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Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of

Wisconsin - Green Bay

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This method approximates folds as a series of circular arcs. This

method was published by H.G. Busk in 1929, so it is sometimes

called the Busk Method.

1. Given the two

dips shown, how

do we

approximate the

fold as circular

arcs? We cannot

assume the

measurements

are on the same

bed - they almost

certainly are not.

2. The problem is

to find concentric

circles tangent to

the two dip

measurements.

3. Radii of circles

are always

perpendicular to

the tangent

where the radius

hits the circle.

4. Therefore, we

construct

perpendiculars to

each dip, and the

intersection of

the two

perpendiculars is

the center of the

desired arcs.

measurements and construct the arcs for each. The arcs are

bounded by the perpendiculars for each pair of dip

measurements.

A Common Problem

1. It's quite

common in this

method for

perpendiculars to

dip

measurements to

intersect far off

the diagram.

2. Locate the

bisector of the

angle between

the

perpendiculars.

One way is to

construct lines

parallel to each

side the same

distance in, so

that the lines

intersect. Then

bisect that angle.

3. From each dip

datum, draw a

line perpendicular

to the bisector

and extend it to

the opposite side.

This locates the

other end of the

arc.

4. Construct the

dips on opposite

sides of the

sector. Dips along

any one side of

the sector are all

equal and

parallel.

5. If you extend

the dips in to the

bisector, the arcs

must lie within

the yellow

triangles.

6. Sketch the

arcs. They will

approximately

bisect the center

line of each

triangle. A good

visual

approximation is

sufficient.

7. The completed

arcs.

8. Data from

adjacent sectors

can be carried

across (tick marks

in red) by

measuring

distances relative

to the already

plotted arcs .

The earth will not fall out of orbit if the arcs in a sector like that

shown above are approximate. What matters most is the end

points of the arc, because they determine relative stratigraphic

position from one side to the other. Within the sector, between

the dip datum points, there is no data, and the arc is only an

approximation to the true (and unknown) exact shape of the fold.

If the dips are exactly equal, then the perpendiculars will be

parallel, and the center will be at infinity. No problem - the "arcs"

become straight lines.

Example

In the example at

left, dip data are

shown. We want

to construct a

cross-section that

satisfies the data.

The stratigraphic

units are colored

here but will not

be colored for

most of the

remaining

diagrams. It is

often

better not to

consider

stratigraphy until

after the crosssection is drawn.

center for

concentric circles

tangent to dips 1

and 2.

All the circles

tangent to dip 1

have their centers

on a line

perpendicular to

dip 1. All the

circles tangent to

dip 2 have their

centers on a line

perpendicular to

dip 2

Therefore, the

intersection C12

is the center of

concentric circles

tangent both to

dip 1 and to dip 2.

Using C12 as a

center, draw arcs

tangent to dips 1

and 2 as shown.

Draw the arcs

only between the

two

perpendiculars.

C23, the center of

concentric circles

tangent to dips 2

and 3. You

already have a

line perpendicular

to dip 2, so you

only need to draw

a line

perpendicular to

dip 3.

Note that, as

often happens,

the center is off

the diagram.

Draw the arcs

tangent to dips 2

and 3. Again,

draw them only

between the two

perpendiculars.

We can now

exchange

information with

sector 1-2.

Extend the arc

from dip 1 into

sector 2-3, using

C23 as a center

(lower red arc).

Extend the arc

from dip 3 into

sector 1-2, using

C12 as a center

(upper red arc).

In general, as we

complete the

cross-section, we

will extend data

from one sector

to the next like

this.

We can now

construct center

C34 by drawing a

perpendicular to

dip 4. We already

have the

perpendicular to

dip 3.

We extend the

arcs from sector

2-3 into sector 34 as shown.

Note that the arc

that starts at dip

2 passes very

close to dip 4. We

don't need an arc

through every

dip, even though

we may use that

dip to construct a

center of

curvature. So we

won't bother

drawing an arc for

dip 4.

Construct center

C45 by drawing a

perpendicular to

dip 5. We already

have the

perpendicular to

dip 4.

Extend the arcs

from sector 3-4

into sector 4-5 as

shown.

Note that the arc

that starts at dip

1 passes very

close to dip 5.

Again, we need

not bother

drawing an arc for

dip 4.

Note that center C45 lies very near dip measurement 4. This is

purely coincidental and has no significance.

Sector 4-5 presents a problem. The arc from dip 2 passes just

about through C45, and the arc from dip 3 passes on the opposite

side of C45 than does the arc from dip 1. When concentric folds

have tight curvature, something has to give in the middle. If an

arc passes on the wrong side of the center of curvature, do not

draw it.

Construct center

C56 by drawing a

perpendicular to

dip 6. We already

have the

perpendicular to

dip 5.

Note that the

intersection is

now beneath the

surface. This is no

problem. It means

the fold is now

concave

downward (an

anticline)

tangent to dip 6

as shown. Since

this point is

stratigraphically

lower than all the

other datum

points, we

continue the arc

back through all

the other sectors

as well (shown in

red).

Construct arcs to

connect with all

the previouslyconstructed arcs

as shown in red.

Sectors 6-7, 7-8, 9-9 and 9-10 are handled the same way, so the

remaining illustrations simply show the results for each sector.

Sector 6-7

completed

Sector 7-8

completed.

Sector 8-9

completed. Since

point 9 falls

between two

already drawn

arcs, there is no

real need to

construct another

arc for it, at least

for now.

Note that centers

C67, C78 and C89

are all close

together. This

simply means the

fold has fairly

uniform curvature

over that interval.

Sector 9-10

completed. Since

point 10 falls very

close to an

already drawn

arc, there is no

real need to

construct another

arc for it.

It is virtually certain when you draw a cross section using strictly

geometric methods that the contacts will not match exactly with

their predicted positions. There are many reasons why not:

Here we have

indicated the

stratigraphy. It is

virtually certain

when you draw a

cross section

using strictly

geometric

methods that the

contacts will not

match exactly

with their

predicted

positions.

What we need to

do now is redraw

the folds so the

cross-section

matches both the

dips and the

stratigraphy.

Here all the

construction has

been removed

and the arcs are

subdued.

Most of the time

you can modify

the fold shapes

by hand to match

the stratigraphy

without too much

trouble. Modified

contacts are in

black.

The only requirement is that the stratigraphy and dips match on

the surface. Be prepared to modify the colors and depart from the

dips below the surface if it's called for. Compare the two diagrams

above to see that this was actually done.

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