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EG-2

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

ENGINE

2ZR-FE ENGINE

DESCRIPTION

The newly developed 2ZR-FE engine is an in-line 4-cylinder, 1.8-liters, 16-valve DOHC engine.

This engine uses the Dual VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) system, DIS (Direct Ignition System) and ETCS-i (Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent). They have been developed to realize high performance and fuel economy, and reduce exhaust emission.

They have been developed to realize high performance and fuel economy, and reduce exhaust emission. 04FEG104Y

04FEG104Y

They have been developed to realize high performance and fuel economy, and reduce exhaust emission. 04FEG104Y

04FEG103Y

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

EG-3

Engine Specifications

No. of Cyls. & Arrangement

 

4-cylinder, In-line

Valve Mechanism

 

16-valve DOHC, Chain Drive (with Dual VVT-i)

Combustion Chamber

 

Pentroof Type

Manifolds

Cross-flow

Fuel System

SFI

Displacement

cm 3 (cu. in.)

1798 (109.7)

Bore × Stroke

mm (in.)

80.5 × 88.3 (3.17 × 3.48)

Compression Ratio

 

10.0 : 1

1

Max. Output* 1

*

(SAE-NET)

98 kW @ 6000 rpm (132 HP @ 6000 rpm)

1

Max. Torque* 1

*

(SAE-NET)

174 N . m @ 4400 rpm (128 ft . lbf @ 4400 rpm)

   

Open

1 – 56 BTDC

Intake

Close

65 – 10 ABDC

Valve Timing

 

Open

51 – 11 BBDC

Exhaust

Close

3 – 43 ATDC

Firing Order

1 – 3 – 4 – 2

Octane Rating

87 or higher

Oil Grade

ILSAC

Tailpipe Emission Regulation

 

ULEV-II, SFTP

Evaporative Emission Regulation

LEV-II, ORVR

Engine Service Mass* 2 (Reference)

117 kg (257.9 lb)

* 1 : Maximum output and torque ratings are determined by revised SAE J1349 standard. * 2 : Weight shows the figure with oil and water fully filled.

EG-4

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

Valve Timing

: Intake Valve Opening Angle : Exhaust Valve Opening Angle Intake VVT-i TDC 1 3
: Intake Valve Opening Angle
: Exhaust Valve Opening Angle
Intake VVT-i
TDC
1
3
Operation Range
43
56
65
51
Exhaust VVT-i
10
11
BDC
Operation Range

Performance Curve

Torque N . m (lb-ft)

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

140 130 130 120 120 110 110 100 90 100 80 90 70 60 80
140
130
130
120
120
110
110
100
90
100
80
90
70
60
80
50
40
30
20
10

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Engine Speed (rpm)

7000

00SEG124Y

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Output

(HP) kW

08SEG28Y

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

EG-5

FEATURES OF 2ZR-FE ENGINE

The 2ZR-FE engine has been able to achieve the following performance through the use of the items listed below.

(1) High performance and fuel economy

(2) Low noise and vibration

(3) Lightweight and compact design

(4) Good serviceability

(5) Clean emission

 

Item

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

 

A

cylinder block made of aluminum alloy is used.

   

   

Spiny liners are used.

       

Engine Proper

The skirt portion of the piston has a resin coating applied to reduce friction.

   

Low tension piston rings are used.

     

 

A

timing chain and a chain tensioner are used.

 

 

 

Valve

 

Hydraulic lash adjusters are used.

 

 

 

M

h

i

Mechanism

Roller rocker arms are used.

 

 

Cooling System

TOYOTA Genuine SLLC (Super Long Life Coolant)

     

 

is used.

 

A charcoal filter is used in the air cleaner cap.

       

An intake manifold made of plastic is used.

   

   

Intake and

An upright intake port is used.

       

Exhaust System

A

stainless steel exhaust manifold is used.

   

 

The TWCs (Three-Way Catalytic converters) are used on the exhaust pipe.

       

 

A

fuel returnless system is used.

   

Fuel System

Quick connectors are used to connect the fuel hose with the fuel pipe.

     

 
 

The DIS (Direct Ignition System) makes ignition timing adjustment unnecessary.

   

Ignition System

Long-reach, thin-electrode type iridium tipped spark plugs are used.

   

Charging System

A segment conductor type generator is used.

 

   

Serpentine Belt

A serpentine belt drive system is used.

 

 

Drive System

 

MRE (Magnetic Resistance Element) type camshaft position sensors are used.

       

Engine Control

The ETCS-i (Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent) is used.

       

System

 

The Dual VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent)

     

 

is

used.

The starter control (cranking hold function) is used.

       

EG-6

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

ENGINE PROPER

1. Cylinder Head Cover

Lightweight and high-strength aluminum die-cast cylinder head cover is used.

An oil delivery pipe is installed inside the cylinder head cover. This ensures lubrication to the sliding parts of the roller rocker arm, improving reliability.

Cylinder Head Cover

Oil Delivery Pipe A View from A
Oil Delivery Pipe
A
View from A

Cylinder Head Cover Gasket

04FEG50Y

2. Cylinder Head Gasket

A triple-layer metal type cylinder head gasket is used.

Front

A A
A
A

A – A Cross Section

008EG09Y

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

EG-7

3. Cylinder Head and Camshaft Housing

The cylinder head structure has been simplified by separating the camshaft housing (cam journal portion) from the cylinder head.

The cylinder head, which is made of aluminum, contains a pentroof type combustion chamber. The spark plug is located in the center of the combustion chamber in order to improve the engine’s anti-knocking performance.

The angle of the intake and exhaust valves is narrowed and set at 29 to permit a compact cylinder head.

Spark plugs with an M12 thread size are used in order to increase the diameter of the intake and exhaust valves. As a result, improved intake and exhaust efficiency has been realized.

Upright intake ports are used to realize intake efficiency.

A taper squish combustion chamber is used to improve anti-knocking performance and intake efficiency. In addition, engine performance and fuel economy have been improved.

Long nozzle type fuel injectors are installed in the cylinder head to reduce the distance from the fuel injector to intake valve, thus it prevents the fuel from adhering to the intake port walls, and reduces HC exhaust emissions.

The siamese type intake port is used to reduce the overall surface area of the intake port walls. This prevents the fuel from adhering onto the intake port walls, thus reducing HC exhaust emissions.

Camshaft Housing

Intake

Valve

A

Intake Side Exhaust Side
Intake Side
Exhaust Side

A

Spark

Plug

Hole

Exhaust

Valve

View from Bottom Side

Side Exhaust Side Upright
Side
Exhaust
Side
Upright

Taper Squish

A – A Cross Section

Intake

Intake Port

04FEG66Y

04FEG67Y

— REFERENCE —

Siamese Type

A – A Cross Section Intake Intake Port 04FEG66Y 04FEG67Y — REFERENCE — Siamese Type 215EG18

215EG18

Independent Type

A – A Cross Section Intake Intake Port 04FEG66Y 04FEG67Y — REFERENCE — Siamese Type 215EG18

215EG19

EG-8

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

4. Cylinder Block

An aluminum cylinder block with a 7 mm (0.28 in.) distance between the cylinder bores is used to realize a compact and lightweight configuration.

An oil separator is provided in the blowby gas passage inside the cylinder block. This separates the engine oil from the blowby gas in order to reduce the degradation and consumption of volume of the engine oil.

It is not possible to bore the block with this liner. The liners are the spiny type, which have been manufactured so that their casting exterior form a large irregular surface in order to enhance the adhesion between the liners and the aluminum cylinder block. The enhanced adhesion helps heat dissipation, resulting in a lower overall temperature and reduced heat deformation of the cylinder bores.

Through the use of the offset crankshaft, the bore center is shifted 8 mm (0.31 in.) towards the intake, in relation to the crankshaft center. Thus, the side force to cylinder wall is reduced when the maximum pressure is applied, which contributes to fuel economy.

Cylinder

Block Oil Separator
Block
Oil Separator

Liner

Irregularly shaped outer casting surface of liner

Oil Separator Cover

04FEG51Y

Bore Center

surface of liner Oil Separator Cover 04FEG51Y Bore Center Crankshaft Center 04FEG52Y Maximum Pressure Maximum

Crankshaft Center

04FEG52Y

Maximum Pressure
Maximum
Pressure

Maximum

Pressure

Crankshaft

Center

082EG10Y

Offset Crankshaft

Center Crankshaft

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

EG-9

5. Piston

The piston is made of aluminum alloy to be compact and lightweight.

The piston head portion is a taper squish shape and accomplishes fuel combustion efficiency.

Full floating type piston pins are used.

The groove of the top ring is applied with hard anodizing treatment to ensure abrasion resistance.

Low-tension piston rings are used to reduce friction and achieve excellent fuel economy.

Narrow-width piston rings are used to reduce weight and friction.

A No. 1 compression ring with an inside bevel shape is used to reduce blowby gas.

A PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) coating has been applied to the surface of the No. 1 compression ring and oil ring, in order to improve its wear resistance.

The piston skirt is coated with resin to reduce the friction loss.

PVD Coating

No. 1 Compression Ring

No. 2 Compression Ring

Oil Ring

Piston Ring
Piston Ring

Resin Coating

Taper Squish Shape

Hard Anodizing

Treatment

PVD Coating

04FEG117Y

6. Connecting Rod and Connecting Rod Bearing

The connecting rods are made of high-strength steel weight reduction.

Plastic region tightening bolts are used for a light design.

The connecting rod bearings have been optimized in width to reduce friction.

The lining surface of the connecting rod bearing has been micro-grooved to realize an optimal amount of oil clearance. As a result, cold-engine cranking performance has been improved and engine vibrations have been reduced.

has been improved and engine vibrations have been reduced. Plastic Region Tightening Bolts 04FEG68Y Micro-grooved

Plastic Region

Tightening Bolts

04FEG68Y

Micro-grooved

vibrations have been reduced. Plastic Region Tightening Bolts 04FEG68Y Micro-grooved Connecting Rod Bearing 04FEG200Y

Connecting Rod Bearing

04FEG200Y

EG-10

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

7. Crankshaft and Crankshaft Bearing

The crankshaft has 5 journals and 8 balance weights.

The crankshaft bearings have been optimized in width to reduce friction.

The pins and journals have been machined with increased precision and the surface roughness is minimized to reduce friction.

The lining surface of the crankshaft bearing has been micro-grooved to realize an optimal amount of oil clearance. As a result, cold-engine cranking performance has been improved and engine vibrations have been reduced.

Oil Hole

No. 5 Journal

08SEG38I No. 1 Journal
08SEG38I
No. 1 Journal

Balance Weight

Micro-grooved

Upper Main Bearing

Oil Groove 04FEG87Y
Oil Groove
04FEG87Y

Lower Main Bearing

8. Oil Pan

The No. 1 oil pan (crank case) is made of aluminum alloy.

The No. 2 oil pan is made of steel.

The oil pump is installed in the No. 1 oil pan to make the engine compact.

To improve serviceability, the No. 1 oil pan has been designed so that it can be removed without removing the No. 2 oil pan and the oil pump.

The air conditioning compressor brackets are integrated into the No. 1 oil pan.

No. 1 Oil Pan (Crank Case)
No. 1 Oil Pan
(Crank Case)

No. 2 Oil Pan

Oil Pump

04FEG71Y

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

EG-11

VALVE MECHANISM

1. General

Intake and exhaust efficiency has been increased due to the larger total port areas.

The 2ZR-FE engine uses roller rocker arms with built-in needle bearings. This reduces the friction that occurs between the cams and the areas (roller rocker arms) that push the valves down, thus improving fuel economy.

The hydraulic lash adjusters, which maintain a constant zero valve clearance through the use of oil pressure and spring force, are used.

The intake and exhaust camshafts are driven by a timing chain.

The 2ZR-FE engine uses a Dual VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) system which controls the intake and exhaust camshafts to provide optimal valve timing according to driving conditions. With this, lower fuel consumption, higher engine performance, and fewer exhaust emissions have been achieved. For details of Dual VVT-i control, see page EG-49.

Exhaust Camshaft

Intake Camshaft No. 2 Chain Damper Exhaust Valve Intake Intake VVT-i Valve Controller Chain Damper
Intake Camshaft
No. 2 Chain Damper
Exhaust
Valve
Intake
Intake VVT-i
Valve
Controller
Chain Damper
Valve

Arm

Roller Rocker

Exhaust VVT-i

Controller

Chain

Tensioner

Hydraulic Lash

Adjuster

Chain

Slipper

04FEG72Y

EG-12

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

2. Camshaft

The intake and exhaust camshafts are made of cast iron alloy. An oil passage is provided in the intake and exhaust camshafts in order to supply engine oil to the VVT-i system. A VVT-i controller has been installed on each front of the intake and exhaust camshafts to vary the timing of the intake and exhaust valves. Together with the use of the roller rocker arm, the cam profile has been designed with an indented R (radius). This results in increased valve lift when the valve begins to open and finishes closing, helping to achieve enhanced output performance. A timing rotor for the camshaft position sensor is provided at each back end of the intake and exhaust camshafts.

Exhaust VVT-i

Intake VVT-i
Intake VVT-i

Timing Rotor

Controller

Controller

Indented R Portion of Cam (Profile) Cam with Indented R

3. Timing Chain and Chain Tensioner

04FEG54Y

A roller chain with an 8 mm pitch is used to make the engine more compact. The timing chain is lubricated by a timing chain oil jet. See page EG-13 for the location of the timing chain oil jet. The chain tensioner uses a spring and oil pressure to maintain proper chain tension at all times. The chain tensioner suppresses noise generated by the timing chain. The chain tensioner is ratchet type with a non-return mechanism. To achieve excellent serviceability, the chain tensioner is constructed so that it can be removed and installed from the outside of the timing chain cover.

and installed from the outside of the timing chain cover. No. 2 Chain Damper Chain Tensioner

No. 2 Chain Damper

Chain Tensioner

Chain Damper

Chain

Slipper

04FEG168Y

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

EG-13

4. Hydraulic Lash Adjuster

The hydraulic lash adjuster, which is located at the fulcrum of the roller rocker arm, consists primarily of a plunger, plunger spring, check ball, and check ball spring. The engine oil that is supplied by the cylinder head and the built-in spring actuates the hydraulic lash adjuster. The oil pressure and the spring force that act on the plunger push the roller rocker arm against the cam, in order to adjust the valve clearance that is created during the opening and closing of the valve. As a result, engine noise is reduced.

Check Ball

Cam

Plunger Hydraulic Lash Adjuster Oil Passage Check Ball Spring Plunger Spring
Plunger
Hydraulic
Lash Adjuster
Oil
Passage
Check Ball Spring
Plunger Spring

Roller Rocker Arm

04FEG55Y

Service Tip Valve clearance adjustment is not necessary because a hydraulic lash adjuster is used.
Service Tip
Valve clearance adjustment is not necessary because a hydraulic lash adjuster is used.

5. Timing Chain Cover

An aluminum die-cast timing chain cover is used. The timing chain cover has an integrated construction consisting of the cooling system (water pump and water passage). Thus, the number of parts has been reduced for weight reduction. The oil passage is provided on the timing chain cover to simplify the oil passage. The timing chain oil jet is provided in the timing chain cover. A drive belt tension gauge is provided on the timing chain cover.

Timing Chain Cover A Drive Belt Tension Gauge Water Passage Water Pump Gasket View from
Timing Chain
Cover
A
Drive Belt
Tension Gauge
Water
Passage
Water Pump Gasket
View from A

Oil Passage

Timing Chain

Oil Jet

Water Pump

04FEG73Y

EG-14

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

LUBRICATION SYSTEM

1. General

The lubrication circuit is fully pressurized and oil passes through an oil filter.

The trochoid gear type oil pump is chain-driven by the crankshaft.

The 2ZR-FE engine has an oil return system in which the oil is force-fed to the upper cylinder head and returns to the oil pan through the oil return hole in the cylinder head.

The 2ZR-FE engine uses the Dual VVT-i system. This system is operated by the engine oil.

VVT-i Controller

This system is operated by the engine oil. VVT-i Controller Chain Tensioner Oil Filter Oil Capacity

Chain Tensioner

Oil Filter

Oil Capacity

04FEG113Y

Dry

4.7

Liters (5.0 US qts, 4.1 Imp. qts)

With Oil Filter

4.2

Liters (4.4 US qts, 3.7 Imp. qts)

Without Oil Filter

3.9

Liters (4.1 US qts, 3.4 Imp. qts)

Oil Circuit

Oil Passage (Timing Chain Cover) Main Oil Hole Cylinder Head Timing Chain Oil Jet Piston
Oil Passage (Timing Chain Cover)
Main Oil Hole
Cylinder Head
Timing Chain
Oil Jet
Piston
Crankshaft
Oil Filter
Oil Jet
Journal
Intake
Exhaust
Oil Delivery
Camshaft
Camshaft
Pipe
Timing Chain
Journal
Journal
Piston
Crank
Oil Pump
Pin
Intake
Exhaust
Lash
Chain
Camshaft
Camshaft
Adjuster
Tensioner
Timing Oil
Timing Oil
Connecting
Control Valve
Control Valve
Oil Strainer
Rod
Intake
Exhaust
VVT-i
VVT-i
Controller
Controller
Oil Pan

Bypass

Valve

Relief

Valve

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

EG-15

2. Piston Oil Jet

Piston oil jets for cooling and lubricating the pistons have been provided in the cylinder block.

These oil jets contain a check ball to prevent oil from being fed when the oil pressure is low. This prevents the overall oil pressure in the engine from dropping.

Oil
Oil

Ball

Oil Jet Cross Section

Check

Piston Oil Jets

Bottom Side View

04FEG74Y

EG-16

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

COOLING SYSTEM

The cooling system is a pressurized, forced-circulation system with simple-closing reserve tank.

A thermostat with a bypass valve is located in the water inlet housing to maintain a suitable temperature in the cooling system.

The flow of the engine coolant makes a U-turn in the cylinder block to ensure a smooth flow. In addition, a bypass passage is enclosed in the cylinder head and the cylinder block.

Warm water from the cylinder head is sent to the throttle body to prevent freeze-up.

The TOYOTA Genuine Super Long Life Coolant (SLLC) is used.

Water Circuit

Super Long Life Coolant (SLLC) is used. Water Circuit From Radiator From Heater Core Water Pump

From Radiator

From Heater Core

Water Pump

To Heater Core

To Radiator

04FEG80Y

Cylinder Head

Heater Core

Cylinder Block Reserve Tank
Cylinder Block
Reserve
Tank

Water Pump

Thermostat

Radiator

Throttle Body

08SEG33Y

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

EG-17

Specifications

Engine

Type

TOYOTA Genuine Super Long Life Coolant (SLLC) or similar high quality ethylene glycol based non-silicate, non-amine, non-nitrite and non-borate coolant with long-life hybrid organic acid technology (coolant with long-life hybrid organic acid technology is a combination of low phosphates and organic acids). Do not use plain water alone.

Coolant

Capacity

5.5 Liters (5.8 US qts, 4.8 Imp. qts)

Color

Pink

 

First time

100,000 mile (160,000 km)

Maintenance Intervals

Subsequent

Every 50,000 mile (80,000 km)

Thermostat

Opening Temperature

C ( F)

80 – 84 (176 – 183)

SLLC is pre-mixed (the U.S.A. models: 50% coolant and 50% deionized water, the Canada models: 55% coolant and 45% deionized water). Therefore, no dilution is needed when SLLC in the vehicle is added or replaced.

EG-18

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM

1. General

The intake manifold has been made of plastic to reduce the weight and the amount of heat transferred from the cylinder head. As a result, it has become possible to reduce the intake air temperature and improve the intake volumetric efficiency.

A stainless steel exhaust manifold is used for weight reduction.

A throttle body mesh is used between the throttle body and the intake manifold to improve the flow of air within the intake manifold.

Two TWCs (Three-Way Catalytic converters) are used in the exhaust pipe.

Intake Manifold

Exhaust Manifold

Air Cleaner Exhaust Manifold
Air Cleaner
Exhaust Manifold

Intake Manifold

TWCs

08MEG01Y

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

EG-19

2. Air Cleaner

A nonwoven, full-fabric type air cleaner element is used.

A charcoal filter, which adsorbs the HC that accumulates in the intake system when the engine is stopped, is used in the air cleaner cap in order to reduce evaporative emissions.

Charcoal Filter

in order to reduce evaporative emissions. Charcoal Filter Air Cleaner Cap Air Cleaner Element (Nonwoven Fabric)

Air Cleaner Cap

Air Cleaner Element (Nonwoven Fabric)

08SEG07Y

Service Tip The charcoal filter, which is maintenance-free, cannot be removed from the air cleaner
Service Tip
The charcoal filter, which is maintenance-free, cannot be removed from the air cleaner cap.

3. Throttle Body

The linkless-type throttle body is used and it realizes excellent throttle control.

A DC motor with excellent response and minimal power consumption is used for the throttle control motor. The ECM performs the duty cycle control of the direction and the amperage of the current that flows to the throttle control motor in order to regulate the opening angle of the throttle valve.

in order to regulate the opening angle of the throttle valve. Throttle Control Motor Throttle Position

Throttle Control Motor

Throttle Position Sensor

04FEG77Y

EG-20

ENGINE – 2ZR-FE ENGINE

4. Exhaust Pipe

2 ball joints are used to joint the exhaust manifold to the front pipe, and the front pipe to the tailpipe. As a result, a simple construction and improved reliability have been realized.

The TWC can improve exhaust emission by optimizing the cell density and the wall thickness.

with Diffuser Models

Gasket Tailpipe Ball Joint Sub Muffler Ball Joint Portion Front Pipe
Gasket
Tailpipe
Ball Joint
Sub Muffler
Ball Joint Portion
Front Pipe

Spring

Ball Joint Portion

Main Muffler

TWCs

08MEG02Y