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PHARMACOGNOSY

Pharmacognosy
For the students of
Pharmacy Technicians
(Category-B)
Compiled By
Syed Bilal Hussain
Lecturer
Lahore College of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Under Supervision of
Dr. Shehla Akbar
M.Phil (Pharmacognosy)
Assistant Professor
Lahore College of Pharmaceutical Sciences

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PHARMACOGNOSY

Dedication
To
Prof. Dr. Naim Anwar Muzaffar The Father of Pharmacy
Whose Dedications Toward Pharmacy Education Are Priceless.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

Acknowledgement
I am very grateful to Ch. Muhammad Shamoon, Secretary, Punjab Pharmacy Council, Lahore, who give
me honor to compile PHARMACOGNOSY Book for the students of Pharmacy Technician.
I am very thankful to my teachers Dr. Shehla Akbar who generously contributed their time and efforts to
help me make this book as accurate and useful as possible.
Special thanks to Hafiz Muhammad Zubair & Haroon Shahzad and Dr. Sara for providing help in
composing and proof reading of the text.

Syed Bilal Hussain

Lecturer
Lahore College of Pharmaceutical Sciences

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PHARMACOGNOSY

Contents
PHARMACOGNOSY

INTRODUCTION OF PHARMACOGNOSY

SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY

CRUDE DRUGS

11

CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS

11

Alphabetical Method

11

Morphological Method

11

Taxonomical Method

11

Pharmacological Method

12

Chemical Method

12

TERMINANOLOGY AND DIFFERENT PARTS OF PLANT

12

Leaves

12

Leaflets

13

Stems

13

Flowers

13

Fruit

14

Pulp

14

Seeds

14

Roots

15

Bark

15

Wood

15

Bulb

16

Rhizomes

16

Herb

16

Medicinal Herb

16

Essential Oil (volatile oils)

17

Fatty Oil (non-volatile vegetable oils)

17

Gum

17

Resins

17

EVALUATION OF CRUDE DRUGS

18

Organoleptic Evaluation or Morphological Evaluation

18

Microscopic Evaluation

18

Chemical Evaluation

19

Physical Evaluation

19

Biological Evaluation

19
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PHARMACOGNOSY

INTRODUCTION, CASE HISTORY, SKIN TEST, TREATMENT AND MECHANISM


OF ALLERGY

20

ALLERGY

20

Definition

20

Allergen

21

Types of Allergen

21

Inhalants

21

Contactants

21

Ingestants

21

Injectants

21

Sings & Symptoms of Allergy

22

TYPES OF ALLERGY

22

Environmental Allergy

22

Airborne particles

22

Pollen Allergy

23

Insect bites and Stings

23

Physical & Psychometric Allergy

23

Anaphylactic Allergy (Anaphylaxis)

23

Cytotoxic Allergy

23

Delayed Hypersensitivity Allergy

23

MEDICAL CASE HISTORY

23

General Examination Includes

23

Vital Signs

24

Clinical Examination Includes

24

Investigation

24

SKIN TEST FOR ALLERGY

24

Scratch Test for Allergy

25

Patch Tests (contact allergy testing)

25

Intradermal Test

25

THE MECHANISM OF AN ALLERGIC REACTION

25

GENERAL MECHANISM OF ALLERGIC RESPONSE

25

METHODS OF TREATMENT IN ALLERGY

26

Avoidance

26

Vaccinations

27

Pharmacological Methods of Treatment in Allergy

27

ENZYMES OBTAINED FROM PLANT SOURCE (PHYTO-ENZYMES)

28

Definitions

28

Difference Between Enzymes & Catalyst

28
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PHARMACOGNOSY

PROPERTIES OF ENZYMES

28

Catalytic Property

29

Enzymatic Property

29

Solubility

29

pH

29

Temperature

29

Specificity

29

Protein Nature

30

CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES

30

Oxidoreductases

30

Transferases

30

Hydrolases

31

Lyases

31

Isomerases

31

Ligases

31

FUNCTIONS OF ENZYMES

31

BROMELAIN

33

PAPAIN

34

SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF PLANT CONSTITUENTS

35

Difference Between Extraction and Chromatography

35

CHROMATOGRAPHY

35

Applications of Chromatography

35

Stationary phase

36

Mobile Phase

36

Rf value

36

STYLE OR TECHNIQUES OF CHROMATOGRAPHY

36

Ascending Chromatography

37

Descending Chromatography

37

Circular or Radial Chromatography

37

TYPES OF CHROMATOGRAPHY

37

PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY

37

Stationary Phase in Paper Chromatography

37

Mobile Phase in Paper Chromatography

37

Procedure of Paper Chromatography

37

Styles of Paper Chromatography

38

Application of Paper Chromatography

38

THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC)

38

Stationary Phase in Thin Layer Chromatography

38
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PHARMACOGNOSY

Mobile Phase in Thin Layer Chromatography

38

Procedure of Thin layer Chromatography

39

Styles of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

39

Application of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

39

COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY

40

Stationary Phase in Column Chromatography

40

Mobile Phase Column Chromatography

40

Procedure of Column Chromatography

40

Application of Column Chromatography

40

EXTRACTION

41

Extraction Definition

41

Theory of Extraction

41

Manstrum

41

Marc

41

EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES/ METHODS

42

Infusion

42

Procedure for Infusion Extraction


Decoction
Procedure for Decoction Extraction
Maceration

42
42
43
43

Procedure for Maceration Extraction

43

Multiple Maceration

43

Procedure for Double Maceration

43

Percolation
Procedure for Percolation Extraction

44
44

Continuous Hot Extraction

44

POISONOUS PLANTS

45

PLANTS CAUSING GIT TOXICITY

45

Mouth or Oral Cavity Toxic Plants

45

Plants Toxic to Gastric Mucosa

46

Plants Causing Dryness of Mouth

47

Plants Causing intestinal Motility

49

PLANTS CAUSING CVS DISTURBANCES

50

PLANTS CAUSING CNS DISTURBANCES

51

CYANOGENETIC PLANTS

53

GENERAL INTRODUCTION, CLASSIFICATION AND MEDICINAL USES OF


IMPORTANT PLANTS

54

Glycosides Containing Plant

54
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PHARMACOGNOSY

Alkaloids

54

Volatile Oils (essential oils)

54

Resins and Resin Combination

54

Carbohydrates

54

Tannins

54

Lipids (Fixed oils, fats and related compounds waxes)

54

GLYCOSIDES

54

Medically Important Glycoside Containing Plants

55

ALKALOIDS

56

Medically Important Alkaloids Containing Plants

56

VOLATILE OILS (ESSENTIAL OILS)

57

Medically Important Volatile Containing Plants

57

RESINS

58

Medically Important Resins Producing Plants

58

CARBOHYDRATES

59

Medically Important Carbohydrates Containing Plants

59

TANNINS

59

Medically Important Tannins Containing Plants

60

FIXED OILS

60

Medically Important Fixed Oils Containing Plants

60

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PHARMACOGNOSY

PHARMACOGNOSY
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines derived from natural
sources.
The

American

Society

of

Pharmacognosy

defines

Pharmacognosy as the study of the physical, chemical,


biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug
substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources.
INTRODUCTION OF PHARMACOGNOSY
The word Pharmacognosy is derived from the Greek words Pharmakon (drug) and gnosis or
(knowledge). The term Pharmacognosy was used for the first time by the Austrian physician
Schmidt in 1811. Originally during the 19 th century and the beginning of the 20 th century
Pharmacognosy was used to define the branch of medicine which deals with drugs in their
crude, or unprepared, form.
Crude drugs are the dried, unprepared material of plant, animal or mineral origin used for
medicine. Although most Pharmacognostic studies focus on plants and medicines derived from
plants other types of organisms are also regarded as Pharmacognostically interesting in
particular various types of microbes (bacteria, fungi, etc.) and recently various marine
organisms.
SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY
The Pharmacognosy has played an important role in the
development

of

various

departments

of

the

science.

Pharmacognosy gives a sound knowledge of the vegetable


drugs under botany and animal drugs under zoology.
It also includes plant taxonomy, plant breeding, plant
pathology, and plant genetics, by this knowledge one can
improve the cultivation methods for both medicinal and aromatic plants.
Nowadays phytochemistry (plant chemistry) has undergone the significant improvement. This
includes a variety of substances that are accumulated by plants and synthesized by plants.
A vital contribution to the advancement of natural and physical science
This has done by the advanced technologies of cultivation, purification, identification
(characterization) of pharmaceuticals from nature. Concepts of biochemistry and chemical
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PHARMACOGNOSY

engineering help in the improvement of collection, processing and storage technologies of


pharmaceuticals. It also gives knowledge of chemotaxonomy, biogenic pathways for the
formation of acute ingredients.
A vital link between pharmacology and medicinal chemistry
Newly detected plant drugs are converting into medicine as purified Phytochemicals.
Pharmacognosy is essential for the evolution of new medicines because crude drugs are used
for the preparation of sources of therapeutically active metabolites.
In short Pharmacognosy is an important link between pharmaceuticals and basic science as well
as ayurvedic and allopathic system of medicines. So Pharmacognosy is a science of active
principles of crude drugs and which can be help in dispensing, formulating, and manufacturing
of dosage forms.
In other way the complete knowledge of Pharmacognosy will help in the recent trend that is in
industries, as a research tools and in new drug delivery systems, and all the departments of
pharmaceuticals and one can improve the healthcare facilities across the world.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

CRUDE DRUGS
A crude drug is any naturally, occurring, unrefined substance derived from organic or inorganic
sources such as plant, animal, bacteria, organs or whole organisms intended for use in the
diagnosis, cure treatment or prevention of disease in man or other animals. Or
Crude drugs are vegetable or animal drugs that consist of natural substances that have
undergone only the process of collection & drying.
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS
Crude Drugs can be classified in following ways.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Alphabetical Method
Morphological Method
Taxonomical Method
Pharmacological Method
Chemical Method

ALPHABETICAL METHOD
In this method drugs are classified according to initial letter of their names e.g.
Acacia

Belladonna

Camphor

Datura

Ephedra

Fennel

Books follow this method

European Pharmacopoeia (EP)


British Pharmacopoeia (BP)

MORPHOLOGICAL METHOD
In this method drugs are classified according to their part used e.g.
Roots Drugs

Leaf Drugs

Bark Drugs

Seeds Drugs

Glycyrriza

Senna

Cinchona

Coffee Beens

Books follow this method

Pharmacognosy by Wallis

TAXONOMICAL METHOD
In this method, drugs are classified according to their distinguishing characteristics (i.e.
Families) e.g.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

Family Umbelliferae: Funnel, Caraway


Family Labiatae: Thyme, Peppermint.
Books follow this method
Pharmacognosy by Trease &Evans
PHARMACOLOGICAL METHOD
In this method drugs are classified according to their therapeutic effects e.g.
Analgesic Drugs: Aconite, opium
Diuretic Drugs: Salvia, Ocimum
Books follow this method

Pharmacology by Lippincott

CHEMICAL METHOD
In this method drugs are classified according to their principle constituents e.g.
Members of Family Umbelliferae contain Volatile Oils
Members of Family Solanaceae contain Alkaloids
Books follow this method

Pharmacognosy by Tyler

TERMINANOLOGY AND DIFFERENT PARTS OF PLANT


LEAVES
Flattened structures of a higher plant, typically green and blade-like, that are attached to a stem

are called leaves.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

LEAFLETS
One segment of a compound leaf is called leaflet

STEMS
Stems do many things. Support the upper parts of plants, They act like the plant's plumbing
system, conducting water and nutrients from the roots and food in the form of glucose from the
leaves to other plant parts. All plants have stems. Stems grow up into the air and towards the

light. The leaves and flowers are on the stems.


FLOWERS
A flower is the reproductive structure found in plants. The flowers of plants have always been

popular in traditional medicine. Examples include clove and chamomile flowers.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

FRUIT
A "fruit" is the seed-bearing part of a plant; Fruits have been heavily used for medicinal
purposes. Dried whole fruits or portions of fruits can be used. Many members of the carrot family

have fruits that are used in medicine including fennel fruit and anise.

PULP
The soft, juicy, edible part of a fruit is called pulp.

SEEDS
A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with
some stored food. The seeds of many plants are used for their medicinal properties. Seeds may

be contained within a fruit or are sometimes used on their own.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

ROOTS
The part of a plant which attaches it to the ground or to a support, typically underground,
conveying water and nourishment to the rest of the plant via numerous branches and fibers. The
fleshy or woody roots are used for medicinal purposes. Roots may be solid (ginseng), fibrous

(stinging nettle), or fleshy (devils claw).

BARK
The protective outer layer of a tree trunk that is formed by layers of living cells above the wood.
Active ingredients are often found in higher concentrations in the bark. Examples of bark used

for medicinal properties are quinine bark, oak bark.


WOOD
The hard fibrous material that forms the main substance of the plant is called wood. Thick stems

or the wood of trees or shrubs are used for medicinal properties.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

BULB
A bulb is defined as a fleshy structure comprised of numerous layers of leaf bases otherwise
known as bulb scales. Onion species and garlic bulbs are popular for medicinal uses.

RHIZOMES
A rhizome is defined as a fleshy or woody elongated stem that usually grows horizontally below
the ground. Rhizomes often produce leaves above the ground and roots into the ground.

Several medicinal plants are used primarily for their rhizomes including: ginger, wild columbine,
and bloodroot.
HERB
Herb, in botany, is a plant that does not form a woody stem, and in temperate climates usually
dies, either completely (annual herb) or back to the roots (perennial herb) by the end of the
growing season.
MEDICINAL HERB
A medicinal herb is different from botanic term herb. It refers to any plants used for medicinal
purposes.
For example, a medicinal herb can be a real herbal plant, a shrub (bush), other woody plant, or
a fungus. The used part may be the seeds, berries, leaves, barks, roots, fruits, or other parts of
a plants, or mushroom, which may be considered "herbs" in medicinal use.
ESSENTIAL OIL (VOLATILE OILS)
These are defined as volatile oils that are generally extracted from plants using a steam
distillation process and have essence (smell). Examples include camphor and peppermint oil.
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PHARMACOGNOSY

FATTY OIL (NON-VOLATILE VEGETABLE OILS)


These are defined as non-volatile vegetable oils that are pressed from the seeds or fruits of
plants and are insoluble in water and leave a spot on paper after drying. Examples of fatty oils
used in medicine are castor oil, olive oil, and safflower oil.
GUM
Gums are solids that are mixtures of polysaccharides (sugars). They are water-soluble and are
in part digestible by humans.
RESINS
Resins are a mixture of essential oils and terpenes that are usually not soluble in water. They
are excreted by specialized cells or in ducts of plants. Examples include frankincense, myrrh,
and mastic.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

EVALUATION OF CRUDE DRUGS


Identification of drug and determination of its quality and purity is called Evaluation of Drug.
Following method are frequently employed for the determination of quality and purity of Crude
Drugs.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Organoleptic Evaluation or Morphological Evaluation


Microscopic Evaluation
Chemical Evaluation
Physical Evaluation
Biological Evaluation

ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION OR MORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION


It means evaluation of drug by the organs of sense (skin, eye, tongue,
nose and ear) or macroscopic evaluation and it includes evaluation of
drugs by color, odour, taste, size, shape and special feature, like
touch, texture etc.
For example

Color means external color which varies from white to

brownish black are important diagnostic characters.


General appearance (external marking) of the weight of a crude drug often indicates

whether it is likely to comply with prescribed standard


Taste is specific type of sensation felt by epithelial layer of tongue. It may be acidic

(sour), saline (salt like), saccharin (sweetish), bitter or tasteless (possessing no taste).
Aromatic odor of umbelliferous fruits and sweet taste of liquorices are the examples of

this type of evaluation


Odor of drug depends upon the type and quality of odorous principles (volatile oils)
present.

MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION
It involves detailed examination of the drug and it can be used to identify
the organized drugs by their known histological characters. It is mostly used
for qualitative evaluation of organized crude drugs in entire and powder
forms with help of microscope.
Using microscope detecting various cellular tissues, trichomes, stomata,
starch granules, calcium oxalate crystals and aleurone grains are some of important parameters
which play important role in identification of certain crude drug.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

CHEMICAL EVALUATION
Most of drugs have definite chemical constituents to which their biological or pharmacological
activity is attributed. Qualitative chemical test are used to identify certain
drug or to test their purity.
The isolation, purification, identification of active constituents is based on
chemical methods of evaluation. These qualitative chemical tests are useful in identification of
chemical constituents and detection of adulteration.
PHYSICAL EVALUATION
Physical constants are sometimes taken into consideration to evaluate certain drugs. These
include moisture content, specific gravity, optical rotation, refractive, melting point, viscosity and
solubility in different solvents. All these physical properties are useful in identification and
detection of constituents present in plant.
BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION
Some drugs have specific biological and pharmacological activity which is utilized for their
evaluation. Actually this activity is due to specific type of constituents present in the plant extract.
For evaluation the experiments were carried out on both intact and isolated organs of living
animals. With the help of bioassays (testing the drugs on living animals), strength of drug in its
preparation can also be evaluated.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

INTRODUCTION, CASE HISTORY, SKIN TEST, TREATMENT AND MECHANISM OF ALLERGY


ALLERGY
DEFINITION
According to British immunological society the allergy can be
defined as
Allergy is a specific hypersensitivity of an individual to foreign
particles usually a protein to which a specific individual is
exposed. OR
An allergy is sensitivity to a normally harmless substance one that does not bother most
people.
Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things that are typically harmless to most
people. When you're allergic to something, your immune system mistakenly believes that this
substance is harmful to your body. (Substances that cause allergic reactions, such as certain
foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines, are known as allergens.)
In an attempt to protect the body, the immune system produces IgE antibodies to that allergen.
Those antibodies then cause certain cells in the body to release chemicals into the bloodstream,
one of which is histamine.
The histamine then acts on the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, skin, or gastrointestinal tract and
causes the symptoms of the allergic reaction. Future exposure to that same allergen will trigger
this antibody response again. This means that every time you come into contact with that
allergen, you'll have an allergic reaction.
Allergic reactions can be mild, like a runny nose, or they can be severe, like difficulty breathing.
An asthma attack, for example, is often an allergic reaction to something that is breathed into
the lungs by a person who is susceptible.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

ALLERGEN
An allergen is any substance (antigen) that is recognized harmful
by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. The
allergen can be a food, dust particles, drug, insect venom, or mold
spores, as well as pollen. Allergic people often have sensitivity to
more than one substance.
TYPES OF ALLERGEN

There are four categories of allergens

1. Inhalants
2. Contactants
3. Ingestants
4. Injectants

INHALANTS
These allergens affect the body when they come in contact with the lungs or membranes of the
nostrils. Pollen is the most common inhaled allergen, including such substances as dust, pollen,
feathers, and animal dander.

CONTACTANTS
Allergens that come in contact with your skin and produce a reaction, such as the rash and
itching are called contactant allergens e.g. cosmetics, detergents, fabrics, and dyes.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

INGESTANTS
Ingestant allergens are those that are swallowed. A variety of foods and medications can act as
ingestant allergens. Common ingestant allergens are milk, eggs, peanuts, chocolate etc.

INJECTANTS
Injectant allergens are substances that penetrate the skin, such as insect venom and drugs that
are injected.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

SINGS & SYMPTOMS OF ALLERGY


Common Symptoms
Affected Organ
Symptom
Nose
Swelling of the nasal mucosa (allergic rhinitis)
Sinuses
Allergic sinusitis
Eyes
redness and itching of the conjunctiva (allergic conjunctivitis)
Sneezing, coughing, bronchoconstriction, wheezing and dyspnea,
Airways

sometimes outright attacks of asthma, in severe cases the airway


constricts due to swelling known as laryngeal edema
Feeling of fullness, possibly pain, and impaired hearing due to the lack

Ears
Skin
Gastrointestinal
tract

of eustachian tube drainage.


Rashes, eczema and hives (urticaria)
Abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, diarrhea

TYPES OF ALLERGY

Environmental Allergy
Physical & Psychometric Allergy
Anaphylactic Allergy (Anaphylaxis)
Cytotoxic Allergy
Delayed Hypersensitivity Reaction

ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGY
Environmental allergy refers to any allergy to pollen, dust, animal dander, smoke etc. Allergic
rhinitis, asthma are common types of reactions to these allergens.
Environmental allergies happen when your body's immune system overreacts to a substance in
the environment. Antibodies in your immune system identify the substance as dangerous even
though it's often not.
AIRBORNE PARTICLES
These are the most common allergens. Examples of airborne particles that can cause allergies
are dust, animal dander and pollen from grass, ragweed, and trees.
POLLEN ALLERGY
Pollen (male sex cells of the plant) is small, light, dry protein particles produced by trees,
grasses, flowers etc that may be spread by the wind. Pollen is a potent stimulator of allergic
responses. It enters into the nose and in other parts of the respiratory tract causing irritation and
histamine reactions.
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PHARMACOGNOSY

INSECT BITES AND STINGS


The venom (poison) in insect bites and stings can cause allergic reactions, and can be severe
PHYSICAL & PSYCHOMETRIC ALLERGY
The primary cause of physical & psychometric allergy is problematic shocks of tissue, cold
water, high or low temperature, extreme anger, sorrow, jealousy, depression, mania & anxiety
are mainly.
ANAPHYLACTIC ALLERGY (ANAPHYLAXIS)
Anaphylaxis is a serious, life-threatening allergic response that is marked by swelling, rashes,
lowered blood pressure, and dilated blood vessels. In severe cases, a person will go into shock.
If it is not treated immediately, it can be fatal. Common causes include insect bites, stings,
foods, and medications.
CYTOTOXIC ALLERGY
This is due to toxic material of allergen when it is ingested by our body. It produces lgG in
response to allergen.
DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY ALLERGY
Delayed hypersensitivity is a major mechanism of defense against various intracellular
pathogens. Delayed Hypersensitivity Allergy reaction takes two to three days to develop. Unlike
the other types, it is not antibody mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. In
these types of Allergy T-Lymphocytes releases which trigger a series of inflammation reactions.
MEDICAL CASE HISTORY
To determine the circumstances surrounding the patients allergy,
doctor must record all details regarding the allergic attacks,
including data on the type of occupation and the familial
background.
GENERAL EXAMINATION INCLUDES

Name and sex


Marital status
Chief complaint
Present illness
Age
Date of first attack

Place
Time
Mode of onset
Seasonal Variation
Duration

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PHARMACOGNOSY

VITAL SIGNS
Some scientific tools are applied to prove the disease. By using following tools the severity of
allergy can be diagnose.

B.P
Temperature
Breathing Rate

Pulse Rate
Cardiac output
Heart Rate

Urinary Tract
Reproductive Systems

CLINICAL EXAMINATION INCLUDES

Respiratory tract
Cardiovascular System
GIT

INVESTIGATION
Investigational tests includes scratch test, patch test, intradermal test etc
SKIN TEST FOR ALLERGY
Skin testing for allergies is used to identify the substances that are causing your allergy
symptoms. It is often performed by applying an extract of an allergen to your skin, scratching or
pricking the skin to allow exposure, and then evaluating the skin's reaction. It may also be done
by injecting the allergen under the skin, or by applying it to a patch that is worn on the skin for a
specified period of time.
Types of skin tests for allergy
The procedure varies depending on what type of allergy skin test you are having. The three
main types of skin tests are
1. Scratch Test
2. Intradermal Test
3. Patch Test

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PHARMACOGNOSY

SCRATCH TEST FOR ALLERGY


This test involves placing a small amount of suspected allergy
causing substance on the skin (usually fore-arm, upper arm or the
back) and scratching or pricking the skin so that the allergen is
introduced under the skin surface. The skin is observed closely for
signs of a reaction, which are usually swelling and redness. The
results of this test can be obtained with in 20 minutes.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

PATCH TESTS (CONTACT ALLERGY TESTING)


In patch test, an allergen is applied to a patch, which is then placed
on your skin. This type of test can detect delayed allergic reactions.
It's generally done to see whether a particular substance is causing
allergic skin irritation or not.
INTRADERMAL TEST
Intradermal allergy testing is another method of skin testing to help
determine whether an individual is allergic to a specific allergen.
The test involves injection of a small amount of the suspected
allergen under the surface of the skin. After about 20 minutes the
area is examined for a reaction at the site of injection. A typical
reaction looks like a small rash with swelling and redness.
THE MECHANISM OF AN ALLERGIC REACTION
Normally, a person's immune system clearly distinguishes between harmful and harmless
foreign bodies and it reacts only to harmful bodies like various pathogenic bacteria and virus.
When immune system fails to recognize harmless bodies as "harmless" it reacts to them and
produces various symptoms in the form of allergic manifestations.

GENERAL MECHANISM OF ALLERGIC RESPONSE

When an allergen enters our body, the IgE are produced.


Then IgE & Mast cell form a complex.
On re-exposure Allergen binds with this complex.
As a result the mast cell bursts and releases histamine.
This histamine produces allergic symptoms such as redness, swelling, heat, itching etc.

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PHARMACOGNOSY

METHODS OF TREATMENT IN ALLERGY


AVOIDANCE
In some cases, like food allergies, avoiding the allergen is a life-saving necessity. That's
because, unlike allergies to airborne particles that can be treated with shots or medications, the
only way to treat food allergies is to avoid the allergen entirely. For example, people who are
allergic to peanuts should avoid not only peanuts, but also any food that might contain even tiny
traces of them.

Avoidance can help protect people against non-food or chemical allergens, too. In fact, for some
people, eliminating exposure to an allergen is enough to prevent allergy symptoms and they
don't need to take medicines or go through other allergy treatments.

Here are some things that can help you avoid airborne allergens:

Keep family pets out of certain rooms, like your bedroom, and bathe them if necessary.

Remove carpets from your room (hard floor surfaces don't collect dust as much as
carpets do).

Clean frequently
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PHARMACOGNOSY

Use special covers to seal pillows and mattresses if you're allergic to dust mites.

If you're allergic to pollen, keep windows closed when pollen season's at its peak,
change your clothing after being outdoors and don't mow (plant cutting or grass cutting)
lawns.

If you're allergic to mold, avoid damp areas, such as basements, and keep bathrooms
and other mold-prone areas clean and dry.

VACCINATIONS
After the confirmation of specific Allergy type & kind of allergen a specific vaccine is injested to
the patient & he/she remain save from the attack of this particular allergy for specific period of
time.
PHARMACOLOGICAL METHODS OF TREATMENT IN ALLERGY
In pharmacological interventions usually Histamine blocking agents e.g. cetrizine Levocetrizine
etc are used. If the Allergy is infectious than suitable antibiotic can be added.

- 29 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

ENZYMES OBTAINED FROM PLANT SOURCE (PHYTO-ENZYMES)


DEFINITIONS
Enzymes are organic catalysts produced by living organisms.
Enzymes are important group of bio-molecules synthesized by the
living cells. They are catalysts of biological systems, colloidal,
thermo-labile and protein in nature.
Catalysts
A catalyst is an agent, which in minute amount increases the velocity of a reaction without
appearing in the final product of the reaction.
Substrates
Substances on which enzymes act to convert them into products are called substrates.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ENZYMES & CATALYST

Enzymes

Catalysts

All the enzymes are organic

All the catalysts are inorganic

substances
Enzymes mostly destroyed

substances
Catalysts are not destroyed in the

during the reaction


Enzymes are more specific in

chemical reaction
Catalysts are non-specific in

Nature
Enzymes are very complex in

Nature
Catalysts are very simple

Nature
Speed of the enzyme reaction

compounds or substances
Speed of catalyst reaction will

does not depend on the

depends upon the concentration

concentration

of catalyst

PROPERTIES OF ENZYMES

Catalytic property

Enzymatic property

Solubility

pH

Temperature
- 30 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

Specificity

Protein nature

CATALYTIC PROPERTY
Small amount of enzyme can catalyzed the large amount of substrate in biological reactions.
ENZYMATIC PROPERTY
The velocity of the enzymatic reaction increase as the concentration of the substrate increases
up to certain maximum. But after certain period of time it decreases.
SOLUBILITY
Enzymes are mostly soluble in water and diluted alcohol solution. The enzymes ca precipitate in
concentrated Alcohol, Ammonium Sulphate, Tricholoro Acitic Acid.
PH

Acid:
Acid deactivates those enzymes that act at alkaline pH, e.g Trypsin. At acidic pH, it will destroy,
(Trypsin is very important enzyme that secreted by Pancreas and very important for proper
digestion of food).
Base:
Base deactivates the enzymes that act at acidic pH, e.g. Pepsin, at alkaline pH, it will destroy.
TEMPERATURE
Optimum temperature for enzymatic activity is 35 o C to 40o C.
At 0 o C
o

inactive
o

At 10 C to 20 C

very little active

At 35 o C to 40 o C

max. Active

At 50 o C

inactive

At 60 o C

destroy

In solid condition, it may be stable up to 100 o C.


SPECIFICITY
Enzymes are usually very specific as to which reactions they catalyze and the substrates that
are involved in these reactions.

- 31 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

PROTEIN NATURE
In general with the exception of Riboizymes, which are few RNA molecules with enzymatic
activities all enzymes are protein in nature with large molecular weight.
CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES
Enzymes are generally named after adding the suffix ase to the name of the substrate, e.g.
enzymes acting on nucleic acid are known as nuclease. Even-though few exceptions such as
Trypsin, Pepsin, and Chymotrypsin are still in use. Further, few enzymes exist in their inactive
forms and called as Proenzymes or Zymogens e.g. Pepsin has Pepsinogen as its zymogen.
There are six main classes of enzymes
1. Oxidoreductases
2. Transferases
3. Hydrolases
4. Lyases
5. Isomerases
6. Ligases
(Catch word to remember the classes of enzymes: OTH-LIL)
OXIDOREDUCTASES
These enzymes catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, e.g. Alcohol dehydrogenase, Lactate
dehydrogenase.
Examples

Oxidases

Reductases

TRANSFERASES
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a functional group (e.g., a methyl or phosphate group)
from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor).
For example, an enzyme that catalyzed this reaction would be a transferase.
AX + B A + BX
In this example, A would be the donor, and B would be the acceptor. The donor is often a
coenzyme.
There are many types of transferases, some important are
- 32 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

Transaminases

Phosphotransferases

Transmethylases

Transpeptideases

HYDROLASES
These enzymes catalyze hydrolysis, e.g Pepsin, Trypsin
They have many subgroups some important are

Carbohydrases

Aminohydrolases

Lipids Hydrolyzing Enzymes

LYASES
Enzymes that facilitate removal of small molecules from a large substrate, e.g. Histidine
Decarboxylase, Carbonic Anhydrase.
ISOMERASES
Enzymes involved in isomerization of substrate, e.g. Retinal Isomerase.
LIGASES
Enzymes involved in joining together two substrates, e.g. RNA synthetase, Glutamine
Synthetase.
FUNCTIONS OF ENZYMES
Enzyme plays a vital role in our daily life. They perform following important functions.

Decrease in activation energy

For cancer treatment

Digestion

Curing of diseases

Cheese making

Blood clotting

Sweetener

Alcoholic beverages

As detergent

Meat tenderizing

As drug

Decrease in Activation Energy

Enzymes decrease activation energy.

- 33 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

Digestion

Enzymes play important role in digestion for the conversion of large complex and non-

diffusible molecules into smaller, simple and diffusible molecules, e.g. Trypsin, Lipase,
Amylase.

Cheese Making

Enzymes are also used in the manufacturing of cheese.

Sweetener

Some enzymes are used as sweetener,

e.g. Sucrose (glucosidase enzyme) Glucose + Fructose

Glucose is 72% sweeter while fructose is 132% sweeter than sucrose.

As Detergent

Carbohydrate and protein breaking enzymes are heat stabilizer and are used as detergent,

e.g. Proteases

As Drug

Some enzymes are used as drugs if there is any disturbance in the digestive system.

For cancer Treatment

Some enzymes are used for cancer treatment, e.g. L. Asparginase

Curing of Diseases

Enzymes are also play important role in curing of diseases such as rickets and jaundice,

for heart problem Lactate Dehydrogenase, and for liver problem certain Kinases are used.

Blood Clotting

Enzymes also cause blood clotting by protein thrombin.

Alcoholic Beverages

Amylase is used in manufacturing of alcoholic beverages.

Meat Tenderizing
- 34 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

Trypsin, Pepsin and Papain are meat tenderizing to facilitate the process of digestion.

- 35 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

BROMELAIN

Bromelain belongs to a group of a protein digesting enzymes

obtained commercially from the fruit or stem of pineapple plant that


helps digest protein when taken with food. However, When taken
without food (that is, with plain water on an otherwise empty stomach),
bromelain have natural antihistamine properties and as such is
believed to help support the normal function of the respiratory tract.

Sources of Bromelain

Bromelain is an enzyme derived from the stems of pineapples

Color

Yellowish-white to tan powder

Solubility

Readily soluble in water, insoluble in most organic solvents such as acetone, ether, ethanol

and methanol.

Molecular Weight

Approximately 33,000

Uses

Bromelain a potential anti-inflammatory agent


It is used as a supporting agent in the treatment of inflammation and edema
It is widely used in leather factory
It is used in the production of protein
Along with papain, bromelain is one of the most popular substances to use for meat

tenderizing.
Bromelain can prevent aggregation of human blood platelets in vivo and in vitro.

- 36 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

PAPAIN

Papain, enzyme present in the leaves, roots, and fruit of the

papaya plant that catalyzes the breakdown of proteins by hydrolysis


(addition of a water molecule).

Source

It is obtained from the leaves, roots, and fruit of the papaya plant

Color

It has amorphous light whitish color powder

Solubility

It is easily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol, ether and acetone

Molecular Weight

The pure crystalline enzyme, papain, has a molecular weight of 21000

Uses

Papain is used in biochemical research involving the analysis of proteins


Tenderizing of meat
Clarification of beverages (soft and hard drinks)
Papain is used in enzyme-action cleansing agents for soft contact lenses
It is used to remove the protein molecules
It is also used in toothpastes and cosmetics and in preparations of various remedies for
indigestion, ulcers, fever, and swelling

- 37 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF PLANT CONSTITUENTS

Medicinal plant contains number of constituents located in different concentration in

different parts of it. The plants are also very complex in nature and method for separation and
isolation depending on it. Various steps are involved in the isolation of chemical constituents.

Extraction is the most important first step for isolation of any compound. The solvent used

for the extraction is based on the polarity of the active constituent. Different solvent systems
are available to extract the bioactive compound from natural products.

Once extract is prepared, separation techniques e.g. chromatography is used for further

separation of the active constituents.

Chromatography and extraction are two most common processes used to isolate or

separate the plant constituents; we will discuss these two processes in detail.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EXTRACTION AND CHROMATOGRAPHY

Extraction

The compounds are separated on the basis of relative solubility.

Chromatography

The compounds are separated on the basis of polarity.

CHROMATOGRAPHY

Chromatography is a process of chemistry in which mixture of different compounds is

separated on the basis of their relative polarity difference.

APPLICATIONS OF CHROMATOGRAPHY

The fundamental applications of Chromatography are following.

It is involve in the separation of different protein molecule.


It is also involve in the separation of different pharmaceutical chemicals.
Chromatography is also used to separate different tissue and biological fluids.
It is also an important techniques used in analysis of medicines.
Environmental Protection Agencies use chromatography to test drinking water and to

monitor air quality


Ion exchange chromatography separates compounds based on net surface charge
- 38 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

STATIONARY PHASE

The phase or components of Chromatographic procedure that are non-mobile phase or

fixed is known as stationary phase.

For example

Chromatography paper
Tale
Mg-oxide
Al-oxide
Activated charcoal

MOBILE PHASE

This is the phase or components of Chromatography procedure which has ability to move

e.g. solvent used in paper Chromatography.

The most popular mobile phase is used Chromatography are

Petroleum ether
Propanol
Ethanol
Acetone

RF VALUE

The retention factor, Rf, is a quantitative indication of how far a particular compound travels

in a particular solvent. If the Rf value for the unknown compound is close or the same as the Rf
value for the known compound then the two compounds are most likely similar or identical.

We can say that, Rf value is the ratio between the distance covered by any substances to

the distance covered by the Mobile Phase/ Solvent

Rf = Distance covered by substance / Distance covered by solvent

STYLE OR TECHNIQUES OF CHROMATOGRAPHY

1. Ascending Chromatography
2. Descending Chromatography
3. Circular or Radial Chromatography

- 39 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

ASCENDING CHROMATOGRAPHY

In ascending Chromatography the solvent are tends to move upward and the components

of mixture are separated in the form of spot.

DESCENDING CHROMATOGRAPHY

In descending Chromatography the solvent tends to move downward. The compounds of

mixture separated in the form of spots.

CIRCULAR OR RADIAL CHROMATOGRAPHY

In circular Chromatography the solvent tends to move in circular form and the different

compounds of mixture are separated in the form of rings.

TYPES OF CHROMATOGRAPHY

1. Paper Chromatography
2. Thin Layer Chromatography
3. Column Chromatography

PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY

Paper Chromatography is one of the most common types of

chromatography. It uses a strip of paper as the stationary phase.


Capillary action is used to pull the solvents up through the paper
and separate the solutes.

STATIONARY PHASE IN PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY

Chromatographic paper is used as stationary phase in paper

Chromatography.

MOBILE PHASE IN PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY

Mostly ethanol, water, acetone or their mixture is used as mobile phase.

PROCEDURE OF PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY

1. First of all we will take Chromatographic paper and cut it down according to the style of
Chromatography e.g. redial , ascending, or descending
2. In case of ascending a line has been drawn on the bottom sides in case of descending
the line is drown on upper of Chromatographic paper. The line is called baseline. The
distance of this baseline from the final edge is 1.5 cm.
- 40 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

3. The sample is applied in the center of baseline and the paper is applied into mobile
phase in a Chromatographic tank. After the appropriate time the components of sample
will separate and finally Rf value of each component is calculated.
4. In case of radial Chromatography the sample is applied in the center and thread has
been passed in through the center the mobile phase will move under the papillary action
and components of sample will separate in the form or rings finally Rf value of all the
components is calculated.

STYLES OF PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY

Paper Chromatography can be done by following styles

Ascending Chromatography
Descending Chromatography
Redial Chromatography

APPLICATION OF PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY

It is used in pharmaceutical industries to separate different kinds of (API)


It is used to determine the polarity and evaporation power of any given compound
It is used in the identification of poison
It is used in the analysis of different medicine
It is used in the separation of different body tissue
It is used in forensic medicine for investigational purpose

THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC)

Thin-layer

Chromatography

uses

an

absorbent

material on flat glass or plastic plates.

STATIONARY PHASE IN THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

The layer of adsorbent is known as the stationary

phase.

MOBILE PHASE IN THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

Mostly ethanol, water, acetone or their mixture is used as mobile phase.

- 41 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

PROCEDURE OF THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

First of all we will take special thin layer chromatographic paper coated with the
absorbent and cut it down according to the style of chromatography e.g. radial, circular

ascending descending
In case of ascending a line has been drawn on the bottom side which case of
descending the line is drawn on upper of chromatographic paper. The line is called

baseline. The distance of this baseline from the final edge is 1.5 cm.
After drying the plate, the sample is applied in the center of baseline and the plate
enclosed into mobile phase in a chromatographic tank. After the appropriate time, the
components of sample will separate and finally Rf value of each component is
calculated.

STYLES OF THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC)

Paper Chromatography can be done by following styles

Ascending Chromatography
Descending Chromatography
Redial Chromatography

APPLICATION OF THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC)

This is a simple and rapid method to check the purity of an organic compound
Thin-layer chromatography is also used in forensics to analyze the dye composition of

fibers.
Determination of the components a plant contains
Detection of pesticides or insecticides in food and water
Analyzing the dye composition of fibers in forensics sciences
Identifying compounds present in a given substance
Assaying the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals

- 42 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY

In column chromatography, the stationary

phase, a solid adsorbent, is placed in a vertical


glass (usually) column. The mobile phase, a
liquid, is added to the top and flows down
through the column by either gravity or external
pressure.

STATIONARY PHASE IN COLUMN

CHROMATOGRAPHY

The stationary phase or adsorbent in column chromatography is a solid. The most common

stationary phase for column chromatography is silica gel, alumina, cellulose powder has often
been used.

MOBILE PHASE COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY

Mostly ethanol, water, acetone or their mixture is used as mobile phase.

PROCEDURE OF COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY

The classical preparative chromatography column is a glass tube with a diameter from

50mm and a height of 50cm to 1m with a tap at the bottom. The stationary phase is a
powdered adsorbent which is placed in a vertical glass column. The mixture to be analyzed is
loaded on top of this column.

The mobile phase is a solvent poured on top of the leaded column. The solvent flows down

the column causing the components of the mixture to distribute between the powdered
adsorbent and the solvent thus separating the components of the mixture so that as the
solvent flows out of the bottom of the column some components elute with early collections
and other components elute with late fractions.

APPLICATION OF COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY

It is used in the separation of benzodiazepines


It is used in the Analysis of medicine
It is used for the purification of water & other organic solvents in pharmaceutical industry
It is used in the separation of different body tissue

- 43 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

EXTRACTION

Extraction is a very common laboratory procedure used when isolating or purifying a

product. Plants contain a broad range of bioactive compounds such as lipids; Phytochemicals,
pharmaceutics, flavors, fragrances and pigments.

Extraction Techniques are used to obtain such valuable natural compounds from plants for

commercialization.

EXTRACTION DEFINITION

Separation of medicinally active portions of plant or animal tissues from the inactive or inert

components by using selective solvents is called extraction procedures. Or

It is the specialized type procedure that involves the separation of different compounds on

the basis of their relative solubility in two different immiscible solvent. OR

The extraction is a complex pharmaceutical procedure in which the active pharmaceutical

ingredient (API) is removed from crude drug (animal or plant origin).

THEORY OF EXTRACTION

Any extraction procedure depends upon some fundamental principles and these are very

much common on all types of extraction.

Suitable size reduction of crude drug


Selection of suitable solvent
Penetration of solvent into the crude drug
The cell should be at right position to collect to solution
Supply of appropriate heat
Separation of solvent from marc
Evaporation technique is applied to get purified solid drug

MANSTRUM

Any liquid that is used for extractions procedure is called manstrum.

MARC

The waste material that left after extraction is called marc.

- 44 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES/ METHODS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Infusion
Decoction
Maceration
Percolation
Digestion
Continuous Hot Extraction

INFUSION

Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a

solvent such as water, oil or alcohol, by allowing the material to remain suspended in the
solvent over time.

This process or technique is usually used for soft nature of drug. The extracts that are

formulated through infusion process have shelf life of only 24 hours, so it is recommended to
use these kinds of extracts freshly.

A common example of an infusion is tea, and many tisanes (herbal tea) are prepared in the

same way. Herbal infusions in water and oil are both commonly used as herbal remedies.
Coffee can also be made through infusion, but is more often made through percolation.

PROCEDURE FOR INFUSION EXTRACTION

First of all the nature of the drug is checked


If the nature of the drug is soft, no need to cut or crush it into pieces
if drug has little harder, then cut or crush it in to pieces
place the drug into the infusion pot
Now heat the manstrum up to 200c to 250c
Pour the hot manstrum on the drug and allow to settle for 15 minutes or according to the

requirement
Finally filter it and the extract is ready to use

DECOCTION

It is the techniques of extraction in which the drug is used in the form of powder or coarse

particles. Drugs are together boiled with water for certain are given period of time then cooled
and filtered. Decoction preparation always used freshly because their half life is about 24
hours.

- 45 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

Decoctions are suitable for roots, barks, large seeds & berries, and other dense material,

or for lighter materials where maximum extraction is required of constituents (such as tannins)
that are stable to heat.

PROCEDURE FOR DECOCTION EXTRACTION

Decoction is the technique of extraction in which water is used as manstrum.


The drug that is selected for decoction procedure should be hard.
The drug should be in powder or coarse particles form
Put the entire drug in large beaker (1000ml) and poured the manstrum on the drug.
Heat the drug and manstrum mixture to boil.
After the definite period of time the burner should be closed and allow the mixture to cool

down.
After the cooling phase filter the mixture.
The filter mixture is now ready to use as an extract.

MACERATION

This method requires prolong time. In this method drug is powdered and cover up in the

porous cloth then it is dipped in the manstrum for 2 to 14 days as required.

PROCEDURE FOR MACERATION EXTRACTION

Drugs are triturate to fine powders


Cover up the drug in the porous cloth or pouch.
Select suitable manstrum
After this the pouch containing drug powder is suspended in to the manstrum for 2 to 14

days.
The pouch is removed after the definite time
Finally adjust the volume of extraction as required.

MULTIPLE MACERATION

Multiple maceration is very important and effective procedure as far as its accuracy is

concern. The basic aim of this procedure is to remove the remaining (API) in to manstrum.

In multiple maceration, we prefer the alcohol as manstrum on other manstrum like wise

water.

PROCEDURE FOR DOUBLE MACERATION

Drugs are triturate to fine powders


Cover up the drug in the porous cloth or pouch.
Select suitable manstrum
- 46 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

The manstrum is divided into two portions A and B


The crude drug pouch is dipped into manstrum A for specific period of time. After that

time the manstrum A is separated and preserved the marc.


The marc is again dipped into the manstrum B for specific period of time
After that time the marc is pressed and manstrum B is separated
Mixed the manstrum A and B and adjust the volume.

PERCOLATION

It is an extraction technique in which a communicated drug is enclosed in a porous vessel

known as percolator and manstrum is allowed to pass through the communicated drug. The
extract that we obtained from the percolation and procedure is called percolate. The
percolation procedure can be properly explained under following heading.

PROCEDURE FOR PERCOLATION EXTRACTION

The drug should be of suitable size, it will enhance the surface area of drug and the

movement of manstrum becomes slow.


The solid ingredients are moistened with an appropriate amount of the specified

manstrum and allowed to stand for approximately 4 h in a well closed container


Then drug is packed in percolator and the top of the percolator is closed
Additional manstrum is added to form a shallow layer above the mass
mixture is allowed to macerate (soften or become softened by soaking in a liquid) in the

closed percolator for 24 h


The outlet of the percolator then is opened and collect the extraction
Sufficient menstruum is added to produce the required volume

CONTINUOUS HOT EXTRACTION

In continuous hot extraction the drug is enclosed in a drug chamber and Manstrum is

placed in lower flask. A reflex condenser is placed at the upper portion. When heat is applied to
the manstrum it converts itself into vapors. These vapors are condensed by reflux condenser.
The drops of manstrum tickle down in the drug chamber and purified extract is obtained from
collection point.

- 47 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

POISONOUS PLANTS

(WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PAKISTAN)

There are many plants available in northern areas & ground areas of Pakistan. Theses

plants have the ability to produce some harmful and long-term effects on the human body.

These poisonous plants can be classified as

Plants Causing GIT Toxicity


Plants Causing CNS Toxicity
Plants Causing CVS Toxicity
Cyanogenetic Plants

PLANTS CAUSING GIT TOXICITY

1. Mouth or Oral Cavity Toxic Plants


Arisaema triphyllum
Colocasia esculenta

2. Plants Toxic to Gastric Mucosa


Narcissus tazetta
Amaryllis

3. Plants Causing Dryness of Mouth


Datura stramonium
Atropa belladonna

4. Plants Causing Intestinal Motility


Conium maculatum
Nicotiana tobaccum

MOUTH OR ORAL CAVITY TOXIC PLANTS

Name of Plants: Arisaema triphyllum, Colocasia esculenta

Family: Araceae

Habitat: sindh, Gilgit, Swat, Ayubia and Nathiagli


- 48 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

Toxicology

The fundamental compound due to which mouth or oral cavity toxicity occur is calcium

oxalate.

Symptoms

Intense burning sensation


Mouth less of sensation
Dermatitis

Blister on tongue
Increase salivation
Loss of voice is also reported

Colocasia esculenta

Arisaema triphyllum

PLANTS TOXIC TO GASTRIC MUCOSA

Name of Plants: Narcissus tazetta, Amaryllis

Family: Amaryllidaceae

- 49 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

Habitat: Gilgit, Swat Wally Punjab, Sindh

Toxicology

There are various alkaloids in these plants that cause multiple symptoms

Symptoms

Inflammation and burning sensation

of mouth

Gastritis
Headache
Increase salivation nasal secretion

Narcissus tazetta

Amaryllis

PLANTS CAUSING DRYNESS OF MOUTH

Name of Plants: Datura stramonium

Family: Solanaceae

Habitat: swat, Gilgit, chitral, muree and Kashmir.


- 50 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

Toxicology

There are different compound present in Datura stramonium mainly hyoscine and

hyocyamine if any human ingested there raw plants they can cause toxicity
If leaves and flowers of this plant eaten by some animal and their meat is used by human
can caused toxicity

Symptoms

Dryness of mouth
Dyspnea
Fatigue

Eye sight weakness


Muscular weakness

Datura stramonium

Name of Plants: Atropa belladonna

Family: Solanceae

Habitat: Muree, Hazara, Nansehra, and Chitral

Toxicology

The main chemical compound which is present in Atropa belladonna is atropine.

Symptoms

Dryness of mouth
Muscular relaxation
Fever

Nausea
Vomiting

- 51 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

Atropa belladonna

PLANTS CAUSING INTESTINAL MOTILITY

Name of Plants: Conium maculatum

Family: Umbelliferae

Habitat: Hazara, Abottabad, and hills of muree and Chitral

Toxicology

There are many alkaloids present in Conium maculatum that cause multiple symptoms

Symptoms

Increase the intestinal motility


Paralysis of motor Nerve ending
Paralysis of spinal card

Respiratory Depression
Drowsiness

Conium maculatum

Name of Plants: Nicotiana tobaccum

- 52 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

Family: Solanaceae

Habitat: it is widely available in rural sindh, Punjab and N.W.F.P.

Toxicology

There are mainly alkaloids available in Nicotiana tobaccum. But the most effective is
nicotine.

Symptoms

Enhance the motility of intestine


Diarrhea

Nicotiana tobaccum

PLANTS CAUSING CVS DISTURBANCES

1. Digitalis purpurea
2. Digitalis lanata
3. Nerium indicum

Name of Plants: Digitalis purpurea, Digitalis lanata

Family: Scrophulariaceae

Habitat: Hazara, Azad Kashmir

Toxicology

These are two plants contain many glycosides. In which the most active are Digoxin,
Digitoxin and Gitoxin.

- 53 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

Symptoms

Ventricular tachycardia
Vomiting
Sinus arrhythmia

shortness of breath
Drowsiness
Fatigue

Digitalis purpurea

Name of Plants: Nerium indicum

Family: Apocynaceae

Habitat: Muree, Chitral and Azad Kashmir

Toxicology

Roots, barks and seeds contain toxins the most active are nerodine and karabin.

Symptoms

Hypertension
Cardiac arrhythmia
Ventricular tacky cardia
Increase impulse rate

Nausea
Vomiting
Chest pain

Nerium indicum

- 54 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

PLANTS CAUSING CNS DISTURBANCES

1. Cannabis sativa
2. Cicuta virosa

Name of Plants: Cannabis sativa

Family: Cannabinaceae/ Moraceae

Habitat: it is widely available in NWFP and Punjab

Toxicology

The glandular trichomes of Cannabis sativa is secreted a resin which usually a waste
material called as Narcotic resin.

Symptoms

Shrinkage of mouth
Dryness of mouth
Dry cough
Constipation
Depression

The addict person will not enjoy the

color of life
Vomiting
Headache
Hallucination

Cannabis sativa

Name of Plants: Cicuta virosa

Family: Umbelliferae

Habitat: hilly area of Azad Kashmir

Toxicology
- 55 -

PHARMACOGNOSY

In Cicuta virosa there is a mixture of toxic substances called cicutoxin is a slightly


alcoholic in nature the barks of the Cicuta virosa is more toxic then the seeds and leaves
of this plant.

Symptoms

Depression
Tremor
Respiratory

depression

which

Increase salivation
Nausea
Vomiting

ultimately leads to respiratory failure

- 56 -

Cicuta virosa

CYANOGENETIC PLANTS

Name of Plants: Manihot esculenta

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Habitat

It is easily available in the forests of Northern area

Toxicology

There is a toxic substances name cyanogenocyte which can produce harmful effect on
the living systems

Symptoms

Convulsion
Muscular weakness
Liver damage
Vomiting

Manihot esculenta

GENERAL INTRODUCTION, CLASSIFICATION AND MEDICINAL USES OF IMPORTANT PLANTS

GLYCOSIDES CONTAINING PLANT

1. Cassia angustifolia
2. Cassia fistula
3. Aloe barbadensis
4. Urginea maritima

ALKALOIDS

1. Rauwolfia serpentina
2. Catharanthus roseus
3. Ephedra sinica

VOLATILE OILS (ESSENTIAL OILS)

1. Foeniculum vulgare
2. Carum carvi
3. Curcuma longa

RESINS AND RESIN COMBINATION

1. Citrullus colocynthis
2. Styrax benzoin

CARBOHYDRATES

1. Acacia senegal
2. Astragalus gummifer

TANNINS

1. Acacia catechu

2. Quercus infectoria

LIPIDS (FIXED OILS, FATS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS WAXES)

1. Prunus amygdalus
2. Aloe barbadensis

GLYCOSIDES

Glycosides are a class of molecules in which, a sugar molecule is bonded to a "nonsugar" molecule. Glycosides play important role in our lives. Many plants store
medicinally important chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides. The non-sugar portion
contains the biochemically active properties of medical interest. Once the glycoside is
split into its two components (sugar and non-sugar parts), the non-sugar component is
now free to exert its chemical effects on the body.

MEDICALLY IMPORTANT GLYCOSIDE CONTAINING PLANTS

1. Cassia angustifolia
2. Cassia fistula
3. Aloe barbadensis
4. Urginea maritima

Botanical Name: Cassia angustifolia

Drug: Senna, Senna is a natural medicine containing Sennosides that are derived from
the leaves of the Senna plant.

Chemical Class: Glycoside

Family: Leguminosae

Chemical Constituent: Sennosides

Medicinal Uses: Cathartic, Laxative, Senna is also used for weight loss.

Botanical Name: Cassia fistula

Drug: Cassia

Chemical Class: Glycoside

Family: Leguminosae

Chemical Constituent: Sennosides

Medicinal Uses: Cathartic, the fruit pulp is considered a purgative

Botanical Name: Aloe barbadensis

Drug: Aloe

Chemical Class: Glycoside

Family: Liliaceae

Chemical Constituent: Aloin

Medicinal Uses: Cathartic, speed up the process of healing to burns and other wounds,
moisturizes and softens your skin

Botanical Name: Urginea maritima

Drug: Squill

Chemical Class: Glycoside

Family: Liliaceae

Chemical Constituent: Scillaridin-A

Medicinal Uses: Diuretic, Anti-emetic, Squill is a cardio tonic similar to digitalis. It also
has been used in hair tonics to treat dandruff

ALKALOIDS

Alkaloids are naturally occurring chemical compounds containing basic nitrogen atoms.
The name derives from the word alkaline and is used to describe any nitrogen-containing
base and organic compounds.

MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ALKALOIDS CONTAINING PLANTS

1. Rauwolfia serpentina

2. Catharanthus roseus
3. Ephedra sinica

Botanical Name: Rauvolfia serpentina

Drug: Rauwolfia

Chemical Class: Alkaloids

Family: Apocynaceae

Chemical Constituent: Reserpine

Medicinal Uses: Alkaloids present in this plant reduce blood pressure, depress activity
of the central nervous system and act as hypnotics and Sedative.

Botanical Name: Catharanthus roseus

Drug: Catharanthus

Chemical Class: Alkaloids

Family: Apocynaceae

Chemical Constituent: Vinblastine and Vincristine

Medicinal Uses: Anti Cancer, the leaf juice or water decoction of Catharanthus roseus is
used for the treatment of diabetes.

Botanical Name: Ephedra sinica

Drug: Ephedra

Chemical Class: Alkaloids

Family: Ephedraceae

Chemical Constituent: Ephedrine

Medicinal Uses: Anti asthmatic, Bronchodilator. Ephedra is widely used by athletes as a


performance-enhancing drug. Ephedra has been used as a weight-loss aid, sometimes
in combination with aspirin and caffeine.

VOLATILE OILS (ESSENTIAL OILS)

Volatile oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds


(fragrance) from plants. Volatile oils are also known as Essential oils.

Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation, often by using steam. Essential oils
have been used medicinally in history. Medical applications proposed by those who sell
medicinal oils range from skin treatments to remedies for cancer.

MEDICALLY IMPORTANT VOLATILE CONTAINING PLANTS

1. Foeniculum vulgare
2. Carum carvi
3. Curcuma longa

Botanical Name: Foeniculum vulgare

Drug: Fennel

Chemical Class: Volatile oil

Family: Umbelliferae

Chemical Constituent: Fenchone

Medicinal Uses: Carminative, Flavoring agent

Botanical Name: Carum carvi

Drug: Caraway

Chemical Class: Volatile oil

Family: Umbelliferae

Chemical Constituent: Limonene

Medicinal Uses: Carminative, Flavoring agent

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa

Drug: Curcuma

Chemical Class: Volatile oil

Family: Zingiberaceae

Chemical Constituent: Curcumin

Medicinal Uses: Anti inflammatory, Use in jaundice, Use in gall stones

RESINS

A natural or synthetic organic compound, consisting of non-crystalline, solid, viscous


liquid substance or mixture. Natural resins are usually transparent or translucent yellow
to brown and can melt and burn.

The resin produced by most plants is a viscous liquid, composed mainly of volatile fluid
terpenes, with lesser components of dissolved non-volatile solids which make resin thick
and sticky.

MEDICALLY IMPORTANT RESINS PRODUCING PLANTS

1. Citrullus colocynthis
2. Styrax benzoin

Botanical Name: Citrullus colocynthis

Drug: Colocynth

Chemical Class: Volatile oil

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Chemical Constituent: corocynthix, peciten phosphate

Medicinal Uses: Cathartic

Botanical Name: Styrax benzoin

Drug: Benzoin

Chemical Class: Volatile oil

Family: Styraceae

Chemical Constituent: Coniferyl benzoate

Medicinal Uses: Antiseptic, Expectorant

CARBOHYDRATES

A carbohydrate is a large biological molecule, or macromolecule, consisting of carbon


(C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) atoms.

Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for


the storage of energy (e.g., starch and glycogen), and as structural components (e.g.,
cellulose in plants).

MEDICALLY IMPORTANT CARBOHYDRATES CONTAINING PLANTS

1. Acacia senegal
2. Astragalus gummifer

Botanical Name: Acacia senegal

Drug: Acacia Gum

Chemical Class: Carbohydrate

Family: Leguminosae

Chemical Constituent: Arabic acid

Medicinal Uses: Acacia gum is used as a demulcent (a substance that relieves irritation
of the mucous membranes in the mouth by forming a protective film). It is used topically
for healing wounds and has been shown to inhibit the growth of some bacteria. It is also
used as a binding agent.

Botanical Name: Astragalus gummifer

Drug: Tragacanth

Chemical Class: carbohydrate

Family: Leguminosae

Chemical Constituent: Tragacanthin

Medicinal Uses: Tragacanth has been used for constipation; Modern pharmaceutical
uses include an adhesive agent for pills and tablets, and for emulsifying oil droplets in
lotions, creams and pastes. Its superior water absorbing qualities make it an excellent
thickening agent.

TANNINS

Any of a class of yellowish or brownish solid compounds found in many plants and used
as tanning agents, mordents, or medical astringents.

(Tanning is the process of treating skins of animals to produce leather)

(A mordant is a substance used to set dyes on fabrics or tissue)

(An astringent substance is a chemical compound that tends to shrink or constrict body
tissues)

The tannin compounds are widely distributed in many species of plants, where they play
a role in protection from predation, and perhaps also as pesticides, and in plant growth
regulation.

MEDICALLY IMPORTANT TANNINS CONTAINING PLANTS

1. Acacia catechu
2. Quercus infectoria

Botanical Name: Acacia catechu

Drug: Catechu

Chemical Class: Tannin

Family: Leguminosae

Chemical Constituent: Catechin

Medicinal Uses: Catechu is used in traditional medicine for sore throats and diarrhea; it
is also used as anti-inflammatory, anti-diuretic. It enhance digestion and curing skin
disorders.

Botanical Name: Quercus infectoria

Drug: Nut gall

Chemical Class: Tannin

Family: Fagaceae

Chemical Constituent: Gallic acid

Medicinal Uses: Nut gall extracts are widely used in pharmaceuticals, food and feed
additives, dyes and inks manufacturing.

FIXED OILS

Non-volatile oils especially fatty oils of vegetable origin are called fixed oils. Fixed oils do
not evaporate like essential oil and are often called carrier oils.

MEDICALLY IMPORTANT FIXED OILS CONTAINING PLANTS

1. Prunus amygdalus
2. Aloe barbadensis

Drug: Almond

Botanical Name: Prunus amygdalus

Chemical Class: Lipids (Fixed oil)

Family: Rosaceae

Chemical Constituent: Sphingolipid

Medicinal Uses: Regulation of cholesterol, Immune System Strength, Anti-Inflammation,


Regulation of blood pressure, Prevention of cancer

Botanical Name: Aloe barbadensis

Drug: Aloe vera

Chemical Class: Lipids (fixed oil)

Family: Asphodelaceae

Chemical Constituent: Saponins & salicylic acid

Medicinal Uses: Used for moisturizing skin, it is used in creams & lotions, It is a well
known healing and soothing agent for damaged and dry skin, It is soothing and healing
for burns skin irritations.

Course Outlines

PHARMACOGNOSY (WRITTEN)

Paper 3

1.

Introduction and scope of Pharmacognosy

2.

Classification of crude drugs.

Part-1

(100) Marks

3.

Terminology used in Pharmacognosy.

4.

Evaluation of crude drugs i.e. organoleptic, physical, chemical and biological.

5.

Introduction, case history, skin test, treatment and mechanism of allergy.

6.

Enzymes obtained from plant source (Phyto-enzymes)

7.

General introductions of poisonous plants with special reference to Pakistan.

8.

Separation and isolation of plant constitutions. An introduction to

chromatography and chromatographic techniques e.g.


a)

Column chromatography

b)

Paper chromatography

c)

Thin layer chromatography

9.

Introduction to extraction and extraction techniques.

10.

General introduction, classification and medicinal uses of important plants

containing:

a)

Glycosides

b)

Alkaloids

c)

Volatile oils (essential oils)

d)

Resins and Resin combination

e)

Carbohydrates

f)

Tannins

g)

Lipids (Fixed oils, fats and related compounds waxes)