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Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

6, JUNE 2014

2795

for LCL Filter-Based Grid Connected PV Systems

Moin Hanif, Member, IEEE, Vinod Khadkikar, Member, IEEE,

Weidong Xiao, Member, IEEE, and James L. Kirtley, Jr., Fellow, IEEE

AbstractIn grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, lowpass filters are utilized to reduce injected current harmonics.

LCL filters have recently drawn attention for PV system grid

interfaces due to their small size and they have shown better

attenuation to switching harmonics than simple L filters. However,

the LCL filter causes resonance resulting in oscillation and instability issues. This paper proposes an effective active damping

technique by introducing a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) PID

control structure. The 2DOF control structure allows the independent action of PI and D terms giving two degrees of freedom. The

design is based on a typical three-phase grid-tied PV system. The

active damping control loop is formed by using the existing grid

side inductor currents and thus eliminating the need of additional

sensors. The relative stability is illustrated in frequency domain by

using bode plots. A real-time hardware-in-loop study is performed

to validate the performance of the proposed 2DOF technique to

damp out the LCL filter resonance.

Index TermsActive damping, LCL filter, photovoltaic (PV)

system and resonance damping.

I. I NTRODUCTION

ONCERNS related to the increasing costs of conventional energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and security of

centralized power generations have forced the power industry

to move toward a decentralized distributed generation (DG)

system. These DG units are integrated into the low voltage (LV)

power distribution systems and are used to deliver renewable

and clean energy such as PV power, wind power, and fuel

cell power to the utility through the interfacing inverters. Gridconnected DG systems come as pulse width modulated (PWM)

voltage source inverters (VSIs) that can inject controlled active

and reactive powers as required. Output currents of such an

inverter need to be filtered to prevent the current harmonics

around the switching frequency from entering the utility grid

[1]. A third order LCL filter is preferred over an L or LC

filter due to the 60 dB/decade attenuation of the frequencies

above the resonance frequency and the reduction in physical

Manuscript received November 23, 2012; revised February 18, 2013 and

April 21, 2013; accepted June 24, 2013. Date of publication July 24, 2013; date

of current version December 20, 2013. This work was supported by Masdar

Institute of Science and Technology under MI-MIT grant (Award 10PAMA1).

M. Hanif is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of

Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa (e-mail: moin.hanif@uct.ac.za).

V. Khadkikar and W. Xiao are with the Institute Center for Energy, Masdar

Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (e-mail:

vkhadkikar@masdar.ac.ae; wmxiao@masdar.ac.ae).

J. L. Kirtley, Jr. is with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

Cambridge, MA 02139 USA (e-mail: kirtley@MIT.EDU).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2013.2274416

effective, as the capacitor impedance is inversely proportional

to the frequency of the current. The LCL filter exhibits first

order inductive behavior to allow proper current control and

high frequency rejection to guarantee proper filtering. However,

an LCL filter can cause stability problems due to the undesired

resonance caused by zero impedance at certain frequencies.

To avoid this resonance from contaminating the system, several damping techniques have been proposed [1][14]. One way

is to incorporate a physical passive element, such as, a resistor

in series with the filter capacitor [3]. This passive technique,

however, causes power loss in the added passive element and

reduces the overall LCL-based system efficiency. A second

approach is to modify the LCL inverter control structure such

that the damping is achieved without any power loss [1], [2],

[4][14]. An active damping control loop is introduced around

the inverter to introduce a negative peak that compensates the

positive peak caused by the presence of the LCL filter. In

[13], a design procedure is given to optimize the LCL filter

parameters that make the system stable at certain switching

frequencies without implementing any passive damping.

The active damping techniques in the literature [1], [2], [4]

[14] can broadly be categorized as techniques that either do

[4][8] or do not require additional sensors [1], [2], [9][14].

In [4][6], the measured filter capacitor voltage is used as a

feedback variable for active damping. Similarly, the measured

filter current is used to form virtual resistance in [7] and

[8]. An attempt is made to eliminate the capacitor voltage

or current sensor by estimating either the capacitor voltage

as in [1] and [9] or the capacitor current as in [10]. Such

an estimation, however, depends on the accuracy of the plant

model parameters, which, may be sometimes unknown or vary

with temperature and/or system operating conditions.

Another interesting approach, which is the main focus of

this work, is to modify the inverter control structure so that

the need for capacitor voltage or current information (either

measurement or estimation) is eliminated. Liserre et al. have

proposed a sensorless technique utilizing high order digital

filters in the forward path of inverter current control loop [2],

[11]. The performance of this technique is further evaluated in

[12]. It is noticed from [2], [11], [12] that a tuning method (such

as genetic algorithm which adds complexity) may be required

to tune such high order digital filters.

In [14], an approach, in which the existing grid side inductor

currents are used in the inverter current control loop, is utilized

to achieve sensorless active damping. This method preserves

the meaning of filtering the resonance by using the grid side

2796

simply by modifying the inverter current control loop. However,

as highlighted in [14], the proposed digital infinite impulse

response (IIR) filter based sensorless active damping technique

has the following challenges [14].

It is based on a true digital control system with a full

Z-transform representation of the plant and the controller.

In reality, the system comprising of inverter and LCL filter

are analog in nature, therefore, the full digitalization is an

approximation process.

Iterative optimization is required in [14] to meet the specified design of the second order IIR Butterworth filter

which increases the control complexity, the computing

burden and also requires optimization expertise.

In [14] the LCL damped system achieves a limited reduction (68%) in the current oscillations compared to the

undamped LCL system.

This paper proposes a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) PID

control structure to achieve effective active damping for three

phase grid-connected PV inverters. The proposed analysis uses

the existing grid side inductor currents and focuses on the

system dynamics in continuous time. This 2DOF PID controller

is a general approach and can be easily tuned, using conventional techniques to obtain the required stability margin. The

proposed technique is validated both by simulation and a real

time hardware-in-loop (HIL) experimental study.

II. OVERALL S YSTEM C ONFIGURATION

Fig. 1 shows the diagram of a three phase grid-tied PV power

system, which adopts the dual stage conversion topology. The

LCL filter is the interface between the VSI and the point

of common coupling (PCC). For ac filtering analysis in a

dual stage PV system with a dc-dc converter (not shown in

Fig. 1), the dc side can be considered as a finite voltage source,

therefore its dynamics are decoupled from the ac side.

Voltage-oriented control is adopted to control the PV inverter

systems [1][3]. For unity power factor operation, the grid side

inductor current, ILg , is regulated to be a sinusoidal waveform

and in-phase with the grid voltage. The detail control is discussed later in Section V. Using the design guidelines from [15]

and considering a maximum total harmonic distortion, THD

of 5% at current output, the LCL parameters are chosen and

shown in Table I (Appendix).

We define: f1 , the fundamental frequency of the grid voltage;

fres , resonance frequency; fc , controller sampling frequency

are considered [2].

For good filtering performance: the resonance frequency

should be in the range of 10f1 < fres < (fsw /2).

The controller sampling frequency should be at least 2fsw .

Stability of the LCL filter is dependent on the ratio of

fres /fc . If the grid side inductor current is used for the

inverter control, then the following relationship should be

maintained for a stable operation: (fres /fc ) > (1/4) (i.e.,

(fres /fsw ) > (1/2)).

Since there is no alternative to achieve a good filtering

performance except by having fres < (fsw /2), the switching

frequency, fsw is chosen such that it is about five times the filter

resonance (5fres ) for effective attenuation of higher order

current harmonics. However, since fc is set to at least 2fsw , it

causes the ratio fres /fc to be less than 1/4, which, consequently

causes resonance (instability). Therefore, the LCL filter resonance needs to be damped to achieve a stable operation.

III. U NDAMPED LCL F ILTER BASED S YSTEM R ESPONSE

The LCL-based system is modeled in the s-domain to

evaluate the system dynamics. For modeling purposes and to

derive the transfer function of the LCL system, it is assumed

that the three phase voltages at the PCC are sinusoidal and

balanced. Therefore, for stability analysis the grid voltage is

neglected, i.e., the grid voltage is treated as a disturbance, which

is a short circuit in the high frequency range. Nevertheless,

as grid voltages are always not sinusoidal and balanced, the

grid voltage (Vg ) is fed forward within the control structure,

which is explained later in Section VI. Another assumption is

that the equivalent series resistances of the passive components

including the inverter side inductor Linv , grid side inductor

Lg and the filter capacitor C are neglected for clarity. These

parasitic elements may provide an additional passive damping

effect that would improve the overall system stability. The

system without passive resistances thus, represents the worst

case for the design process. Fig. 2(a) gives the block diagram

representation of the undamped LCL system including the

inverter. The open loop transfer function (OLTF), GLCL , for

this system in the frequency domain can be written as

GLCL (s) =

Vdc /2

ILg (s)

=

Vm (s)

Linv Lg Cs3 + (Linv + Lg )s

(1)

where Vdc is the dc link voltage, Vm is the normalized modulating signal, ILg is the grid side inductor current. The average

model for the inverter is represented by a gain of Vdc /2 that is

applied to the PWM reference signal.

Following the parameters shown in Table I, the bode plot of

the transfer function in (1) is shown in Fig. 2(b). A sharp peak

is noticeable in the bode diagram at the resonance frequency

of 1.949 kHz. This peak needs to be compensated to have

a flattened low-pass response. It can be clearly noticed from

GLCL (s) in (1) that the denominator has a polynomial without

an s2 term. Therefore, the overall closed loop system is not

stable according to the Rouths stability criterion. It can also

be confirmed from the bode plot analysis. This suggests that an

2797

Fig. 2. Block diagram and frequency response of undamped LCL filter based

grid connected PV system. (a) Block (b) Bode plot.

system.

As highlighted above, to satisfy Rouths criterion for stabilizing the overall closed loop system, a finite s2 term needs

to be introduced into the denominator. This can be done by

calculating the second derivative of the controlled current ILg ,

which passes through a damping gain k, and adding it to the

modulating signal Vm as shown in Fig. 3(a). This leads to a

transfer function that can be written as

ILg (s)

Vdc /2

=

Vm (s) (ks2 ILg (s))

Linv Lg Cs3 + (Linv + Lg )s

(2)

Vdc /2

ILg (s)

=

.

Vm (s)

Linv Lg Cs3 + (Vdc /2) ks2 + (Linv + Lg )s

(3)

Due to the noise in any measured signal, especially when using digital controllers such as a digital signal processor (DSP),

the calculation of derivatives does not lead to a reasonable

result. Therefore, in [14] an approximation of the derivative

term (s2 ) by means of a digital filter is made. The challenges

associated with such an implementation are already discussed

in the introduction section. In addition to the challenges, the

approach in [14] shows difficulty to reduce the resonance peak.

As shown in the bode diagram of Fig. 3(b), the recommended

method in [14] lowers the resonance peak and reduces 68% of

the current oscillations, but still shows considerable gain at the

resonance frequency (7.7 kHz).

The next section proposes a 2DOF PID controller. This is

an alternative way of achieving the missing s2 term in the

denominator of the OLTF of the damped LCL system. In

contrast to the active damping technique in [14], the proposed

2DOF PID active damping technique is simple to implement

and can achieve a well damped system (i.e., a well reduced

resonance peak) without any additional sensors. This 2DOF

PID controller can be realized by analog or digital methods.

Fig. 3. Block diagram and frequency response of actively damped LCL filter

based system using approximated s2 term by means of a digital filter as suggested in reference [14]. (a) Block diagram with finite s2 term. (b) Bode plot.

A 2DOF PID control structure shows flexibility to achieve

a better control performance compared to traditional one degree of freedom (1DOF) PID control [16]. This extra freedom

separates the set-point response from the disturbance rejection

response and allows harmless pole-zero cancellations [17]. In

traditional 1DOF PID control structure, PI (kp and ki ) and D

(kd ) actions are interrelated such that they cannot be controlled

separately. On the other hand, the 2DOF control structure

allows the independent action of PI and D terms giving two

degrees of freedom. We propose a 2DOF PID structure to regulate the inverter current following a given set-point and perform

the function of active damping. Fig. 4 shows the block diagram

representing the LCL filter based PV inverter system including

the proposed active damping loop. The proposed 2DOF PID

controller consists of a PI controller in the main forward loop

and a derivative term in the feedforward loop. For practical

implementation, the D action is achieved by an ideal derivative

term using a low-pass filter. This low-pass filter attenuates the

high frequency noise and therefore, the filter derivative term is

expressed as (kd td s)/(1 + td s), where kd is the derivative gain

2798

good control feature in terms of command following and lowfrequency disturbance rejection. Further, the noticeable change

in phase in the low frequency range (below fres ) indicates

highly damped gains around the resonance frequency and guarantees the closed loop system stability. It can be further noticed

that there is no change in gain or phase at higher frequencies

above fres , which maintains the attenuation performance to

avoid the higher order harmonics from being injected into the

grid by the PV inverter. Another comparison of the reduction

in the resonance peak by the proposed method [see Fig. 5(b)]

to the method proposed in [14] [see Fig. 3(b)] shows that

the proposed method is capable of better resonance reduction.

The next section describes the approach used to determine the

unknown parameters kd , td , kp and ki for the proposed 2DOF

PID controller.

V. P ROPOSED 2DOF PID C ONTROLLER D ESIGN

filter based system using proposed 2DOF PID controller. (a) Block diagram

(b) Bode plot.

(or damping gain) and td is the time constant of the first order

low-pass filter. Vg is fed forward within the control structure.

Fig. 5(a) shows the block diagram of the inverter, LCL filter

and the filtered derivative term. The filtered derivative term

represents the feedforward loop of the 2DOF PID controller.

The feedforward loop is added to the modulating signal Vm as

shown in Fig. 5(a). The new transfer function that includes the

derivative action can be written as

IL (s)

Vdc /2

=

g

.

3 +(L

td k d s

L

L

Cs

inv g

inv +Lg )s

Vm (s)+ ILg (s) 1+td s

(4)

The new damped LCL transfer function GLCL_damped constitutes, a fourth order polynomial in the denominator that

contains all the orders of the s term and can be derived as

in (5), shown at the bottom of the page.

The bode plot of the transfer function in (5) is shown in

Fig. 5(b). Comparing Fig. 5(b) to Fig. 2(b), the positive peak

of the gain at the resonance frequency fres , in the undamped

LCL system has been damped by about 98%. Additionally, the

increased gain in the low frequency range (below fres ) shows

GLCLdamped =

Gsystem =

ki

kp +

s

(e

the page.

To tune the four unknown parameters kd , td , kp and ki of

the 2DOF PID controller in (7), the following two steps are

carried out.

1) Step 1Tuning of Gains kp and ki : In [7], a detailed

procedure to tune kp and ki values is given. However, taking

into account the effect of sampling and transport delay as well

as additional delay caused by signal sensing following, the

controller synthesis considers the modified expressions:

kp

2fco (Linv + Lg )

Vdc

(8)

ki

kp

10/2fco

(9)

Vdc (1 + td s)/2

Linv Lg Ctd s4 + Linv Lg Cs3 + (Linv td + Lg td )s2 + Linv + Lg

block diagram of the proposed 2DOF PID control structure,

applied to the undamped LCL system. The derivative feedforward loop of the 2DOF PID filters the controlled current,

ILg . To design a stable 2DOF PID controller for the plant

(inverter with LCL), the systems OLTF needs to be formulated

and analyzed. The OLTF comprises the PI current controller,

kp + (ki /s), a 1.5Ts delay [consists of sampling delay (Ts )

and transport delay (0.5Ts )] that is modeled as e1.5Ts s in the

forward path and GLCL_damped as expressed in

ki

Gsystem = kp +

(e1.5Ts s ) GLCL_damped . (6)

s

1.5Ts s

Vdc kd td

2

Vdc (1+td s)

2

Linv Lg Ctd s4 + Linv Lg Cs3 + (Linv td + Lg td )s2 + Linv + Lg

(5)

Vdc kd td

2

(7)

Fig. 6.

2799

Block diagram of the actively damped LCL system (2DOF PID + 1.5Ts + plant).

To decide the fco for the calculation method, it can be noted

from Fig. 5(b) that the control bandwidth cannot exceed or

even closely approach the resonance frequency fres as that

would create a 180 phase lag, which then, would result in

unstable oscillation in the closed loop system. Nonnegligible

delays caused by digital sampling and pulse width modulation

would also further constrict the fco . Therefore, the value of fco

is assigned to be 0.3fres , which is fairly a conservative value

[7]. This prevents the interference between the LCL resonant

component and the maximum harmonics of the currents that

need to be controlled.

The gains kp , ki , and kd are for the actual current values

of the model. When per unit (p.u.) values are used within the

controller with a base power of 10 kVA and a base voltage

of 240 V, then the gains kp = kp puaf , ki = ki puaf

and kd = kd puaf are transformed using the p.u. attenuation

factor (puaf = 19.64).

The calculated values for the gains kp and ki are 0.54 and

198, respectively, for the above system.

2) Step 2Tuning of Gains kd and td : According to the

Rouths criteria, in a stable system, all the coefficients of

characteristic equation of (7) should be positive. To guarantee

the system stability, the tuning on kd and td can be expressed

by using the coefficient of the last term of the denominator in

(7), as follows:

kd td

2(Linv + Lg )

.

Vdc

Fig. 7. Bode diagram of the system showing gain and phase margins (PI +

1.5Ts + damped LCL).

(10)

td is calculated by considering kd td as half of the right hand

side of (10). This gives the value of td = 1.47 104 and thus,

the cutoff frequency of LPF becomes 1080 Hz. The derived

control parameters are summarized in Table II in the Appendix.

Following (7), the system bode diagram is shown in Fig. 7. The

system relative stability is demonstrated by the phase margin

and gain margin, which are 48.9 and 4.57 dB, respectively.

Fig. 8. Control diagram (2DOF PID for active damping).

Simulation was carried out in the Matlab/Simulink environment based on the system shown in Fig. 1 and the parameters

given in Tables I and II. Table II gives the system parameters

including grid voltage, line frequency, dc link voltage, and

system capacity. The performance of the proposed 2DOF PID

based active damping method with the designed controller

parameters, determined in the previous section, is verified by

resistive load and the grid. Fig. 8 shows the overall controller

diagram of the three phase grid-tied system including the

proposed active damping loop and dq reference frames.

The inverter controller consists of an outer dc link voltage

control loop with an inner current loop that guarantees a good

dynamic and steady state performance. In this paper, the dc

link is represented by a finite source of 800 V dc. A phase

2800

Fig. 9. Simulation results of the undamped LCL filter based grid connected

PV system.

and phase of the grid voltage at the PCC. The three grid

side inductor currents are transformed using dq synchronous

reference frame to Id_CC and Iq_CC .

The currents Id_CC and Iq_CC are compared to the Id_ref

which adjusts the active power and the Iq_ref = 0 for zero

reactive power, respectively. The generated errors are then

passed through the current controller (PI controller) to generate

the voltage references for the inverter.

To get a good dynamic response, Vd_CC and Vq_cc are both

fed forward, as shown in Fig. 8. A gain of 2/Vdc is used on

the three phase grid voltages before the dq transformation to extract the modulating signals (i.e., modulation indexes) for each

of the phases as V

ac = mVdc /2). Since the feedforward voltage

in the control loop now considers the grid voltage disturbance

(the grid voltage was neglected during modeling in the

Section III), the control is immune to the impact from the

grid distortion disturbances. Therefore, an improved quality of

the controlled current is expected when the practical system is

tested under grid voltage harmonic disturbances. The generated

reference voltages in dq reference frame are then transformed

back into a stationary reference frame that can be used as

command voltages to generate high frequency PWM voltages.

For comparison, the LCL system without active damping

control is simulated and the result is shown in Fig. 9. For

simplicity, results of only phase-A in p.u. values are shown.

The oscillations in the grid side inductor current (ILgA )

with significant amplitude can be noticed due to inadequate

damping. Fig. 10 gives the simulated results with the proposed

2DOF active damping method. Note that the power delivered

by the PV system to the main grid is shown as out-of-phase

injected current. It demonstrates that the proposed method

effectively suppresses the oscillations providing a stable system

performance. The THD of gird side inductor current (ILg_A )

is noticed as 2.6% at rated output power injection.

The effectiveness of the 2DOF active damping technique

is compared with another well-known capacitor voltage based

active damping technique [1], [9]. To test the robustness of

the controller, the system is tested with a three phase distorted

and unbalanced load. A single-phase full bridge rectifier is

connected between phase-A and -N. The load on the dc side

Fig. 10. Simulation results of the actively damped LCL filter based grid

connected PV system with proposed 2DOF active damping technique.

Fig. 11. Performance of proposed 2DOF PID active damping technique under

distorted and unbalanced three phase load.

(10 ) and a parallel connected capacitor (200 F). The loads

on the Phase-B and Phase-C are a resistor (80 ) and series

combination of resistance-inductor (30 + 10 mH), respectively. The load currents (ILoad_ABC ) due to the non-linear and

unbalanced load combination are shown in Fig. 11.

The LCL filter based system performance with the proposed

2DOF PID active damping method and with the capacitor voltage based active damping technique is shown in Figs. 11 and 12,

respectively. For both cases, the active damping control loop is

activated at 0.02 s. As noticed from Figs. 11 and 12 (expanded

results, after time 0.04 s), both the active damping techniques

give satisfactory performance. However, the capacitor voltage

based technique requires estimation of capacitor voltage that

depends on the accuracy of the plant model parameters. The

proposed 2DOF active damping technique uses the existing

grid side currents to achieve the desired performance. The

THD of ILg is noticed as 3.4% using the proposed technique,

which is better than 4.8% that is achieved with the capacitor

voltage based technique. The proposed method shows a fast

under distorted and unbalanced three phase load.

2801

Fig. 13.

state.

This comparison shows that the proposed 2DOF PID controller

is effective in damping the LCL resonance and is not affected

by the distortion in the load current.

VII. R EAL -T IME HIL E XPERIMENTAL VALIDATION

A real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experiment is carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed 2DOF

damping technique. The HIL system consists of an FPGA based

digital simulator from OPAL-RT and a DSP. The plant is allocated within one core of the 8-core OPAL-RT system. The plant

represents the power system, which includes the inverter, LCL

filter, three-phase load and grid as given in Fig. 1. The controller

(Fig. 8) of this PV VSI system is implemented on a separate

DSP, DS1103 of dSPACE. The input/output limits of the OPALRT and DS1103 are +/16 V and +/10 V respectively. The

three phase PCC voltages and grid side inductor currents are

the analog outputs of the OPAL-RT plant which are sent to the

DS1103 controller via its own ADCs. The DSP decides the

PWM reference signals via the PI controller such that all

the 10 kW active power is transferred to both the load and the

grid as described in Section VI. The PWM output from DS1103

is sent to the inverter gate drivers within the OPAL-RT plant via

its own time stamped digital inputs (TSDIs). The TSDIs are

capable of precisely realizing the high frequency PWM pulses.

The setup is run with the same gains kp , ki , kd and the

time constant td that were used for simulation. Furthermore,

the identical parameters, as given in Table II, are used for

HIL experimental systems. The dSPACE DSP controller is

run at a discrete fixed time step of 50 s (TS ). In all the

experimental results, the voltages and currents are represented

in p.u. where 1 p.u. = 1 V. Fig. 13 shows the HIL experimental

result obtained at steady state for the undamped LCL system.

As expected, the system is unstable and the output oscillations

are saturated to 5 p.u. for safe OPAL-RT and DSP operation.

Fig. 14 shows HIL experimental results that the system stabilizes as expected when the active damping 2DOF PID loop

is enabled while the system is running without any damping.

Fig. 14. HIL experimental result when the active damping loop for the LCL

system is enabled.

Fig. 15. HIL experimental result the actively damped LCL system during

steady state.

LCL system where 1 p.u. grid side inductor current is the output from the inverter. Current of 0.5 p.u. is transferred to the

5 kW load and remaining 0.5 p.u. is injected into the grid. The

capacitor current is high frequency current harmonics absorbed

2802

Fig. 16. HIL experimental result: transition of the inverter power supply level

from 50% to 100%.

Fig. 18. Effect of grid voltage distortion on the quality of controlled current

(without feedforward).

TABLE I

S YSTEM PARAMETERS U SED FOR S IMULATION AND E XPERIMENT

Fig. 17. Effect of grid voltage distortion on the quality of controlled current

(with feedforward).

filtered by the LCL filter as expected. The THD of grid voltage

is 2.4% while the THD of the ILg is 2.5%. Using the proposed

2DOF active damping technique, the magnitude of the current

oscillations is reduced by about 98% in comparison with the

undamped system.

Fig. 16 shows the experimental results obtained when a step

change in the current reference from 0.5 p.u. to 1 p.u. is made.

The actively damped 2DOF PID current controller tracks the

reference satisfactorily within one power cycle. In Fig. 17, the

experimental results show a distorted grid voltage with 5% of

5th harmonic and 5% of 7th harmonic. The test of grid voltage

feedforward discussed earlier demonstrates that the controller

responds well toward any grid distortion that may occur in any

real system. The result shows that the grid voltage has THD of

8.1% and the injected current (ILg ) has 3.8% THD (which is

well below the considered 5% THD limit).

For comparison purposes, the system is tested without the

feedforward loop and the result for this case is shown in Fig. 18.

A THD of 8.7% is noticed in the controlled current (ILg )

without the feedforward loop. For further improvement of the

harmonic contents of the controlled current, ILg , selective

harmonic current compensators may be considered, which lies

outside the scope of this paper. Also, the robustness of the above

2DOF PID current controller (active damping) is analyzed with

different grid impedance values. Initially the grid impedance

consisted of 0.1 resistance and 1 mH inductance. The system

is tested with varied grid impedance (2 mH, 5 mH, and 10 mH)

and has no effect on the THD of the controlled current. THD of

ILg remains between 2.4% to 2.6%.

VIII. C ONCLUSION

In this paper, a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) PID active

damping method is proposed to attenuate the resonance that

is caused by the LCL filter based PV system. The proposed

method is straightforward to design and uses the existing grid

side inductor currents by eliminating the need for additional

sensors. It is shown that oscillations are damped by about

98% using proposed 2DOF PID technique. A general controller

tuning process is also presented without compromising on

the filtering performance of the LCL filter. The control loop

secures a phase margin of 49 with consideration of the time

delay (1.5Ts ) caused by digital control. The simulation and HIL

experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed

active damping technique. The proposed 2DOF PID controller

does not affect the quality of the controlled current during practical grid voltage distortion, grid impedance variation

and unbalanced/distorted load. The HIL experimental study

validates the controller design considering a digital controller

delay to tune the 2DOF PID gains and simulation results.

TABLE II

C ONTROLLER PARAMETERS FOR SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENT

A PPENDIX

The system parameters and controller coefficients are listed

in Tables I and II, respectively.

2803

(Hons.) degree in electrical and electronic engineering with High Achievers Award scholarship from

University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K., in

2007, and the Ph.D. degree from Dublin Institute of

Technology, Ireland, in 2011.

He worked as a Postdoctoral Researcher at Masdar

Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi,

UAE, from October 2011 to 2012. From November

2012, he has been appointed as a Senior Lecturer at

the Department of Electrical Engineering, University

of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. His research interest is in the

area of power electronics converters and their control, MPPT of photovoltaic

power, Islanding detection, grid integration of renewables, and micro/smart grid

operation.

Dr. Hanif has received a number of research grants from the University of

Cape Towns Research Committee and also serves as a member on the editorial

board of International Journal of Applied Control, Electrical, and Electronics

Engineering (IJACEEE).

R EFERENCES

[1] M. Malinowski and S. Bernet, A simple voltage sensorless active damping scheme for three-phase PWM converters with an LCL filter, IEEE

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[2] J. Dannehl, M. Liserr, and F. W. Fuchs, Filter-based active damping of

voltage source converters with LCL filter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,

vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 36233633, Aug. 2011.

[3] S. Wei, W. Xiaojie, D. Peng, and Z. Juan, An overview of damping

methods for three-phase PWM rectifier, in Proc. ICIT, Apr. 2124, 2008,

pp. 15.

[4] K. Jalili and S. Bernet, Design of LCL filters of active-front-end twolevel voltage-source converters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56,

no. 5, pp. 16741689, May 2009.

[5] J. L. Agorreta, M. Borrega, J. Lpez, and L. Marroyo, Modeling and control of N-paralleled grid-connected inverters with LCL filter coupled due

to grid impedance in PV plants, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26,

no. 3, pp. 770785, Mar. 2011.

[6] M. H. Bierhoff and F. W. Fuchs, Active damping for three-phase PWM

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vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 371379, Feb. 2009.

[7] Y. Tang, P. C. Loh, P. Wang, F. H. Choo, F. Gao, and F. Blaabjerg,

Generalized design of high performance shunt active power filter with

output LCL filter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 1443

1452, Mar. 2012.

[8] Y. A.-R. I. Mohamed, M. A.-Rahman, and R. Seethapathy, Robust

line-voltage sensorless control and synchronization of LCL-filtered distributed generation inverters for high power quality grid connection,

IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 8798, Jan. 2012.

[9] M. Malinowski, S. Stynski, W. Kolomyjski, and M. P. Kazmierkowski,

Control of three-level PWM converter applied to variable-speed-type

turbines, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 6977, Jan. 2009.

[10] W. Gullvik, L. Norum, and R. Nilsen, Active damping of resonance

oscillations in LCL-filters based on virtual flux and virtual resistor, in

Proc. Power Electron. Appl. Conf., Sep. 25, 2007, pp. 110.

[11] M. Liserre, A. DellAquila, and F. Blaabjerg, Genetic algorithm-based

design of the active damping for an LCL-filter three-phase active rectifier, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 7686, Jan. 2004.

[12] J. Dannehl, C. Wessels, and F. W. Fuchs, Limitations of voltage-oriented

pi current control of grid-connected PWM rectifiers with LCL filters,

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 380388, Feb. 2009.

[13] R. Teodorescu, F. Blaabjerg, M. Liserre, and A. DellAquila, A stable three-phase LCL-filter based active rectifier without damping, in

Conf. Rec. IEEE 38th IAS Annu. Meeting, Oct. 1216, 2003, vol. 3,

pp. 15521557.

[14] C. P. Dick, S. Richter, M. Rosekeit, J. Rolink, and R. W. De Doncker, Active damping of LCL resonance with minimum sensor effort by means of

a digital infinite impulse response filter, in Proc. Power Electron. Appl.

Conf., Sep. 25, 2007, pp. 18.

[15] M. Liserre, F. Blaabjerg, and S. Hansen, Design and control of an LCLfilter-based three-phase active rectifier, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41,

no. 5, pp. 12811291, Sep./Oct. 2005.

[16] M. Araki and H. Taguchi, Two-degree-of-freedom PID controllers, Int.

J. Control, Autom. Syst., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 401411, Dec. 2003.

[17] K. J. strm and T. Hgglund, PID ControllersTheory, Design, and

Tuning, 2nd ed. Research Triangle Park, NC, USA: Instrum. Soc. Amer.,

1995.

degree from the Government College of Engineering, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, India, in 2000, the M.Tech.

degree from the Indian Institute of Technology

(IITD), New Delhi, India, in 2002, and the Ph.D.

degree in electrical engineering from the cole

de Technologie Suprieure (E.T.S.), Montral, QC,

Canada, in 2008, all in electrical engineering.

From December 2008 to March 2010, he was a

Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Western

Ontario, London, ON, Canada. Since April 2010 he has been an Assistant

Professor at Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

From April to December 2010, he was a Visiting Faculty at Massachusetts

Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA. His research interests

include applications of power electronics in distribution systems and renewable

energy resources, grid interconnection issues, power quality enhancement,

active power filters and electric vehicles.

degrees from the University of British Columbia,

Vancouver, Canada, in 2003 and 2007, respectively.

He is a Faculty Member with the electric power

engineering program at the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE. In 2010, he

spent eight months working as a Visiting Scholar

at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),

Cambridge, MA, USA. Prior to his academic career,

he worked with the MSR Innovations Inc. in Canada

as an R&D Engineering Manager focusing on

projects related to integration, research, optimization and design of photovoltaic

power systems. His research interest includes photovoltaic power systems,

dynamic systems and control, power electronics, and industry applications.

Ph.D. degrees from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA, in 1968 and

1971, respectively.

He is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at

MIT. He has worked for General Electric, Large

Steam Turbine Generator Department and for Satcon

Technology Corporation. He is a specialist in electric

machinery and electric power systems.

Dr. Kirtley served as Editor in Chief of the IEEE

T RANSACTIONS ON E NERGY C ONVERSION from

1998 to 2006 and continues to serve as Editor for the journal and as a member

of the Editorial Board of the journal Electric Power Components and Systems.

He was awarded the IEEE Third Millenium medal in 2000 and the Nikola Tesla

prize in 2002. He is a Registered Professional Engineer in Massachusetts and is

a member of the United States National Academy of Engineering.

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