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Has been done experiment, entitled Analysis of Cation Group. The purpose of
this experiment was to identify cation-cation is the solution and solid unknown by using
this method separation "kemikalia liquid" which is based on the behavior metal ions that
different when direaksikan with reagan reagan-specific. The principle of these
experiments adalan of unacceptably high siltation and pengompleksan. The methods
used in the experiment deposition on stilts. solution is unknown direaksikan with HCl,
aquades, NH

, p.


, Na OH, KI, Na



, KSCN. Result of this

experiment is unknown I was Ba 2+ , unknown II there was no cation, unknown III, Ni

, unknown IV was there is no cation, unknown V is Fe 3+ .
Keyword : kemikalia deposition liquid, cation, , pengompleksan.


ANALYSIS of the most abundant cation

The goal
Can identify cation-cation in solution and solid "unknown" by using this
method separation "kemikalia chemistry" which is based on the behavior metal ions
that different when direaksikan with reagan reagan-specific.



2.1 Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative Analysis using two different tests, that is reaction dry and wet
reaction. Dry reaction can be applied substances to solid and reaction wetlands
to substance in solution. Most reaction dry, described it can be used for an
analysis of semimikro with only a small modification. Some tests that are useful
can be done in a dry, namely without dissolves. An example of a reaction wet,
techniques that are different in analysis of semimikro macro and micro-,
(Svehla, 1990).
2.2 Analysis of Cation
2.2.1. Strong Cations Group I (silver, Ag)
Silver is refined tin, and white, malleable and clay. Density
functional theory than (10.5 ibm generalized markup language
melt in 960


) and

C, did not remain in sulfuric acid hydrochloric acid, thin

(1N) or nitric acid smart (2N).

The reaction
Ag+ + Cl- agcl
Silver with chloride ion using chlorine from hydrochloric acid smart will
set up a sludge white silver chloride. However, if you use ion chlorine
from hydrochloric acid deposition hue, so there will not be.
When diluted with water, harmony will shift back ibu and
sediment appear again. By adding ammonia solution smart will melt
sludge and form a complex ion diaminaargentat.

AgCl + 2NH3 [Ag(NH3 )2 ]+ + Cl - (Svehla, 1990).
2.2.2. Strong Cations Group II
a. Aluminum (Al- 3+ )
Aluminum is white, clay and malleable, is gray bubuknya, melt
in 659 0 C. Hydrochloric acid thin easily dissolve this metal, dilution by
seawater more slowly in sulfuric acid thin nitric acid or liquid. If it is
added with ammonia, then reaction:
Al- 3+ + 3NH 3 + H 2 O Al(OH 3 ) + 3NH 4 -

(Svehla, 1990).

b. Reciprocal (Pb 2+ )
Reciprocal is refined tin that is gray, with a high Density
functional theory ibm generalized markup language (11.48


at room

temperature), dissolve easily nitric acid (8M), reaction:

3Pb + 8HNO 3 3Pb 2+ + 6NO 3 - + 2NO + 4D 2 O
But, if added HCl thin or H 2 SO 4 smart, had the effect that only a few.
Because the formation timbel komplet chloride or timbel komplet
sulfate is dissolved tin on the surface. A reaction between :
Pb 2+ + 2HCl - pbcl 2
PbCl that melt away white 2 deposits in hot water (33.4 gl
C, and only (9.9 gl


) at 20


) at 100

C. But, if dikes, washed in a way

dekantasi and NH 3 smart added, her reaction:

PbCl 2 + 2NH 3 + 2D 2 O Pb(OH 2 ) + 2NH 4 + 2 Cl - (Svehla,
c. Iron (Fe 3+ )
Iron that pure is refined tin with white-silver a strong and
tough, melt the Bible in 1535 0 C. Hydrochloric acid thin or thick and
sulfuric acid quick melt iron and producing salt-salt ferrous (II) and
gaseous hydrogen.
Salt-salt iron (III) was sent from oxide iron (III) Fe


more stable than salt iron (II). In larutannya cation-cation Fe there are

which are yellow young and if solution containing chloride, colors

become stronger. Substances reduction kilns change ion iron (III) to

iron (II) (Svehla, 1990).
d. Chromium (Cr 3+ )
Chromium is refined tin kristalin white, is not so clay and
cannot be beaten easily, melt in 1765

C. Dissolved in HCl thin or

hue. If they were not affected by air will set up a metal ions
chromium (II).
Food allergy sign and Symptom of chromium with ion hydroxide of
sodium hydroxide
Cr3+ + 3OH- Cr(OH)3
This reaction reversibel, with a little additional acid, the sediment
dissolved (Svehla, 1990).
2.2.3. Strong Cations Group III
a. Barium (Ba 2+ )
Barium is white silver, malleable and clay, which is stable in
dry air. Barium react with water in humid air formed oxide or
hydroxide, melt in 110 0 C. A reaction between sulfuric acid barium
with liquid form sediment white barium sulfate (baso 4 ) that berbutir
fine, weight and will be practically dissolved in water (2.5 mg/


School Principals = 9.2 x 10 -11

Ba 2+ + SO 4 2- baso 4

almost no dissolved in acid weak and the solution

ammonium sulfate and dissolved good enough sulfuric acid in hue

boiling (Svehla, 1990).
b. Magnesium ( Mg 2+ )
Magnesium is white, malleable and clay, melt in 650


Burn easily in the air or oxygen by issuing white light brilliance,

formed oxide mgo and some nitrate Mg 3 N 2.
A reaction between magnesium and ion hid roksida of sodium
Mg 2+ + 2OH - sun(OH) 2

The white House magnesium hydroxide, did not remain in

reagensia dissolve easily excessive but in salt-salt ammonium
(Svehla, 1990).
2.2.4. Strong Cations Group IV
a. Copper (Cu 2+ )
Copper is refined tin pink, soft, malleable and soft, melt in
1038 0 C.
The reaction of brass with ion iodida of potassium iodida :
2Cu 2+ + 3I - 2CuI + I 3 Copper Deposits iodida white, but larutannya brown's parents,
because the metal ions tri-iodida-iod.
b. Nickel (Ni 2+ )
Nickel is white silver that hard, to be tough malleable and
very strong, melt in 1455

C. A reaction between nickel with ion

hydroxide of sodium hydroxide :

Ni 2+ + 2OH - Ni(OH) 2
Nickel (II) hydroxide produce green color, the sediment could not get
overwhelmed by the reagan excessive (Svehla, 1990).
2.3 The reaction Formation of complex
In qualitative analysis implementation inorganic many used the reactions
that produce the formation complex. A ion (or molecules) complex bound from a
single atom (ion) center and several Ligand that is tightly bound with atoms
(ion) center. Number of relative these components in the complex on a stable
appear to follow stakiometri that is very specific, although this could not be
interpreted in scope of the concept velensi classic (Svehla, 1990).
2.4 Process of Sedimentation method
Process of Sedimentation done in such a way as to make it easier for
teaching process isahannya. For example Ag dikes as agcl. Important aspects
that need to be addressed in this method is lees have solubility that very little
and can separate titrasi.
Sediment formed if solution to be too saturated with a substance at once.
Solubility (s) sediment period with the concentration of solution molar saturated.

Solubility depend on :

The temperature




Concentration materials


Composition solvent


Solubility sediment decreases if one of the ion allies there with

excessive (Svehla, 1990).
Deposition is usually done in summer, because solubility increases with

increasing temperatures. Sediment formed if solution to be too saturated with a

substance at once. Solubility with the same with the concentration of molar
solubility saturated (Underwood, 1986).
2.5 Solubility sludge
Sediment is a substance that separated themselves as a solid phase out of
solution. Sludge could be crystal (kristalin) or colloids and can be issued and
solution with filtering or pemusingan (centrifuge). Sediment formed if solution
to be too saturated with a substance at once.
Solubility (s) a deposit, by definition is the same with the concentration
of solution molar saturated. Solubility depends also on the nature and focus on
other substances resulted from metal ions in mixed doubles, (Svehla, 1990).
2.6 Foot-washing sludge
The aim is to remove laundering sediment contamination on the surface.
Electrolyte solutions For washing is strong and should contain ion similar with
sediment to reduce solubility sediment.
Foot-washing solution can be divided into 3 groups :

Solution which prevents the formation colloids can lead

to a paper filter it.


Solution that will reduce solubility and sediment.


Partial hidrolated protein milk such solution that can

prevent salt dar i weak acid or base weak (Svehla,1990).

2.7 Results Times Solubility

A solution saturated salt that contain salt was that it was not dissolved,
with excessive, is a system fluids to where the law in the mass was put into
For instance, if the silver chloride is in harmony with a saturated, so these
delicate balances that follows happened
AgCl Ag + + Cl This is a delicate balances heterogeneous, because there is no agcl in the initial
phase crowded. While such ions Ag + and Cl - there are in the initial phase dissolved.
Solar Radiation harmony can be written down as

Silver chloride concentration in the initial phase does not change and
consequently it could be put into a new, the school principal solar radiation,
called result times solubility.
The Principal = [Ag + ][Cl - ]
(Svehla, 1990)
2.8 Resume were Journal
International journals, entitled Identification of a novel Extracellular
Cation-sensing G-protein-inches Receptor, said the couple group C G proteins
receiver (receptors members) contain such as amino acids and cation-cation
extracurricular that receive sense calcium is cellular protolype calcium that
receive. Some of the cells of cells, such as osteoblast-osteoblast in bone, be sure
to distribute kekalsium extracellular and lack CASR, in accordance with the
extension of recipients sense. We had a test in the matter sense calcium for
GPRC GA, the new identified is a member of the family. The line to GPRCGA
with CAGR that conserved as a result of the calcium and kalsimemetik ikatan
side effects. In addition calcium, magnesium, stransium, aluminum, gadolinium
and kalsimimetrik MPS 568 suggested in a low dosage contains the design for
GPRCGA with excessive expression in the cells human embryo, which is 293
cells. Also asteokalsim is ikatan protein in calcium expressed than dlama bones,

low dosage contains stimulation such GPRCGA in pupils to calcium, but an

inhibitor calcium inside diaktifasikan by CASR. Co-expression to 3 arrestin 1
and 2 regulator widowed signal protein RGS GPRS 2 or 4. a RLC A stimulus
mengahambat poison C 3 , dominant negative G


(305-359) and treated again

with the poison perfusis penghambataktifitas for GPRCGA by cation

ekstraselular. To transcription analytical shows that mice GPRCA is an
expression mid-tissue in rats, including bones, kalvaria and cell line osteoblas
MC3T3-e1. This Data contain additional sense amino acids, GPRCGA is a
cation, Calcium imetic and sense of osteokalsin and candidates for meditation
ekstraselularrespon-response sense calcium in osteobla-osteoblas and it is
possible in tissue that other (Pieter, 2005).
In the journal entitled The Cation Distribution In Shythetic (Fe,Mn)

(PO 4 ) 2 Graftonite-Type Solid Solutions , said that the nine (Fe 1 - x Mn x ) 3 (PO

) 2 in solvent with (0,1x0,9) with the structure type graftonit has dipreparasi

and disetimbangkan in 1070 K. The structure consists of 3 cation polihedra

coordination with all these things will be tested; one oktahedron and two fiveloordinasi with polihedra. The dimensions cells the new production unit with
accurate information has been developed from data buiner-Hagg photografic in
its phases. Massbauer Spektra launched a combined with neutron Newton
diffraction (Fe

0 . 50





distribution with variations composition Mn

has been used to describe cation


included in oktahedral and Fe


in coordination with the population 5 part has been agreed with choice cation
(Anders, 1982).
In the journal entitled Analysis of Diffusion Mechanism of Cu in
Polycrystalline Bi 2 Te 3 -Based Alloy Wheels with the Aging of some electrical
Conductivity , explained about in a guide to drill Bi


doped with Cu or

halide Cu. Cu showing a super diffusion interstitial or in the position. As Cu

shows doner property in Bi2 Te3 rows, with the thermoelektrik. This change with
aging time, the mechanism diffusion polikristalin Bi 2 Te3 Cu in march was
forged by deformation plastic samples pressing heat is examined. As a result
activation energy 9.44 lucas meliala/mol obtained for Cu dalkam samples. In
addition, the changes in electrical conductivity decreases with aging time and is

inversely proportional comparable with time aging. The cause is deposition Cuoksidapada surface samples, pressing oxidation more atoms Cu or Cu+ . Two
molecules oxidation Cu-based on the surface Bi 2 Te3 is considered to be samples
and the rate changes electrical conductivity function properly time aging
explained (Fujimoto, 2007).
In international journals, entitled Comparative Quantitative Analysis of
sodium, Magnesium, potassium and Calcium in Healthy Cuttlefish Back bone
and Non-Pathological Human Elbow Bone , explained about energy dispertif
technique irradiation X-ray that used to analyze squid backbone. The method
addition standard used to determine concentration of Na, Mg, K, Ca. The order
test consists of The(Li) as detector with resolution 160 ev in 5.9 kev would still
be and source angular


Fe . Principle that is used is the number of price of

concentration that had been known for analysing samples remove its known.
From the data obtained in experiment had been found that the sample backbone
squid there are elements Na, Mg, K, Ca. The Great concentration Na, Mg, K and
Ca in squid tulangh behind almost the same with the concentration backbone
man. Data yan g, this is that literature danb has been discussed in the process of
learning (Ridvan, 2007).
In international journals, entitled Theorytical Analysis of Cation
Ordering in Binary Rhombohedral Carbonate Systems, explained that the three
parameters version of approximation between mos and tetrahedron method
rhombohedral carbonate. A Model that phase diagram is enough to estimate
qualitative teoritical is complete agreement with the phase balances high
temperatures and with the structure testing and limits trust from extreme heat
temperature that combined most abundant cation move with. In addition, there
are many parameters interaction council who were asked to get proper topology
at high temperatures phase diagram to predict the revolution groud state (a
standard) with stoichiometry Ca3 Mg(CO3 )4 . the revolution cation in
comparison phase 3:1 give tolerance trigonal destorsi that analog with Cu 3 Au
or the structure of the3 Ti (Benjamin, 1987).
In international journals entitled The Cation Distribution in Synthetic
sun-Fe-Ni Olivines, said that in the distribution of making sun-Fe-Ni in olive

tree with cooling temperature at 10000 C. Fe2+ , Sun2+ , Ni2+ occurs polulasi
among M1 and M2 that has been determined by a combination spectroscopy
Moosbauer and raw materials and were shipped technique is based on its brightX, data that diffraction. Coefficient cation distribution Mg 2+ - Fe2+ , KD = [XFe
(MI) XMg (M2)J/[XFe (M2).XMg (Ml)], near by the unity but content reduction
nickel continued to increase. Ni2+ -( Mg2+ + Fe2+ ) cation distribution is close to
Ni2+ -Mg2+ earlier reportedly widowed some artificial Ni-Sun in olive tree
(Anders, 1982).
In international journals, entitled Mechasynthesis of Nanocrystalline
Germinate Fe


with a Nonequilibrium Cation Distribution , explained

that the first sistesis of iron germanium nanopartikel with average size crystal 11
nm disntesis with chemical process from the mix mechanical -Fe 2 O3 /Fe/GeO2
in a room with the temperature

that has been determined. Capability of

Moosbauer structure spectroscopy items in a lokasikation not regularly, in

synthesis produced by Fe2 GeO4 with normal structure (=0), a nanokristal
synthesized Fe2 GeO4 meangadopsi structure spin with a ketidaksetimbangan
cation distribution, (=0.67) a small structure quantitative by XRD and Tem said
that nano becomes nature of a synthesis material (Bergmann, 2008).
International journals, entitled Analysis of Cation Valences and oxygen
Vacancies in Magnetoresisteve Oxides by Electron Energy-Losses Spectroscopy,
said that magnetic oxide have two different characteristics, namely magnetic
oxide from (La,a0mno3 and (La,A) CoO3 , both characteristic this very special
structure. Strong Cations and the gap valence mix oxygen is needed to offset
cargo. With introduced cation doping, well, introduced is also different, so has
the character that is different. This is very important in numerical terms unutkl
determine the balanced by each of them, but this analysis is quite difficult,
especially for the films thin. Results obtained is energy lost electrons
spectroscopy (EELS) can be effective techniques to analyze Mn and Co
magnetic oxide to using the ratio intensity white lines, leading to new keteknik
kuantifikasi vacuum oxygen in functional and materials, good (Wang, 1998).
Journal entitled Identification of Aluminum-Regulated Now Unzipped by
cdna-AFLP in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) : aluminum-regulated now unzipped for the

metabolism of cell wall components, explains the poison Al is a major factor in

productivity in a land. To know the mechanism for molecular from the poison Al
and tolerance limit rice, cdna receive fragments polymorphisms that long-term
(cdna-AFLP) which is used to identify regulations Al in its genes roots based
toleration Al in rice tropical Alucena and sentifitas Al in lowland rice IRI552. 19
Functions that are known from gene that had been found among 34 transcript
derivate fragments (tdfs) regulations by strain gauge Al. Identification result
shows that strain gauge Al can induce biosynthesis of lignin and other cells that
are of the component from the root (Mao, 2004).
Journal entitled Exchangeable Cation Distribution in Nickel and
Magnesium Vermiculites , explains a strange thing that spread in X-ray that lies
between shame-shame Bragg. It was all in learn in hydration sun and Nivermiculites that it could be seen that they all have been seen in the shape of the
coastline tebalikdalam determined, axis Z* continue to be extended. This spread
in show 2 dimension that was established in 2 replacement and strong cations
from water molecules in layers. As has been booked in their respective fields,
cation disituasisasikan in shame berperiodik amid the pace parameter 3a,b.
Replacement cation distribution must be in accordance with distrubusi changes
which had been in neutralising, therefore, it can all be concluded that the
distribution, in the effectiveness perubaha negative (perbahan negative
tetrahedral little positive change oktahedral) also can at least could make a little
(Alcover, 1973).
2.9 Materials Analysis

Physical Characteristics :

The point Cut into slices 38 0 C ,

Boiling point 139 0 C

Density 2.1 g /mL

Berisfat higroskpis

A white House

Chemical property :



Excellent and wear protection

Used in making paper, soap detergents, etc.

A compound base (Mulyono, 2005).

Physical Characteristics :

Have a mass of 4.99 g / mol

Balance yellow

Cut into slices 11.6 point 0 C

Boiling point 84.4 0 C

Chemical property :


Dissolved in ether

Not dissolved in water

Solvent non-polar (Basri, 1996).

NH 3
Physical Characteristics :

Fluid nodes

Smell sharply lower

The point Cut into slices -78 0 C

Boiling point 33.5 0 C

Sifak Chemical :


As a solvent in knee-jerk reactions free water

Dissolve easily in water

Alkaline (Mulyono, 2005)

Physical Characteristics :

Fluid nodes not smell

Without color

Boiling point 100 0 C,

The point Cut into slices 0 0 C

Index bias 1.332

Chemical property :


Is polar

Solvent is good for the various substance (Basri, 1996)

K 2 cro 4
Physical Characteristics :

Fluid yellow

The point Cut into slices 97 0 C

Density 2.73 g /mL

Chemical property :


Dissolve easily in water

Not dissolved in alcohol (Mulyono, 2005).

Physical Characteristics :

Inorganic acid

No color, it is not a bad smell

Excellent and wear protection

Density 1.89 g /mL

The point Cut into slices -41 0 C

Boiling point 83 0 C

Chemical property :
- Is as oksidator (Basri, 1996)

Physical Characteristics :

Solution -colored

Weight of 1.15 g / mol

Boiling point 85 0 C

The point Cut into slices -14 0 C

Chemical property :

Including strong acid


Be diluted with mereaksikan NaCl with H 2 SO 4 hue

Dissolved in water solvent (Mulyono, 2005).

Na 2 SO 3
Physical Characteristics :
- Solid white
Chemical property :

Dissolved in water

Easy beroksidasi, so many used as material for reduction

kilns (Mulyono, 2005).


Physical Characteristics :

A crystal-colored

The point Cut into slices 173 0 C

Weight of 1.89 g / mol

Chemical property :


Dissolved in acetone and alcohol

Cause irritation on the skin

Used in washing textiles (Basri, 1996 ).

H 2 SO 4
Physical Characteristics :

A clear

Without color, it is not a bad smell, becomes thick

Is hygroscopic nucleus

The point Cut into slices -10 0 C

Boiling point 315-338 0 C

Density 1.8 g / cm 3

Chemical property :


A strong acid

Used as a catalyst

Excellent and wear protection (Basri, 1996).

Pb(NO 3 ) 2
Physical Characteristics :

Form of white crystal

Without color

B closely molecules 331.23 g / mol

Density 4.59 g /mL

Chemical property :

Dissolved in water

Not dissolved in alcohol

D igunakan for making deodorant, detergents and reagan

(Mulyono, 2005).


Physical Characteristics :
- Is iron (III) dimetil glioksin
Chemical property :

Late at the solution amoniakal

T erdiri from 1% dimetil glioksin in alcohol (Svehla, 1990)


3.1. Medical equipment and materials
3.1.1. Tool
- A Tube reaction
- Pipette drops
- Clipper
- A glass trophy
- Heating Spirtus
3.1.2. Material
- HCl

- Na 2 SO 3

- NH 3


- KI

- K 2 cro 4


- Aquadest

- HNO 3

- NH 4 no. 3

- Reagan sun

- H 2 SO 4

- Pb(NO 3 ) 2

- Samples Unknown

- Na OH

- Na 2 HPO 4

3.2. Picture tool

Pipette drops

reaction Tube

glass Trophy


3.3. The scheme safety

3.3.1. Cation Known Group I Analysis
This separation and Identify The silver
Starting with 1 mL solution known/unknown
Added 2 drops HCl, sentrifus

sludge He : agcl (white)

pbcl2 (white)

solution Pb 2+ , Al 3+ , Fe 3+ , Cr 3+ , Ba 2+ ,
Mg2 , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ stored up for from
Arians II

- washing with 0.5 mL H 2 O

- Exile wash
- Adding 0.5 mL H 2 O
- Global Warming boil
Sediment IB : agcl
- Adding 3 drops NH 3
- Adding 0.5 mL H 2 O
- sludge disposal
solution ID : Ag(NH3 )

- Adding 3 drops HNO3

solution IC: Pb2+

- Adding 1 drops
K2 cro4
Sediment yellow : pbcro 4 ,
which means Pb 2+ is no

sludge and white, it means Ag2+

3.3.2. Cation Known Analysis Group II
This separation and Aluminum Group Identification
Solution 2A of the group I : Pb2+ , Al3+ , Fe3+ , Cr3+ , Ba2+ , Mg2 , Cu2+ , Ni2+
Added 10 drops NH 3, 1 drops when mixing, sentrifus

solution 3A : Ba 2+ , Mg2 , Cu(NH


Sediment 2B may : Al(OH)3 ,

Fe(OH)3 ,
3 , Pb(OH)
additional2 2 drops
H 2 SO 4
additional mL H 2

Sediment pbso4 or baso4 cast

solution 2C: Al 3+ , Fe 3+ , Cr

An additional 4-6
drops NH 3

Sediment 2D : Al(OH)3 , Fe(OH)3

, Cr(OH)3

Solution is

Wash with 1 or 2 mL H 2 O , letting cuciannya. Added 1 / 2 mL H

2 O , 5 drops Na OH, and stir well. Added 3 drops H 2 O 2 , stir,
heat 2 minutes, sentrifus

solution point 2E : Al(OH) 3 ,

cro 4 2-

- Adding 1 mL NH 4 no. 3
- Global Warming 2 minutes

solution 2D : cro4 2-

Sediment 2G :

- Adding 1 drops lar. Pb(NO

3 )

Sediment yellow pbcro 4 ,

which means Cr 3+


- Adding 0.5 mL H 2 O
- Exile wash
- Adding 2 drops HCL
- Adding 2 drops NH 3

The red Al(OH) 3 , it

means Al 3+

Sediment point
2E : feo3

- Adding 3 drops HCL

- Adding 1 drops KSCN

A red, there is a Fe3+


3.3.3. Cation Known Analysis Group III
This separation and Identify The Alkaline Land
Solution 3A : Ba 2+ , Cu(NH 3 ) 4 , Ni(NH
3 ) 6
Added 1 drops H 2 SO 4 , stir and sentrifus
Solution 3C : Cu2+ , Ni2+

Sediment 3B : baso 4 , which means

there is no Ba 2+

Tamba h 8 drops NH 3 , added 6 drops Na OH and stir well. Ph Test,

jira pH not 10 or more, added Na OH, sentrifus


Sediment 3D : Sun(OH)2 gelatin


Solution 4A : Cu(NH 3 ) 4 2+ , Ni(NH)



Wash your two times with ml H 2 O . Waste cuciannya. Added 1 drops

HCl, 1 drops NH 3 and 1 / 2 ml H 2 O . Solution should approach pH 7. If a
base, added NH 4 NO 3 drops in order to drop to acid. Added 3 drops
solution Na 2 HPO 4 . stir waiting for 2 minutes and sentrifus

The "3E : Sun NH4 PO4 (white crystal). If the

blue (because of a Cu2+ ) added 1 drops HCl
and 2 drops NH3 . Sentrifus and a waste
balance supermatannya
Wash your deposit is with 1 or 2 ml H 2 O . Solution
sediment in 3 drops HCl, then added 3 drops reagan
magnesium. Added Na OH with stirring spoon or rod
alkalis solution to mix well.
Navy Blue (sediment flokulan), which means
Mg 2+ is

3.3.4. Cation Known Analysis Group IV

This separation and Identify The brass
Solution 4A : Cu(NH 3 ) 4 2+ , Ni(NH 3
) 6 2Added HCl until a neutral (9-10) drops plus one drops, HCl
added 3 drops KI, stir it well. Brown arising there I
(yellowish brown) if sediment Cu 2+ is

solution 4C : Ni2+
- Adding Na2 SO4
- Adding 5 drops Na OH
- Global Warming boil
- Adding Na OH until pH

Sediment 4D :
- Adding 0.5 mL H 2 O
- Adding 1 drops HCl
- Adding 2 drops NH 3
- Adding 2 drops H 2 O 2


and invisible

Sediment 4B
student. : cui
- Adding 8 drops NH3
- Adding materials 6
drops Na OH
- Testing pH
- Adding Na OH until pH
A blue : Cu(NH 3 ) 4 2+ , Cu 2+ is


The red orange from Nidimetilglioksida, bearti Ni2+ is







Samples Unknown I
+ HCl
+ NH 3
+ H 2 SO 4
Samples Unkonwn II
+ HCl
+ NH 3
+ H 2 SO 4
+ NH 3 + Na OH
+ HCl
+ KI
+ Global warming
Samples Unknown III
+ HCl
+ NH 3
+ H 2 SO 4
+ NH 3 + Na OH
+ HCl
+ KI
+ Na 2 SO 3
+ Na OH
Samples Unknown IV
+ HCl
+ NH 3
+ H 2 SO 4
+ NH 3 + Na OH
+ HCl
+ KI
+ Na 2 SO 3
+ Na OH
+ Global warming
Samples Unknown V
+ HCl
+ NH 3
+ H 2 SO 4
+ Ml H 2 O
+ Washed 1 mL water
+ Na OH + H 2 O 2
+ Global warming
+ HCl + KSCN

White clouded
There is a sludge white (Ba 2+ )
Yellowish brown
Yellowish Brown (there is no deposit)
White clouded
Yellowish brown
Yellowish brown
There is a sludge green (Ni 2+ )
Nodes yellowish
Nodes yellowish (on)
Nodes yellowish (on)
Brown sludge
Sediment almost overnight.
Almost overnight.
A little brown sludge
Brown sludge
Sediment brown (on)
There is a e ndapan red brick (Fe 3+ )

This experiment to identify cation-cation in partnership with sediment is
characterized by a color change the different deposits. Among color change sludge
impact by cation-cation are:

Fe 3+ with KSCN formed a reddish brown deposits.

Pb2+ with H2 SO4 formed the white House.

Pb 2+ with K 2 cro 4 formed sediment yellow.

Ag+ with HCl formed the white House.

Cr3+ with Pb(NO3 )2 formed sediment yellow.

Ni 2+ with Na OH formed the green.

Al-3+ with NH3 forms sludge and white.

Mg2+ with Na OH formed the white House.

This experiment entitled "Analysis of Cation Group" which aims to
identify cation-cation in solution and solid "unknown" by using this method
"kemikalia liquid" which is based on the behavior metal ions that different when
direaksikan with reagan reagan-specific. Deposition experiment was Principles
and pengompleksan. Deposition method is used in layers, which is the method that
shows that if this time solubility (from) two salt that is very little that have one ion
that period, quite different, but one of the salt will be present almost perfect before
other separated.
Percob aan be done in such a way to look at the sediment gradually after
added reagan-reagan is different. Sediment identify cation There is a contained.
Sediment can arise, because the reagan cation, according to the nature.
In this experiment, will be done a test on 5 These solution unknown .
Results obtained :
a) Test solution Unknown I
On experiments, this solution unknown I plus HCl, there is no change,
fungis HCl here is that has been established salt chloride. Then added NH
solution is still there is no change. The additional NH

for the test cation in

group II. Then added H 2 SO 4 , and a change to the white House barium sulfate
and strontium sulfate, but barium sulfate little dissolves. In strontium sulfate
saturated, concentration ion sulfate high enough to cause deposition. While in
barium, the result to The concentrations ion beyond time result solubility.
Reactions that occur :
Ba2+ + SO4 2- baso4 white
(Svehla, 1990).
b) Test solution Unknown II
Trial identification in unknown II showed no change, this means there is
no cation in solution. After a plus HCl and NH 3 , solution does not produce a
sludge (did not show changes). After ditetesi H2 SO4 , solution is quite hot, then
solution plus NH3 and Na OH solution is still there is no change. And Then
added HCl, solution not menunnjukkan changes, after that, plus KI. Solution

brown color, brown color itself derived from basic colors from solution KI. After
all preferential treatment will be done,not in a specific cation and show that there
is the solution unknown II. It is very likely that that is the solution unknown II is
mineral water. It is very likely that the mineral water there is a cation, but in very
small amount, so that he would not be detected or if discovered, has been
terendapkan cation with another.
c) Test solution Unknown III
The solution unknown III, added solution HCl, there is no change.
Function HCl as to deposit the silver. Then added NH 3 , but solution there is no
change, plus H 2 SO 4 , solution is still did not show changes. Then added NH

and Na OH, solution remained unchanged. It is very likely that solution will not
be present, because Ni 2+ is still in the compound in complex [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+ .
Reactions that occur :
Ni 2+ + 2NH 3 + 2D 2 O Ni(OH) 2 + 2NH 4 +
Ni(OH) 2 + 6NH 3 [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+ + 2OH (Svehla, 1990)
Then added HCl, f ungsinya to neutralise solution. Added Advanced solution KI
into solution, and a yellowish brown turned into a. Solution KI function to
restructure their Cu 2+ . Brown color that arise because of the I 3- , I 3- is that bind
to Cu 2+ formed cui (white). Then added Na 2 SO 3 , solution to cloudy, after that,
added Na OH, and a change to precipitate a green Ni(OH) 2 . Na OH function to
restructure their Ni 2+ .
Reactions that occur :
Ni 2+ + 2OH - Ni(OH) 2 green
(Svehla, 1990).
d) Test solution Unknown IV
Trial identification in the fourth quarter solution unknown shows cation
group IV, this solution is a bit color blue cation, which is the solution unknown
IV is Cu2+ .
After plus solution HCl, the solution is still nodes, unchanged. Because,
cation not dissolved Cu 2+ in HCl thin. Ketidaklarutan is partly due to the fact
that potential elektrodanya positive. (+0,34V for partner Cu or Cu


). Refined

tin with a positive potential standard can dissolves only in the acid that is
mengoksida (HNO 3 ), while HCl is not acid that is mengoksida (Svehla, 1990).
A more positive potential, smaller its tendency to become the ion
(Svehla, 1990).
Then added with NH 3 and disentrifus solution, the result has been turned
into a blue crystal clear. The blue produced in this because it has been
established a complex that contain ion complex maker sepura rose acids kuprat
(II) with a reaction:
Cu(OH) 2 .cuso 4 + 8NH 3 2[Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+ + SO 4 2- + 2OH (Svehla, 1990).
This reaction peculiar to ion Cu 2+ with the Ni 2+ .
After that, coupled with H 2 SO 4 , solution to nodes, then added HCl and
the solution is still nodes. After that, added with a solution KI, the results are
yellow. Next Na 2 So it was added by 3 , solution to yellow nodes, then added
with Na OH, the result is still there is no change, then when heat and the result is
still there is no change in unknown IV, namely in the form solution yellow
nodes. On experiments ujinya this negative, it's because cation concentration
that contained too little, and so cannot exceed Slc price, and it could not be
terendapkan. It should be, after it was added by KI, will be formed sediment
yellowish brown. Then added with NH

, the results are sediment dissolves.

The additional H 2 SO 4 , HCl and NH 3 is to destroy ion complex of [Cu(NH 3 ) 4

] 2+ and dissolved formed ion Cu 2+ .
Reactions that occur :
2Cu 2+ + SO 4 2- + 2NH 3 + 2D 2 O Cu(OH) 2 .cuso 4 + 2NH 4 +
Cu(OH) 2 .cuso 4 + 8NH 3 2[Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+ + SO 4 2- + 2OH (Svehla, 1990).
And the last plus H 2 O


and the result was a blue solution earlier. Additional

functions H 2 O 2 is as oksidator.
Reactions that occur :
2Cu 2+ + 5I - 2CuI + I 3 (Svehla, 1990).


The test was done will be proven that there is a cation Cu

, as it was in

accordance with the characteristics of a cation Cu 2+ .

e) Test solution Unknown V solution (yellow)
Trial identification in unknown V show cation Fe


. Strong Cations are

found in group II lurking as hydroxide from amoniakal solution. Strong Cations

Fe 3+ formed sediment brown.
First, a sample plus HCl, and has not seen changes. After that, coupled
with NH 3 forms sediment brown.
Reactions that occur :
Fe 3+ + 3NH 3 + 3D 2 O Fe(OH) 3 + 3NH 4 +
(Svehla, 1990).
Minutes times solubility iron (III) hidrosida so small (3.8 x 10


) so deposition

is perfect, even with the salt-salt ammonium differences of iron (III) nickel,
cobalt, manganese, zinc and magnesium (Svehla, 1990).
After that, plus H
Functions from the H



and mL water, the sediment dissolves.

is to dissolve hydroxide formed in sediment.

Fungis H 2 O is to dissolve low impurities substances that are available in

solution, so that a higher profit. Then added NH

and has been established

sediment. The additional NH 3 is to test definitive Fe 3+ .

Then washed with H 2 O as a result there was a little bit sediment
brown, then added with Na OH and H 2 O 2 and formed many sediment brown.
Additional functions to restructure their Fe


, so that by sediment Fe(OH)

brown. Function H 2 O 2 used as oksidator, then when heat and sediment is still.
After that, plus HCl and KSCN and the result has been established sediment
chocolate that is the compound complex Fe(SCN)

. The additional HCL and

KSCN is used to test positive Fe 3+ . Additional KSCN to test positive Fe 3+ must

be done in the atmosphere a little acid.
Reactions that occur :
Fe 3+ + 3SCN - Fe(SCN) 3
(Svehla, 1990).

The solution is acid, produced by color scarlet (differences from ion iron
(II) , which is in the formation of a complex induced because iron (III) tiosianat
that no berdisosiasi.
7.1 Positive test at Ba 2+ , marked with the formation sediment white after adding
H 2 SO 4 .
7.2 Tests positive in Ni 2+ , marked with the formation sediment green after adding
Na OH.
7.3 Tests positive in Fe


, marked with the formation sediment brown after

adding KSCN.
7.4 Tests negative in samples 2, because it does not have been formed sediment.
7.5 Tests negative in samples 4, because it does not have been formed sediment.



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