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ME 2351- Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion

Mechanical Engineering

2013-2014

UNIT I

ME2351 GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION PART A BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISENTROPIC FLOWS

1. Define Gas Dynamics. Fluid dynamics of compressible flow are referred as gas dynamics

2. List out any two fields in which gas dynamics is applied.

1. Mechanical engineering

3. Define Fluid.

2.

Aeronautical engineering.

A fluid is a substance which continuously deforms when shearing forces are applied.

Ex: Liquid, gases, vapours.

4. Define ( i) incompressible flow

(ii) compressible flow

 (i) Incompressible flow: If the relative change in density of a liquid in a process is negligibly small it is said to have incompressible flow. Flow of gases at low Mach number (less than 0.3) can be assumed as incompressible. (ii) Compressible flow: The fluid in which the relative change in density are appreciable and cannot be neglected

are called as compressible flow. Flow at Mach number higher then 0.3 are considered as compressible

5. Define coefficient of compressibility. Coefficient of compressibility (β) of a fluid is defined as the ratio of relative change in volume to change in pressure.

relative changeinvolume

changein pressure

6. What are the factors that affect the flow of a fluid?

 1 Fluid properties such as pressure, density, enthalpy, entropy. 2. Velocity of fluid at duct entrance 3 External heat and work addition 4. Geometry of the duct.

7. Define flow process. Give some examples.

A change or series of change in an open system is referred to as flow process.

Some examples of flow process are:

Expansion and compression process of steam or gas in steam turbine and turbo compressors are examples of flow

process in open systems.

8. Define non-flow process. Give some examples.

A change or series of changes in a closed system is referred to as non-flow process.

Examples of non-flow process are: (1) Constant volume heating and cooling of a gas or a vapour. (2) Expansion or compression in reciprocating engines and compressors.

9. What is the difference between hydraulics and gas dynamics? The difference between hydraulics and gas dynamics is that the gas dynamics deals with compressible flow whereas hydraulics deals with incompressible flow.

10. List out the five equations available for the analysis of fluid flow problems.

 (1) Continuity equation based on law of conservation of mass. (2) Momentum equation based on Newton’s law of motion. (3) Steady flow energy equation based on first law of thermodynamics. (4) Entropy equation based on second law of thermodynamics. (5) Equation of state based on observation.

11. Define Equation of state. The state of a given system is completely defined by the certain minimum number of thermodynamic parameters. The relationship between these parameters is known as equation of state.

12. Give some examples of adiabatic process involving only energy transformation. Expansion of gases in nozzles and their compression in diffusers.

13. What are the properties that define the state of a pure substance? The properties that define the state of a pure substance are pressure and specific volume.

14. What are the basic objectives of steady flow devices?

 (1) To convert stored energy into kinetic energy(ex: nozzle) (2) To convert kinetic energy into internal energy (ex: diffuser) (3) To convert fluid from place to place (ex: pipes, ducts)

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15. What is continuity equation? The continuity equation is based on the law of conservation of mass. Due to steady flow, there is no mass accumulation within the system and hence Rate of inflow of mass = Rate of outflow of mass cA(d)(cdc)(A dA)

16. What does the term ‘∑F’ contains?

 (1) Body forces like inertia, gravitational and electromagnetic forces. (2) Surface forces like friction, pressure and surface tension forces.

17. Define moment of momentum equation. Moment of momentum equation states that “The algebraic sum of torques is equal to the rate of change of moment

of momentum with respect to time”.

F r

d

dt

(

mc

r)

18. Define stagnation state. The state of a fluid attained by isentropically decelerating it to zero velocity at zero elevation is referred to as stagnation state.

19. Define isentropic stagnation enthalpy. Isentropic stagnation enthalpy is defined as the maximum enthalpy of the fluid when the fluid is brought to rest isentropically.

20. List out the dimensionless parameters that measure the fluid flow.

(1)

Mach number

(2)

Reynolds number

21. Define fluid velocity. Fluid velocity © at a given point is defined as the instantaneous velocity of the fluid of the particle passing through that point.

22. Define Mach number. Mach number is defined as the ratio of fluid velocity to the local velocity of sound.

c
c
M  
a
RT

23. What is the use of Mach number? Mach number is used as a parameter to describe the velocity distribution along the flow of a fluid.

24. List the four reference velocities that are used in expressing fluid velocities in non-dimensional form.

 (1) Local velocity of sound (a) (2) Stagnation velocity of sound (a 0 ) (3) Maximum velocity of fluid / sound (c max ) (4) Critical velocity of fluid / sound, c* = a*

25. Define (i) subsonic flow region (ii) supersonic region.

 (i) Subsonic flow region: The region of flow having Mach number less than unity (ii) Supersonic region: The region of flow having Mach number always greater than unity. (iii) Define transonic region: A small region extending on both sides of the sonic point (M =1) has Mach numbers, which are either slightly lower or higher than unity.

26. Define hypersonic region. The region in which Mach number is very high and the flow velocity is considerably greater than velocity of sound is called hypersonic region.

27. Define critical velocity of sound. Velocity of sound when the flow is sonic in known as critical velocity of sound. a * = C* = (γRT) 1/2

UNIT II

FLOW THROUGH DUCTS

1. What are the salient features to be considered for flow through constant area duct? The flow through constant area duct should be free form.

(1) Work and heat transfer

(2) Area changes

(3)

Gravitational effects.

2. Define fanno flow and give the expression. Flow in a constant area duct with friction in the absence of work and heat transfer is known as fanno flow.

The expression for fanno flow is,

dF

M

2

dM

2

dp

F

1 M

2

M

2

p

3. List out the practical situations in which fanno flow occurs.

Gas ducts of air craft engines

4. List out the assumptions of fanno flow.

(1)

(2) Air conditioning systems

(3)

Industrial plants.

 (1) Perfect gas (2) Constant area duct (3) One-dimensional steady frictional flow (4) Absence of heat and work transfer.

5. What does the fanno line describes? Fanno line describes an adiabatic flow process in a constant area duct with friction.

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ME 2351- Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion

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2013-2014

6. Give the critical conditions in a fanno line. (1) The stagnation enthalpy and flow rate per unit area remains constant. (2) The process is irreversible and governed by equation of continuity and equation of state.

7. Why fanno flow charts are used? Fanno flow charts are used for quick and approximate solutions of fanno flow problems.

8. List out the parameters that vary in a fanno flow.

 (1) Velocity (2) Density (3) Temperature (4) Pressure (5) Stagnation Pressure (6) Entropy change (7) Impulse function.

9. What happens to the stagnation temperature in a fanno flow? Stagnation temperature remains constant.

10. What happens to fanno flow at the point of maximum entropy? At the point of maximum entropy, fanno flow becomes sonic.

11. State the assumptions used to derive equation for isothermal flow.

(1) Perfect gas

(2)

Duct of constant area

(3) Absence of body forces(4) One directional frictional flow at constant temperature.

12. What is the condition for isothermal flow with friction to occur in long ducts? Isothermal flow with friction occurs in long ducts under the condition where sufficient time is available for heat transfer to occur and therefore temperature may remain constant.

13. State the conditions during which chocking occur in an isothermal flow. Chocking occurs at maximum enthalpy . M = 1 / γ

14. Why do thermal properties of fluid vary in isothermal flow? The thermal properties of a fluid vary because of, (1) Heat transfer effect (2) Viscous effect (3) Area variation such that static temperature remains unaltered.

15. What is the effect of friction on (i) subsonic region (ii) supersonic region?

 (i) In subsonic region friction causes irreversible acceleration of the flow with pressure drop. (ii) In supersonic region wall friction causes irreversible deceleration of the flow with increase in pressure.

16. List out the effects of heat addition / removal from a working fluid during its flow in constant area duct. The effects are: (1) Local enthalpy (2) Density at any section.

17. Define Rayleigh flow. A frictionless flow process in a constant area duct with heat transfer is defined as Rayleigh flow.

18. List out the assumptions used in the analysis of Rayleigh flow process.

 (1) (2) Constant area duct (3) Perfect gas One dimensional steady frictionless flow (4) Absence of body forces

19. Give the expression for velocity of gas at maximum entropy point to be sonic. The expression for velocity of gas at maximum entropy point to be sonic is, M M *1

20. Give examples of Rayleigh flow encountered in thermal systems.

(1) Heat transfer process

(2) Heat exchangers

(3) Combustion chamber

21. What are the examples of fanno flow and Rayleigh flow? Fanno flow is applied to adiabatic flow, Rayleigh flow is applied to frictionless flow with heat transfer.

22. Define thermal choking in a Rayleigh flow. The change in initial condition of flow by addition of heat with lowering of Mach number is termed as thermal choking.

23. Give the value of Mach number for maximum heat transfer in case of a flow through a constant area duct with influence of heat transfer. The maximum heat transfer for a constant area duct occurs only when Mach number M = 1 in which the entropy increases.

24. Define over expanded nozzle. The nozzle in which the exit pressure is less than back pressure is called as over expanded nozzle.

25. Define under expanded nozzle. The nozzle in which exit pressure is higher than back pressure is termed as under expanded nozzle.

26. Define generalized gas dynamics. The dynamics which deals with combination of all flow process under one roof is termed as generalized gas dynamic.

27. List out the applications of gamma functions of (Γ) of generalized gas dynamics.

(1) Isentropic flow

(2) Fanno flow

(3)

Rayleigh flow

(4)

Constant area one-dimensional normal shock process

(4) Isothermal flow

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ME 2351- Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion

Mechanical Engineering

2013-2014

28. Give the expression for generalized compressible flow (Γ).



P

P

0

1

 

P

1  

P

0

1

1

2

2

1

1 1

2

1

1

1

29. Give the expression for isotropic flow with gamma function (Γ).

The expression for isotropic flow with gamma function (Γ) is,

fanno

  0 *

 

 

0

30. Give expression for constant area one-dimensional normal shock process with gamma function. The expression for constant area one-dimensional normal shock process with gamma function (Γ) is,

normalshock

  0 *

 

 

0

 

 

UNIT III NORMAL AND OBLIQUE SHOCKS

1. Define wave motion. Wave motion is defined as the movement of the disturbance relative to the medium.

2. Define shock wave. An abrupt change in fluid properties across a short distance is called as shock wave.

3. Define normal shock wave.

It is defined as the abrupt jump in pressure when they are at right angles to the direction of flow.

4. List out some effects of shock in a flow. (1) Shocks may cause boundary layer separation

5. List the change in properties before and after the normal shock.

(2) Shocks deviates the flow from its designated direction.

(1) Increase in entropy

(2) Stagnation pressure loss

(3) Increase in temperature after the shock

6. List out the equations that govern the normal shock waves.

(1) Continuity equation

(2) Momentum equation

(3) Energy equation

(4) State equation

7. Define Prandtl-Meyer relation. The fundamental relation used to compare gas velocities before and after normal shock and to derive critical velocity of sound is known as Pradtl-Meyer relation.

8. Define Prandtl-Meyer expansion. Supersonic flow expansion around a convex corner, involves a smooth gradual change in flow properties are called as Prandtl-Meyer expansion.

9. Give the Prandtl-Meyer relation of normal shock wave.

The Prandtl-Meyer relation of normal shock wave is,

C

x

.C

y

2

a*

10. Give another form of Prandtl-Meyer relation. The another form of Prandtl-Meyer relation is,

11. Define Rankine-Hugoniot equation. The equation which relates pressure and density ratios across a shockwave in a perfect gas is known as Rankine- Hugoniot equation.

12. Define strength of shockwave.

M

x

*

.

M *

y

1

It is defined as the ratio of pressure increase due to shock to the initial or upstream pressure.

13. List out the assumptions used in deriving upstream Mach number.

 (1) Shock wave is normal at the stagnation streamline, this can be ensured if pitot tube is parallel to the flow. (2) Gas is brought to rest at the mouth of the tube isentropically.

14. What are the effects of normal shocks in a flow through convergent divergent passages?

In case of convergent divergent passages the normal shock leads to drop in fluid velocity instantaneously from

supersonic to subsonic as the pressure rise across the shock wave front.

15. Define compression shock.

A shock which occurs in a stream that is supersonic in that upstream from the shock plane and accompanied by an

increase in entropy is known as compression shock.

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ME 2351- Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion

16. Define rarefraction shock.

Mechanical Engineering

2013-2014

A shock which is opposite to the compression shock and would accelerate the flow from subsonic to supersonic

velocity is known ass rarefraction shock.

17. List out the applications of propagating steep waves.

(1)

Shock tubes

(4) Comprex engines

(2)

(5)

Supersonic gas ducts Pulse jet engines

18. List out the applications of moving normal shock waves.

(1) To study high temperature chemistry

(3) To study the destructive effect of blast waves due to explosion

(2) To study high speed aerodynamics

19. Give the expression for velocity of a shock moving into stagnant gas.

The expression for velocity of a shock moving into stagnant gas is,

y

2

  1 1

1

x

1

 

x

1

y

2

20. Give the expression for velocity of a shock moving into stagnant gas.

The expression for velocity of a shock moving into stagnant gas

2

sh

2

x

2

21. List out the applications of supersonic diffusers.

(1) Supersonic wind tunnels

(2) Compressors

(3) Supersonic inlets of aircraft engines and missiles

22. List out the assumptions used in deriving diffuser efficiency.

(1)

Diffusion occurs in 2 stages

(2) Velocity at the diffusers exit is negligible

(3) Perfect gas.

23. Give the two stages in which diffusion occurs. (1) Through a normal shock at the entry section (2) Through isentropic deceleration of the subsonic flow after the shock in the diverging passage.

24. Define oblique shock wave. When the direction of flow is inclined at an oblique angle to the shock wave it is known as oblique shock wave. It

is also known as two dimensional plane shock wave.

25. What is the wave angle of an oblique shock wave? The wave angle of an oblique shock wave is, 90 degrees.

26. Give some practical examples of oblique shock waves. (1) At the exit of turbine blade passages with supersonic flow (2) At the entry of supersonic diffuser of aircraft engines (3) Drag due to shock on an aerodynamic body

27. When oblique shock wave occurs? Oblique shock wave occurs when a supersonic flow is deflected inwards (anticlockwise direction).

28. Define wave angle. The angle which the oblique shock wave makes with initial direction of flow is called wave angle (σ).

29. Define shock polar. The graphical representation of oblique shock properties is known as shock polar.

30. Define shock polar diagram. The strophoid curve used to study the characteristics of flow through oblique shocks shock polar diagram.

UNIT IV JET PROPULSION

1. Define jet propulsion. When oxygen is obtained form the surrounding atmosphere for combustion process, the system is called as jet propulsion.

2. Define tertiary air. After the complete combustion, the remaining air in the combustion chamber (about 55%) is used only to dilute the high fuel-air ratio mixture and lowering down its temperature to safe limit the turbine is known as tertiary air.

3. Define tail pipe. Hot gases after expanding through turbine enter the exhaust pipe known as jet pipe or tail pipe.

4. What are the laws of Newton that gives relation for jet propulsion?

(1) Newton’s First law

(2) Newton’s Third law

5. Define jet propulsion system. When the work output of the gas turbine plant is used to produce high velocity jet of hot gases and this jet is used

to propel the vehicle in which the system is mounted, such a system is called as jet propulsion system.

6. List out the different types of jet propulsion systems used.

(1) Screw propeller

(2)

Turbo-jet`

(3)

Turbo prop

(4) Ram jet

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ME 2351- Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion

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7. How are jet engines classified?

(1) Ram jet engine

(2) Pulse jet engine

(3) Turbo-jet engine

8. What are the processes involved in jet engine cycle?

(1)

(3)

(5)

Isentropic deceleration through a diffuser Constant pressure heat addition in a combustion chamber

Isentropic expansion through a nozzle

(2) Isentropic compression in compressor. (4)Isentropic expansion in a nozzle. (6) Constant pressure heat rejection.

9. What is the use of compressor in aircraft gas turbine engine? Ambient air is sucked by the compressor through an inlet diffuser so that the pressure of air is raised by the compressor besides small rise through the diffuser.

10. Why does the actual turbo-jet cycle deviate from ideal cycle? The actual turbo-jet cycle deviate from ideal cycle because of irreversibility and pressure losses.

11. Define thrust. The force which propels the aircraft forward at a given speed is called thrust or propulsive force.

12. Give the expression for propeller thrust.

The expression for propellor thrust is,

F

maCj u

13. Give the expression for effective speed ratio.

The expression for effective speed ratio is,

Where,

u

Cj

u = Flight speed

C j = Jet velocity

14. Give the expression for no-dimensional value of thrust.

The expression for no-dimensional value of thrust is,

F

m

a

Cj

1

 

15. Give the expression for jet thrust.

Net thrust

F

moment thrust

F

m

a

pressurethrust

C

The expression for jet thrust is given by,

16. Give the expression for thrust power of turbo jet engine.

The expression for thrust power of turbo jet engine is,

F

pr

e

u

  

e

a

A

c

F

m

F

W

mom

Thrust power mcj uu

F s

s

17. Define specific thrust. Specific thrust is defined as the thrust produced per unit flow rate through the propulsive device.

18. Give an expression that relates specific thrust and TSFC. An expression that relates specific thrust and TSFC are,

TSFC

f

F

s

19. Define specific impulse (I s ). Specific impulse is the thrust developed per unit weight flow rate through the propulsive device.

20. Define thrust power. Thrust power is the unbalanced force which is caused by the difference in momentum of the low velocity air entering the engine and the high velocity exhaust gases leaving the engine.

21. Define combustion efficiency (η B ). Combustion efficiency (η B ) is defined as ratio of increase in enthalpy of gases to energy supplied to the fuel.

B

 theoritical fuel  air ratio  f ' actual fuel  air ratio f

22. Define ram effect. The pressure rise takes place due to the conversion of kinetic energy of incoming air into pressure energy by the diffuser. This type of compression is called as ram effect.

23. Why a ramjet engine does not require a compressor or turbine? The pressure rise required is provided by the ram effect on the incoming high kinetic energy of air. Ram jet will not operate statically and it depends on the velocity of the incoming air for compression, so there is no need for compressor.

24. What is the major drawback of ramjet engine? The major drawback of the ramjet engine is that it cannot be started by its own from rest.

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25. Define turbonfan engine. Turbonfan engine is defined as the combination of turboprop and turbojet engine

26. Define bypass ratio (B).

Bypass ratio is defined as the ratio of mass flow rates of cold air and hot air streams.



m

c

m

h

27. Define turboprop engine. Turboprop engine is defined as the turbo engine with a screw propeller at the front for inducement.

28. How is the thrust produced in a turbo prop engine? Thrust is produced by the increase in the momentum flux of a large mass of air passing through the propeller.

29. Define pulsejet engine. Pulsejet engine is defined as the thrust producing device without turbine and compressor. Compression is achieved

in the diffuser due to the same effect.

30. Why the engine is called as pulsejet engine? The short burst of expansion of gases create a vaccum in the combustion chamber due to which the thrust is unsteady and produced in short pulses, hence it is termed as pulsejet.

UNIT V

SPACE PROPULSION

1. Define rocket propulsion. The system in which the propulsion unit contains it own oxygen supply for combustion purpose, is known as rocket propulsion.

2. What are the components of rocket engine? The components of rocket engine are container, combustion chamber and exhaust nozzle besides control and navigational equipment, payload etc.

3. Define liquid propellant rockets. Rocket engines in which liquid fuels and oxidizers are used are known as liquid propellant rocket engines.

4. Define solid propellant rockets. Rockets which use solid fuels and oxidizers are known as solid propellant rocket engines.

5. Define hypergolic propellants. For some combinations, ignition is not required to start the reaction; merely a contact between the fuel and oxidizer starts the required reaction. Such propellants are known as hypergolic propellants.

6. Define electrical rockets. Rockets in which thrust is produced by employing the electrical energy are called as electrical rockets.

7. Define nuclear rockets. Rockets in which nuclear energy is used to heat the propellant or the working fluid to obtain high stagnation temperature in the thrust chamber are known as nuclear rockets.

8. Define solar rockets.

It is defined as the rockets in which heat energy from solar radiation is used to heat propellant such as hydrogen.

9. Define cryogenic propellants. The propellants which are in the gaseous state at normal temperature and require extremely low temperature to maintain them in the liquid state are known as cryogenic propellants.

10. Define monopropellant.

A liquid propellant which contains both the fuel and oxidizer in a single chemical is known as monopropellant.

11. Which convenient method of ignition is used to ignite liquid propellants?

A convenient method of ignition is to use a hypergolic fluid for a short time which starts combustion after coming

into contact with one of the propellant which is injected first in the combustor.

12. What is the use of inhibitors in solid propellants? Inhibitors or restrictors are used to regulate or prevent burning of the propellant grain or some sections of its surface.

13. Name the stabilizers used in solid propellants. The stabilizers are nitroglycerine (NG) and nitrocellulose (NC).

14. Define propellant grain.

A well-mixed fuel and oxidizer already present in thrust chamber is known as propellant grain.

15. Define combustion limit.

A solid propellant grain requires a certain minimum value of the combustion pressure for stable combustion. This

minimum value of the pressure is known as combustion limit.

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16. Define propellant area ratio. The ratio of the surface area available for burning of a propellant grain and the throat area of the exhaust nozzle is

known as propellant area ratio.

Propellant ratio

k

c

p

17. Give the expression that relates area ratio and equilibrium combustion pressure.

The expression that relates area ratio and equilibrium combustion pressure is,

n 2

  

2

c

18. Define unrestricted burning. If the propellant grain surface is not restricted from burning and all surfaces except those with supports are exposed to the flame or hot gases, the mode of combustion is known as unrestricted burning.

19. Define thrust (F).

The force that propels the rocket at a given velocity is known as thrust. It is denoted as,

20. Define specific impulse (I s ). Specific impulse is the thrust per unit flow rate of the propellant.

s

F

W

F

W

g

c

j

21. Give the expression for total impulse of rocket engine. The expression for total impulse of rocket engine is,

22. Define effective jet velocity (C j ). The velocity of the jet when the gases through the nozzle expand to the ambient pressure is known as effective jet velocity (C j ).

23. Define impulse to weight ratio.

t

 W

s

It is the ratio of total impulse of the rocket to the total weight of rocket vehicle system.

WR

t

w

t

24. Define total weight (W t ). Total weight W t is the weight of the rocket vehicle system at take off. It includes a large proportion of propellant weight (W p ).

25. Classify the types of missiles propelled by both solid and liquid fuel rockets in short and long range operations.

(1)

Surface to air missile (SAM)

(2) Surface to surface missile (SSM)

(3)

Air to Air missile (AAM

(4) Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)

(5)

Guided air missile (GAM).

26. Define booster. The first stage lifts off the entire rocket-vehicle system is known as booster.

27. Give the types of satellites launched and propelled by rockets. Earth, lunar, Interplanetary, Manned and Unmanned satellites

28. Define sounding rockets. Rockets meant for taking instruments to high altitudes for meteorological measurements Sounding rocket.

29. Define stationary satellite. If the orbital velocity of the earth-satellite is equal to angular velocity of the earth, it has zero velocity relative to the earth. Such a satellite is known as stationary satellite.

30. Define escape velocity and give its equation. Escape velocity is defined as the velocity of a rocket required to escape from earth’s gravity. The escape velocity

at the earth’s surface is 11.2 km/s.

u

esc

2u

orb

PART B

UNIT I

BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISENTROPIC FLOWS

BASIC CONCEPTS

1. An air jet at 400 K has a sonic velocity. Determine, (i) Velocity of sound at 400 K, (ii) Velocity of sound at stagnation condition, (iii) Maximum fluid velocity of jet, (iv) Stagnation enthalpy and (v) Crocco number.

2. The pressure, temperature and Mach number at entry of flow are 2.5 bar, 26.5 0 C and 1.4 respectively. If exit Mach number is 2.5, determine for adiabatic flow of perfect gas (R= 469 J/kgK and Ƴ=1.4) , (i) Temperature and

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velocity of gas at exit, (ii) Mass flow rate per square meter at inlet cross sectional area and (iii) Stagnation temperature.

3. The pressure, temperature and Mach number at the entry of the flow are 3 bar, 40 0 C and 1.4 respectively. The exit temperature is 25 0 C and flow velocity is 668 m/s. Determine foe an adiabatic flow (R= 469 J/kgK and Ƴ=1.4), (i) Mach number & stagnation temperature at exit, (ii) Mass flow rate for diameter of 15 cm & (iii) Exit pressure.

4. Air enters a straight axis symmetry duct at 300 K, 3.45 bar and 150 m/s and leaves it at 277 K, 2.058 bar and 260 m/s. The area of cross section at exit is 500 cm 2 . Assuming adiabatic flow determine, (i) Stagnation temperature, (ii) Maximum velocity, (iii) Mass flow rate, (iv) Area of cross section at entrance.

5. Air at P =3x10 5 N/m 2 , T = 500 K, C = 200 m/s flows into a 30 cm diameter duct. Calculate, (i) Mass flow rate, (ii) Mach number, (iii) Stagnation temperature, (iv) Stagnation pressure for both compressible & incompressible flow.

6. An aircraft flies at 800 km/h at an altitude of 10,000m at 0.264 bar and 223.15 K. The air is reversibly compressed in an inlet diffuser. If Mach number at exit of the diffuser is 0.36, determine (i) Entry Mach number, (ii) Velocity, temperature and pressure of air at exit.

7. An aircraft flies at 12,000m at 0.193 bar and 216.65 K at a Mach number 0.82. The cross sectional area of inlet diffuser before the low pressure compressor stage is 0.5 m 2 . Determine, (i) Mass of air entering in 1 second, (ii) Speed of the aircraft and (iii) Stagnation pressure, stagnation temperature at diffuser entry.

8. The jet of gas at 593 K (R= 469 J/kgK and Ƴ=1.3) has a Mach number of 1.2. Determine velocity of sound and enthalpy for local and stagnation condition.

9. A jet plane travels at a speed of 1000 km/h. Determine Mach number, when it operates at (i) Sea level where temperature is 24 0 C and (ii) Altitude where temperature is 57 0 C.

10. The speed of an aircraft is indicated at Mach number 0.75 at cockpit. The atmospheric condition is 0.5775 bar and 14 0 C. Determine isentropic stagnation pressure of temperature recorded on the board. Assume C P = 1.005 kJ/kgK, C V = 0.7171 kJ/kgK.

ISENTROPIC FLOWS

1. Air enters an isentropic diffuser with Mach number 3.6 and decelerate it to Mach number 2. A diffuser causes a

flow of 15 kg/s. The initial static conditions are 1.05 bar, 40 0 C. Assuming γ = 1.4 calculate, (i) Inlet area,

(ii) Total pressure, total temperature, (iii) Exit area and exit static pressure.

2. The pressure, velocity and temperature of air at the entry of the nozzle are 2 bar 145 m/s and 330 K. The exit pressure is 1.5 bar. Determine, (i) Shape of the nozzle, (ii) Mach number at entry and exit, mass flow rate and Maximum mass flow rate.

3. Air is discharged from a compressor at P 0 = 6.91 bar, T 0 = 325 0 C through a nozzle at an exit pressure of 0.98 bar. If the flow rate is 3600 kg/h, for one dimensional isentropic flow determine, (i) T * , P * and C * , (ii) A 2 and M 2 ,

(iii) Maximum velocity.

4. A conical air diffuser has an inlet diameter of 40 cm and exit diameter of 80 cm. Air enters the diffuser with a

static pressure of 200 kPa, static temperature of 37 0 C, velocity of 265 m/s. Calculate, (i) Mass flow rate,

(ii) Properties at exit.

5. Air is discharged from a compressor at P 0 = 7 bar, T 0 = 320 0 C through a nozzle at an exit pressure of 0.98 bar. If

the flow rate is 3500 kg/h, for one dimensional isentropic flow determine, (i) T * , P * and C * , (ii) A 2 and M 2 ,

(iii) Maximum velocity.

6. A gas is isentropic ally expanded from 12 bar, 520 0 C in a nozzle to a pressure of 7.5 bar. Mass flow rate of gas is

1.4 kg/s. Determine , (i) pressure, temperature, and velocity at nozzle throat and exit, (ii) Maximum possible

velocity, (iii) Type of nozzle and its throat area. Take Ƴ=1.3, R = 0.46 kJ/kgK.

7. In a nozzle of throat diameter 15 cm air is flowing with a stagnation velocity of 620 m/s. Stagnation density is given as 1.2 kg/m 3 . Determine, (i) stagnation pressure and temperature, (ii) Maximum mass flow rate and

(iii) Throat pressure and temperature.

8. A divergent nozzle has exit to throat area of 1.5. Air is flowing at a Mach number 0.8 and at a pressure and temperature of 1 bar and 15 0 C respectively. Determine, (i) Exit Mach number and (ii) Exit pressure and temperature.

9. In a convergent diffuser has entry and exit Mach number 1.5 and 0.78. Are at the entry of the diffuser is 0.24 m 2 . Air enters the diffuser at 340 K. Determine, (i) Exit temperature and velocity, (ii) Exit area. The pressure, temperature and velocity are 0.9 bar, 400 K and 200 m/s at inlet. Determine pressure, temperature and velocity at exit. Also determine force exerted on the diffuser wall.

10. Air is flowing at 1 bar, 295 K, 320 m/s. Determine, (i) a, (ii) a 0 , (iii) P 0 , (iv) T 0 , (v)ρ 0 .

Derivations

1. Derive an expression for the acoustic velocity of a compressible fluid flow in terms of its temperature.

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ME 2351- Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion

Mechanical Engineering

2013-2014

2. Derive the relation for characteristic / critical Mach number.

3. Derive and explain the effect of Mach number on compressibility.

4.

Derive

Prove for 1.4 ,

dA

dP

A c

2

(1

M

P

0

P

2

(

c

2

2

)

.

)

 

1

M

2

4

M

4

40

5. The mass flow rate of a perfect gas through a chocked nozzle is given by

m
(

1)
T
0
R
 2
(

1)
    
max
*
P A
   1
0

Derive this relation.

UNIT II FANNO FLOW

1. Air is decelerated from Mach number 3 to sonic speed in a inner diameter pipe of 4 cm having a friction factor of 0.002. Find the length of the pipe to achieve the deceleration.

2. A circular duct of diameter 0.22 m causes a subsonic flow at M 1 =0.15 and leaves the duct at M 2 = 0.5 Determine the length of the pipe. Assume friction factor as 0.005.

3. A circular duct causes 8.25 kg/s of air at an exit Mach number 0.5. The entry pressure and temperature are 3.45 bar and 38 0 C respectively. Coefficient friction is 0.005. Mach number at entry is 0.15. Determine,

FLOW THROUGH DUCTS

 (i) Diameter of duct, (ii) Length of duct, (iii) Pressure and temperature at exit, (iv) Stagnation pressure loss and (v) Verify exit Mach number using exit temperature and velocity.

4. Air enters a pipe of 20 cm diameter with entry Mach number 0.11, entry temperature 305 K and entry pressure 3.15 bar to a exit Mach number of 0.45. Determine, (i) Length of the pipe required to accelerate the flow, (ii) Mass flow rate, (iii) Exit properties and (iv) Stagnation pressure loss. Also calculate % stagnation pressure loss. Take friction factor = 0.005.

5. Air is flowing in an insulated duct with the entry Mach number 0.25 and friction factor 0.001. The diameter of the duct is 15 cm. What length of the pipe would give 10% of stagnation pressure loss? Also find % stagnation pressure loss from inlet to exit Mach number 0.8. What is the maximum length required to reach the chocking condition?

6. Air flows through a and constant area duct. The initial local condition of air are 3 bar, 70 0 C. The initial Mach number is 0.2. The exit total pressure is 2.8 bar. Obtain Mach number and condition of air at final stage. Also find the change in entropy.

7. Air at 120 kN/m 2 and 40 0 C flows through a 200 mm diameter pipe adiabatically. Upstream Mach number is 2.5. Determine maximum length of the pipe and the properties of air at exit. Also estimate the length of the pipe and properties of air if the exit Mach number is 1.8. Take f = 0.01.

8. Air at inlet temperature 60 0 C flows with a subsonic velocity through an insulated pipe having diameter of 50 mm and length 5 m. The pressure at the exit of the pipe is 101 kPa and the flow is chocked at the end of the pipe of the friction factor 4f = 0.005. Determine entry Mach number, Mass flow rate and exit temperature.

RAYLEIGH FLOW

1. The Mach number of exit of combustion chamber is 0.9 and the ratio of stagnation temperature at exit and entry is 3.74. The pressure and temperature of gas at exit are 2.5 bar and 1000 0 C. Determine, (i) Mach number, (ii) Pressure, (iii) Temperature of gas at entry, (iv) Heat supplied per kg of air and (v) Maximum heat that can be supplied.

2. In a combustion chamber, the condition of air at entry is P 1 = 0.343 bar, T 1 = 310 K, C 1 = 60 m/s. Determine at exit the Mach number, pressure, temperature and velocity if increase in stagnation enthalpy of gas is 1172.5 kJ/kg. Assume C P = 1.005 kJ/kgK and Ƴ = 1.4.

3. A gas at a pressure of 69 kPa and temperature 278 K enters the combustion chamber at a velocity of 60 m/s. Heat supplied in the combustion chamber is 1.4056 MJ/kg. Determine Mach number, pressure, temperature and velocity of gas at exit. Assume C P = 1.005 kJ/kgK and Ƴ = 1.4.

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ME 2351- Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion

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2013-2014

4. Air is moving in a constant area duct at the temperature of 50 0 C and 52.5 kPa. The velocity at this section is 167 m/s. Find, (i) Stagnation properties at inlet, (ii) Properties at this section where static temperature is maximum and (iii) Properties of air at the section where choking condition in exit.

5. The condition of gas (C P = 1.22 kJ/kgK and Ƴ = 1.3) at the entry of the constant area duct are M 1 = 0.28, T 01 = 383 K, P 01 = 4.965 bar and 627 kJ/kg of heat is supplied to the gas. Determine at the exit section, the Mach number, pressure and temperature of the gas. What is the stagnation pressure loss during the heating?

6. Air enters a constant area duct at M 1 = 3, P 1 = 1 atm and T 1 = 300 K. Heat added inside the duct per unit mass is 3 x 10 5 J/kg. Calculate properties M 2 , P 2 , T 2 , C 2 , ρ 2 , T 02 and P 02 at the exit section.

7. Air is having a Mach number 3 with total temperature 295 K and static pressure 0.5 bar flow through a constant area duct adiabatically to another section where the exit Mach number is 1.5. Determine the amount of heat transferred and change in stagnation pressure.

8. On a certain heat exchanger the stagnation temperature of air is raised from 93 0 C to 426 0 C. If inlet Mach number is 0.3, determine final Mach number and % drop in static pressure.

UNIT III

NORMAL AND OBLIQUE SHOCKS

NORMAL SHOCKS

1. The state of a gas ( Ƴ = 1.3, R = 0.469 kJ/kgK) upstream of a normal is given by the following data. M x = 2.5, T x = 275 K, P x = 2 bar. Calculate pressure, temperature and velocity of gas for downstream if shock.

2. A ratio of exit to entry area in a subsonic diffuser is 4. The Mach number of air jet approaching at P 0 = 1.013 bar, temperature 290 K is 2.2. There is a standing normal shock wave just outside the diffuser entry. The flow in the diffuser is isentropic. Determine for the exit of diffuser Mach number, temperature and pressure. What is the stagnation pressure loss between initial and final jet of flow?

3. An aeroplane having a diffuser designed for a subsonic flight has a normal shock attached to the edge of the diffuser entry when the flight is flying at supersonic speed. If at the exit of the diffuser, the Mach number is 0.3, What must be the flight Mach number? Assuming isentropic diffusion behind the shock. The area at inlet is 0.29 m 2 and exit is 0.44 m 2 .

4. A convergent divergent duct is operating under half designed condition as it conducts air from high pressure tank where P 0 = 210 kPa and T 0 = 310 K. A normal shock is present in the divergent section. Find the exit pressure, loss in stagnation pressure, increase in entropy. Take,

Area of throat = A t = 13 cm 2 , Area at exit = A e = 26 cm 2 and area at shock present = A x = A

y

= 19.5 cm 2 .

5. A nozzle has an exit area to throat area ratio of 2.5. The total properties of air at inlet are 7 bar and 87 0 C. The

throat area 6.5 cm 2 . Determine for exit, Mach number, static pressure, static temperature and stagnation pressure when a plane normal shock stands at a point where Mach number is 2. Assume isentropic flow before and after the normal shock.

6. Air with Mach number 2.5 enters a convergent duct with an area ratio of A 2 /A 1 = 0.5 under certain condition. A normal shock occurs at a point where Mach number is 2. Find the exit Mach number and pressure ratio across the duct.

7. Air flows through a supersonic tunnel having a throat area of 200 cm 2 and test section area of 337.5 cm 2 . Estimate the Mach number at the test section and diffuser throat area if a normal shock is located at the test section.

8. A CD nozzle has an exit to throat area ratio of 3. A normal shock appears at the test section where the area ratio is 2.2. Find the Mach number before and after the shock of the inlet stagnation properties are 500 kPa, 450 K. Also find the properties of air at the exit section of the nozzle and increase in entropy across the shock.

9. Air flows adiabatically in a pipe in which normal shock wave occurs. The pressure and temperature of air before the shock are 150 kN/m 2 and 25 0 C respectively. The pressure just after the normal shock is 350 kN/m 2 . Calculate

(i) Mach number before shock, (ii) Mach number, static temperature and velocity of air after the shock wave, (iii)

Increase in density of air, (iv) Loss of stagnation pressure and (v) Change in entropy.

10. A CD nozzle is designed to expand air from the reservoir in which the pressure is 800 kPa and temperature 40 0 C to give a mach number at the exit of 2.5. The throat area is 25 cm 2 , find (i) Mas flow rate, (ii) Exit area, (iii) When normal shock appears at a section where the area is 40 cm 2 , determine pressure and temperature at the exit.

OBLIQUE SHOCKS

11. Air approaches a symmetrical wedge δ = 15 0 at a Mach number of 2. Determine for shock and weak waves,

(i) Wave angle, (ii) Pressure ratio, (iii) Density ratio, (iv) Temperature ratio and (v) Downstream Mach number.

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ISO9001:2008

ME 2351- Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion

Mechanical Engineering

2013-2014

12. A supersonic stream of air Mach number 2 and is deflected inward by 15 0 . This generate strong and oblique waves. Calculate the following quantities for the waves, (i) Wave angle, (ii) Downstream Mach number,

(iii) Temperature ratio, (iv) Static stagnation pressure ratio and (v) Density ratio.

13. A jet of air at a Mach number of 2.5 is deflected inward at the corner of the curved wall. The wave angle at the corner is 60 0 . Determine the deflection angle of the value, pressure and temperature ratio and final Mach number.

14. An oblique shock wave at an angle of 35 0 occurs at the leading edge of the symmetrical wedge. Air has a Mach number of 2, the pressure and temperature of 10 bar and 310 K respectively in the upstream of the wave. Determine wedge angle and pressure, temperature and Mach number of the downstream of the wave.

Derivations

1. Derive Prandtl-Meyer relation for normal shock.

2. For flow through a normal shock deduce the relation

M y

2

M

x

2

2

 1

2

 1

M

y

2

1

3. Derive Rankine-Hugoniot equation for normal shock.

4. Derive an expression for the static pressure ratio across the shock.

UNIT IV

JET PROPULSION

1. A turbojet propels an aircraft at a speed of 900 km/h while taking 3000 kg of air per minute. The isentropic enthalpy drop in the nozzle is 200 kJ/kg and the nozzle efficiency is 90 %. The air fuel ratio is 85 and the combustion efficiency is 95 %. The calorific value of the fuel is 42,000 kJ/kg. Calculate, (i) Propulsive power or thrust power, (ii) Thermal efficiency and (iii) Propulsive power.

2. The flight speed of A turbojet is 800 km/h at 10,000 m altitude. The density of air at athat altitude is 0.17 kg/m 3 . The drag for the plane is 6.8 kN. The propulsive efficiency of the jet is 60%. Calculate the SFC, Air-Fuel ratio, jet velocity. Assume the calorific value of fuel as 45,000 kJ/kg and the oveall efficiency of the jet plane as 18 %.

3. A ramjet engine operates at M = 1.2 at an altitude of 6,500 m. The diameter of inlet diffuser at entry is 50 cm and the stagnation temperature at the nozzle entry is 1500 K. The calorific value of the fuel used is 40 MJ/kg. The properties of the combustion gases are same those of air. The velocity of the air at the diffuser exit is negligible.

Efficiencies of the diffuser, combustion and nozzle are 90 %, 98 % and 96 % respectively. Calculate, (i) Efficiency of ideal cycle, (ii) Flight speed, (iii) Air flow rate, (iv) Diffuser pressure ratio, (v) Fuel-Air ratio and

(vi) Nozzle jet Mach number.

4. Calculate thrust and specific thrust of a jet propulsion unit whose data are as follows.

 Total head isentropic efficiency of compressor Mechanical transmission efficiency = 80 % Total head isentropic efficiency of turbine = 85 % Combustion efficiency = 98 % = 99 % Total pressure ratio including combustion pressure loss = 4 : 1 Nozzle efficiency = 90 % Maximum temperature = 1000 K Air flow rate = 220 N/s Ambient temperature and pressure = 15 0 C and 1 bar

For air, C P = 1005 J/kgK and Ƴ = 1.4

Neglect weight of fuel.

For gas, C P = 1153 J/kgK and Ƴ = 1.3

5. The following data refer to a turbojet flying at an altitude of 9,500 m.

 Speed of turbojet = 850 km/h Propulsive efficiency = 55 % Density of air = 0.17 kg / m 3 Overall efficiency = 17 % Drag on plane = 6.1 kN

Calculate, (i) Absolute velocity of jet, (ii) Diameter of jet and (iii) Propulsive power.

6. A turbojet has a speed of 750 km/h while flying at an altitude of 10,000 m. The propulsive efficiency of the jet is 50 % and the overall efficiency of the turbine plant is 16 %. The density of air at 10,000 m altitude is 0.173 kg/m 3 . The drag on the plane is 6250 N. Calorific value of the fuel is 48,000 kJ/kg. Calculate, (i) Absolute velocity of the jet, (ii) Diameter of the jet, and (iii) Power output in kW.

7. A turbojet engine takes in 50 kg/s of air and propels an aircraft with uniform flight speed of 880 km/h. Isentropic enthalpy change for nozzle is 188 kJ/kg and velocity coefficient is 0.96. The fuel-air ratio is 1.2. Combustion

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ME 2351- Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion

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2013-2014

efficiency is 95 %. Calorific value of fuel is 44,000 kJ/kg. Find out, (i) Thermal efficiency of the engine, (ii) Fuel flow in kg/h, (iii) Propulsive efficiency and (iv) Overall efficiency.

8. A turbojet engine has two jets of 250 mm diameter and the net power of the turbine is 3000 kW. The fuel consumption per kWh is 0.42 kg with a fuel of calorific value 49 MJ/kg, when flying at a speed of 300 m/s in atmospheric having a density of 0.168 kg/m 3 . The air-fuel ratio is 53. Calculate, (i) absolute velocity of jet, (ii) Resistance or drag of the plane, (iii) Overall efficiency of the plane and (iv) Thermal efficiency.

9. A simple turbojet unit operates with a turbine inlet temperature of 1050 0 C. The following data refer to this unit when tested at ground level. Assume C P and Ƴ values for gas as same as air.

 Compressor pressure ratio = 7.5 Nozzle efficiency = 96 % Ambient pressure = 100 kPa Ambient temperature = 27 0 C Mass flow rate of air = 25 kg/s

Neglect mass flow rate of fuel for calculation of thrust and neglect pressure loss. Calculate, (i) Thrust, (ii) Velocity at exit of nozzle and (iii) Specific fuel consumption.

10. Describe the working of supersonic ramjet engine with a neat sketch. List out its advantages and disadvantages.

11. Describe the working of turbojet engine with a neat sketch. List out its advantages and disadvantages.

12. Describe the working of a turbo propeller engine with a neat sketch and state the advantages and disadvantages.

13. Describe the working of a turbofan engine with a neat sketch and state the advantages and disadvantages.

14. Derive the expressions for the thrust (propulsive) power, propulsive efficiency, thermal efficiency, thermal efficiency, overall efficiency and optimum value of flight to jet speed ratio for a turbojet engine.

UNIT V

SPACE PROPULSION

1. A rocket nozzle has a throat area of 18 cm 2 and combustor pressure of 25 bar. If the specific impulse is 127.42 s and the rate of flow of propellant is 44.145 N/s, determine the thrust coefficient, propellant weight flow coefficient, specific propellant consumption and characteristic velocity.

2. A rocket has the following data:

 Propellant flow rate = 5 kg/s Nozzle exit diameter = 10 cm Nozzle exit pressure = 1.02 bar Ambient pressure = 1.013 bar Thrust chamber pressure = 20 bar Thrust = 7 kN

Determine, (i) Effective jet velocity, (ii) Actual jet velocity, (iii) Specific impulse and (iv) Specific propellant

consumption.

3. Calculate thrust, specific impulse, propulsive efficiency, thermal efficiency and overall efficiency of a rocket engine from the following data.

Effective jet velocity

Oxidizer flow rate = 3.5 kg/s Fuel flow rate

Heat of reaction of exhaust gases = 2500 kJ/kg

=

1250 m/s

Flight to jet speed ratio =

=

0.8

1 kg/s

4. The specific impulse of a rocket is 125 s and the flow rate of propellant is 44 kg/s. The nozzle throat area is 18 cm 2 and the pressure in the combustor is 25 bar. Determine the thrust coefficient, propellant flow coefficient, specific propellant consumption and characteristic velocity.

5. The effective jet velocity from a rocket is 2700 m/s. The forward flight velocity is 1350 m/s and the propellant consumption is 78.6 kg/s. Calculate thrust, thrust power and propulsive efficiency.

6. Explain the working of solid propellant rocket with neat sketch. List the advantages and disadvantages.

7. Explain the working of liquid propellant rocket with neat sketch. List the advantages and disadvantages.

8. Explain the working of hybrid propellant rocket with neat sketch. List the advantages and disadvantages.

9. Explain combustion techniques in solid propellant rocket system.

10. List types of liquid propellant feed system and explain the working with neat sketch.

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