Chapter
4
Unordered
set
and
their
operations
Summary
of
important
concepts
and
terms
We
have
learned
that
when
analyzing
music
using
set
theory,
a
new
terminology
is
required.
For
example,
instead
of
referring
to
perfect
5ths,
we
say
interval
class
7.
Similarly,
in
place
of
of
chords
and
scales,
we
have
sets.
These
sets
can
be
ordered

where
pitches
or
pitch
classes
are
placed
in
the
same
order
in
which
they
occur
in
a
segment
of
music.
Sets
can
also
be
unordered,
where
pitches
are
not
placed
in
the
same
order
they
appear
in
a
musical
segment.
Unordered
sets
occur
when
musical
segments
contain
pitches
that
occur
simultaneously,
or
in
no
particular
order.
In
order
to
analyse
these
unordered
sets,
we
impose
an
order
on
them
known
as
the
normal
order.
This
is
a
process
that
equates
with
reducing
tonal
chords
to
their
root
position
(stacking
them
in
thirds).
Similarly,
the
process
of
reducing
a
set
to
its
normal
order
involves
condensing
the
pitch
classes
(pcs)
of
a
set
into
a
single
octave.
Once
sets
are
in
their
normal
order,
relationships
between
sets
can
be
found.
These
relationships
provide
insights
into
how
music,
particularly
atonal
music
is
organized.
You
will
see
that
through
operations
such
transposition
and
inversion,
sets
can
resemble
each
other,
much
like
families.
These
family
resemblances
between
sets
can
be
expressed
in
one
form,
known
as
the
prime
form.
The
prime
form
is
an
abstraction
of
set
classes
that
gives
a
unique
"picture"
of
that
particular
collection
of
notes.
If
two
sets
have
the
same
prime
form,
we
can
be
assured
that
they
will
sound
similar
to
one
another.
Sets
with
the
same
prime
form
contain
the
same
number
of
pitches
and
the
same
collection
of
intervals
between
its
pitches,
hence
they
are
in
some
sense
aurally
"equivalent.
These
prime
forms
are
similar
to
the
tonal
concepts
of
major,
minor,
augmented
and
diminished
but
there
are
many
more
of
them.
Prime
forms
of
sets
begin
on
0
and
span
the
smallest
possible
interval
from
bottom
to
top.
In
addition,
the
smallest
intervals
are
packed
most
closely
toward
the
bottom
(to
the
left
of
the
set).
1.
Transposition
Unordered
sets
cans
be
transposed
shift
the
set
up
or
down
the
required
number
of
semitones.
See
Pearsall,
Ex4.1
a)
The
pitches
have
been
listed
from
the
lowest
note
which
happens
to
be
C
up
to
Ab.
b)
the
pitches
have
been
transposed
down
7
semitones
or
a
perfect
5th,
and
again
listed
from
the
bottom
up
starting
on
F
up
to
Ab.
Note:
The
AIS
(adjacent
interval
series)
is
the
same,
therefor
they
are
transpositionally
equivalent.
2.
Normal
Order
The
normal
order
organizes
a
set
of
unordered
pitch
classes
so
that
relationships
between
sets
can
be
analysed.
It
reduces
a
set
to
the
order
that
spans
the
smallest
interval.
To
find
the
normal
order
of
a
pitch
class
set:
First
reduce
the
set
to
a
single
octave.
To
do
this
you
list
the
pcs
in
ascending
numerical
order.
Then
rotate
the
set
(go
through
all
the
inversions)
to
find
the
order
that
spans
the
smallest
interval
(bottom
to
top).
Pearsall,
Ex
4.2
NB
a) Measure/bar
1
is
depicted
using
tonal
intervals
and
interval
classes.
b) Measure/bar
22
is
depicted
using
pitch
classes
where
C=0.
Placing
sets
in
normal
order
has
revealed
the
transpositional
equivalence
of
the
sets
bars
1
and
22
of
Schoenbergs
Phantasy
for
Violin
and
Piano
Accompaniment
have
the
same
AIS.
Glenn Gould
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RqfXRBt6XI
When
there
is
more
that
one
rotation
with
the
same
smallest
outside
interval,
the
order
with
the
tightest
packing
at
the
bottom
is
the
normal
order.
To
find
the
order
with
the
tightest
packing
at
the
bottom,
you
compare
the
intervals
from
the
bottom
to
the
second
last
pitch.
If
you
again
get
the
same
interval,
continue
this
process
compare
the
intervals
from
the
bottom
to
the
third
last
pitch.
See
figure
4.4.
Normal
Order,
the
Short
cut.
1. Write
out
the
intervals
between
consecutive
pitch
classes
and
the
first
and
last
pitch
class.
2. Identify
the
largest
interval
class.
3. If
the
largest
interval
class
is
between
the
first
and
last
pitch
classes
the
normal
order
is
this
one
the
same
as
the
original
unordered
set.
4. If
not
write
out
the
set
beginning
on
the
top
most
pc
of
the
interval
the
right
of
the
largest
interval
class.
NB
this
only
works
if
there
is
only
one
instance
of
the
largest
interval.
Where
there
is
more
than
one,
follow
the
process
above,
figure
4.4.
3.
Mapping
Transpositions
and
Inversions.
Elements
of
sets
can
be
transposed,
or
inverted
and
transposed.
This
operation
or
process
is
known
as
mapping.
To
ascertain
the
transposition
level
of
a
PC
set,
compare
its
normal
order
with
the
source
set.
This
entails
subtracting
any
member
of
the
first
set
from
the
corresponding
member
of
the
second
set,
(the
set
whose
transposition
level
you
are
trying
to
ascertain).
See
Pearsall,
Fig
4.6.
The
AIS
of
inversionally
equivalent
sets
are
similar
the
reverse
of
each
other.
See
Pearsall,
Ex
4.3
Toru
Takamitsus
Rocking
Mirror
Daybreak,
for
two
violins,
excerpt
from
no.
1.
Autumn.
http://www.classicalarchives.com/web_player.html
However,
the
normal
orders
of
inversionally
equivalent
sets
sometimes
have
AIS
that
are
NOT
the
reverse
of
each
other.
Therefore,
when
trying
to
ascertain
whether
or
not
two
unordered
pc
sets
are
inversionally
equivalent,
all
rotations
of
one
of
the
sets
need
to
be
checked.
As
long
as
one
of
the
rotations
contains
an
AIS
that
is
the
reverse
of
one
the
other
sets
AIS
they
are
inversionally
equivalent.
See
Pearsall,
figure
4.9.
Reminder
unordered
pitch
sets
(where
the
register
of
pitches
or
the
pitch
space
is
acknowledged)
contain
the
same
pitches
as
an
ordered
pitch
set,
but
presents
them
from
bottom
to
top.
The
method
for
finding
the
transposition
of
unordered
pitch
sets
is
similar
to
that
used
for
pitch
class
sets.
When
transpositions
occur
in
pitch
space,
the
letter
P
is
included.
Tp/n
(Tee
pee
subn).
A
negative
sign
denotes
a
downward
transposition.
See
Pearsall
Fig.
4.12.
NB
The
notes
in
the
first
chord
are
represented
as
an
unordered
pitch
set,
so
they
are
ordered
from
bottom
to
top,
Cb,
F,
Bb.
Using
integers,
If
C=0,
this
set
is:
1
5
10.
Similarly,
the
second
chord
or
set
is
Db,
Gb,
C
or
1
6
12
in
pitch
space
where
C=0.
As
it
is
an
inversion
the
set
is
reversed.
So
the
set
is
12
6
1.
The
first
two
inversionally
equivalent
chords
map
onto
each
other
at
T11.
See
figure
4:13
Pitchpace
index
is
11.
Or
T
p/11
Figure
14.14
shows
this
process
using
notation
note
that
the
inversions
are
presented
in
alto
clef
mod
12
(D
G
C#)
and
then
transposed
up
11
to
get
T
p/11
I
(Db
Gb
C).
Also
at
figure
14.14,
The
process
demonstrated
on
the
keyboard
clearly
shows
that
the
AIS
of
these
inversionally
equivalent
unordered
pitch
sets
are
the
reverse
of
each
other.
4.
Prime
Forms
As
mentioned
above,
prime
forms
are
a
method
for
classifying
sets.
The
prime
form
begins
on
0
and
span
the
smallest
possible
interval
from
bottom
to
top.
In
addition,
the
smallest
intervals
are
packed
most
closely
toward
the
bottom.
We
cite
the
prime
form
of
a
set
by
putting
it
in
a
normal
form,
most
compact
towards
the
left,
that
begins
on
pc
0.
Here
are
the
steps
for
finding
the
prime
form
of
a
set:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The
tricky
part
can
come
in
step
2.
Normally
if
you
invert
a
set,
subtracting
each
of
its
integers
from
0,
the
result
will
appear
in
"reversenormal"
order.
You
simply
have
to
rereverse
this
order
to
place
your
inversion
in
its
own
normal
form.
You
can
then
proceed
to
steps
3
and
4.
For
example,
here's
the
procedure
for
finding
the
prime
form
of
set
[2,3,4,7,8]:
However,
as
we
saw
earlier,
the
intervallic
makeup
of
some
classes
of
sets
means
that
the
normal
form
of
a
set
and
of
its
inversion
are
not
always
simply
reverses
of
each
other.
For
example,
find
the
prime
form
of
set
[8,10,11,1,2,5]:
It
turns
out
that
the
normal
form
of
a
set
with
pcs
4,
2,
1,
11,
10,
and
7
is
[10,11,1,2,4,7]
In
this
case,
if
we
were
to
carry
out
Step
2
just
reversing
the
digits
of
the
inversion,
both
the
normal
form
and
then
the
prime
form
would
be
have
been
incorrect.
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