / kris*mas / i*in / o*tur*ma / o*da*s*n / ss*le*di )
The children decorated the sitting room for Christmas.
Oda ssle-en-i.yor (Dekore ediliyor). (Passive)
(o*da / ss*le*ni*yor )
The room is being decorated.
Yeni ev-im.iz-i dekore et-tir-e.cek-iz. (Causative)
(ye*ni / e*vi*mi*zi / de*ko*re / et*ti*re*ce*iz )
We are going to have our new house decorated.
Ssle-en-i.yor. (Reflexive)
(ss*le*ni*yor )
She is putting on her best dress and doing her make-up.

a:
Onun syle-dik-i sz-e sa-t-m.
(o*nun / sy*le*di*i / s*ze / a*tm )
I was astonished by what he said.
(Turkish is intransitive; English is passive.)

art:
Syle-dik-i sz ben-i art-t. (Transitive)
(sy*le*di*i / sz / be*ni / a*rt*t )
What he said surprised me.

38

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Snav-da sor-ul-an soru-lar ben-i art-t. (Transitive.)
(s*nav*da / so*ru*lan / so*ru*lar / be*ni / a*rt*t )
The questions asked in the exam confused me.
art-l-d-m. (Passive)
(a*r*tl*dm )
I was confused.

tara:
Sa--/n/ tara-.yor. (transitive)
(sa**n / ta*r*yor)
She is combing her hair.
Sa--/n/ anne-/s/i-/n/e tara-at-t. (Causative)
(sa**n / an*ne*si*ne / ta*rat*t )
She got her mother to comb her hair.
Sa- tara-an-.yor. (Passive)
(sa* / ta*ra*n*yor )
Her hair is being combed.
Tara-an-.yor. (Reflexive)
(ta*ra*n*yor )
She is combing.

tart:
Yal adam uyan-r uyan-maz altn-lar--/n/ tart-t. (Transitive)
(ya*l / a*dam / u*ya*nr / u*yan*maz ~/ al*tn*la*r*n / tart*t )
The old man weighed his gold coins as soon as he woke up.
unlar- tart-tr. (Causative)
(un*la*r / tart*tr )
Have these things weighed.
Tart--.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(tar*t**yor*lar )
They are discussing. They are having a row.

ta:

39

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Nehir ta-t. (Intransitive)
(ne*hir / ta*t )
The river overflowed.
St ta-t. (Intransitive)
(st / ta*t )
The milk boiled over.
St- ta-r-ma. (Causative)
(s*t / ta*r*ma )
Dont let the milk boil over.

ta:
Baz bcek-ler hastalk ta-r. (transitive)
(ba*z / b*cek*ler / has*ta*lk / ta*r )
Some insects carry disease.
Bebek-i-/n/i bana ta-t-t. (Causative)
(be*be*i*ni / ba*na / ta*t*t )
She made me carry her baby.
Ar yk-ler kamyon-la ta-n-r. (Passive)
(a*r / yk*ler / kam*yon*la / ta**nr )
Heavy loads are carried by lorries.
Ta-n-.yor-uz. (Reflexive) (*We are carrying ourselves.)
(ta**n*yo*ruz )
We are moving house.

temizle:
Anne-em buzdolab-/n/ temizle-i.yor. (Transitive)
(an*nem / buz*do*la*b*n / te*miz*li*yor )
Mother is cleaning the refrigerator.
Anne-em ev-i temizle-et-e.cek. (Causative)
(an*nem / e*vi / te*miz*le*te*cek)
Mother is going to have the house cleaned.
Snf temizle-en-i.yor. (Passive)
(s*nf / te*miz*le*ni*yor )
The classroom is being cleaned.

40

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


tercih et:
Kz-m, televizyon seyret-me-/y/i dev yap-ma-/y/a tercih et-er.
(k*zm~ / te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*me*yi ~ / *dev / yap*ma*ya /
ter*ci:*he*der ) (Liaison)
My daughter prefers watching TV to doing her homework.
Genellik-le kalabalk ehirler-de kk araba-lar tercih et-il-ir. (Passive)
(ge*nel*lik*le~ / ka*la*ba*lk / e*hir*ler*de~ / k*k / a*ra*ba*lar /
ter*ci:*he*di*lir ) (Liaison)
Compact cars are generally preferred in crowded cities.

unut:
Ik-lar- sndr-me-/y/i unut-ma. (Transitive)
(*k*la*r / sn*dr*me*yi / u*nut*ma )
Dont forget to turn off the lights.
Mektup-u atma-/y/ unut-tu. (Transitive)
(mek*tu*bu / at*ma*y / u*nut*tu )
He forgot to post the letter.
la--/n/ al-dk--/n/ unut-tu. (Transitive)
(i*l*c*n / al*d**n / u*nut*tu )
He forgot taking his medicine.
Mutlu gn-ler hi unut-ul-maz. (Passive)
(mut*lu / gn*ler / hi / u*nu*tul*maz )
Happy days are never forgotten.
Bana onun doum gn--/n/ unut-tur-ma. (Causative)
(ba*na~ / o*nun / do*um / g*n*n / u*nut*tur*ma )
Dont let me forget her birthday.

uy:
Bu ceket bana uy-ma-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(bu / ce*ket / ba*na / uy*mu*yor )
This coat doesnt fit (become) me. (Transitive)
Gmlek-in sana iyi uy-u.yor (yakyor). (Intransitive)
(gm*le*in / sa*na / i*yi / u*yu*yor )
Your shirt fits (becomes) you well.

41

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


uyu:
Ml ml uyu-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(m*l / m*l / u*yu*yor )
She is sleeping soundly.
Bir saat-tir uyu-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(bir / sa*at*tir / u*yu*yor )
He has been sleeping for an hour.
Bebek-i yarm saat nce uyu-ut-tu-um. (Causative)
(be*be*i / ya*rm / sa*at / n*ce / u*yut*tum )
I had the baby sleep half an hour ago.
Bebek daha yeni uyu-ut-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(be*bek / da*ha / ye*ni / u*yu*tul*du )
The baby has just been made to sleep.
Bu grlt-de uyu-un-maz. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(bu / g*rl*t*de ~/ u*yun*maz )
It is impossible to sleep in such a noise.
Saat 11de uyu-du-um. (Intransitive)
(sa*at / on*bir*de / u*yu*dum )
I fell asleep at 11.
Daha uyu-ma-d. (Intransitive)
(da*ha / u*yu*ma*d )
He hasnt fallen asleep yet.

tle:
Pantalon-um-u tle-di-in mi? (Transitive)
(pan*to*lo*nu*mu / *t*le*din / mi)
Have you ironed my trousers?
Sabah-tan beri t yap-.yor.
(sa*bah*tan / be*ri / *t / ya*p*yor )
She has been ironing since morning.
(Turkish is transitive, English is intransitive.)
Giysi-ler-i-/n/i hep kzkarde-i-/n/e tlet-i.yor. (Causative)
(giy*si*le*ri*ni / hep / kz*kar*de*i*ne / *t*le*ti*yor )
He is always making his sister iron his clothes.

42

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Gmlek-ler-in tle-en-i.yor. (Passive)
(gm*lek*le*rin / *t*le*ni*yor )
Your shirts are being ironed.

z:
it-tik-im sz-ler ben-i z-d.
(i*it*ti*im / sz*ler / be*ni / z*d )
What I heard made me sorry.
z-l-d-m. (Reflexive)
(*zl*dm )
I became sorry. (sorry is subject complement)
z-l-me. (Reflexive)
(*zl*me )
Dont worry.

yakala:
Kaleci top-u yakala-d. (Transitive)
(ka*le*ci / to*pu / ya*ka*la*d )
The goal-keeper caught the ball.
Son-u/n/-da tavan yakala-an-d. (Passive)
(so*nun*da / tav*an / ya*ka*lan*d )
The rabbit was caught at last.
retmen ben-i kopya ek-er.ken yakala-d. (Transitive)
(*ret*men / be*ni / kop*ya / e*ker*ken / ya*ka*la*d )
The teacher caught me cheating.
Halk hrsz- polis-e yakala-at-t. (Causative)
(halk~/ hr*s*z / po*li*se / ya*ka*lat*t )
The people had (helped) the police catch the thief.

yan:
Kuru odun kolay yan-ar. (Intransitive)
(ku*ru / o*dun / ko*lay / ya*nar )
Dry wood burns easily.

43

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Mutfak-ta yemek piir-ir-ken parmak-lar--/n/ yak-t. (Transitive)
(mut*fak*ta / ye*mek / pi*i*rir*ken / par*mak*la*r*n / yak*t )
She burnt her fingers while cooking in the kitchen.
Tepe-de bir ate yak-t-lar. (Transitive)
(te*pe*de / bir / a*te / yak*t*lar )
They lit a fire on the hill.
Anne-em mum-lar- bana yaktr-d. (Causative)
(an*nem / mum*la*r / ba*na / yak*tr*d )
Mother had me light the candles.
Yak-n-.yor. (Reflexive)
(ya*k*n*yor )
She is complaining. (Intransitive)

yap:
Zarf-a pul yap-tr-ma-/y/ unut-tu-um. (Transitive)
(zar*fa / pul / ya*p*tr*ma*y / u*nut*tum )
I forgot to stick a stamp on the envelope.
Bu pul yap-ma-.yor. (Intransitive)
(bu / pul / ya*p*m*yor )
This stamp doesnt stick.
Anne-em bana yatak oda-am-n kap-/s/-/n/a bir uyar yap-trt-t.
(an*nem / ba*na / ya*tak / o*da*mn / ka*p*s*na / bir / u*ya*r / ya*p*trt*t )
Mother made me stick a notice on my bedroom door. (Causative)
Duvar-lar-a birey yap-tr-l-ma-sn. (Passive)
(du*var*la*ra / bir*ey / ya*p*t*rl*ma*sn )
Nothing should be stuck on the walls.

yat:
Saat 11de yat-t-m. (Intransitive)
(sa*at / on*bir*de / yat*tm )
I went to bed at 11 p.m.
Anne-ler-i onlar- saat 10da yat-r-r. (Causative)
(an*ne*le*ri / on*la*r / sa*at / on*da / ya*t*rr )
Their mother makes them go to bed at 10 p.m.

44

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Bebek-i yatak--/n/a yatr-d. (Transitive)
(be*be*i / ya*ta**na / ya*tr*d )
She laid the baby in her bed.
Onu gr-dk-m-de yer-de yat-.yor-du. (Intransitive)
(o*nu / gr*d*m*de / yer*de / ya*t*yor*du )
When I saw her, she was lying on the floor.
Yorgun-um. Yat-ma.l-/y/m. (Intransitive)
(yor*gu*num) (yat*ma*l*ym )
I am tired. I must lie down.

yaz:
Mary bir mektup yaz-.yor. (Transitive)
(ma*ry / bir / mek*tup / ya*z*yor )
Mary is writing a letter.
rertmen snav-da biz-e bir kompozisyon yaz-dr-d. (Causative)
(*ret*men / bi*ze / s*nav*da / bir / kom*po*zis*yon / yaz*dr*d )
The teacher made us write a composition in the examination.
Mektup yaz-l-d bile. (Passive)
(mek*tup / ya*zl*d / bi*le )
The letter has already been written.

ye:
Saat kata akam yemek-i ye-er-sin.iz? (Transitive)
(sa*at / ka*ta / ak*am / ye*me*i / yer*si*niz )
What time do you eat dinner?
Bebek-i ye-dir-i.yor. (Transitive)
(be*be*i / ye*di*ri*yor )
She is feeding the baby.
Bu hamburger yen-(il)-mez. (Passive) (It cant be eaten.)
(bu / ham*bur*ger / yen*mez )
This hamburger is not edible. (Edible is a subject complement.)
Akam yemek-i yen-i.yor. (Passive)
(ak*am / ye*me*i / ye*ni*yor )
Dinner is being eaten.

45

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Anne-em bana iki tabak sebze ye-dir-di. (Causative)
(an*nem / ba*na / i*ki / ta*bak / seb*ze / ye*dir*di )
Mother made me eat two plates of vegetables.

yka:
Kz karde-im bulak-lar- yka-.yor. (Transitive)
(kz*kar*de*im / bu*la*k*la*r / y*k*yor )
My sister is washing the dishes.
Annem kk karde-im-e yemek-ten nce el-ler-i-/n/i ykat-r. (Causative)
(an*nem / k*k / kar*de*i*me / ye*mek*ten / n*ce / el*le*ri*ni / y*ka*tr )
Mother makes my little brother wash his hands before lunch.
Araba yka-an-.yor. (Passive)
(a*ra*ba / y*ka*n*yor )
The car is being washed.
Jack yka-an-.yor. (Reflexive)
(jack / y*ka*n*yor)
Jack is having a bath.

yor:
Btn gn bahe-de al-mak ben-i yor-du. (Transitive)
(b*tn / gn / bah*e*de / a*l*mak / be*ni / yor*du )
Working in the garden all day long tired me.
Yor-ul-du-um. (Reflexive) (I feel myself tired)
(yo*rul*dum )
I have got tired. (I feel tired.) (Tired is subject complement.)
Sen-in sama sapan soru-lar-n-dan bk-t-m. (Intransitive)
(se*nin / sa*ma / sa*pan / so*ru*la*rn*dan / bk*tm )
I am tired of your nonsense questions.

yksel:
Balon gk-te yksel-i.yor. (Intransitive)
(ba*lon / gk*te / yk*se*li*yor )
The balloon is rising in the sky.
iddet-li yamur-dan sonra nehir yksel-di. (Intransitive)
(id*det*li / ya*mur*dan / son*ra / ne*hir / yk*sel*di )
The river rose after the heavy rainfall.

46

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Gne dou-dan do-ar ve bat-dan bat-ar. (Intransitive)
(g*ne / do*u*dan / do*ar / ve / ba*t*dan / ba*tar )
The sun rises in the east, and sets in the west.
Soru-/y/a cevap ver-mek iin el-i-/n/i kaldr-d. (Transitive)
(so*ru*ya / ce*vap / ver*mek / i*in / e*li*ni / kal*dr*d )
He raised his hand to answer the question.
Genellik-le gne do-ma-dan kalk-ar-m. (Intransitive)
(ge*nel*lik*le / g*ne / do*ma*dan / kal*ka*rm )
I usually rise before the sun rises.

yr:
Ona rasla-dk-m-da cadde-de yr-.yor-du-um. (Intransitive)
(o*na / ras*la*d*m*da / cad*de*de / y*r*yor*dum )
I was walking along the street when I met him.
Otobs-e yeti-mek iin ben-i hz-la yr-t-t. (Causative)
(o*to*b*se / ye*ti*mek / i*in / be*ni / hz*la / y*rt*t )
She made me walk fast to catch the bus.
Hzla yr-t-l-d-m. (Passive causative)
(hz*la / y*r*tl*dm )
I was made to walk fast.
Bu yolda yr-n-mez. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(bu / yol*da / y*rn*mez )
It is impossible to walk in this street.
yz:
Anne-em deniz-de yz-.yor. (Intransitive)
(an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor )
Mother is swimming in the sea.
Onlar gl-de model kayk-lar yz-dr-.yor-lar. (Transitive)
(on*lar / gl*de / mo*del / ka*yk*lar / yz*d*r*yor*lar )
They are sailing model boats on the lake.
Kpek-i-/n/i gl-de yz-dr-d. (Causative)
(k*pe*i*ni / gl*de / yz*dr*d )
He made (let) his dog swim in the lake.

47

VERB FRAMES IN TURKISH AND THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS


Frtna var-ken deniz-de yz-l-mez. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(fr*t*na / var*ken / de*niz*de / y*zl*mez )
It is impossible to swim in the sea when there is a storm.
Snav-lar- ge-mez-se-em baba-am deri-im-i yz-e.cek. (Transitive)
(s*nav*la*r / ge*mez*sem / ba*bam / de*ri*mi / y*ze*cek)
My father will skin me if I don't pass the examinations.

48