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The Challenging (Changing) World of

Power Transmission

The Challenging (Changing) World of Power Transmission

Common Denominators
 The Rules will be established

 What will the Rules be?


 Who will Profit from the Transmission
System?
 Who will be Calling the Shots?

The Challenging (Changing) World of Power Transmission

Sweeping Changes-1
 New Rules:

 Someone will Profit from the Transmission


System
 The Value of Transmission will Rise
 Investment in Transmission will Rise

The Challenging (Changing) World of Power Transmission

Sweeping Changes-2
 New Players:

 Transmission Functionally Unbundled

 IPPs
(Not familiar with Transmission Technology
& Very Aggressive)

 Wholesale Tariffs

 Large Wholesale (non-Utility) Customers

 Regulator to Set Market Rules

 Power Brokers (New Breed with Greed)

 Environmental Constraints

 Transmission Operator

 IPPs

(to provide Point-to-Point Network Services)

The Challenging (Changing) World of Power Transmission

The Challenging (Changing) World of Power Transmission

Sweeping Changes-3

Sweeping Changes-4

 New Demands on the Transmission System:

 New Services:

 Power from Unconventional Sources

 Sophisticated System Controls

 Unplanned Directions of Power Flows

 Controls independent of Generation

 Loop Flows Not Acceptable

 Frequent Changes in Controls

 Increase in Demand

 More Wheeled Power without New Lines

 Less Reliance on Traditional Control


Mechanisms (Generators, etc.)

 New Ancillary Services (e.g. Reactive Power,


Frequency Regulation, etc.)

The Challenging (Changing) World of Power Transmission

The Challenging (Changing) World of Power Transmission

Sweeping Changes-5

Sweeping Changes-6

 New Operating Tools:

 New Control Tools:

 On-Line Security Assessment

 SVCs Additional Control Functions

 On-Line Impact of Transactions

 Other FACTS Devices

 Fast & Reliable Telecom (On-Line Information)

 ???

 System-wide Monitoring (Synchronised Phasor


Measurements)
 On-Line Diagnoses (e.g. Thermal Limits, etc.)
 Load Management

VAr Compensation Methods


Conventional

Thyristor Switched

VAr Compensation Methods

Voltage Source Converters

Conventional

Shunt

Shunt

Series

Series

Phase
Shift

Phase
Shift

Transmission System Requirements

Thyristor Switched

Voltage Source Converters

Power System Limitations


 Generator Rotor-Angle Stabilities:

 Generators must operate Stably in


Synchronism. (Stability Margins)
 Voltages must be kept within Rated Values
during normal operation and Remain Stable
(Controllable) during Disturbances.
(Reactive Power Reserves)
 Temporary Overvoltages should be Limited
 Low Losses
(Limit Loop Flows & VAr Transmission/Transfer)
 High Power Transfer Capability

 Transient Stability (Large Disturbances)


 Steady State Stability (Small Signal Perturbations)

 Resonances:
 Sub-Synchronous
 Near 50-Hz
 Harmonics & Zero-Sequence

 Voltage/Reactive Power Problems


 Limited Means for Power Flow Control
 Thermal Limits for Lines & Transformers

Facing the Challenge


 Rule of SVCs & FACTS:
 Remove Transmission Constraints
(within Thermal Limits)
 Q-Dispatch (Reduction of Cost of Losses)
 Improve Power Transmission Security
(Satisfy Requirements/Conflicts of Players)
 Provide Custom Power Quality
 Adaptive for inclusion in Local & Central
Intelligent Controls

Eskom SVCs
Installations since 1982 until 1997
 400 kV SVCs :7
-250/+250 MVAr(5), -100/200 MVAr (1),
-200/+150 MVAr (1)
 275 kV SVCs :2
-100/+200 MVAr (2)
 132 kV SVCs :7
-30/+15 MVAr (7)
Total installed MVArs: 4000 MVAr