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Stability and degradation
Shelf life
Special handling of product while in transport/
delivery (e.g., do not shake)
F. Precipitation
G. Exposure to light and air
H. Storage
1. Glass bottles for certain medications to avoid
adhesion to plastic, such as nitroglycerin in
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags, and to avoid the
release of plastic contaminants in the
2. Refrigeration or freezing to prevent drug
degradation or microbial growth
3. Light-resistant container to prevent photo
Compounded Preparations
A. Solutions
 A liquid preparation in which the ingredients
are completely soluble
B. Suspensions
 A liquid preparation in which the particles are
mixed with but remain undissolved in a fluid or
solid. Note: contents generally settle to the
bottom of the bottle, so shake well before
dispensing, and the patient should shake the
item well prior to each use.
C. Emulsions
 Emulsions are two-phase systems that consist of
two immiscible liquids, one of which is uniformly
dispersed throughout the other as fine droplets.
They are classified as oil-in-water (o/w) or waterin-oil (w/o).There may also be multiple emulsions
(e.g. w/o/w emulsion where a water droplet
enclosed in an oil droplet is itself dispersed in
water). They may be used internally to mask the
bitter taste or odor of drugs or externally as
creams or lotions.
D. Capsules
 Solid dosage forms in which medicinal and/or
inert substances are closed in a hard or soft
gelatin shell.
E. Molded Tablets
 Also known as tablet triturates, the preparation
of tablets by molding has been replaced by
tablet compression. Molded tablets dissolve
rapidly in the mouth and do not contain
disintegrants, lubricants, or any other
component that slows the rate of dissolution.
F. Wafers
 An oral dosage form consisting of a case,
usually of rice-flour paste, containing the
G. Troches
 A solid dosage form that is meant to be sucked,
not swallowed, for drug absorption; also known
as a lozenge
H. Suppositories
 A suppository is a medicine that melts after
insertion into the rectum (rectal suppository),
the vagina (vaginal suppository), or the
urethra (urethal insert)
I. Parenteral preparations



 Desired effect is systemic when substance is

given by routes other than the digestive tract.

Parenteral administration generally has the
greatest bioavailability because it avoids an
absorption phase and possible inactivation by
first-pass metabolism by the liver. It can be
further divided into two subgroups: parenteral
by injection or infusion and other nonoral
parenteral administration (transdermal patch)
J. Powders
 Used internally or externally, powders are often
mixed with water or other liquid solvent
K. Creams, ointments, gels
 Cream: A water-based preparation that is waterwashable
 Ointment: An oil-based preparation that is not
 Gel: Semisolid systems consisting of
suspensions of small inorganic particles or
large organic molecules interpenetrated by a
L. Tincture
 A solution of a medicinal substance in an
alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solvent
VI. Examples of References Pharmacists May Use for
A. The United States PharmacopeiaNational
Formulary (USPNF): The compendium for
pharmaceutical medicines and excipients for use
in the United States
B. Trissels Stability of Compounded Formulations:
The handbook of stability and compatibility of
injectable products
C. International Journal of Pharmaceutical
D. Drug Facts and Comparisons
E. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
F. USP 797 Guidebook to Pharmaceutical
Compounding: Sterile Preparations.





Keep ingredients together, particularly in tablets

Example: candelilla wax, corn starch
Maintain the pH of a product
to prevent drug degradation and
can also protect the user from GI
Example: disodium hydrogen phosphate,
sodium bicarbonate
Can protect the drug product from
degradation from the environment
or from the GI tract for long-acting
or delayed-release
Example: gelatin, ethyl cellulose
Generally used to match flavor
Example: FD & C Red 40, tartrazine (FD&C
Allow for filling of a capsule or
increase the size of a tablet for
greater ease in handling; also used
for creating aliquots or dissolving