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1. What is the radius of a circle inscribed in a rhombus with diagonals of length 10 and 24?

2. Figures 0, 1, 2, and 3 consist of 1, 5, 13 and 25 non-overlapping unit squares respectively. If the pattern

were continued, how many non-overlapping unit squares would there be in figure 100?

J

A

J

A

Figure 0

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

3. In rectangle ABCD, C is trisected by CF and CE, where E is on AB, F is on AD, BE = 6, and AF = 2. Find

area of rectangle ABCD.

D

C

F

2

6

B

E

4. A circle of radius 2 has centre at (2, 0). A circle of radius 1 has centre at (5, 0). A line is tangent to the two

circles at points in the first quadrant. Find the y-intercept of the line.

5. The mid-points of sides of a regular hexagon ABCDEF are joined to form a smaller hexagon. What

fraction of the area of ABCDEF is enclosed by the smaller hexagon?

6. ABCD is a 2 2 square, E is the mid-point of AD, and F is on BE. If CF BE, find the area of the

quadrilateral CDEF.

E

A

D

A

T

I

M

A

7. How many two digit positive integers N have the property that the sum of N and the number obtained by

reversing the order of the digits of N is a perfect square?

8. A circle with centre O is tangent to the co-ordinate axes and to the hypotenuse of the 30 60 90

triangle ABC as shown, where AB = 1. Find the radius of the circle.

470

O

C

60

1 B

MATHEMATICSX

9. A rectangular sheet of sides a and b (a .> b) is folded along its diagonal (as shown). Find the area of the

overlapped region.

b

A

J

A

10. In ABC, AB = 13, BC = 14, and AC = 15. Let D denote the mid-point of BC and let E denote the

intersection of BC with the bisector of BAC. Find area of ADE.

J

A

11. On a large piece of a paper, Anisha creates a rectangular spiral by drawing line segments of lengths (in

cm), of 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, .... as shown. Anishas pen runs out of ink after the total of all the lengths she has

drawn is 3000 cm. What is the length of longest line segment that she draws?

3

1

2

2

1 3

4

12. If [x] denotes the largest integer less than or equal to x, for eg. [2.67] = 2, [3] = 3, [3.19] = 4 etc., then

1 1 1 1 2

1 99

find the value of

.....

2 2 100 2 100

2 100

T

I

13. Let m be an integer such that 1 m 1000. Find the probability of selecting at random an integer m such

that the quadratic equation 6x2 5mx + m2 = 0 has atleast one integer solution.

14. The circle shown is a unit circle centred at the origin. The segment BC is a diameter and C is the point

(1, 0). The angle has measure 30. What is the x-coordinate of the point A?

M

A

C(1, 0)

15. How many positive integers less than one million have all digits equal and are divisible by 9?

16. Find area of a triangle whose sides are 5, 6 and 13 .

17. The graph of |x| + |y| = 4 encloses a region in the plane. What is the area of the region?

18. A circle centred at A with a radius of 1 and a circle centred at B with a radius of 4 are externally tangent.

A third circle is tangent to the first two circles and to one of their common external tangents as shown.

Find the radius of the third circle.

MATHEMATICSX

B

A

471

19. Four positive integers a, b, c and d have a product of 8! (8! = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) and satisfy

ab + a + b = 524

bc + b + c = 146, and

cd + c + d = 104

Find the value of a d.

20. The sum of 18 consecutive positive integers is a perfect square. Find the smallest possible value of this

sum.

21. Build a sequence starting with the first term a1 = 1, the second term a2 = 2 and the nth term

an

an 1 1

; n 3. Find the sum of the sequence to first 1000 terms.

an 2

J

A

J

A

22. Square EFGH is inside square ABCD so that each side of EFGH can be extended to pass through a vertex

of ABCD. Square ABCD has side length

B

E

H

B

C

23. The area of trapezium ABCD is 164 cm2. The altitude is 8 cm, AB = 10 cm, CD = 17 cm. Find BC.

24. The area of XYZ is 8. Points A and B are mid-points of congruent segments XY and XZ. Altitude XC

bisects YZ. Find area of shaded region.

X

T

I

A

Z

C

25. For how many positive integers n does 1 + 2 + .......+ n evenly divide 6n?

Y

M

A

26. How many three-digit numbers satisfy the property that the middle digit is the average of the first and

the last digit?

27. The digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9 are used to form four two-digit prime numbers, with each digit used

exactly once. What is the sum of these four primes?

28. The first term of a number sequence is 2005. Each succeeding term is the sum of the cubes of the digits

of the previous term. What is the 2005th term of the sequence?

29. The positive integers A, B, A B, A + B are all prime numbers. Find the sum of these four primes.

30. How many positive integers n satisfy the following condition :

(130 n)50 > n100 > 2200?

31. A circle is inscribed in a square, then a square is inscribed in this circle, and finally, a circle is inscribed

in this square. What is the ratio of the area of the smaller circle to the area of the larger square?

32. How many 0s occur at the end of the decimal expansion of 100100 100!? (here, n! = 1 2 3 .... n)

472

MATHEMATICSX

1 1 1

.... denote the sum of the reciprocals of the fourth powers of all positive integers,

14 2 4 34

A

1 1 1

and B 4 4 4 .... a similar sum for all odd positive integers. Express

as a fraction.

B

1 3 5

34. Parallel chords in a circle have length 12 and 16, and the distance between them is 7. Another chord is

midway between them. What is its length?

33. Let A

J

A

1 1 1

? (Note that both positive and negative

x y 2

36. What is thesmallest valueof n for which the product (22 1) (32 1) (42 1) ..... (n2 1) is a perfect square?

37. In the given diagram, a circular arc centred at one vertex of a square of side length 4 passes through two

other vertices. A small circle is tangent to the large circle and to two sides of the square. What is the

radius of the small circle?

J

A

38. ABC is an isosceles with AB = AC and BC = 30 cm. Square EFGH, which has a side length of 12 cm, is

inscribed in ABC, as shown. Find area of the AEF.

A

T

I

C

G

H

39. How many times does the numeral 2 appear in a book having page number 1 to 250?

40. Points P, Q, R and S divide the sides of a rectangle ABCD in the ratio 1 : 2 as shown. What fraction of the

area of the rectangle is the area of the parallelogram PQRS?

R

D

C

B

M

A

B

P

41. Identical isosceles right triangles are removed from opposite corners of a square resulting in a rectangle.

If the sum of the cut-off pieces is 450, find the length of the diagonal of the rectangle.

MATHEMATICSX

3n 5

is also an integer..

n 1

473

43. Find the sum of all the digits in base 10 of the number (102007 + 1)2.

44. In a ABC, the mid-point of the side BC is D and the centroid is G. Find the ratio of the area of BGD

to the area of ABC.

45. A circle is inscribed in an equilateral triangle and a square is inscribed in the circle. Find the ratio of the

area of the triangle to the area of the square.

J

A

46. Find the sum of all values of x that satisfy the equation ( x 2 5 x 5) x 4 x 60 1.

47. A wheel of radius 8 rolls along the diameter of a semicircle of radius 25 until it bumps into this semicircle.

What is the length of the portion of the diameter that cannot be touched by the wheel?

J

A

48. The measures of length of the sides of a triangle are integers and that of its area is also an integer. One

side is 21 and the perimeter is 48. Find the measure of the shortest side.

49. In the given figure, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I are all squares of which A, B have respectively area 1 and 81

cm2. Find the area of the square I.

B

H

50. For the system of equations x 2 x 2 y 2 x 2 y 4 525 and x xy xy 2 35, find the sum of the real y

values that satisfy the given equations.

T

I

ANSWERS

1.

6.

60

13

11

5

2. 20201

7. 8

M

A

3. 108 3 36

8. 2.37

12. 50

16. 9

17. 32

21. 1800

26. 45

22. 36

27. 190

31. : 8

32. 24

36. 8

37. 12 8 2

38. 48 cm2

39. 106

41. 30

42. n = 9 or 3

43. 4

44.

46. 3

47. 20

48. 10

4

9

23. 10 cm

28. 250

16

33.

15

18.

5.

b 2

(a b 2 )

4a

1

14.

2

9.

11. 54 cm

474

13. 0.667

4. 2 2

3

4

10. 3

15. 10

19. 10

20. 225

24. 3

29. 17

25. 5

30. 125

34.

35. 5

5

40.

9

249

1

6

45. 3 3 : 2

5

50.

2

MATHEMATICSX

HINTS/SOLUTIONS

1. Let E be the intersection of the diagonals of rhombus ABCD. Because diagonals of rhombus are perpendicular and bisect each other, AEB is a right triangle with sides 5, 12 and 13 (using Pythagoras theorem)

60

1

1

and its area is 5 12 30. Therefore the altitude EF drawn to side AB is

(using ABEF 30) .

13

2

2

60

So,

is the radius of the inscribed circle centred at E.

13

D

C

E

12

J

A

J

A

B

13 F

2. Calculating the number of squares in the first few figures uncovers a pattern. Figure 0 has 2(0) + 1 = 2(02)

+ 1 squares, figure 1 has 2 (1) + 3 = 2(12) + 3 squares, figure 2 has 2 (1 + 3) + 5 = 2(22) + 5 squares, and figure

3 has 2(1 + 3 + 5) + 7 = 2(32) + 7 squares. In general, the number of unit squares in figure n is

A

3. In the 30 60 90 triangle CBE,

BC

BC

tan 60

3 BC 6 3 . So, FD = AD AF = 6 3

BE

6

T

I

= 6 3 (18 2 3 ) = 108 3 36 151.

D

30

30

30

60

M

A

60 6

B

E

4. Let D and F denote the centres of the circles. Let C and B be the points where the x-axis and y-axis

intersect the tangent line, respectively. Let E and G denote the points of tangency as shown. We know

that AD = DE = 2, DF = 3, and FG = 1. Let FC = u and AB = y. Clearly, FGC ~ DEC, so,

u u3

1

2

MATHEMATICSX

2

A

1

F

y BA AC

8

82 2

1 FG GC

8

475

5. Let M and N denote the mid-points of AB and AF, respectively. Then MN AM 3. Since AMO is a

MN

3

AB

3

1

3 .

2

4

N

F

1

3.

2

J

A

30 60 90 triangle and MN = MO. It follows that the hexagons are similar, with similarity ratio

J

A

2

2 1

4

CB

. ar (BAE)

. (2.1) = . Then, area (CDEF) = ar (ABCD) ar (BAE) ar (CFB)

5

BE

5 2

4 1

4 11

Ans.

5 5

T

I

follows that x + y = 11. There are eight such numbers : 29, 38, 47, 56, 65, 74, 83 and 92.

8. Let D and E denote the points of tangency on the y-axis and x-axis, respectively, and let BC be tangent

to the circle at F. Tangents to a circle from a point are equal, so BE = BF and CD = CF. Let x = BF and y =

CF. Because x + y = BC = 2, the radius of the circle is

M

A

(1 x ) ( 3 y ) 3 3

2.37 Ans.

2

2

D

y

C

y F

x

A 60

1

B x

9. Let ABCD be the given rectangle with sides a and b (a > b), which is folded along the diagonal AC. here,

OA = OC

OAC is an isosceles triangle.

476

MATHEMATICSX

Again OEA ~ ABC

D

O

1 2

a b2

OE

EA

OE

b. a 2 b 2

2

OE

AB BC

b

a

2a

Required Area = Area of OAC

J

A

b

A

1

1

b. a 2 b 2

ACOE a 2 b 2

2

2

2a

b 2

(a + b 2 ) Ans.

4a

J

A

2(84)

12.

14

The mid-point D divides BC into two segments of length 7, and the bisectors of BAC divides BC into

10. By herons formula, the area of ABC is (21)(8)(7)(6) 84 , so the altitude from vertex A is

13

15

segments of length 14 6.5 and 14 7.5 (since the angle bisector divides the opposite

28

28

sides into lengths proportional to the remaining two sides). Thus the ADE has base DE = 7 6.5 = 0.5

and altitude 12, so its area is 1 12 0.5 3. Ans.

2

A

T

I

13

M

A

B

15

DE

14

n(n 1)

2

2(1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n) = n (n + 1)

2 (1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n) 3000

Now,

[ n + 1 n].

3000 54.7

Let n = 54, we find (54) (55) = 2970 < 3000, which is correct estimation.

(If we try n = 55, then (55) (56) = 3080 > 3000)

Longest length completed was 54 cm.

MATHEMATICSX

477

12.

1

1

1

1

2

1 49

1,

1,

1,....,

1

2

2 100

2 100

2 100

J

A

1 50

1 51

1 51

1 99

1,

1

1,...., 2 100 1. i.e. 1 occurs 50 times.

2 100

2 100

2

100

but after this

0 0 .... 0 1

1

....

1

= 50 Ans.

50 times

m

m

and x

(using quadratic formula).

2

3

For x to be an integer m should be divisible by 2 and 3.

There are 500 multiples of 2, 333 multiples of 3, and 166 multiples of 6 between 1 and 1000. Therefore, the

500 333 166

0.667.

required probability is p

1000

1

14. Using degree measure theorem, we observe that = 2. = 2 30 = 60. Then, x = cos 60 .

2

J

A

Otherwise, suppose that the co-ordinates of A are (x, y). Then y (1 x ) tan

1 x

and x 2 y 2 1.

1 x

Substituting y from the first equation into the second, we have x 2

1. Solving, we get

3

2x2 + x 1 = 0.

T

I

M

A

1

1

. So, x-coordinate of A is .

2

2

A(x, y)

x D

C(1, 0)

15. Suppose the number a has n digits each of which is d. Then a is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum

d + d + ....+ d = nd of its digit is divisible by 9. Since 1 n 6, ( as number is less than one million) one

concludes that d = 3, 6, 9 are the only possibilities. With d = 3, we get the two numbers 333 and 333 333

divisible by 9. with d = 6, we get 2 numbers 666 and 666 666 divisible by 9. With d = 9, we get six numbers

9, 99, 999, ...., 999999 divisible by 9, so altogether there are 2 + 2 + 6 = 10 solutions.

16. Build such a triangle from triangles we know more about. Start with 3, 4, 5 triangle. Note that

append them along the edge of length 3. Notice that since both triangles are right, we can append them

1

so that the union is a triangular region with sides of length 4+ 2, 5 and 13 , whose area is 6 3 9

2

Ans.

5

13

3

478

2

4

NON-ROUTINE MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD PROBLEMS

MATHEMATICSX

x ; x0

17. We know | x |

x ; x 0

J

A

So, the equation |x| + |y| = 4 give rise to four linear equations viz. x + y = 4, x y = 4, x + y = 4 and x

y = 4. These four represents the straight lines in a plane. Thus, the enclosed region is a square with

vertices (4, 0), (0, 4), (4, 0) and (0, 4), which has area (4 2)2 = 32.

(0,4)

(4, 0)

(4,0)

(0, 4)

J

A

18. Let C be the intersection of the horizontal line through A and the vertical line through B. In right ABC,

BC = 3 and AB = 5, so AC = 4. Let x be radius of third circle, and D be the centre. Let E and F be the points

of intersection of the horizontal line through D with the vertical lines through B and A, respectively, as

shown.

A

F

B

B

C

E

D

G

In BED, we have BD = 4 + x and BE = 4 x, so DE2 = (4 + x)2 (4 x)2 = 16x

and

T

I

In

DE 4 x .

ADF, we have AD = 1 + x and AF = 1 x, so

FD2 = (1 + x)2 (1 x)2 = 4x

and

FD = 2 x .

M

A

Hence 4 = AC = FD + DE = 2 x + 4 x = 6

2

4

x Ans.

3

9

19. Note that : (a + 1) (b + 1) = ab + a + b + 1 = 524 + 1 = 525 = 3.52.7

and, (b + 1) (c + 1) = bc + b + c + 1 = 146 + 1 = 147 = 3.72

Since, (a + 1) (b + 1) is a multiple of 25 and (b + 1) (c + 1) is not a multiple of 5, it follows that (a + 1) must

be a multiple of 25. Since (a + 1) divides 525, a is one of the 24, 74, 174, or 524. Among these only 24 is a

divisor of 8!, so, a = 24. This implies that b + 1 = 21 and b = 20. From this it follows that c + 1 = 7 and

c = 6. Finally, (c + 1) (d + 1) = 105 = 3.5.7. So d + 1 = 15 and d = 14. Therefore, a d = 24 14 = 10 Ans.

20. Let n, n + 1, ...., n + 17 be the 18 consecutive integers. Then the sum is n + (n + 1) + ...... + (n + 17)

x

17 18

9(2n 17).

2

Since, 9 is a perfect square, 2n + 17 must also be a perfect square. The smallest value of n for which this

occurs is n = 4, so 9 (2n + 17) = 9 25 = 225 Ans.

18n (1 2 ... 17) 18n

MATHEMATICSX

479

21. Here a1 = 1, a2 = 2.

Now, a3

a5

a2 1 2 1

a 1 3 1

3 ; a4 3

2

a1

1

a2

2

J

A

a4 1 2 1

a 1 11

1 ; a6 5

1

a3

3

a4

2

a7

a6 1 1 1

a 1 2 1

2 ; a8 7

3 and so on.

a5

1

a6

1

The sequence is 1,

2,3,

2,1

2,

3, 2,1

2,3,

2,1

, 1,

, 1,

, ...

Sum of first 1000 terms

1000

(1 2 3 2 1)

5

J

A

22. The symmetry of the figure implies that ABH, BCE, CDF and DAG are congruent right triangles.

2

So, BH CE BC BE 50 1 49 7

and

EH = BH BE = 7 1 = 6.

Hence, the square EFGH has area = 62 = 36 Ans.

So, the area of AEB

T

I

1

6 8 24 cm 2 , and

2

1

2

area of CFD 15 8 60 cm .

2

Now, area of rectangle BCFE = 164 cm2 (24 cm2 + 60 cm2)

= 164 cm2 84 cm2 = 80 cm2

= BC BE = BC 8

M

A

B

10

8

E

C

8

F

17

D

80

10 cm Ans.

8

24. Segments AD and BE are drawn perpendicular to YZ. Segments AB, AC and BC divide XYZ into four

congruent triangles. Vertical line segments AD, XC and BE divide each of these in half. Three of the eight

BC

480

3

3

of XYZ. The shaded area is (8) 3. Ans.

8

8

X

Z

D C

E

NON-ROUTINE MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD PROBLEMS

Y

MATHEMATICSX

n(n 1)

2

J

A

6n

12

is an integer..

n(n 1) / 2 n 1

26. The first and last digits must be both odd or both even for their average to be an integer. There are

5 5 = 25 odd-odd combinations for the first and last digits. There are 4 5 = 20 even-even combinations

that do not use zero as the first digit. Hence the total is 25 + 20 = 45.

J

A

27. The digits 2, 4, 5 and 6 cannot be the units digit of any two-digit prime, so these four digits must be the

tens digit, and 1, 3, 7 and 9 are the unit digits. The sum is thus

10 (2 + 4 + 5 + 6) + (1 + 3 + 7 + 9) = 190

here, one set that satisfies the conditions is {23, 47, 59, 61}.

28. The sequence begins 2005, 133, 55, 250, 133, ..... .

Thus, after the initial term 2005, the sequence repeats the cycle 133, 55, 250. Because 2005 = 1 + 3 668,

thus 2005th term is the same as the last term of the repeating cycle, 250.

29. The numbers A B and A+ B are both odd or both even. However, they are also both prime, so they must

both be odd. Therefore one of A and B is odd and the other even. Because A is a prime between A B and

A + B, A must be the odd prime. Therefore, B = 2, the only even prime. So, A2, A, and A + 2 are

consecutive odd primes and thus must be 3, 5 and 7. The sum of the four primes 2, 3, 5 and 7 is the prime

number 17.

T

I

So, 130 n > n2 and n2 > 16

130 > n > 4. So n can be any of the 125 integers strictly between 130 and 4.

31. Let the radius of the smaller circle be r. Then the side length of the smaller square is 2 r. The radius of the

larger circle is half the length of the diagonal of the smaller square, so it is

has side of length 2 2r . The ratio of the area of the smaller circle to the area of the larger square is

M

A

r 2

(2 2r )

: 8.

8

2 2r

2r

therefore

2r

32. As 100100 has many more 0s at the end, we need here the number of 0s at the end of 100!. This will be the

number of factors of 5 in its decomposition into primes, since there will be plenty of 2s to turn these in

10s. There are 20 multiples of 5 in 100! and four of them have a second factor of 5 (i.e. the multiples of 25).

So, total number of zeros will be 20 + 4 = 24.

MATHEMATICSX

481

1 1 1

2

4

6

1

24

A 15

A

16 16

A 16

Ans.

B 15

J

A

1 1 1

4 4 4 .......

1

2

3

J

A

34. Let r denote the radius of the circle, and d1, and d2 the distances from the centre of the circle to the chords

of length 12 and 16 respectively. Each of the perpendiculars from the center to a chord makes a right

triangle, with other leg equal to half the length of the chord. Thus, 36 d12 r 2 64 d 22 . Assume the

chords are an opposite sides of the centre. (If we put them on the same side, we will get a negative value

for one of the ds). Since d1+ d2 = 7, we obtain 7 (d1 d2) = 64 36 = 28, hence d1 d2 = 4. From this we

obtain, d1

3

265

11

and d2 , and then r 2

. The distance from midway chord to the center is

2

4

2

2

d1 d 2

2. If x denotes the length of the desired chord, then x 2 2 r 2 , and so x 249 .

2

2

T

I

6

d1

O

d2

M

A

r

r

8

5.5

midway chord

1.5

3.5

Now, factors of 4 are 1, 2, 4. So, possible solutions are as follows :

(i) x 2 = 1 ; y 2 = 4 x = 3, y = 6

(ii) x 2 = 1; y 2 = 4 x = 1, y = 2

(iii) x 2 = 2 ; y 2 = 2 x = 4, y = 4

(v) x 2 = 4; y 2 = 1 x = 6, y = 3

(vi) x 2 = 4; y 2 = 1 x = 2, y = 1

Thus the total number of solutions is 5.

482

MATHEMATICSX

J

A

= (2 1) (2 + 1) (3 1) (3 + 1) (4 1) (4 + 1) (5 1) (5 + 1) ...... (n 1) (n + 1)

= (1 3) (2 4) (3 5) (4 6)...(( n 1) ( n + 1))

2 32 42 52 ..... (n 1)2 n (n + 1)

= 2 n (n + 1) [3 4 5 .... (n 1)]2

= 2n (n + 1) a perfect square number.

J

A

For this whole product to be a square number, we must have 2n (n + 1) as a square number. Using trial and

error method we find that the value of n is 8. [2n(n + 1) at n = 8 is 2 8 9 = (4 3)2 = 122].

37. Let r denotes the desired radius. The little 45 45 90 triangle in the top right corner with hypotenuse

going from the centre of the small circle to the top right vertex of the square and one leg along the top edge

of the square implies 4 2 4 r r 2. (This is two ways of viewing the length of that hypotenuse).

Thus, r ( 2 1) 4( 2 1) r

4( 2 1)

2 1

2 1

4( 2 1)2

4(2 1 2 2)

2 1

T

I

= 4 (3 2

2 ) = 12 8

2 1

2.

38. Let M be the mid-point of EF and N be the mid-point of HG. By symmetry, N is also the mid-point of BC.

Also, the line through A and M will also pass through N, and will be perpendicular to both EF and BC.

Since the side length of the square is 12, then EM = HN = 6 and EH = 12. Since, it is given that BC = 30,

then BN = 15 and so BH = 9.

M

A

12

B 9 H 6 N G

C

Since EFGH is a square, that EF is parallel to HG, and so AEM = EBH, i.e. AME ~ EHB.

So,

AM 12

AM 8

6

9

MATHEMATICSX

1

12 8 48 cm 2 Ans.

2

483

Between Pages

1 to 9

10 to 19

1 time

1 time

20 to 29

30 to 99

11 times

7 times

100 to 119

120 to 129

2 times

11 times

200 to 209 11 times

210 to 219 11 times

230 to 249 22 times

and on

page

250

J

A

1 time

(Take care of 22, 122, 202, 212, 222, 232, 242)

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40. Area of ||gm PQRS = Area of ABCD (area of s DRS, RCQ, PBQ, APS)

1 2

2 1

1 2

2 1

3 l 3b 3l 3 b 3 l 3b 3l 3 b

lb

2

2

2

2

T

I

2 lb 5

lb 4 . lb

9 2 9

9

required fraction = 5 .

9

M

A

Sum of the areas of the four triangles

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

a a b b

2

2

2

2

1

(2a 2 2b2 ) a 2 b 2

2

2y b

a

45

2x

484

b

b

45

a

2 x 2 y 2 2 225

2 15 30 Ans.

MATHEMATICSX

n 1

n 1

2

k ( n 1) 3n 5 k 2 n k 2 3n 5

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k2 5

8

1

.

2

3 k

3 k2

2

2

If n is an integer then 3 k must divide 8 and hence 3 k belongs to {1, 2, 4, 8}. It follows that

3 k2 = 1 or 3 k2 = 2 and consequently n = 9 or 3.

43. (102007 + 1)2 = (102007)2 + 2 102007 + 1

= 104014 + 2 102007 + 1

Thus, the decimal expansion of (102007 + 1)2 contains 2 ones, 1 two and all other digits are zero. Sum of the

digits = 1 + 1 + 2 = 4 Ans.

(k 2 3)n 5 k 2 n

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A

44. ABD and ABC have the same altitude from A. Since BD

1

ar (ABC).

2

Now, BDG and BDA have the same altitude from B.

1

BC, we have, ar (ABD)

2

Since GD 1 AD we have,

G

3

1

C

B

ar (BGD) ar (ABD)

D

3

1

Hence,

ar (BGD) ar ( ABC)

6

45. The incentre, circumcentre, orthocentre and centroid of an equilateral triangle coincide. If a is the side of

T

I

a2

3

1

1 3

a

. The diago

. a. Now,, OD AD .

a

4

2

3

3 2

2 3

nal of the square inscribed in the circle is the diameter of the incircle. So, the diagonal of the square is

2a

2 3

a

3

M

A

3. 2

a

6

A

a

1

3

3 2

a

a .

Area of ABC .a.

2

2

4

Area of square is

a2

.

6

O

B

a

2

3 2 a2

a :

3 3 : 2 Ans.

4

6

46. We consider the solution in three cases :

Case I.

It is possible for the base to be 1.

therefore, x2 5x + 5 = 1

x 2 5 x 4 0 ( x 1)( x 4) 0

x 1 or x 4.

MATHEMATICSX

485

Case II.

Case III.

therefore, x2 + 4x 60 = 0

(x + 10) (x 6) = 0 x = 10 or x = 6.

(Note that it is easy to verify that neither x = 10 nor x = 6 is a zero of x2 5x + 5 = 0 , so that

the form 0 does not occur).

It is possible that the base is 1 and the exponent is even.

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A

x2 5 x 6 0

( x 2)( x 3) 0 x 2 or x 3.

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A

Therefore, the sum of all the solutions = 1 + 4 10 + 6 + 2 = 3 Ans.

47. Draw OBC, where O is the centre of the large circle, B is the centre of the wheel, and C is the point of

tangency of the wheel and the diameter of the semi-circle. Since BC is a radius of the wheel, OCB = 90

and OCB is right angled at C.

B

D

A

C

O

Extend OB to meet the semi-circle at D. Then BD = BC = 8, since they are both radii of the wheel, and OB

= 25 8 = 17. Now, In OBC, OC2 = 172 82 = 225 OC = 15.

Then AC = 25 15 = 10. The length of the portion of the diameter that cannot be touched by the wheel

is a length equivalent to 2AC or 20.

48. Let a, b be the other two sides. a + b = 27 and s, the semi-perimeter of the triangle is 24.

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I

Area 24(24 a)(a 3)(24 21) and hence 72 (a 3) (24 a) must be a perfect square. If a is the

M

A

shortest side, then a 13. By trial and error method we find a = 10. If a = 10, Area 24 14 3 7 84 ,

is an integer.

49. The square A has side 1 cm and B has side 9 cm (since their areas are 1 and 81 respectively). Since the

side, on the right, of B, has its top most 1 cm as a side of A the square G has a side of 9 1 = 8 cm. Similarly,

F has a side of 7 cm. Since Cs side at the bottom includes Bs as well as As, side of C = 9 + 1 = 10 cm.

Now XY = 7 1 = 6 cm ZY = 10 6 = 4 cm

486

D

Z

E

CY

X F

A

MATHEMATICSX

Hence the square D has a side of 10 + 4 (= side of C + side of E) = 14 cm. The side of square I (the right

hand side of I) is the sum of the same sides of D as well as E which is 14 + 4 = 18 cm.

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A

50. Consider the system of equations

and

x 2 x 2 y 2 x 2 y 4 525

...(1)

x xy xy 2 35

...(2)

( x xy 2 xy )( x xy 2 xy )

Thus,

(x + xy2 xy) (x + xy2 + xy) = 525

Substituting from (2) gives.

(x + xy2 xy) (35) = 525

or,

x + xy2 xy = 15

Now, subtracting (3) from (2), 2 xy 20 x

10y2 25y + 10 = 0

2y2 5y + 2 = 0

(2y 1) (y 2) = 0

10

10 y 10 15

y

T

I

1

or y 2

2

M

A

MATHEMATICSX

10

y

1 5

Ans.

2 2

J

A

...(3)

487