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Works Cited

Primary Sources
Aber, Max. Seven-year-old Renatta Aber and her five-year-old sister Evelyne. N.d.
Photograph. From this picture I learned what two sisters that were passengers
on the SS St Louis looked like. I also learned from the information that went
with the photo that they traveled alone. I used this picture in the gallery in
my conclusion.
Associated Press. The Spanier twins on departure at Hamburg. 13 May 1939.
Photograph. From this picture I learned what two twin girls who were
passengers on the SS St Louis looked like. It was useful even though it was
kind of worn down. I used it in the gallery in my conclusion.
- - -. "Upper House Hikes Outlay for Benefits." Salt Lake Telegram 12 May 1939: n.
pag. Utah Digital Newspapers. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
<http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/tgm36/id/1224/rec/1
40>. This newspaper article from 1939 provided me with context. It told me
what was happening around the time of the SS St Louis. It illustrated the
struggles and political issues of the time.
Belgian officials at the gangplank of the "St. Louis" after the ship was forced to
return to Europe from Cuba. Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust
Memorial Museum, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2014. <http://tinyurl.com/pjwvhge>.
This picture and its description provided me with information about the fate
of some of the passengers of the St Louis. I learned that Belgium admitted
some of the passengers. I also might use it on my site.
Berenson, Lawrence. Letter to Frederico Laredo Br. N.d. American Jewish Joint
Distribution Committee Archives. American Jewish Joint Distribution
Committee. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. <http://tinyurl.com/75lxcch>. From this I
learned about a proposal from Lawrence Berenson, who was part of a
"National Coordinating Council for Aid to Refugees and Emigrants Coming
from Germany," to Frederico Laredo Br, then president of Cuba. Berenson
proposed to Laredo Br that the government of Cuba be given aid to accept
the Jewish refugees (including a bond of $50,000, equivalent to about
$855,000 today). Also, it was proposed that the male refugees who were 21
or older be required to report to the Department of Police every three
months.
"Dumped Emigration: A Statement of J.D.C. Policy Evoked by the St. Louis Crisis."
J.D.C. Bulletin July 1939: n. pag. American Jewish Joint Distribution
Committee. Web. 13 Nov. 2014.
<http://archives.jdc.org/assets/documents/stlouis_dumped-emigration.pdf>.
This was the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee's (JDC) official
response to the "St. Louis Crisis." From it I learned how the JDC reacted. I
learned that while they were unhappy that Cuba and the US had rejected the
refugees, they were glad that Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and England
had accepted the refugees.

Goldberger, Leo. View of the destroyed interior of the synagogue in Opava after
Kristallnacht. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 3
Feb. 2015. <http://www.ushmm.org/m/img/89999-x700.jpg>. This picture
was useful because it illustrated the devastation experienced by the German
Jews after the Kristallnacht. From it I learned that the destruction of
synagogues and other Jewish-owned buildings in Germany was severe. I
used it in my website, in "Background > The Kristallnacht."
Gustav Schroeder, captain of the "St. Louis," on the day of the ship's departure from
Hamburg. Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial
Museum, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2014. <http://tinyurl.com/m3aqbb7>. From this
picture, I learned what Capt. Schroeder looked like. It was taken on 13 May
1939, the day the ship departed from Hamburg, Germany. From that fact I
learned what day the St. Louis left Hamburg.
Jaeger, Hugo. Hitler observes military maneuvers in St. Polten, Austria, in the spring
of 1939. 1939. Life. Web. 28 Feb. 2015.
<https://timelifeblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/50715743.jpg?w=740>.
This is a rare color photo of Hitler. It helped me to know what Hitler actually
looked like (as opposed to the black and white photos we always see). I used
it in "The Nazification of Germany."
- - -. Hitler speaks in Munich on the 15th anniversary of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch,
in which Hitler and other Nazi party members attempted to overthrow the
German government. 1938. Life. Web. 28 Feb. 2015.
<https://timelifeblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/88156353.jpg?w=737>.
This is another rare color photo of Hitler. I used it in "The Nazification of
Germany."
"Jewish refugees aboard the St. Louis peering toward Havana." Washington Post.
N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2015. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/style/daily/images/stlouis.jpg>. I used this picture in the collage at the top
of each page. It is the picture of the two women looking out of a porthole
towards Havana.
Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany, passengers on the "St. Louis," disembark in the
port of Antwerp. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. N.p., n.d. Web.
17 Nov. 2014. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?
ModuleId=10005267&MediaId=967>. I used this picture in "Denied Refuge."
Joseph-Kamin, Lilly. The passenger committee. N.d. Photograph. From this I learned
what the passenger committee looked like. I also learned who was in the
passenger committee. I used in in the "Denied Entry into Cuba, the U.S., and
Canada" section of my website.
Knickerbocker, H. R. "War Will Come When Germany's Nerve Breaks under Strain of
Crises, Says Knickerbocker." Salt Lake Telegram 12 May 1939, Evening ed.: 4.
Utah Digital Newspapers. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
<http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/tgm36/id/1224/rec/1
40>. This provided me with a brief timeline of the growth of the Nazis during

1939. It expressed the opinion of one man about the Nazis. In that way, it
gave me some context.
Krakow, Robert, and Kalish Ruth, dirs. Complicit Trailer: Miami. By Michael Schwartz.
YouTube. Google, n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2014. <http://youtu.be/Zni_vHlBBgA>.
While this is just a trailer advertising for a documentary, it still provided me
with information and useful facts. I learned about a US State Dept. event
commemorating the St. Louis on 24 September 2012. I also learned some
personal experiences of surviving St. Louis passengers.
Lilly Joseph. 13 May 1939. Photograph. From this I learned what one of the
passengers on the St. Louis, Lilly Joseph, looked like. She was one of the
many children that went on the St. Louis. I used it in my conclusion.
National Geographic Society. "Plight of European Jews Emphasizes Need of Haven."
Iron County Record [Cedar City] 5 Jan. 1939: n. pag. Utah Digital Newspapers.
Web. 25 Jan. 2015. <http://tinyurl.com/l7e38s9>. From this I learned that
there were discussions about where to send the German Jews. Most countries
recommended Tanganyika, a former German colony in Africa. They also
recommended Kenya, Madagascar, and British Guiana.
Neumann, Johanna Gerechter. Interview. Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum, n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2015.
<http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_oi.php?
ModuleId=10005201&MediaId=1158>. This is a video interview with a
Kristallnacht survivor, Johanna Gerechter Neumann. It was useful to have an
eyewitness account of the event. I used a quote from her on the right side of
the "Kristallnacht" page.
Packer, Fred. Political cartoon depicting the Statue of Liberty rejecting the SS St.
Louis. Louis D. Brandeis Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
<http://tinyurl.com/p7c49bm>. From this I learned that there were many
Americans that were in favor of providing refuge for the passengers of the St.
Louis. This did make research a bit more confusing because other sources
said most Americans were openly anti-Semitic.
Picture of the SS St. Louis. JPG file. From this I learned what the SS St. Louis looked
like. It was apparently fairly large, as there are other boats in the picture.
Postcard with a picture of the St. Louis. JPG file. This is a postcard from the SS St.
Louis. I learned what the ship looked like. This was useful to illustrate what
the SS St. Louis looked like on my website.
Reagan, Ronald. "Proclamation 5897 Week of Remembrance of Kristallnacht,
1988 November 4, 1988." History Reference Center. EBSCO Industries, n.d.
Web. 28 Oct. 2014. <http://tinyurl.com/n3z2sfy>. This showed that the US
was not forgetful of the Kristallnacht. It also gave me some basic information
on the Kristallnacht. It helped me put the SS St Louis into context.
The refugees board the St. Louis in Hamburg. 13 May 1939. Photograph. From this I
learned what some of the passengers looked like. I also learned from its
description what day the SS St Louis left Hamburg (13 May 1939). I used it in
"The Voyage Begins."

"Relatives and friends waving good-bye to the St. Louis as the ship (not pictured)
heads back to Europe." American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2015.
<http://archives.jdc.org/assets/images/education/ny_08764.jpg>. This helped
me know that there were some friends & family of the passengers of the SS
St. Louis in the US. I had not known that before.
Schroeder, Gustav. Letter to Morris Troper. 18 June 1939. American Jewish Joint
Distribution Committee. Web. 13 Nov. 2014.
<http://archives.jdc.org/assets/documents/stlouis_letterofcaptaingschroeder.pdf>. This was a very useful source because it exhibited the
gratefulness that Capt. Schroeder and the passengers felt towards Morris
Troper when they were able to gain refuge in Europe. I also learned about the
ship Rhakotis, which took the passengers from Antwerp to France and
England. It also helped me learn who Morris Troper was -- he was the
chairman of the European Executive Council of the American Joint Distribution
Committee.
The social hall of the St. Louis. N.d. Photograph. From this picture I learned what the
St. Louis's social hall looked like. I also inferred from this picture that the St.
Louis was a very luxurious cruise liner. I used it in my conclusion.
"Some of the 907 passengers on board the St. Louis arriving in Belgium after being
refused entry into Cuba and the U.S." American Jewish Joint Distribution
Committee. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
<http://archives.jdc.org/assets/images/topic-guide/ny_08763_dt1.jpg>. From
this picture, I learned that even though they had been rejected from Cuba
and the US, they were in a good mood when they were able to gain refuge in
Western Europe. It illustrated the relief that they felt that a country had
finally accepted them. I used it in my "Return Voyage" section.
Some participants at a pro-Nazi rally in New York City. United States Holocaust
Memorial Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?
ModuleId=10005684&MediaId=2738>. This was a picture of some
participants at an event in New York City supporting Nazism. This illustrated
the growing pro-Nazism in the United States. It depicted some youth holding
Nazi and American flags.
"SS St. Louis sailed in doomed attempt to escape Nazis." Miami Herald Store. Miami
Herald, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2014. <http://tinyurl.com/p5zg43j>. This picture
and the information that came along with it gave me in the caption gave me
a lot of useful stuff. It told me about an interfaith protest in Miami expressing
sympathy for the refugees. Their attempt to convince the government to
accept the Jewish refugees ultimately failed.
The St. Louis departing Hamburg. 13 May 1939. Photograph. From this I learned
what the St. Louis looked like from the front. I could also see that it had a
Nazi flag hanging from it. I used it in "The Voyage Begins."

"Student Survey Shows Stand on Immigration." Utah Daily Chronicle [Salt Lake City]
6 Jan. 1939: n. pag. Utah Digital Newspapers. Web. 28 Oct. 2014.
<http://tinyurl.com/mrzejac>. This help back up the claim presented in other
sources that the general public was against allowing the refugees in. This
was most likely the main reason they were not allowed into the US. 68.8%
of students voted against allowing them into the US.
Ten-year-old Liesl Joseph. N.d. Photograph. From this I learned what Liesl Joseph, a
passenger on the St Louis, looked like. I also learned that she was ten when
the ship left Germany. I used this picture in my conclusion.
United States. Cong. House. Expressing deep regret for the refusal of the United
States to provide political asylum to the Jewish refugees aboard the S.S. ST.
LOUIS in May and June of 1939. 107th Cong. H. Con. Res. H.Con.Res.185.
Washington: US Congress. Congress.gov. Web. 31 Oct. 2014.
<https://beta.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/house-concurrentresolution/185/text>. This was an obvious indicator of the bad legacy of the
US's refusal to accept the passengers of the St Louis. From this I learned that
the US government is regretful of the St Louis. It showed that the world is
becoming a bit more aware of the St Louis.
- - -. - - -. Senate. Resolution recognizing June 6, 2009, as the 70th anniversary of
the tragic date when the M.S. St. Louis, a ship carrying Jewish refugees from
Nazi Germany, returned to Europe after its passengers were refused
admittance to the United States. 111th Cong., 1st sess. S. Res. 111.
Washington. Library of Congress. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.
<https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/senate-resolution/111/text>.
This showed me that the SS St Louis left a black mark on the legacy of the
United States. It showed that the US Government now regrets this story. It
also gave me some basic information of the SS St Louis.
View of crowd at pro-Nazi rally in New York City. United States Holocaust Memorial
Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?
ModuleId=10005684&MediaId=2745>. This is a picture of the entire crowd at
a pro-Nazi rally in New York City. This illustrated the vastness of the pro-Nazi
movement in the US. It helped me put it into context because it showed that
antisemitism probably played a role in many Americans' opposition to the
refugees on the SS St. Louis being accepted into the US.
Wilchfort, Gerda Blachmann. Interview. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2015. <http://tinyurl.com/o8m8ajv>. This was an
interview with one of the surviving passengers of the St. Louis, Gerda
Blachmann Wilchfort. It was incredibly useful because it was a direct account
of the St Louis. I learned that one man tried to commit suicide by slitting his
wrists, he was the only one to go on land in Cuba because he had to be taken
to a hospital. I also learned about the mood on the St Louis after being
denied entry to Cuba -- "there was a terrible mood. Everybody was very
depressed. ... No more parties, no more, no more fun."

Secondary Sources
Aderet, Ofer. "75 years after Kristallnacht, survivor recalls the night that seared his
life." Haaretz [Tel Aviv] 8 Nov. 2013: n. pag. Haaretz. Web. 28 Feb. 2015.
<http://www.haaretz.com/jewish-world/jewish-world-features/.premium1.556976>. This article is an interview with Kristallnacht survivor Daniel
Heiman. It gave me some eyewitness insight into the Kristallnacht. I used
one of his quotes on the top of the "Kristallnacht" page.
American University. FDR and the Jews: Debunking the S.S. St. Louis Myth. YouTube.
N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2014. <http://youtu.be/y0TUCfqYB7w>. This video
helped introduce me to the SS St Louis. From it I learned that, at least for the
summer of 1939, the passengers of the St Louis were safe in England, France,
Holland, and Belgium. I also learned that the US had an immigrant quota and
it was filled before the refugees came to the US; as well as the fact that they
had originally planned to go to Cuba.
Day, Nicholas. "No Turning Back." Washington Post 26 Aug. 1998: n. pag.
Washington Post. Web. 28 Feb. 2015. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/style/daily/holoship0826.htm>. This told the story of two researchers'
efforts to track down the Kristallnacht survivors. It also gave me a picture
which I used in the collage that appears on each page. It is the picture of the
two Jewish women looking out the porthole of the St. Louis towards Havana.
Gavin, Philip. "War Ends with German Defeat." The History Place. N.p., n.d. Web. 26
Feb. 2015. <http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/ends.htm>.
This source provided me with some historical context. I learned about the
beginning of the buildup to the Holocaust and the St. Louis. I learned about
the governmental reform that occurred after World War I.
Gerhart, Ann. "Journey from Hell and Back: Holocaust Museum Tells of the
Passengers America Turned Away." Washington Post 30 Apr. 1999: n. pag.
Christus Rex. Web. 28 Feb. 2015.
<http://www.christusrex.org/www2/fcf/hellstlouis.html>. This article gave me
some quotes from surviving St. Louis passengers on the conditions of the
ship. They were used in the paged titled "The Voyage Begins." It also told
me some of the stories of the passengers.
"The Great Depression Timeline." Shmoop. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.shmoop.com/great-depression/timeline.html>. This timeline of
the Depression gave me some historical context. It helped me understand
why the story of the SS St. Louis happened the way it did. I also learned
about a pro-Nazi rally in New York City from this source.
"In 1938, the World Knew." New York Times 9 Nov. 1988: n. pag. New York Times.
Web. 28 Feb. 2015. <http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/09/opinion/in-1938the-world-knew.html>. This article was written on the 50th anniversary of the
Kristallnacht. It gave me info on the effects of the Kristallnacht. I used a
quote from this article on the bottom of the "Kristallnacht" page.

Kochan, Lionel, and Michael Berenbaum. "Kristallnacht." Encyclopaedia Judaica.


N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2014. From this I learned about the Kristallnacht
(German for "Night of the Broken Glass), which was the precursor to the SS
St. Louis. I learned that just before midnight on 9 November 1938, Heinrich
Mueller (Gestapo chief) ordered German police to not interfere with "actions
against Jews and especially their synagogues." The police were to arrest the
victims instead.
Krakow, Robert M. "SS St Louis Project." Message to the author. 17 Sept. 2014. Email. This was an email sent to me by Robert M. Krakow, the director of the
SS St. Louis Legacy Project. He gave me some primary and secondary
sources in this email. I will use these sources throughout my project.
Murphy, James. "Translator's Introduction." Introduction. Mein Kampf. By Adolf Hitler.
Trans. Murphy. Vol. 1. London: Hurst and Blackett, n.d. Project Gutenberg
Australia. Web. 6 Nov. 2014.
<http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks02/0200601.txt>. From this I learned about
the condition of Germany after World War I. I learned about separatist
movements in the Rhineland and Bavaria. I also learned that in 1923, the
French occupied much of western Germany (the Rhineland), which weakened
Germany.
"The Nazification of Germany." A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust. U of South
Florida, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2014.
<http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/timeline/nazifica.htm>. This gave me
some information on historical context. I learned from this site about the rise
of the Nazis in Germany during the mid to late 1930's. This helped me learn
about why the passengers of the SS St. Louis increasingly became more
desperate to leave Germany.
Ogilvie, Sarah A., and Scott Miller. Refuge Denied: The St. Louis Passengers and the
Holocaust. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 2006. Print. This told me some of the
stories of the passengers of the St. Louis. It also had some useful quotes that
I used in my website. For example, Capt. Schroeder's diary quote at the
bottom of "The Voyage Begins" is from this book.
"The Rise of the Nazi Party." A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust. U of South Florida,
n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2014.
<http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/timeline/nazirise.htm>. This also helped
me to put the events surrounding the SS St. Louis into historical context. I
learned about the general events that led up to Nazi control of Germany. This
in turn led to the SS St. Louis and the related events happening.
Thomas, Gordon, and Max Morgan Witts. Voyage of the Damned. New York: Stein &
Day, 1974. Print. While this book is in a more dramatic form (rather than
informative), it still provided me with information, especially on individual
passengers and families on the St. Louis. It also, in the prologue, gave me an
overview of the story of the St. Louis. I also learned more about Capt. Gustav
Schroeder.

"Timeline of the Great Depression." College of Liberal Arts, California Polytechnic


State University San Luis Obispo. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2014.
<http://cla.calpoly.edu/~lcall/timeline.dep.html>. This helped me put the
story of the SS St. Louis into context. I learned that the GNP in 1939 had
risen by 7.9%. I also learned that the unemployment rate was 17.2% and
that between 1939 and 1941, manufacturing in the US rose by 50%, creating
many more jobs.
"The Tragedy of the SS St. Louis." Jewish Virtual Library. Ed. Elie Berman. AmericanIsraeli Cooperative Enterprise, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2014.
<https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/stlouis.html>. I
learned from this source about the government officials involved in the St.
Louis. It told me some of the stories of the passengers, many of which died in
the Holocaust. I learned about the statistics of the voyage a well.
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Voyage of the St. Louis." Holocaust
Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005267>. When I
first started working on this project, this source was very useful. It provided
me with a general overview of the voyage. It also led me to some pictures.
Voyage of the SS St. Louis. Map. GIF file. While another map gave me more detail,
this one was usable on my website. I used it on the homepage. I also
learned from this the start and end dates of the voyage of the St Louis.
"Voyage of the S.S. St. Louis." Map. Voyage of the Damned. By Gordon Thomas and
Max Morgan Witts. New York: Stein & Day, 1974. N. pag. Print. This and the
information that came with it gave me some details about the voyage of the
St. Louis. Specifically, it gave me details on the dates that certain events
happened, i.e., arriving in Cuba, attempting to dock in Miami, etc. It was
unfortunately not usable on my website.
"The Weimar Republic: 1919-1933." Tiki-Toki. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2014.
<http://tinyurl.com/przakd9>. This was a timeline of the Weimar Republic. I
learned about the Weimar Republic, which was the German government that
led up to Hitler's takeover of Germany. I also learned abdication of the throne
in Germany.
"The Weimar Republic, 1918-33." German Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/history/bl_weimar_republic.htm>.
From this I learned about the economic crisis in Germany. I learned that
money was so worthless that children played with stacks of it. I learned that
this economic crisis caused civil unrest in Germany.
"What Happened in 1939, including Pop Culture, Prices, and Events." The People
History. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.
<http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/1939.html>. This website provided me
with some simple context. It showed me what was happening and what it
was like during 1939. From it I learned about the general happenings of 1939
around the world.

Wicker, Christine. "Refusing sanctuary to children in need." Dallas News 29 June


2014: n. pag. Dallas News. Web. 10 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.dallasnews.com/opinion/latest-columns/20140629-refusingsanctuary-to-children-in-need.ece>. This article was the primary factor in the
decision of my topic. I found it when a Facebook page that I follow posted a
link to this article. I learned only a small bit about the St. Louis, but it led me
to do more research.
Wood, Richard. "June 7, 1939: Prime Minister Mackenzie King turns away Jewish
refugees on board the SS St. Louis." Beaver June 2007: n. pag. History
Reference Center. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://tinyurl.com/qbwcw27>. From
this I learned that the passengers of the St Louis also tried to enter Canada.
The Prime Minister at the time, Mackenzie King, was "emphatically opposed
to the admission of the St Louis passengers." I learned that Canada was their
last hope, but because King believed that "the admission of refugees perhaps
posed a greater menace to Canada in 1938 than did Hitler," they were denied
refuge there as well.
Zeidman, Fred S. Speech. Day of Remembrance Commemoration. US Capitol
Rotunda, Washington DC. 23 Apr. 2009. American Jewish Joint Distribution
Committee Archives. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2015.
<http://tinyurl.com/ly94b84>. This was an inspirational speech given by Fred
S. Zeidman about the St. Louis. I learned about Lawrence Berenson and
Morris Troper. They worked tirelessly to get the refugees into other European
countries after Cuba, the US, and Canada all denied them entry.