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RISA 2D is a software for finding out the internal forces in members of a truss, in a beam or

a frame. It is an easy software, does not require much time to learn. It gives axial force,
shear force and bending moment values at different points along the length of a member. It
also provides grahical figures of these forces.Here I am going to demonstrate the process
of finding the axial forces in members of a simply supported roof truss.
In order to draw a truss in Risa-2D, the following data must be known. Spacing of the truss
(s), span of the truss (L), height of the truss (h), so that you can find out the co-ordinates of
all the truss joints which are to be input into the software for the calculation of reaction
forces and member forces.
The truss I am drawing for finding out internal forces is shown below. It is called a Fink or
French Truss.

First of all open the software and click Global from the manual bar. The following window
appears:

Enter the details of Model Title, Designer and Number of Sections. It provides internal
forces (moment, shear and axial forces) at a number of equally spaced sections according
to your wish. For a truss design we will choose 2 as the internal force in a truss member is
only axial force which is constant throughout a member, so we need value of axial forces at
only the both ends of the member. Click ok.
Now next step is to choose the units in which you want to perform your calculations. Click
Units from the manual bar. There is an option use consistent units. It is generally used for
hand calculations. Other options are Standard Metric units and Standard Imperial units. I
am choosing Standard Imperial units. Click ok.

Now go to Modify and then Grid. The following window appears.

Here you can change the grid spacing according to your structure. And your grid setting can
be saved as well for use in any other structure by clicking save at the bottom of this
window.
Now you have to enter the data. Go to Spreadsheets and then Data Entry Buttons Toolbars
(if it is not visible on screen by default).

The toolbar is shown below:

One by one enter all the data. First is the joint co-ordinates. The following window appears.
Enter the co-ordinates. Points will appear at the screen.

Now set the boundary conditions. My truss is simply supported, so at A there is hinge
support having two reactions. At point B there is roller support having only one reaction in
y-direction.

When you click on X, Y or Rotation a small window appears. I have X fixed and Y fixed at
joint A and only Y fixed at joint B.

When you finish entering, supports will be shown.


Define the members with respect to their I and J joints.

In a truss, both ends of a member are pinned. So choose I End and J End Pinned in the
column I Release, J Release. Software will automatically calculate lengths of each
member. Truss will be formed.

Now apply loads to the truss. As they are acting downwards so their magnitude will be
negative. In my truss loads are acting at the joints only, no point loads or distributed loads.

After you have finished entering all the data, click Solve from the manual bar. The following
small window appears.

One by one click on each of these to get your desired results. Further you can see the Axial
Force Diagram, Shear force Diagram as well as Bending Moment Diagram by clicking

from the menu.


I have analyzed my truss under 3 types of forces shown below.

Truss subjected to Gravity Load of


Unity

Truss subjected to unit Wind Load on Hinge Side

Truss subjected to unit Wind Load on Roller Side

Thats all. I hope you like this tutorial. Also visit other tutorial in my blog like Forces in
Members of a Roof Truss. Do provide you feedback regarding my posts. Have a nice
day!!!